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SCHUURMAN

CLAUSEWITZ
Similar opponents means that it is easier to defeat
Definition of warfare: A duel in an extensive scale; is
each other.
an act of violence to compel our opponent to fulfill
our will.
Hence, different opponents make it harder for both
Paradoxical Trinity: Violence, Chance and Rational
parties to defeat each other (Terrorism)
Purpose.
Victory consists on the ability to wrestle popular
Violence: Continue negotiations in other terms, The
support away from the opponent.
way to reach objectives. IRRATIONAL. Concerns the
Disregarding of historical facts; only current conflict
People.
matters.

Chance: A mixture of emotional feelings and chance.


(Critique against Clausewitz) War is different than
Resentment and desperation. NONRATIONAL.
just a conflict between states; it can be a conflict
Concerns the Commander and his Army.
between ideologies, cultures or civilians.

RATIONAL Purpose: The objective that wants to be


(Critique against Clausewitz) Mistake in Iraq: U.S.
achieved. Concerns the government and the leader.
used old fashion techniques in a new war.
Rationality is relative (Terrorism might be irrational
Fourth Generation War: High technology empowered
for western culture, but it is supported by the ideals
western armed forces to face elusive and materially
of Islam).
inferior opponents, who through a combination of
No rules or moderation are supposed to exist.
guerrilla warfare, terrorism and campaigns aimed to
Warfare regulates itself, through the Paradoxical
attack western thoughts.
Trinity. If it is necessary to do something to achieve
Its only logical that the materially inferior actor will
victory, it has to be done.
pursue strategies that bypass his opponents military

(Critique against Clausewitz) The Trinity does not


superiority.
apply in New Wars.
Mistake in New Wars Theory: Although it is thought
(Counterargument against Schuurmans Critique)
that values of warfare have changed, it could be said
Trinity is expressed in the People, Commander and
that only superficial aspects such as actors, ideals
Government as an example. But it still maintains in
and tactics have changed, but nature of wear
different sectors of society, applying universally.
remains the same.
The objective that wants to be achieved is related to
the People because they are potential recruits or
instruments to be the force or Army correctly
struggling in the conflicts. They would be the ones
applying violence as the method.
(Difference against Schuurman) Clausewitz DOES

considers that past historical events are relevant.