POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

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POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Pmsb
- Free Energy Generator Plans
- EE-63
- Coal Power System Stability
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- raj m malthi
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- Power system Stability
- EPT IV References
- 05712524.pdf
- RPSC Lecturer Syllabus.pdf
- Investigation-7-8-9(1)
- Optimal AGC Regulator for Multi Area Interconnected Power Systems With Parallel AC DC Links

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The curve showing the variation of load of the power station with respect to time is

known as load curve. There are three types, Daily load curve, Monthly load curve, Yearly

load curve.

02) What is daily load curve?

The curve showing the variation of load of the power station on a whole day ie 24

hrs, with reference to time is known as daily load curve.

03) What is connected load?

The sum of continuous ratings of all the electrical equipments connected to supply

system is known as connected load of the system.

04) What is Maximum demand?

The greatest demand of all short time interval averaged load during a given period

on the power station is called maximum demand. The maximum demand determines the

size and cost of the installation.

05) What is Demand factor?

The demand factor is the ratio of actual maximum demand on the system to total

rated connected load to the system.

Demand factor= (max demand)/ (connected load)

06) What is Average demand?

The average demand on the power system is the average of loads occurring at all

various events in a given period (day or month or year) .

*Daily average demand = (no of units generated per day) / (24 hours)

*Monthly average demand = (no of units generated in month) / (no of hours in a month)

*Yearly average demand = (no of units generated in a year) / (no of hours in a year)

07) What is Load factor?

The load factor is defined as the ratio of average load to the maximum demand

during a given period of time. The time may be day, month or year.

Load factor = (average load)/ (maximum demand)

08) What is Diversity factor?

The ratio of the sum of individual maximum demands of all the consumers supplied

by it to the maximum demand of the power station is known as diversity factor.

Diversity factor = (sum of individual maximum demand)/ (maximum demand).

The capacity factor is the ratio of actual energy produced to the maximum possible

energy that could have been produced during a given period (or average load to the rated

capacity of the plant)

*Capacity factor=(actual energy produced) /(maximum energy that have been produced)

10) What is Plant use factor?

Plant use factor is defined as the ratio of actual units generated during a given

period to the product of plant capacity and the number of hours for which the plant has

been operated during that period

11) What is Load duration curve?

The curve which indicates the variation of load, but with the loads are arranged in order of

descending magnitudes. ie, the greatest load on the left and lesser load on the right .

12) What is spinning reserve?

The spinning reserve is the extra generating capacity that is available by increasing

the power output of generators that are already connected to the power system. It can be

defined as unloaded generation that is synchronized and ready to serve additional

demand.

13) What is cold reserve?

Cold reserve is ensured by special reserve units with small start up and spin up

time. The period of the cold reserve start up is deemed to be from 2 to 24 hours.

14) What is pool level?

Pool level handles largest blocks of power. It interconnects all the generator

stations of all the major loading points in the system

15) What are Plant level controls?

The plant level controls are,

a) Prime mover control

b) Excitation control

16) What is system level controls?

The system level control is to balance the total system generation against system

load and losses so that the desired frequency and power interchange with neighbouring

systems are maintained.

It is comprises of

a) Load Frequency Control (LFC)

b) Economic Dispatch and Control (EDC)

c) System voltage control (SVC)

Change in real power (MW) will be felt uniform throughout the system. But change

in reactive power (MVAR) is not felt uniform. A change in real power output does not

cause change in voltage level. But change in reactive power input affects the frequency

control and hence the voltage level is disturbed.

18) What is the need for voltage regulation in power system?

All equipments in power system are designed to operate satisfactorily only when

the voltage level on the system correspond to their rated values. So voltage regulation is

very important.Voltage regulation helps in maintaining the voltage at the load terminals

within prescribed limits under fluctuating load conditions by employing suitable voltage

control equipment,

19) List out the various needs for frequency regulation in power system?

Power system needs Frequency regulation because,

a) In any power system, if the frequency changes there wont be required

voltage at receiving end. If we connect two systems in parallel, it will spoil

the system.

b) The generator turbines are designed to operate at a very precise speed . If

frequency changes speed changed and it leads to velocity of the expanding

steam beyond control and cause vibration and blade failures in steam

turbines.

c) The AC machines speed varies with frequency. Fluctuations in frequency

causes efficiency of the machines

20) What is the purpose of Primary ALFC?

The Auto Load Frequency Control circuit primarily controls the steam valve leading

to the turbine. A speed sensor senses the speed of the turbine and speed controlled by

hydraulic governing system. The control of speed in turn controls the frequency.

UNIT II

21) What is the major control loops used in large generators?

The major control loops used in large generators are

a) Automatic voltage regulator (AVR)

b) Automatic load frequency control (ALFC)

22) What is the use of secondary loop?

A slower secondary loop maintains the fine adjustment of the frequency, and also

by reset action maintains proper megawatt interchange with other pool members. This

loop is insensitive to rapid load and frequency changes but focuses instead on drift like

changes which take place over periods of minutes.

AVR loop is much faster than the ALFC loop and therefore there is a tendency, for

the AVR dynamics to settle down before they can make themselves felt in the slower load

frequency control channel.

24) What is the difference between large and small signal analysis?

Voltages and powers may undergo sudden changes of magnitude that may

approach 100% of normal operating values. Usually, this type of analysis leads to

differential equations of nonlinear type. Small signal analysis is used when variable

excursions are relatively small, typically at most a few percent of normal operating values.

25) What is the exciter?

The exciter is the main component in AVR loop. It delivers the DC power to the

generator field. It must have adequate power capacity and sufficient speed of response

(rise time less than 0.1 sec)

26) What is the function of AVR?

The function of AVR is to provide constancy of the generated terminal voltage

during normal, small and slow changes in the load.

27) Explain about static AVR loop.

In static AVR loop, the excitation power is obtained directly from the generator

terminals of from the station service bus. The A.C. power is rectified in thyristor bridges

and fed into the main generator field via slip rings. Static exciters are very fast and

contribute to improved transient stability.

28) What is the disadvantage of high loop gain? How is it eliminated?

High loop gain is needed for static accuracy but this causes undesirable dynamic

response, possibly instability. By adding series and / or feedback stability compensation to

the AVR loop, this conflicting situation can be resolved

29) What are the effects of generator loading in AVR loop?

Added load does not change the basic features of the AVR loop. It will, however,

affect the values of both gain factor KF and the field time constant. High loading will make

the generator work at higher magnetic saturation levels. This means smaller changes in

|E| for increment increases in if translating into a reduction of KF. The field time constant

will likewise decrease as generator loading means closing the armature current paths. This

circumstance permits the formation of transient stator currents, the existence of which

yields a lower effective field inductance.

30) What are the functions of ALFC?

The basic role of ALFC is to maintain desired megawatt output of a generator unit

and assist in controlling the frequency of the larger interconnection. The ALFC also helps

to keep the net interchange of power between pool members at predetermined values.

Control should be applied in such a fashion that highly differing response characteristics of

units of various type (hydro, nuclear, fossil, etc.) are recognized. Also, unnecessary power

output changes should be kept to a minimum in order to reduce wear of control values.

31) Specify the disadvantages of ALFC loop?

The ALFC loop will maintain control only during normal (small and slow) changes in

load and frequency. It is typically unable to provide adequate control during emergency

situations, when large megawatt imbalances occur. Then it leads to more drastic

emergency.

32) How is the real power in a power system controlled?

The real power in a power is being controlled by controlling the driving torques of

the Individual turbines of the system.

33) What is the need for very large mechanical forces in speed governing

system?

Very large mechanical forces are needed to position the main valve (or gate)

against, the high steam (or water) pressure, and these forces are obtained via several

stages of hydraulic amplifiers.

Unit III

34) Why is the optimal scheduling problem in the case of thermal plant referred

to static optimisation problem?

Optimal scheduling problem can be completely solved at any desired instant

without referring to the operation at other times. Hence it is referred as static optimization

problem.

35) What is the statement of optimisation problem of hydro-thermal system?

Minimize the fuel cost of thermal plant under the constraint of availability for hydrogeneration over a given period of time is the optimization problem of thermal units.

36) Write the expression for real power hydro-generation in any sub-interval K?

The real power in hydro generation in any sub interval k is given as,

PKGH = ho {1+0.5e ( XK + XK-1 )} (q K p)

37) Which parameters are used as dependent variable?

The parameters used as dependent variables are,

a) Thermal b) Hydro-generation c) Water storage at all sub-intervals and d) Water

discharge at excepted sub-intervals are used as dependent variables. ie., PKGT, PKGH, XK and

q1.

38) For short range scheduling of hydro thermal plant, which method is useful?

Kirchmayars method or the penalty factor method is useful for short range

scheduling.

The partial derivative of the lagrangian function with respect to independent variable is

the gradient vector.

1+0.5e

K

K

K

2Xk-1+

i.e., [X/q ]k=1, K=2....N = 2 - 3 ho

Jk -2qk+ p

40) What is the condition for optimality in hydro-thermal scheduling problem?

[X/qK]

k=1, K=2....N

=0

hydro-thermal system?

In Kirchmayars method or the penalty factor method the co-ordination equations

are derived in terms of penalty factors of both hydro and thermal plant.

42) What is condition of optimality in a hydro-thermal scheduling problem when

considering transmission loss?

Ci /GTi

for i=1,2.....n =

wj /GTj

for j=1,2.....n =

Where i represents the thermal plant and j represent the hydro plant.

43) What are the scheduling methods for short term hydrothermal coordination?

01.

02.

03.

04.

Constant steam generation method.

Maximum hydro efficiency method.

Equal incremental production cost and solution of coordination equations

variable are used to choose as independent variable?

Water discharge in all sub-intervals except one sub-interval

i.e., qk k=1 , for q2,q3 ........qn

k= 2,3,........N ( k is sub-interval).

UNIT IV

45) Define Economic Dispatch problem?

The economic dispatch problem is the determination of generation levels such that

the total cost of generation becomes minimum for a defined level of load. It involves the

solutions of unit commitment and on line dispatch. This will give the total fuel cost is

minimum and the same time the total demand and losses at any instant must met by

total generation. That is, the sum of the power generated must be equal the received

load.

46) Define incremental cost?

The incremental fuel cost is a measure of how costly it will be produce an increment

of power. The rate of change of fuel cost with active power generation is called

incremental cost. The incremental production cost, is made up of incremental fuel cost

plus the incremental cost of labor, water, maintenance etc.

47) Define base point?

The Economic dispatch problem has to be solved repeatedly by moving generator

from one economically optimum schedule to another as the load changes by a small

reasonable amount. The present operating point of the system is called base point.

48) Define participation factor?

The change in generation required to meet the power demand is called participation

factor. Participation factor of a unit is the ratio of small change in power output

generation of single unit to the total change in generation.

PD = PG1 + PDG + PG3 + PG4

PGi = Change in each unit, where i=1, 2, 3.

Participation factor = [PGi / PD]

49) Define Hydro thermal scheduling problem?

Hydrothermal scheduling is performed in order to find the optimum allocation of

hydro energy so that the annual operating cost of a mixed hydro-thermal system is

minimized. The objective of the hydrothermal scheduling problem is to determine the

water releases from each reservoir of the hydro system at each stage such that the

operation cost is minimized along the planning period. The operation cost includes fuel

costs for the thermal units, import costs from neighboring systems and penalties for load

shedding.

50) Define Unit commitment?

Unit commitment is the process of deciding in advance which generating units is to start

up, when to connect them to network, how long it to be kept in service and when it to be

shut-down. It means optimum allocation of generators at each generating station at

various station load levels.

The spinning reserve is the extra generating capacity that is available by increasing

the power output of generators that are already connected to the power system. It can be

defined as unloaded generation that is synchronized and ready to serve additional

demand.

52) What is meant by scheduled reserve?

The generating units that can be brought online, synchronized and brought up to

full capacity quickly is called scheduled reserve. These include quick start diesel turbine

units as well as most hydro units and pumped storage hydro stations.

53) What are the thermal unit constraints?

The thermal constraints are

a) Minimum up time

b) Minimum down time

c) Crew constraints

54) Define minimum up time

Minimum up time is defined as, once the thermal unit is brought to service and

running, it should not be turned off immediately

55) Define minimum down time

Minimum down time is defined as, once the thermal unit is decommitted, there is a

minimum time before it can be recommitted

56) Define crew constraints

Crew constraints is defined as, If a thermal plant consists of two or more units,

the both units cannot be turned on at a same time since there are not enough crew

members to attend both units while starting up

57) What are the two approaches to treat a thermal unit to operating

temperature?

The first allow the unit boiler to cool down and then heat backup to operating

temperature in time for a scheduled turn on.

The second requires that sufficient energy be input to the boiler to just maintain operating

temperature.

58) What are the techniques for the solution of the unit commitment problem?

The technique for the solution of the unit commitment problems are,

a) Priority list schemes

b) Dynamic programming (DP)

c) Lagrange relation (LR)

a) A state consists of an array of units with specified units operating and the rest of

f-line

b) The start-up cost of a unit is independent of the time it has been off-line.

c) There are no costs for shutting down a unit

d) There is a strict priority order and in each interval specified minimum amount of

capacity each period.

60) Define long range hydro scheduling problem.

The problem involves the long range of water availability and scheduling of

reservoir water releases for an interval of time that depends on the reservoir capacities.

61) What are the optimization techniques for long range hydro scheduling

problem?

The optimization techniques for long range hydro scheduling problems are,

a) Dynamic programming

b) Composite hydraulic simulation models

c) Statistical production cost models

d)

62) Define short range hydro scheduling problem.

Short range hydro scheduling problem is defined as, the hour by hour scheduling

of all generators on a system to achieve minimum production condition for the given time

period

63) Define system blackout problem.

If any event occurs on a system that leaves it with operating limits violated, the

event may be followed by a series of further actions that switch other equipment out of

service. If the process of cascading failures continues, then the entire system may

completely collapse. This is referred as system blackout.

64) What is meant by cascading outages?

If one of the lines is too heavily loaded, it may open due to relay action, thereby

causing even more load on the remaining lines and one of it may open by protective

circuit leads to other remaining lines heavily loaded condition. This type of process is often

termed as cascading outage.

65) State the advantage of forward DP approach?

The forward dynamic programming approach has a distinct advantage in solving

unit commitment problem. The chief advantage is a reduction in dimensionality of the

problem

Using

dynamic

programming

for

unit commitment, we can get optimal

solutions. But solution of large scale UC problems using conventional DP is time

consuming because it involves complete enumeration of units instead it gives the

best optimal solution

67) What are the known values in short term hydro scheduling problem?

.In short term hydro scheduling problem, the load, hydraulic inflows, and unit

availabilities are assumed to be the known values.

UNIT V

68) What are the functions of control centre?

The main goal of the control centre is to maintain the system in a normal secure

state of the operation conditions which vary during time to time. For satisfying the above

goal the control centre requires

1) Continuous monitoring of the system conditions

2) Data Acquisition and control

3) Load forecasting, system planning, unit commitment, maintenance

scheduling, state estimation, economic dispatch and load frequency control.

69) What is the function of system monitoring?

The monitoring system process the incoming stream of data to detect abnormalities

and then alarm the human operators via lights, buzzers and CRT presentations. Based on

the alarms, preventive action taken to secure the system.

70) Define SCADA system

The Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System allow the operators to

monitor the generation and High Voltage transmission system and to take action to

corrective actions for overloads. It consists of a master station and Remote Terminal Units

linked by communication channel.

71) What are the states of the power system?

A power system may be operated in different states. They are classified in to five

states as follows.

a) Normal State or Secure state

b) Alert state

c) Emergency state

d) Extremis state

e) Restorative state

A normal state of the system is said to be in alert state if one or more of the

proposed contingency states consists of the constraint limit violated. When the system

security level falls below a certain level the system is in alert state.

73) What are the distribution factors?

The distribution factors are classified mainly in to five as follows

a) Generator Shift Distribution Factor (GSDF)

b) Power Transfer Distribution Factor (PTDF)

c) Line Outage Distribution Factor (LODF)

d) Line Closure Distribution Factor (LCDF)

e) Outage Transfer Distribution Factor (OTDF)

f)

74) Define state estimation?

State estimation is the process of assigning a value to an unknown system state

variable based on measurements from that system according to some criteria. ie,

Minimizing the sum of the square of the differences between the estimated and true

values of the function.

75) Define maximum likelihood criterion?

The maximum likelihood criterion is defined as where the objective is to maximize

the probability that the estimate of the state variables (X) is the true value of the sate

variable vector (X)

76) Define weighted least square criterion?

The weighted least square criterion is defined as where the objective is to minimize

the sum of the squares of weighted deviations of the estimated measurements (F[X])

from the actual measurements [Z].

77) Define minimum variance criterion?

The minimum variance criterion is defined as where the objective is to minimize the

sum of the squares of deviations of the estimated components of the static variable vector

from the corresponding components of the true state variable vector.

78) What are linear sensitivity factors?

The linear sensitivity factors are

a) Generation shift factors b) Line outage distribution factors

They are computed based on DC power flow model.

79) What are the uses of line distribution factors?

The line distribution factors are used for contingency analysis, which allow systems

to be operated defensively. This analysis used to study outage events and alarm the

operators about any potential overloads or out of limit voltages. Linear sensitivity

distribution factors (DFs) are commonly used in power systems analysis.

Sl.No

Distribution Factor

01

Generator

Shift

Use

Distribution

(PTDF)

Capability (ATC)

(LODF)

transmission

Factor (GSDF)

02

03

branch

on

all

the

other

branches

04

LCDF)

transmission

branch

on

all

the

other

branches

05

Outage

Transfer

Factor (OTDF)

Distribution

Capability (ATC)

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