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01) What is load curve?

The curve showing the variation of load of the power station with respect to time is
known as load curve. There are three types, Daily load curve, Monthly load curve, Yearly
load curve.
02) What is daily load curve?
The curve showing the variation of load of the power station on a whole day ie 24
hrs, with reference to time is known as daily load curve.
03) What is connected load?
The sum of continuous ratings of all the electrical equipments connected to supply
system is known as connected load of the system.
04) What is Maximum demand?
The greatest demand of all short time interval averaged load during a given period
on the power station is called maximum demand. The maximum demand determines the
size and cost of the installation.
05) What is Demand factor?
The demand factor is the ratio of actual maximum demand on the system to total
rated connected load to the system.
Demand factor= (max demand)/ (connected load)
06) What is Average demand?
The average demand on the power system is the average of loads occurring at all
various events in a given period (day or month or year) .
*Daily average demand = (no of units generated per day) / (24 hours)
*Monthly average demand = (no of units generated in month) / (no of hours in a month)
*Yearly average demand = (no of units generated in a year) / (no of hours in a year)
07) What is Load factor?
The load factor is defined as the ratio of average load to the maximum demand
during a given period of time. The time may be day, month or year.
Load factor = (average load)/ (maximum demand)
08) What is Diversity factor?
The ratio of the sum of individual maximum demands of all the consumers supplied
by it to the maximum demand of the power station is known as diversity factor.
Diversity factor = (sum of individual maximum demand)/ (maximum demand).

09) What is Capacity factor?

The capacity factor is the ratio of actual energy produced to the maximum possible
energy that could have been produced during a given period (or average load to the rated
capacity of the plant)
*Capacity factor=(actual energy produced) /(maximum energy that have been produced)
10) What is Plant use factor?
Plant use factor is defined as the ratio of actual units generated during a given
period to the product of plant capacity and the number of hours for which the plant has
been operated during that period
11) What is Load duration curve?
The curve which indicates the variation of load, but with the loads are arranged in order of
descending magnitudes. ie, the greatest load on the left and lesser load on the right .
12) What is spinning reserve?
The spinning reserve is the extra generating capacity that is available by increasing
the power output of generators that are already connected to the power system. It can be
defined as unloaded generation that is synchronized and ready to serve additional
13) What is cold reserve?
Cold reserve is ensured by special reserve units with small start up and spin up
time. The period of the cold reserve start up is deemed to be from 2 to 24 hours.
14) What is pool level?
Pool level handles largest blocks of power. It interconnects all the generator
stations of all the major loading points in the system
15) What are Plant level controls?
The plant level controls are,
a) Prime mover control
b) Excitation control
16) What is system level controls?
The system level control is to balance the total system generation against system
load and losses so that the desired frequency and power interchange with neighbouring
systems are maintained.
It is comprises of
a) Load Frequency Control (LFC)
b) Economic Dispatch and Control (EDC)
c) System voltage control (SVC)

17) State the difference between P-F and Q-V controls?

Change in real power (MW) will be felt uniform throughout the system. But change
in reactive power (MVAR) is not felt uniform. A change in real power output does not
cause change in voltage level. But change in reactive power input affects the frequency
control and hence the voltage level is disturbed.
18) What is the need for voltage regulation in power system?
All equipments in power system are designed to operate satisfactorily only when
the voltage level on the system correspond to their rated values. So voltage regulation is
very important.Voltage regulation helps in maintaining the voltage at the load terminals
within prescribed limits under fluctuating load conditions by employing suitable voltage
control equipment,
19) List out the various needs for frequency regulation in power system?
Power system needs Frequency regulation because,
a) In any power system, if the frequency changes there wont be required
voltage at receiving end. If we connect two systems in parallel, it will spoil
the system.
b) The generator turbines are designed to operate at a very precise speed . If
frequency changes speed changed and it leads to velocity of the expanding
steam beyond control and cause vibration and blade failures in steam
c) The AC machines speed varies with frequency. Fluctuations in frequency
causes efficiency of the machines
20) What is the purpose of Primary ALFC?
The Auto Load Frequency Control circuit primarily controls the steam valve leading
to the turbine. A speed sensor senses the speed of the turbine and speed controlled by
hydraulic governing system. The control of speed in turn controls the frequency.
21) What is the major control loops used in large generators?
The major control loops used in large generators are
a) Automatic voltage regulator (AVR)
b) Automatic load frequency control (ALFC)
22) What is the use of secondary loop?
A slower secondary loop maintains the fine adjustment of the frequency, and also
by reset action maintains proper megawatt interchange with other pool members. This
loop is insensitive to rapid load and frequency changes but focuses instead on drift like
changes which take place over periods of minutes.

23) What is advantage of AVR loop over ALFC?

AVR loop is much faster than the ALFC loop and therefore there is a tendency, for
the AVR dynamics to settle down before they can make themselves felt in the slower load
frequency control channel.
24) What is the difference between large and small signal analysis?
Voltages and powers may undergo sudden changes of magnitude that may
approach 100% of normal operating values. Usually, this type of analysis leads to
differential equations of nonlinear type. Small signal analysis is used when variable
excursions are relatively small, typically at most a few percent of normal operating values.
25) What is the exciter?
The exciter is the main component in AVR loop. It delivers the DC power to the
generator field. It must have adequate power capacity and sufficient speed of response
(rise time less than 0.1 sec)
26) What is the function of AVR?
The function of AVR is to provide constancy of the generated terminal voltage
during normal, small and slow changes in the load.
27) Explain about static AVR loop.
In static AVR loop, the excitation power is obtained directly from the generator
terminals of from the station service bus. The A.C. power is rectified in thyristor bridges
and fed into the main generator field via slip rings. Static exciters are very fast and
contribute to improved transient stability.
28) What is the disadvantage of high loop gain? How is it eliminated?
High loop gain is needed for static accuracy but this causes undesirable dynamic
response, possibly instability. By adding series and / or feedback stability compensation to
the AVR loop, this conflicting situation can be resolved
29) What are the effects of generator loading in AVR loop?
Added load does not change the basic features of the AVR loop. It will, however,
affect the values of both gain factor KF and the field time constant. High loading will make
the generator work at higher magnetic saturation levels. This means smaller changes in
|E| for increment increases in if translating into a reduction of KF. The field time constant
will likewise decrease as generator loading means closing the armature current paths. This
circumstance permits the formation of transient stator currents, the existence of which
yields a lower effective field inductance.
30) What are the functions of ALFC?
The basic role of ALFC is to maintain desired megawatt output of a generator unit
and assist in controlling the frequency of the larger interconnection. The ALFC also helps
to keep the net interchange of power between pool members at predetermined values.

Control should be applied in such a fashion that highly differing response characteristics of
units of various type (hydro, nuclear, fossil, etc.) are recognized. Also, unnecessary power
output changes should be kept to a minimum in order to reduce wear of control values.
31) Specify the disadvantages of ALFC loop?
The ALFC loop will maintain control only during normal (small and slow) changes in
load and frequency. It is typically unable to provide adequate control during emergency
situations, when large megawatt imbalances occur. Then it leads to more drastic
32) How is the real power in a power system controlled?
The real power in a power is being controlled by controlling the driving torques of
the Individual turbines of the system.
33) What is the need for very large mechanical forces in speed governing
Very large mechanical forces are needed to position the main valve (or gate)
against, the high steam (or water) pressure, and these forces are obtained via several
stages of hydraulic amplifiers.
Unit III
34) Why is the optimal scheduling problem in the case of thermal plant referred
to static optimisation problem?
Optimal scheduling problem can be completely solved at any desired instant
without referring to the operation at other times. Hence it is referred as static optimization
35) What is the statement of optimisation problem of hydro-thermal system?
Minimize the fuel cost of thermal plant under the constraint of availability for hydrogeneration over a given period of time is the optimization problem of thermal units.
36) Write the expression for real power hydro-generation in any sub-interval K?
The real power in hydro generation in any sub interval k is given as,
PKGH = ho {1+0.5e ( XK + XK-1 )} (q K p)
37) Which parameters are used as dependent variable?
The parameters used as dependent variables are,
a) Thermal b) Hydro-generation c) Water storage at all sub-intervals and d) Water
discharge at excepted sub-intervals are used as dependent variables. ie., PKGT, PKGH, XK and
38) For short range scheduling of hydro thermal plant, which method is useful?
Kirchmayars method or the penalty factor method is useful for short range

39) What is the gradient vector?

The partial derivative of the lagrangian function with respect to independent variable is
the gradient vector.
i.e., [X/q ]k=1, K=2....N = 2 - 3 ho
Jk -2qk+ p
40) What is the condition for optimality in hydro-thermal scheduling problem?

k=1, K=2....N


41) What is the krichmayers method of obtaining the optimal scheduling of a

hydro-thermal system?
In Kirchmayars method or the penalty factor method the co-ordination equations
are derived in terms of penalty factors of both hydro and thermal plant.
42) What is condition of optimality in a hydro-thermal scheduling problem when
considering transmission loss?
Ci /GTi

1/1 (Pi / GTi )

for i=1,2.....n =

wj /GTj

1/1 (Pi / GTi )

for j=1,2.....n =

Where i represents the thermal plant and j represent the hydro plant.
43) What are the scheduling methods for short term hydrothermal coordination?

Constant hydro-generation method.

Constant steam generation method.
Maximum hydro efficiency method.
Equal incremental production cost and solution of coordination equations

44) In the optimal scheduling problem of a hydro-thermal system, which

variable are used to choose as independent variable?
Water discharge in all sub-intervals except one sub-interval
i.e., qk k=1 , for q2,q3 ........qn
k= 2,3,........N ( k is sub-interval).

45) Define Economic Dispatch problem?
The economic dispatch problem is the determination of generation levels such that
the total cost of generation becomes minimum for a defined level of load. It involves the
solutions of unit commitment and on line dispatch. This will give the total fuel cost is
minimum and the same time the total demand and losses at any instant must met by
total generation. That is, the sum of the power generated must be equal the received
46) Define incremental cost?
The incremental fuel cost is a measure of how costly it will be produce an increment
of power. The rate of change of fuel cost with active power generation is called
incremental cost. The incremental production cost, is made up of incremental fuel cost
plus the incremental cost of labor, water, maintenance etc.
47) Define base point?
The Economic dispatch problem has to be solved repeatedly by moving generator
from one economically optimum schedule to another as the load changes by a small
reasonable amount. The present operating point of the system is called base point.
48) Define participation factor?
The change in generation required to meet the power demand is called participation
factor. Participation factor of a unit is the ratio of small change in power output
generation of single unit to the total change in generation.
PD = PG1 + PDG + PG3 + PG4
PGi = Change in each unit, where i=1, 2, 3.
Participation factor = [PGi / PD]
49) Define Hydro thermal scheduling problem?
Hydrothermal scheduling is performed in order to find the optimum allocation of
hydro energy so that the annual operating cost of a mixed hydro-thermal system is
minimized. The objective of the hydrothermal scheduling problem is to determine the
water releases from each reservoir of the hydro system at each stage such that the
operation cost is minimized along the planning period. The operation cost includes fuel
costs for the thermal units, import costs from neighboring systems and penalties for load
50) Define Unit commitment?
Unit commitment is the process of deciding in advance which generating units is to start
up, when to connect them to network, how long it to be kept in service and when it to be
shut-down. It means optimum allocation of generators at each generating station at
various station load levels.

51) Define spinning reserve?

The spinning reserve is the extra generating capacity that is available by increasing
the power output of generators that are already connected to the power system. It can be
defined as unloaded generation that is synchronized and ready to serve additional
52) What is meant by scheduled reserve?
The generating units that can be brought online, synchronized and brought up to
full capacity quickly is called scheduled reserve. These include quick start diesel turbine
units as well as most hydro units and pumped storage hydro stations.
53) What are the thermal unit constraints?
The thermal constraints are
a) Minimum up time
b) Minimum down time
c) Crew constraints
54) Define minimum up time
Minimum up time is defined as, once the thermal unit is brought to service and
running, it should not be turned off immediately
55) Define minimum down time
Minimum down time is defined as, once the thermal unit is decommitted, there is a
minimum time before it can be recommitted
56) Define crew constraints
Crew constraints is defined as, If a thermal plant consists of two or more units,
the both units cannot be turned on at a same time since there are not enough crew
members to attend both units while starting up
57) What are the two approaches to treat a thermal unit to operating
The first allow the unit boiler to cool down and then heat backup to operating
temperature in time for a scheduled turn on.
The second requires that sufficient energy be input to the boiler to just maintain operating
58) What are the techniques for the solution of the unit commitment problem?
The technique for the solution of the unit commitment problems are,
a) Priority list schemes
b) Dynamic programming (DP)
c) Lagrange relation (LR)

59) What are the assumptions made in dynamic programming problem?

a) A state consists of an array of units with specified units operating and the rest of
b) The start-up cost of a unit is independent of the time it has been off-line.
c) There are no costs for shutting down a unit
d) There is a strict priority order and in each interval specified minimum amount of
capacity each period.
60) Define long range hydro scheduling problem.
The problem involves the long range of water availability and scheduling of
reservoir water releases for an interval of time that depends on the reservoir capacities.
61) What are the optimization techniques for long range hydro scheduling
The optimization techniques for long range hydro scheduling problems are,
a) Dynamic programming
b) Composite hydraulic simulation models
c) Statistical production cost models
62) Define short range hydro scheduling problem.
Short range hydro scheduling problem is defined as, the hour by hour scheduling
of all generators on a system to achieve minimum production condition for the given time
63) Define system blackout problem.
If any event occurs on a system that leaves it with operating limits violated, the
event may be followed by a series of further actions that switch other equipment out of
service. If the process of cascading failures continues, then the entire system may
completely collapse. This is referred as system blackout.
64) What is meant by cascading outages?
If one of the lines is too heavily loaded, it may open due to relay action, thereby
causing even more load on the remaining lines and one of it may open by protective
circuit leads to other remaining lines heavily loaded condition. This type of process is often
termed as cascading outage.
65) State the advantage of forward DP approach?
The forward dynamic programming approach has a distinct advantage in solving
unit commitment problem. The chief advantage is a reduction in dimensionality of the

66) State the disadvantages of Dynamic programming method?

unit commitment, we can get optimal
solutions. But solution of large scale UC problems using conventional DP is time
consuming because it involves complete enumeration of units instead it gives the
best optimal solution
67) What are the known values in short term hydro scheduling problem?
.In short term hydro scheduling problem, the load, hydraulic inflows, and unit
availabilities are assumed to be the known values.
68) What are the functions of control centre?
The main goal of the control centre is to maintain the system in a normal secure
state of the operation conditions which vary during time to time. For satisfying the above
goal the control centre requires
1) Continuous monitoring of the system conditions
2) Data Acquisition and control
3) Load forecasting, system planning, unit commitment, maintenance
scheduling, state estimation, economic dispatch and load frequency control.
69) What is the function of system monitoring?
The monitoring system process the incoming stream of data to detect abnormalities
and then alarm the human operators via lights, buzzers and CRT presentations. Based on
the alarms, preventive action taken to secure the system.
70) Define SCADA system
The Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System allow the operators to
monitor the generation and High Voltage transmission system and to take action to
corrective actions for overloads. It consists of a master station and Remote Terminal Units
linked by communication channel.
71) What are the states of the power system?
A power system may be operated in different states. They are classified in to five
states as follows.
a) Normal State or Secure state
b) Alert state
c) Emergency state
d) Extremis state
e) Restorative state

72) Define Alert mode?

A normal state of the system is said to be in alert state if one or more of the
proposed contingency states consists of the constraint limit violated. When the system
security level falls below a certain level the system is in alert state.
73) What are the distribution factors?
The distribution factors are classified mainly in to five as follows
a) Generator Shift Distribution Factor (GSDF)
b) Power Transfer Distribution Factor (PTDF)
c) Line Outage Distribution Factor (LODF)
d) Line Closure Distribution Factor (LCDF)
e) Outage Transfer Distribution Factor (OTDF)
74) Define state estimation?
State estimation is the process of assigning a value to an unknown system state
variable based on measurements from that system according to some criteria. ie,
Minimizing the sum of the square of the differences between the estimated and true
values of the function.
75) Define maximum likelihood criterion?
The maximum likelihood criterion is defined as where the objective is to maximize
the probability that the estimate of the state variables (X) is the true value of the sate
variable vector (X)
76) Define weighted least square criterion?
The weighted least square criterion is defined as where the objective is to minimize
the sum of the squares of weighted deviations of the estimated measurements (F[X])
from the actual measurements [Z].
77) Define minimum variance criterion?
The minimum variance criterion is defined as where the objective is to minimize the
sum of the squares of deviations of the estimated components of the static variable vector
from the corresponding components of the true state variable vector.
78) What are linear sensitivity factors?
The linear sensitivity factors are
a) Generation shift factors b) Line outage distribution factors
They are computed based on DC power flow model.
79) What are the uses of line distribution factors?
The line distribution factors are used for contingency analysis, which allow systems
to be operated defensively. This analysis used to study outage events and alarm the
operators about any potential overloads or out of limit voltages. Linear sensitivity
distribution factors (DFs) are commonly used in power systems analysis.


Distribution Factor





Post contingency line flows can be obtained

Power Transfer Distribution Factor

for the determination of Available Transfer


Capability (ATC)

Line Outage Distribution Factor

Calculate the impact of opening (outage) a



Factor (GSDF)







Line Closure Distribution Factor or

Calculate the impact of closing (inclusive) a











Factor (OTDF)


for the determination of Available Transfer

Capability (ATC)