CHAPTER 8 – TECHNOLOGY-BASED

TRAINING METHODS
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TECHNOLOGY AND COLLABORATION

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Digital collaboration = use of technology to enhance employees’ ability to
work together regardless of geographic proximity

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o

E.g. electronic messaging systems, e meeting systems, online
communities of learning organized by subject where employees can
access interactive discussion areas and share training content and web
links, social networks, and doc handling systems with collaboration
tech that allow interpersonal interaction

o

Can be synchronous or asynchronous

Synchronous communication = trainers and learners interact live and in real
time (like face to face classrooms)
o

E.g. video conferencing, live online courses (virtual classrooms)

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Asynchronous communication = non real time interactions  cannot
communicate without time delay, but learners can still access info resources
when they want to

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TECHNOLOGY AND LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

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Technological learning environment
o

Technology has allowed learning to be more dynamic  learning
environment expanded to include greater interaction between
learnings and training content, and between learners and instructor

o

Instruction is delivered to learners through technology such as online
learning, simulations

o

Instructor becomes more of a coach to answer questions
▪ Less involved in delivery of content

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Blended learning environment
o

Both online and classroom instruction

o

Collaboration between learners, learners and training content
(simulation or game), learners and instructors, learners and experts

Web 2.0 tech to create dynamic learning environment
o

Social networking, blogs, wikis, twitter

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WEB BASED TRAINING.- COMPUTER BASED TRAINING. e learning = instruction and delivery of training by computer through the internet - Interactive video = has many advantages o Training is individualized o Employees receive immediate feedback concerning their performance o Training is accessible on a 24 hour basis regardless of EE’s work schedules o High cost of developing interactive video programs and purchasing equipment offset by reduction in instructor and travel costs related to a central training location - FEATUERS OF ONLINE LEARNING - Not only provide trainee with content. E LEARNING - Computer based training = doesn’t need internet to deliver content - Online learning. what speed they progress. ONLINE LEARNING. company websites 2 . but also give learners ability to control what they learn. web based training. how much they practice - Allows learners to collaborate and interact with other trainees and experts o Provide other learning resources such as reference materials.

vendors. expanding number of customers.g. potential customers - Delivered faster and to more employees - Updating is easy - Accessible anytime anywhere 3 .- ADVANTAGES OF ONLINE LEARNING - E-learning supports company initiatives (e. suppliers. speed development of new services) - E-learning may involve larger audience – partners. initiating new ways to carry out business.

and other positive features of a learning environment can be built into the program - Learning enhanced through use of multiple media (sound. especially those with low computer selfefficacy - DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE ONLINE TRAINING - NEEDS ASSESSMENT - Getting management to support online learning - IT needs to be involved in the design of any web-based program to ensure that tech capabilities are understood. feedback.- Practice. text. pace o In long courses o When learners are able to practice the content and receive feedback Web-based and classroom instruction equally effective when similar instructional methods are used o E. and guarantee that all trainees have access to browsers and connections they’ll need to participate o Tech support 4 . peers - EFFECTIVENESS OF ONLINE LEARNING – RESEARCH RESULTS - Online instruction more effective than classroom for declarative knowledge - Web-based instruction and classroom instruction are equally effective in teaching procedural knowledge (the ability of learners to perform skills taught in training) - Learners are equally satisfied with web-based and classroom instruction - Web-based more effective than classroom instruction: - o When learners are provided with control over content. both use videos - Employees who get the most out of online learning are those who complete more of the available practice opportunities and take more time to complete training - E-learning is not effective for all. objectives. sequence. experts. video graphics) and trainee interaction - Paperwork can be eliminated (admin) - Links learners to other content.g. assessment.

graphics to hold learners’ attention - Effective online learning provides trainee with meaningful content related to realistic on the job activities - To ensure materials are not confusing or overwhelming to the learning. sound.- Bandwith = # of bytes and bits that can travel between computers sufficient bandwith? - Plug-in = additional software needs to be loaded on computer to listen to sound/watch videos/perform functions  can be expensive - CREATING A POSITIVE ONLINE LEARNING EXPERIENCE - This should help aid retention of learning content and create a meaningful experience that motivates learners - Flowcharts or storyboards could be created that include all of the course component - Method of design: Rapid prototyping = iterative process in which initial design ideas are proposed and provided in rough form in an online working prototype that is reviewed and refined by design team members - Multiple types of media should be chosen to appeal to different learning styles - E-learning should be designed to minimize content or work that is unrelated to the learning objectives  extraneous content may take up trainees’ limited cognitive processing resources - Repurposing = directly translating an instructor-led. online learning content needs to be properly arranged o Orientation to new program should be provided to learners to explain how to learn online. trainers. how to interact with peers. how to get help. text. face-to-face training program to an online format o Online training that merely repurposes an ineffective training program = ineffective training - Effective online learning = uses video. facilitators o Should also be provided with overview of the course or success factors for completion - LEARNER CONTROL - One of the web’s major potential advantages is that it gives learners control 5 .

icons. exploring links to other material. graphics. site map to guarantee that they can easily move through learning module and access resources as needed - Expectations that trainees will be motivated to complete web-based training during breaks in normal work-day or personal time are unrealistic o - Need to ensure that employees are given time and space for e-learning to occur  dedicated time. navigator. videos. animation.- - Learner control = giving trainees option to learn actively through self-pacing. protected from work tasks Some places set up ‘learning labs’ for online learning to occur without distractions of workplace 6 . exercises. or else difficulty using them will take away from time and attention that they can use to learn - Companies must communicate the importance and meaningfulness of training content for employees’ jobs and hold employees accountable for completing training - Program should not allow trainees to control amount of feedback they receive  may become overly reliant on feedback  reduces long term retention of training material - Program should offer practice on each topic repeatedly throughout program - Prompt self-regulation improves performance in online training - PROVIDE TIME AND SPACE FOR ONLINE LEARNING - Using formative evaluation of prototypes of web training  helpful in identifying appropriate length and time of modules - End users should be involved in formative evaluation to ensure that music. and conversations with other trainees and experts o Ability to see how content is presented o Pause/skip/review content o Link to additional resources Simply providing learner control does not ensure that trainees will use all features provided by online learning o Trainees should have access to instructions on how to use learner control tools. and other features facilitate rather than interferer with learning - End users need to test the content.

and after a formal training event o Engaging Generation X and millennial employees o Providing content before a face to face learning event Blog = webpage where author posts entires and readers often can comment o Useful for training  related to learning objectives o Useful to analyze and synthesize information o Reflect on lesion o Share ideas and applications o Instructors need to provide timely and relevant feedback on blog entries 7 . during. AND SOCIAL NETWORKS - - Social media = online and mobile tech used to create interactive communications allowing the creation and exchange of user generated content o Provide links to resources such as webinars.o ‘Chunking’ or using one to two hour modules helps trainees learn and retain more than they might in a standard full/half day training class ▪ Training can also be more easily integrated into typical workday TECHNOLOGY FOR COLLABORATION AND LINKING - Research suggests that some employees fail to complete online learning and prefer face to face over online learning is because they want to learn and network with peers o Effective online learning connects trainees and facilitates interaction and sharing through use of collaborative learning tools SOCIAL MEDIA: WIKIS. BLOGS. videos. MICROBLOGS. and articles related to new learning content o Helping determine future training needs and issues by using tagging capabilities o Reinforcing and sustaining learning o Being used as a coaching and mentoring tool o Linking learners before.

blended learning provides increased learner control  adult learning theory - In comparison to online learning. update content and share knowledge - Shared media = audio or videos such as YouTube that can be accessed and shared with others BLENDED LEARNING - Combines online learning. and other methods for distributing learning content and instruction - Compared to classroom delivery. blended learning provides more face to face social interaction and ensures that at least some of the instruction is presented in a dedicated learning environment o - Live feedback from peers is preferable to feedback received online Blended is more effective than face to face for motivating trainees to learn and for teaching declarative knowledge or info about ideas o Capitalizes on the positive learning features inherent in both face to face and web based instruction SIMULATIONS AND GAMES Chapter 7 VIRTUAL REALITY - Virtual reality = computer based technology that provides trainees with a 3 dimensional learning experience - Devices allow trainee to experience presence (the perception of actually being in a particular environment) o - Advantage: o - Influenced by amount of sensory info available to trainee Allows trainees to practice dangerous tasks without putting themselves or others in danger Obstacles to developing effective virtual reality training: 8 . face to face instruction.o Instructors must provide guidelines regarding how blog entries will be evaluated/what type of entries are desired - Wiki = website that allows many users to create. edit.

or other EEs who can serve as teachers o Useful for skill building for non-routine job based on based on judgement and problem solving o Useful for teaching Interpersonal skills like time management. leadership. and working under pressure o Teamwork exercises and group problem solving are possible because avatars can be created to simulate other trainees/they can be involved in the virtual world too Disadvantages: o Lack of ease of use for first timers o High investment of time and money required for programming content o Lack of evidence supporting its effectiveness for learning o Novelty of experience may help trainees recall the experience.o Poor equipment that results in a reduced sense of presence o Poor presence could lead to vomiting. managers. but they may also interfere with retention and transfer of the training content MOBILE TECHNOLOGY AND LEARNING - Mobile learning = training delivered using a mobile device o Can involve both formal and informal learning 9 . simulated online 3d representations of the real world where learning programs/experiences can be hosted - - Advantages: o Learners are more satisfied with virtual world experiences and learn more and faster than in traditional courses o Virtual environment allows trainees to practice their skills without harming products/patients but can still see real-life consequences of their actions and decisions o Provides a place to meet with trainers. dizziness. headaches because senses are distorted VIRTUAL WORLDS = computer based. communications.

meaningful ▪ Estimated course length should not exceed 10 mins because users likely have smaller attention spans when looking at small screens ▪ Screen layout should work with or without graphics ▪ Images should be used only where relevant to content because download time may be slow due to bandwith limitations INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEMS 10 . role plays o Cheap and easy to produce o Can be listened to anytime anywhere Apps = applications designed for smartphones and tablets o Used to supplement training. or facebook Advantages: o Easy to get up to date info to employees o Useful for enhancing transfer of training through providing follow up o Brings training to employees who are constantly traveling. blogs. manage path or sequence of training. stories. and help maintain training records o Some companies are using apps as primary training ▪ Catch learner’s attention by using attention grabbing videos. visiting clients. videos on mobile device o Informal: engaging in communication and messaging with other EEs or experts via twitter. podcasts. stories. easy to use.- - - o Formal: elearning courses. interactions - For mobile learning to be effective: o Short. or don’t have time to attend a face to face course or program Podcasts = audio or video program content distributed in episodes using softwares such as RSS o Best use of podcasts is for narrative-based content that inspires user’s imagination using music and sound effects o Great for sharing expertise of SMEs using interviews.

g. virtual classrooms: projection of still. animated. or text between two or more individuals or groups at two or more locations 11 .= instructional system that uses artificial intelligence 3 types of ITS environments: - Tutoring o - Coaching o - Provides trainees with flexibility to practice skills in artificial environments Empowering o - Structured attempt to increase trainee understanding of a current domain Refers to student’s ability to explore content of training program freely What makes ITS different from other new training technologies: o ITS has the ability to match instruction to individual student needs o ITS can communicate and respond to the student o ITS can model the trainee’s learning process o ITS can decide. and video images o Instructor-participant audio discussion o Sharing of computer software applications o Interactions using instant polling tech Features two-way communication between people: o Teleconferencing = synchronous exchange of audio. on the basis of a trainee’s previous performance. video. what information to provide o ITS can make decisions about the trainee’s level of understanding o ITS can complete a self-assessment resulting in a modification of its teaching process DISTANCE LEARNING Used by geographically dispersed companies to provide information and deliver skills traiing and expert lectures - - E.

discussion rooms. personal computer based training ▪ EEs participate anywhere they have access  asynchronous - Virtual classroom = using a computer and internet to distribute instructor led training to geographicall dispersed employees o Cost savin g and convenient o Guidelines: ▪ Design short modules and follow up with an assignment that applies learning to job ▪ Make learning interactive and interesting ▪ Include media such as video and audio ▪ Limit classroom size to no more than 25 learners ▪ Offer learners multiple ways of interacting with each other and the instructor. message boards.o Individualized. email. including webinars. maintain good instructional pace. which uses satellite technology to broadcast programs to different locations and allows trainees to respond to questions posed during the training program using a keypad o Used by orgs with EEs in lots of different locations who lack computers or online access  allows EEs to see behaviours rather than just read or hear o Advantages: ▪ Save on travel costs while allowing EEs to receive training from experts o Webcasting = instruction provided online through live broadcasts (EEs could ask questions) o Disadvantages: ▪ Lack of interaction between trainer and audience ▪ Technology failures ▪ Unprepared trainers o To engage trainees in distance learning environment. blogs - Interactive distance learning (IDL) = latest generation of distance learning. limit online sessions to 60-90mins. avoid 12 .

figures. distributes individual and corporate knowledge throughout an organization to enable individuals to achieve required levels of performance in the fastest time with minimum support from other people - Generally includes all the softwares needed to support the work of individuals - The typical EPSS includes: o An “assistant” to automate tasks and lighten the workload o A “librarian” to provide task-specific information o A “teacher” to guide the user through the process step by step 13 . use relevant and engaging visuals. allow trainees to participate using polling deices and small group discussions and projects ▪ Group spokesperson can be assigned to summarize and communicate the group’s ideas o Have backup plans in case of technical issues TECHNOLOGIES FOR TRAINING SUPPORT Expert Systems - Technology that organizes and applies knowledge of human experts to specific problems - 3 elements: o Knowledge base that contains facts. rules about specific subject o Decision-making capability that imitating an expert’s reasoning ability.unnecessary text. stores. draws conclusions from those facts and figures to solve problems and answer questions o A user interface that gathers and gives information to the person using the system - Used as a support tool that employees refer to when they have problems that exceed their KSAOs - Can deliver high quality and low costs - Enables many people to arrive at decisions that reflect experts’ knowledge Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSSs) Electronic infrastructure that captures.

AND ADMINISTRATION 14 .o - An “advisor” to provide expert advice To use EPSSs as a substitute for training. trainers must determine whether problems and tasks require employees to acquire KSAOs and whether periodic assistance through an EPSS is sufficient LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: SYSTEMS FOR TRAINING DELIVERY. SUPPORT.

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