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C will derive other cases.


One end of the block of 1mx1mx.5m is at
100oC, another is maintained at 0oC. (k=
385W/m K). find (1)rate of heat transfer (2)
thermal resistance.

A=1m2
l= .05m
k= 385W/m K
T= 385
(i)
q = kA T = 385X1X100/0.05 = 770
kW
l
(ii)
R= l/kA = 0.05/(385X1)=1.3 X 10-4

Convection: heat transfer is by mixing of fluid


An energy transfer across a system boundary due to a temperature difference by the combined
mechanisms of intermolecular interactions and bulk transport. Convection needs fluid matter.
Type :

Natural convection: the mixing is carried out by difference in density of cold and hot partials(induced
by buoyancy forces)..
Ex:
Hot plate to atmosphere.
Water heating system.
Heating of room by stove.
Forced convection: the mixing is carried out by pump, fan etc. here heat transfer rate speeds up.
Cooling of I.C engine.

Heat transfer through wall to fluid or fluid to wall is very important in engineering heat transfer.

Convection rate equation is described by the Newtons Law of Cooling:


q = h As T
but
q = kA dT/dx = kA(Tw Ts) = h As (Tw Ts)/
so
k=h/
q = h As T
Where:
q = heat flow from surface, (W)
h = heat transfer coefficient (which is not a thermodynamic property of the material, but may
depend on geometry of surface, flow characteristics, thermodynamic properties of the fluid,
etc. (W/m 2 K)
As = Surface area from which convection is occurring. (m 2 )
T = TS Tw Temperature Difference between surface and coolant. (K)

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Q. An air cooler has surface area 0.12m and temp 65 C. atmospheric temp is 30 C surface
coefficient of heat transfer 45.5 W/m 2 K. calculate heat transfer.
Sol.
q = h As (TS Tatm)
= 45.4 X (0.12)(65-30) =190W
2

Q. Water is heated up to boiling by a wire (rod) of 10cm X 1mm , 23.5 watt of power is
consumed. h=5000 W/m 2 K find temperature of wire for steady state.
Sol.
q = h As (Twire Twater)
23.5=5000 x ( x d x l) (Twire Twater)= 5000 x ( x 0.001x 0.1) (Twire 100)= 1.57(Twire 100)
Twire= 23.5/1.57 + 100 = 115 oC
Radiation:
Radiation heat transfer involves the transfer of heat by electromagnetic radiation (where the energy is
carried by photons of light in the infrared and visible portions of the electromagnetic spectrum) that
arises due to the temperature of the body. Radiation does not need matter.
Mechanism: heat flow through radiation occurs in 3 phase
1. Thermal energy is converted in to em waves: all body above absolute zero emit radiant energy
via photons.
2. photons can travel in space without media @ light
3. when photon strike another surface they are absorbed /reflected/ transmitted but absorbed
and converted in to heat in perfect black body.
Radiation rate equation is described by the STEFAN BOLTZMAN LAW: Total emission
from a black body per unit area per unit time is proportional to forth power of absolute
temperature of the body.
E=Ts4 (W/ m 2 )

Where:

= emissivity, which depand on surface, finish and material ( = 1 is black body)


= Steffan Boltzman constant = 5.67 x 10 -8W/m 2 K 4 .
Ts = Absolute temperature of the surface (K)
This eq does not give heat exchange, for heat exchange

E=A(Ts4 - Tsur4 )

Where:
Tsur = Absolute temperature of surroundings. (K)

EXAMPLE1:
Two perfect black bodies surround each other such that all radiant energy of inner surface at 1000oC
reaches outer surface at 200oC find net rate of heat transfer per unit area.
Sol
Ts1 = 200+273 = 473
Ts2 = 1000+273= 1273

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E/A=(Ts14 Ts24 )
= 146kW/m2
EXAMPLE2:
5 cm dia pipe at steady state temp 60 oC kept in a room of temp 25 oC , =0.7, h= 6.5 W/m 2 K
Calculate total heat loss / unit length
Sol
Conv. q = h As T= h ( x d x l)(60-25)= 6.5x ( x 0.05x1)(60-25) = 35.72W
Rad. q= A(Ts14 Ts24 ) = 0.7 x ( x d x l) x 5.67 x 10 -8 ((60+273)4-(25+273)4)
total

q= 33.72W
Q=35.72+33.72=69.44W

OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COFF.:


qci=

hiA(Ti-Ta)

qk =

kA(Ta-Tb)
l
qco = hoA(Tb-To)

= (Ti-Ta)
Rci
= (Ta-Tb)
Rk
= (Tb-To)
Rco

Ti

Ta
q

ci

Tb
q

To
q

co

qci = qk = qco = q
Now we can measure Ti and T o but not Ta and Tb so we eliminate them
(Ti-Ta) + (Ta-Tb) + (Tb-To) = q Rci + q Rk + q Rco
Ti To = q (Rci + Rk + Rco)
q=
(Ti To)
(Rci + Rk + Rco)
By Newtons law of cooling
q = UAT = (Ti To)
(Rci + Rk + Rco)
UA=
1
.
(Rci + Rk + Rco)
ELECTRICAL ANALOGY TO HEAT FLOW

Ti
Ti

Ta
q

ci

Tb
q

Ta

Tb

To

To
q

co

V= I(R1+R2+R3)
T= q (Rci + Rk + Rco)
Rci
1/ hiA

Rk
l/kA

Rco
1/ hoA

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Q. in furnace, combustion is at 1000oC and
outside temp is 25oC, convection heat
transfer coefficient between furnace and
wall= 10W/m2 and wall to outside air 5
W/m2 , thermal conductivity of brick
material of wall is k= 1.04 W/mK. Find
thickness of wall if wall temperature should
not exceed 800oC.

Heat from furnace to wall


qci/A= hi(Ti-Ta) =10(1000-800)=2000Wm2
From wall to atmos.
q/A = ho(Tb-To) = 5(Tb - 25) = 2000
Tb = 425 oC
Eq for conduction
q/A = k(Ta - Tb)/ l = 2000
l
= 0.195 m

USE OF HEAT TRANSFER CALCULATIONS IN DESIGN:


Engineers have only two types of problems regarding HMT they either have to stop heat flow or to
promote heat flow.
Design of condenser, heat exchanger, air-conditioning (to calculate heat load as well as airconditioning required).
To calculate heat load of a building in civil engineering.
Heat treatment of metals,

UNIT 1 Lesson 2 CONDUCTANCE


GENERAL HEAT EQUATION
Why We Need It?
Fourier Law is for steady flow, in one dimension, and without heat generation.
The cases other then this can not be solved by this equation.
Cartesian Coordinates: T(r, , z)
Derivation:

Assumptions:

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K (conductivity), c (pecific heat) and (denisity) do not vary with


position.

Heat generation is uniform.

Consider a small volume whose dimensions are dx, dy, dz. Material is
homogenous and isotropic. Means its properties (density, h, k ) are same
everywhere.

Temperature is indicated by T
Temperature is a function of distance do T changes as distance changes ( T changes as dx changes).
So rate of change of temperature T/ x
Change of temperature at a distance dx=> Tx - Tx+dx =>
In d s Kumar it is
Now
heat inflow during
time dt

=>

+ heat generated Eg
during time dt

ENERGY BALANCE EQ.


(dqx+dqy+dqz)dt
+Eg(dxdydz)dt

/x

dx

/x dx

= heat outflow
during time dt

+ change in
internal energy
during time dt Est

(dqx+dx + dqy+dy +dqz+dz)dt

c(dx.dy.dz)dT
Est =mcdT
m= X volume

Now consider single direction x and apply Fourier eq


Heat inflow per unit time:
dqx = -k(dydz)

/x

where dy.dz is area

Heat outflow in x direction per unit time: it is increased by dx


dqx+dx = dqx +

/x (dqs ).dx = - /x (-k(dydz) T/x ) + /x { (-k(dydz) T/x) dx}

=qx= -k (dx dydz) /x { (T/x ) }


T
dqx+dx dqx = -k (dx dydz) 2 /x2
dqx+dx dqx

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Heat outflow in y direction
dqy+dy dqy

-k (dx dydz)

Heat outflow in z direction


dqy+dy dqy

= -k (dx dydz)

2T

2T

/y2

/y2

Putting them in energy balance eq and solving we get GENERAL HEAT CONDUCTION EQ
2T

/x2 + 2T/y2 + 2T/z2 + Eg/k

cT

/kt = (c/k) (T/t)

Net transfer of thermal energy into Thermal energy


the control volume (inflowgeneration
outflow)

Change in thermal
energy storage

control volume (inflowSIGNIFICANCE OF GENERAL HEAT CONDUCTION EQ


This eq. tells us about temp. distribution and heat flow in a solid homogeneous and isotropic
material Via conduction.
Thermal Diffusivity
o k/ c = is called thermal diffusivity and is property of the material science it consist of all
property terms. Greater it is greater is the ability to store or conduct heat.
o Thermal diffusivity is ratio of conductivity (k) to thermal storage capacity(c) .
o Liquids have low conductivity but high heat storage capacity. Metals have low c and high k.
o This also tells us how fast temperature change can occur in a material if surrounding
temperature is changed.
o Temperature distribution in unsteady state depend on conductivity and storage capacity / but in
unsteady state only on conductivity.
If heat generation is nil Eg = 0 this eq. is Fouriers eq. in three dimension.
If system is in steady state but with heat generation this eq. is called poissons eq.
If no heat source and in steady state this is called laplace,s eq.
For one dimension / without generation / steady state the equation is
d2T

/dx2

=0

HEAT CONDUCTION EQUATION (RADIAL SYSTEMS)


When conduction occurs in shapes of radial geometries it is more convinent to work in cylindrical
systems.
Cylindrical Coordinates: T(r, , z)
Derivation:

Assumptions: same

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Now consider single direction x and apply Fourier eq


Net Heat flow in r direction per unit time
dqr+dr dqr = -k (dr ddz) 2T/r2
Net Heat flow in direction per unit time
dq+d dq = -k (dr ddz) 2T/2
Net Heat flow in z direction per unit time
dqz+dz dqz = -k (dr ddz) 2T/z2
Net heat generated per unit time
Eg r(dr ddz)
Net heat generated per unit time
c r (dr ddz) dT/dt

Putting in energy balance eqn and solving we get


2T

/r2 + (1/r) T/r +(1/r2) 2T/2 + 2T/z2 + Eg/k

Net transfer of thermal energy into


the control volume (inflowoutflow)

Thermal energy
generation

(c/k) (T/t) =(1/) (T/t)

Change in thermal
energy storage

** Every other thing remains same as derivation before


control volume (inflow

For one dimension / without generation / steady state the equation is


2T

/r2+(1/r) T/r = 0
1
/r2 d/dr ( r dT/dr ) = 0

SPHERICAL COORDINATES: T(r, , )


Derivation:

Assumptions: same

Volume = (dr.rd.rsin.d)
Heat flow r- plan, direction per unit time

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T

Inflow = dq = -k(dr . r.d)( r. sin .

Heat stored or change in heat energy


dq+d - dq =

( q ) r. sin .d .dt
r. sin .

dq+d - dq = k(dr.rd.rsin.d) [
Heat flow r- plan, direction

1
2T
.dt
r 2 . sin 2 . 2

Inflow = dq = -k(dr . sin.d)( r.


dq+d - dq =
solving for time dt

(q) . rd
r.

dq+d - dq = k(V)

( r 2 . sin ) ( sin ).dt

Heat flow - plan, r direction


Similarly

dqr+dr - dqr =

(q) . dr
r

solving for time dt

dqr+dr - dqr = k(V)

(r

T
r

) . dt

Putting in energy balance eqn and solving +


1
1
2T
.dt + ( 2
2
2
2
r . sin .
r . sin

) ( sin T
)+

(r

T
r

) + Eg/k =(1/) (T/t)

For one dimension / without generation / steady state the equation is


1

/r2 d/dr ( r2 dT/dr )

=0

OVER ALL
Steady-state conduction, no internal generation of energy
For one-dimensional, steady-state transfer by conduction without heat generation
i = 0 rectangular coordinates
i = 1 cylindrical coordinates
i = 2 spherical coordinates

THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Thermal Conductivity: A measure of a materials ability to transfer thermal energy by conduction.

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Thermal Diffusivity: A measure of a materials ability to respond to changes in its thermal


environment.

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