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Sample Problems

Calculate the heat transfer in kJ per hour through a solid

brick wall 6 m long, 2.9 m high, and 225 mm thick, when
the outer surface is at 5C and the inner surface is 17C, the
coefficient of thermal conductivity of the brick is 0.6 W/m-K.

A vertical furnace wall is made up of an inner wall of

firebrick 20 cm thick followed by insulating brick 15 cm
thick and an outer wall of steel 1 cm thick. The surface
temperature of the wall adjacent to the combustion
chamber is 1200C while that of the surface of steel is 50C.
The thermal conductivities of the wall is 0.26 W/m-K;
insulating brick at 10 W/m-K; and steel at 45 W/m-K.
Neglecting the film resistances and contact resistance of
joints, determine the heat loss per square meter of wall

A composite wall is made up of an external

thickness of brickwork 110 mm thick inside which is
a layer of fibreglass 75 mm thick. The fiberglass is
faced internally by an insulating board 25 mm
thick. The coefficient of thermal conductivity for the
three are as follows: Brickwork-1.5W/m-K;
Fiberglass-0.04 W/m-K; Insulating board-0.06 W-mK. The surface transfer coefficients of the inside
wall is 3.1W/m2-K while that of the outside is 2.5 W/
m2-K. Take the internal ambient temperature as
10C and the external temperature is 27C.
Determine the heat loss through such wall 6 m high
and 10 m long.

A heat exchanger is to be designed for the

following specifications: Hot gas temperature =
1145C; Cold gas temperature = 45C; Convective
film coefficient on the hot side = 230 W/m2-K;
Convective film coefficient on the cold side = 290
W/m2-K; thermal conductivity of the metal wall =
115 W/m-K. Find the maximum thickness of the
metal wall between the hot gas and the cold gas so
that the maximum temperature of the wall does not
exceed 545C.

A 3mm diameter and 5m long electric wire is tightly

wrapped with a 2mm thick plastic cover whose
thermal conductivity is 0.15 W/m-K. Electrical
measurement indicate that a current of 10A passes
through a wire and there is a voltage drop of 8V
along the wire. If the insulated wire is exposed to a
medium at 30C, with heat transfer coefficient h=12
W/m2-K, determine the interface temperature of the

An insulated steam pipe located where the ambient

temperature is 32C, has an inside diameter of
50mm with 10mm thick wall. The outside diameter
of the corrugated asbestos insulation is 125mm
and the surface coefficient of still air, ho = 12 W/
m2-K. Inside the pipe is steam having a
temperature of 150C with film coefficient hi = 6000
W/m2-K. Thermal conductivity of pipe and
asbestos insulation are 45 and 0.12 W/m-K,
respectively. Determine the heat loss per unit
length of pipe.

How many watts will be radiated from a spherical

black body 15 min diameter at a temperature of

At an average temperature of 100C, hot air flows

through a 2.5 m long tube with an inside diameter
of 50 mm. The temperature of the tube is 20C along
its entire length. Convective film coefficient os 20.1
W/m2-K. Determine the convective heat transfer
from air to the tube.

How many tons of refrigeration are required to

produce 10 metric tons of ice per day at -15C from
raw water at 25C if miscellaneous losses are 15%
of the chilling and freezing load?

A creamery must cool 20,000L of milk received

each day from initial temperature of 29C to a final
temperature of 2C in 5 hours. If refrigeration losses
amount to 10% of the chilling load, what must be
the capacity of the refrigerating machine in TOR?

Magnolia Dairy products plant must cool 4000

gallons of fresh milk received from the farm per day
from an initial temperature of 80F to a temperature
of 38F in 5 hours. If the density of milk is 8.6lb/gal
and specific heat is 0.935 BTU/lb-R, what must be
the capacity of the refrigerating machine in TOR?

Fish weighing 11,000 kg with a temperature of 20C

is brought to a cold storage and which shall be
cooled to -10C in 11 hours. Find the required plant
refrigerating capacity in TOR if the specific heat of
fish is 0.7 kCal/kg-K above freezing and 0.30 kCal/
kg-K below freezing point which is -3C. The latent
heat of freezing is 55.5 kCal/kg.

An ideal vapor compression cycle requires 5 kW to

power the compressor. You have found the
following data for the cycle: the enthalpy at the
condenser entrance = 203 kJ/kg,exit = 55kJ/kg;
evaporator exit = 178 kJ/kg. If the mass flow rate of
the refrigerant is 0.20 kg/s, then the coefficient of
performance of this refrigeration cycle is most

A refrigeration system operates on an ideal vapour

compression using R-12 with an evaporator
temperature of -30C and a condenser exit
temperature of 49.30C and requires 74.6kW motor
to drive the compressor. What is the capacity of the
refrigerator in TOR? Enthalpy at condenser
entrance = 382 kJ/kg, exit = 248.15 kJ/kg, at
evaporator entrance = 248.15 kJ/kg, exit = 338.14

A refrigerator is 2 m high, 1.2 m wide and 1 m

deep. The overall heat transfer coefficient is 0.532
W/m^2-K. How many kilograms of 0C ice will melt
per hour if the inside temperature is maintained at
10C while the surrounding air temperature is 35C?

In a CO2 refrigerating plant, the specific enthalpy

of the refrigerant as it leaves the condenser is 135
kJ/kg and as it leaves the evaporator it is 320 kJ/
kg. If the mass flow of the refrigerant is 5 kg/min,
calculate the refrigerating capacity per hour.