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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I would like to thanks God for all his helps in my life and my staff member who are working on Terrestrial transmitter of ORTO for their cooperation when I was visiting the site. And I would like to thanks my adviser Dr. Sultan Feisso.

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

ABSTRACT:

In Ethiopia as all we know, there different FM Broadcasters that broadcasts in different region of Ethiopia. For Example in Oromia region Ethiopian Broadcasting Corporation FM, Fana Broadcasting corporation FM, Zami FM, Sheger FM, Oromia FM Radio etc all broadcast in almost all coverage of Oromia region. All these broadcasters Use their own Terrestrial Transmitter Tower at different places depending on the coverage area they need, in Oromia almost the side by side. If there are ten broadcasters broadcasting in Oromia, all ten should put their Transmitters Tower side by side to cover area coverage they need. By this work I want propose one Multichannel FM Transmitters that all broadcasters can broadcast with it instead of all putting the same purpose Transmitter.

Table of Contents

ACKNOWLEDGMENT..................................................................................................................................1

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

ABSTRACT:....................................................................................................................................................2

CHAPTER ONE..............................................................................................................................................5

INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................................5

Background..................................................................................................................................................5

Objective of the Project................................................................................................................................5

SCOPE.........................................................................................................................................................6

REPORT OVERVIEW.................................................................................................................................6 CHAPTER TWO..............................................................................................................................................7 FM THEORY...................................................................................................................................................7

Introduction..................................................................................................................................................7

CHAPTER 3...................................................................................................................................................11 FM TRANSMITTER.....................................................................................................................................11 Building Blocks..........................................................................................................................................11 FM EXCITERS......................................................................................................................................12 RF POWER AMPLIFIERS....................................................................................................................13 INTERMEDIATE POWER AMPLIFIERS...........................................................................................15 Power Supplies.......................................................................................................................................18 CHAPTER 4...................................................................................................................................................19 MULTICHANNEL FM..................................................................................................................................19

INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................................19

Prototype One.........................................................................................................................................19 RF Intermodulation Between FM Broadcast Transmitters....................................................................20 Mitigation techniques.............................................................................................................................21 Prototype Two........................................................................................................................................25

CONCLUSION..........................................................................................................................................28

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

References......................................................................................................................................................29

Background

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

Edwin H. Armstrong, known as one of the founding fathers of radio technology, invented the radio receiver in 1918 and frequency modulation (FM) in 1933 [1]. These two concepts, along with his regenerative circuit technique developed in 1912, formed the basis of radio frequency electronics as we know it today. In the United States, FM radio stations broadcast between radio frequencies of 88 MHz to 108 MHz with a channel bandwidth of 200 kHz.

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters
Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

With a bandwidth of 200Khz for one station, up to 100 stations can be fitted between 88 & 108Mhz. From 88Mhz to 91.2Mhz are for non-commercial stations (educational) which could be a good area to transmit in, but in recent years the band from 88MHz to 103Mhz has been filled by a lot of commercial channels.

Objective of the Project

The primary purpose of the project is to propose one Multichannel FM Transmitters that all broadcasters in Ethiopia so that they can broadcast using this instead of all putting the same purpose their own Transmitters side by side. This work will save the country’s economy wasting on building Transmitter towers for all FM broadcasters.

SCOPE

This work covers the design of Multichannel FM transmitters for quality transmission and explains some of optional Multichannel FM Transmitters, highlighting their coverage prospects. It also covers the advantages these technologies offer over traditional radio Transmitter and brings to light various distinguishing features possessed by these technologies.

REPORT OVERVIEW

Chapter one provides an overview of the work by giving description of the topic and Introduction. Chapter

Two describes basic FM Theory and in chapter three each block diagram of the FM Transmitter is described and in the final chapter the proposed multichannel Transmitters and conclusions are described.

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

Introduction [2]

CHAPTER TWO FM THEORY

Voice or information that is going to be transferred is termed as information signal. If the distance between communication parties is too large, direct voice communication is impossible. The method of message sender is needed. The message sender could be a dove, servant or an arrow. The function of message sender is just to carry the information to the desired destination. Thus the message sender can be said to be a carrier. The carrier merely sends the information and needs not to be intelligent. The information signal is sometimes called the intelligence signal. In telecommunications, the mechanism of putting the information signal into a carrier for it to be transmitted farther is called modulation. Since the characteristic of the carrier signal is being altered by the information signal, the carrier is also a modulated signal. Therefore, the information signal, intelligence signal and modulating signal representing the same thing. For the carrier to carry information, at least one of the carrier signal's characteristics (amplitude, phase or frequency) must be modified. Frequency Modulation (FM) is a method of modifying frequency of carrier signal in order that the receiver can obtain the desired transmitted information.

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

Modulation Index, Deviation Ratio and Bessel Function

Frequency modulation is a form of analog angle modulation in which the baseband information carrying signal, typically called the message or information signal m(t), varies the frequency of a carrier wave. Audio signals transmitted by FM radio communications are the most common. The simplest approach to generating FM signals is to apply the message signal directly to a voltage- controlled oscillator (VCO) as shown in Figure below.

Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters Modulation Index, Deviation Ratio and Bessel Function Frequency modulation is a form

Figure 2.1.FM Generation with a VCO

A voltage message signal, m(t), is applied to the control voltage of the VCO, and the output signal, X FM (t), is a constant amplitude sinusoidal carrier wave whose frequency is ideally a linear function of its control voltage. When there is no message or the message signal is zero, the carrier wave is at its center frequency, f c . When a message signal exists, the instantaneous frequency of the output signal varies above and below the center frequency and is expressed by

Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters Modulation Index, Deviation Ratio and Bessel Function Frequency modulation is a form

where K VCO is the voltage-to-frequency gain of the VCO expressed in units of Hz/V, and the quantity, K VCO *m(t), is the instantaneous frequency deviation. The instantaneous phase of the output signal is equal to 2π multiplied by the integral of the instantaneous frequency as shown below

Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters Modulation Index, Deviation Ratio and Bessel Function Frequency modulation is a form

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

Where the initial condition of the phase is assumed to be zero for simplicity. Hence, the FM output signal, X FM (t), is given by the following equation

Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters Where the initial condition of the phase is assumed to be zero

A few observations can be made from the FM output signal. First, the amplitude of an FM signal is constant regardless of the message signal, giving it a constant envelope property with an output power equal to A c 2 /2 into a 1 Ω resistor. Second, the frequency-modulated output, X FM (t), has a nonlinear dependence to the message signal, m(t), making it difficult to analyze the properties of an FM signal. To estimate the bandwidth of an FM signal, a single tone message signal is used as shown below

Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters Where the initial condition of the phase is assumed to be zero

where A m is the amplitude of the message signal and f m is the frequency of the message signal. Substituting this message signal into the above formulas, we find

Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters Where the initial condition of the phase is assumed to be zero

The quantity Δf = K VCO A m represents the peak frequency deviation of the FM signal from the center frequency and is directly proportional to the amplitude of the message signal and the gain of the VCO. This quantity, Δf , is called the maximum instantaneous frequency deviation. The ratio of the frequency deviation, Δf, to the message signal frequency, fm, is called the modulation index, β.

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

For a single tone message signal, the number of significant sidebands in the output spectrum is a function of the modulation index. This can be seen by first writing the FM output signal in terms of n th order Bessel functions of the first kind [2, 3].

Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters For a single tone message signal, the number of significant sidebands in

By taking the Fourier transform, we see a discrete FM output spectrum with magnitude coefficients as a function of β as shown in the equation below.

Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters For a single tone message signal, the number of significant sidebands in

The number of sidebands of an FM signal and its associated magnitude coefficient can be found with the help of Bessel function tables such as the one shown in Table below.

Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters For a single tone message signal, the number of significant sidebands in

Table 1.Bessel Functions of the First Kind Rounded to Two Decimal Places A key point of modulation index, β, is that it determines the bandwidth of the signal by determining the number of effective sidebands of an FM signal. For instance, if β=0.25, only one sideband is needed; while if β=5, eight sidebands are required. Another important point about the modulation index: it can change a lot even for a fixed frequency deviation because the message signal frequency can vary. In general, as the

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

modulation index increases, the number of sidebands increases and the bandwidth goes up. However, the increase in modulation index due to decreasing message frequency (recall β = Δf /f m ) may not necessarily increase the FM bandwidth. The bandwidth is equal to the number of discrete spectral tones multiplied by the frequency spacing set by the message signal frequency f m . For more complicated message signals, the bandwidth of an FM signal can also be approximated with Carson’s rule, FM BW ≈ 2(β +1) f m [2]. The empirical relation states that the number of significant spectral tones in an FM spectrum is ≈ 2(β +1) , not including the carrier.

CHAPTER 3 FM TRANSMITTER

Building Blocks [6]

The purpose of the FM transmitter is to convert one or more audio frequency (composite baseband) input signals into a frequency modulated, radio frequency signal at the desired power output level to feed into the

radiating antenna system. In it's simplest form, it can be considered to be an FM modulator and an RF power amplifier packaged into one unit. Actually the FM transmitter consists of a series of individual subsystems each having a specific function:

  • 1. The FM exciter converts the audio /baseband into frequency modulated RF and determines the key qualities of the signal.

  • 2. The intermediate power amplifier (IPA) is required in some transmitters to boost the RF power level up to a level sufficient to drive the final stage.

  • 3. The final power amplifier further increases the signal level to the final value required to drive the antenna system.

  • 4. The power supplies convert the input power from the ac line into the various dc or ac voltages and currents needed by each of these subsystems.

  • 5. The transmitter control system monitors, protects, and provides commands to each of these subsystems so that they work together to provide the desired result.

  • 6. The RF lowpass filter removes undesired harmonic frequencies from the transmitter's output, leaving only the fundamental output frequency.

  • 7. The directional coupler provides an indication of the power being delivered to and reflected from the antenna system.

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters FM Exciter Intermediate Final Power LPF power Amplifier Amplifier
Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters
FM Exciter
Intermediate
Final Power
LPF
power Amplifier
Amplifier

Figure 3.1.Simplified block diagram of an FM broadcast transmitter. FM EXCITERS The heart of an FM broadcast transmitter is its exciter. The function of the exciter is to generate and modulate the carrier wave with one or more inputs in accordance with the FCC standards. The FM modulated carrier is then amplified by a wideband amplifier to the level required by the transmitter's following stage. Since the exciter is the origin of the transmitter's signal, it determines most of the signal's technical characteristics; including signal -to- noise -ratio, distortion, amplitude response, phase response, and frequency stability. Waveform linearity, amplitude bandwidth, and phase linearity must be maintained within acceptable limits throughout the baseband chain from the stereo and subcarrier generators to the FM exciter's modulated oscillator. From here, the FM carrier is usually amplified in a series of class "C" non – linear power amplifiers, where any amplitude variation is removed. The amplitude and phase responses of all the RF networks which follow the exciter must also be controlled to minimize degradation of the baseband.

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

FM Modulator Linearity

Non -linearities in the FM oscillator can, by altering the waveform of the baseband signal, create distortion

in the demodulated output at the receiver. A secondary effect of this distortion may include stereo crosstalk into the SCA. The composite baseband signal is translated to a frequency modulated carrier frequency by the modulated oscillator. Frequency modulation is produced by applying the composite baseband signal to a voltage tunable RF oscillator. The modulated oscillator usually operates at the carrier frequency and is voltage tuned by varactor diodes, operating in a parallel LC circuit. To have perfect modulation linearity, the RF output frequency (Fe) must change in direct proportion to the composite modulating voltage (Vm) applied to the varactor diodes (C). This requirement implies that the capacitance of the varactor diodes must change as nearly the square of the modulating voltage as shown in following relationships: (Fe) is proportional to (Vm) (Desired linear voltage to frequency translation)

Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters FM Modulator Linearity Non -linearities in the FM oscillator can, by altering

Where: F c = Instantaneous carrier frequency L = Inductance of resonant circuit C t = Total capacitance across L (C fixed + C varactors) C v = Capacitance of varactor tuning diodes K = Varactor constant V m = Baseband modulating voltage

RF POWER AMPLIFIERS The remainder of the FM transmitter consists of a chain of power amplifiers, each having from 6 to 20 dB of power gain. Ideally, the transmitter should have as wide a bandwidth as practical with a minimum of tuned stages. Broadband solid state amplifiers are preferred to eliminate tuned networks in the RF path. Higher powered transmitters in the multi -kilowatt range may use multiple tube stages each with fairly low gain such as in the grounded grid configuration or a single grid driven PA stage with high gain and

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

efficiency. Design improvements in tube type power amplifiers have concentrated on improving bandwidth, reliability, and cost effectiveness.

TRANSMITTER POWER OUTPUT REQUIREMENTS

The FCC regulates the power of FM broadcast stations in terms of effective radiated power (ERP). The authorized ERP applies only to the horizontally polarized component of radiation. The transmitter power requirement can be reduced by increasing the gain of the antenna. There is, of course, an economic tradeoff between the cost of a higher gain antenna versus the cost of a larger transmitter and the added primary power costs. FM transmitters are designed to operate over a range of power outputs so that with a few basic sizes any required power output can be furnished. Popular maximum ratings range from 250 watts to 60 kilowatts.

RF POWER AMPLIFIER PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

The basic function of the power amplifier is to amplify the power of the exciter output to the authorized transmitter power output level. Most of the overall transmitter performance characteristics are determined by the exciter but a few are established or affected by the power amplifier characteristics:

  • 1. The output at harmonics of the carrier frequency is almost completely a function of the attenuation provided by the output tank circuit and output low -pass /notch filters. The limit in decibels is [43 dB + 10(log watts) dB] or 80 dB whichever is less. (73 dB for 1 KW output or 80 dB for 5 KW and higher).

  • 2. The major source of AM noise usually originates in the last power amplifier stage. The FCC limit is 50 dB below 100 percent equivalent AM modulation.

  • 3. The RF power output control system which must keep the output within + 5 percent and -10 percent of authorized output is usually achieved in the final power amplifier.

  • 4. Inadequate passband, particularly with respect to phase linearity across the signal bandwidth, can reduce stereo separation and cause SCA crosstalk.

  • 5. The presence of standing waves on the transmission line to the antenna may also react with the power amplifier to cause degraded stereo separation and SCA crosstalk.

Power Amplifier Bandwidth Considerations

The FM signal theoretically occupies infinite bandwidth. In practice, however, truncation of the insignificant sidebands (typically less than 1% of the carrier power) makes the system practical by accepting a certain degree of signal degradation. The transmitter power amplifier bandwidth affects the

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

modulation performance. Available bandwidth determines the amplitude response and group delay response. There is a trade-off involved between the bandwidth, gain and efficiency in the design of a power amplifier. The bandwidth of an amplifier is determined by the load resistance across the tuned circuit and the output or input capacitance of the amplifier. For a single solid tuned circuit, the bandwidth is proportional to the ratio of capacitive reactance to resistance:

Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters modulation performance. Available bandwidth determines the amplitude response and group delay response.

where: BW =Bandwidth between half-power points (BW 3dB ) K = Proportionality constant R L = Load resistance (appearing across tuned circuit) C = Total capacitance of tuned circuit (includes stray capacitances plus output or input capacitances of the tube)

X C = Capacitive reactance of C f c = Carrier frequency The load resistance is directly related to the RF voltage swing on the tube element. For the same power and efficiency, the bandwidth can be increased if the capacitance is reduced. INTERMEDIATE POWER AMPLIFIERS The intermediate power amplifier (IPA) is located between the exciter and the final amplifier in higher power transmitters that require more than about 30 watts of drive to the final amplifier. The IPA may consist of one or more tubes or solid state amplifier modules. The separate IPA output circuit and the final amplifier input circuit are often coupled together by a coaxial transmission line. The interconnecting transmission line between the coupling circuits should be properly matched to avoid a high voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR). The VSWR is established by the match at the load end of the transmission line. The transmission line matching problem is eliminated in some transmitters by integrating an IPA stage utilizing a tube(s) into the grid circuit of the final amplifier stage by having the plate of the IPA and the grid of the final tube share a common tuned circuit.

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

Solid -State IPA Systems

A solid -state IPA almost always consists of a system of individual amplifier modules that are combined to

provide the desired power output. The advantages of using several lower power modules instead of a single high power amplifier are:

  • 1. Redundancy is provided by isolating the input and output of each module, permitting uninterrupted operation at reduced power if one or more of the modules fails.

  • 2. The ability to repair or replace failed modules without having to go "off- the -air ".

  • 3. More effective cooling of each power device junction by splitting the concentration of

heat to be dissipated into several areas instead of one small area.

  • 4. Better isolation between the amplifier modules and the input circuit of the final power amplifier is provided by the combiner /isolator.

  • 5. Redundant power supplies for each module improve overall reliability.

Each RF power amplifier module consists of one or more solid -state devices with broadband impedance transformation networks for input and output matching. A new generation of class "C" BIPOLAR and MOSFET devices permit the design of broadband amplifier stages that exhibit both high efficiency and the wide bandwidth necessary to cover the FM broadcast band. Regardless of which type of solid -state device is used, the input impedance is always lower than the desired 50 ohm input impedance, so a broadband impedance transformation scheme is required.

POWER AMPLIFIER OUTPUT CIRCUITS

Usually, the output circuit consists of a "high -Q" (low loss) transmission line cavity, strip line, or a lumped inductor that resonates the tube output capacitance. A means of trimming the tuning and a means of adjusting the coupling to the output transmission line must also be provided by the output circuit. The tank circuit loaded "Q" is kept as low as practical to minimize circuit loss and to maintain as wide an RF bandwidth as possible.

The Power Amplifier Cavity

The vacuum tube power amplifier is constructed in an enclosure containing distributed tank circuit elements for minimum loss. The efficiency of the PA depends on the RF plate voltage swing, the plate current conduction angle, and the cavity efficiency. The cavity efficiency is related to the ratio of loaded to unloaded "Q" as follows:

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters Where: N = efficiency in percent Q = loaded "Q" of cavity

Where: N = efficiency in percent Q L = loaded "Q" of cavity Q u = unloaded "Q" of cavity The loaded "Q" depends on the plate load impedance and output circuit capacitance. Unloaded "Q" depends on the cavity volume and the RF resistivity of the conductors due to skin effects. A high unloaded "Q" is desirable, as is a low loaded "Q ", for best efficiency. As the loaded "Q" goes up, the bandwidth decreases. For a given tube output capacitance and power level, loaded "Q" decreases with decreasing plate voltage or with increasing plate current. The increase in bandwidth at reduced plate voltage occurs because the load resistance is directly related to the RF voltage swing on the tube element. For the same power and efficiency, the bandwidth can also be increased if the output capacitance is reduced. Power tube selection and minimization of stray capacitance are areas of prime concern when designing for maximum bandwidth. The methods used to improve the bandwidth of PA output circuits include minimizing added tuning capacitance. The ideal case would be to resonate the plate capacitance alone with a "perfect" inductor, but practical quarter wave cavities require either the addition of a variable capacitor or a variable inductor using sliding contacts for tuning. The inherent mechanical and electrical compromises are the requirement for a plate dc blocking capacitor and the presence of maximum RF current at the grounded end of the line where the conductor may be non-homogeneous.

POWER SUPPLIES Power supplies provide the appropriate dc or ac voltages to the various subsystems with the transmitter. In a typical FM transmitter, the voltages and currents can range from less than 5 V at a few milliamperes to over 10,000 V at several amperes. Safety must therefore be a prime consideration when working around potentially lethal power supplies. Power supplies must be designed with adequate bleeder resistors and interlocks to discharge high voltages before an operator can come in contact with these circuits. The degree

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

to which the ac components are filtered out of the dc outputs of the power supplies will, in large part, determine the “asynchronous” (without FM modulation) AM noise of the FM transmitter. FM transmitters usually contain multiple power supplies for each of the functional blocks within the system. These power supplies fall into two general categories:

Single-phase supplies (single input winding on the transformer)

Polyphase supplies (three or more input windings on the transformer).

CHAPTER 4 MULTICHANNEL FM

INTRODUCTION

Prototype One Having several FM stations share a single broad band antenna system is becoming more and more popular. A special device called a filterplexer (also known as an RF multiplexer) is used to connect several transmitters on different frequencies together onto one antenna system. The filterplexer provides isolation between the various transmitters while efficiently combining their power into a single transmission line. This is usually accomplished by a system of band-pass filters, band-reject filters and hybrid combiners. The isolation is required to prevent power from one transmitter from entering another transmitter with resulting spurious emissions as well as to keep the rest of the system running in the event of the failure of one or more transmitters.

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

An important consideration in the design of a filterplexing system is the effect on the phase response (group delay characteristic in the pass band) of each of the signals passing through the system due to individual bandwidth limitations on each of the inputs.

one audio Exciter1 preamplifi
one audio
Exciter1
preamplifi
Nx1 Filterplexer (RF Combiner)
Nx1
Filterplexer
(RF Combiner)
one audio Exciter2 preamplifi
one audio
Exciter2
preamplifi
. . . one audio ExciterN preamplifi
.
.
.
one audio
ExciterN
preamplifi
Amplifie r1
Amplifie
r1
Amplifie r2
Amplifie
r2

Antenna

Figure 4.1.Multichannel FM stations Exciter outputs amplified by common wide band Power Amplifiers

audio pre Exciter 1 Amplifie Amplifier -amplifier r1-1 2-1
audio pre
Exciter 1
Amplifie
Amplifier
-amplifier
r1-1
2-1
Nx1 RF Combiner
Nx1
RF Combiner
audio pre Exciter 2 Amplifie Amplifie -amplifier r1-2 r2-2
audio pre
Exciter 2
Amplifie
Amplifie
-amplifier
r1-2
r2-2
Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters An important consideration in the design of a filterplexing system is the

Antenna

. . . audio pre- Exciter N amplifier N
.
.
.
audio pre-
Exciter N
amplifier N
Amplifie r1-N
Amplifie
r1-N
Amplifie r2-N
Amplifie
r2-N

Figure 4.2.Multichannel FM stations Exciter outputs amplified with separate narrow band Power Amplifiers and combined final output feed to antenna

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

RF Intermodulation Between FM Broadcast Transmitters Interference to other stations within the FM broadcast band, as well as to other services outside the broadcast band, can be caused by RF intermodulation between two or more FM broadcast transmitters. Transmitter manufacturers have begun to characterize the susceptibility of their equipment to RF intermodulation so this information is becoming available to the designers of filterplexing equipment.

The degree of intermodulation interference generated within a given system can be accurately predicted before the system is built if the actual mixing loss of the transmitters is available when the system is designed. Accurate data on “Mixing Loss” or “Turn-Around-Loss” not only speeds the design of filterplexing equipment, but also results in higher performance and more cost-effective designs because the exact degree of isolation required is known before the system is designed. Filterplexer characteristics, as well as antenna isolation requirements, can be tailored to the specific requirements of the transmitters being used. The end user is assured in advance of construction that the system will perform to specification without fear of overdesign or under design of the components within the system. Mitigation techniques A number of techniques have been developed to reduce intermodulation in transmitter power amplifiers, and some of these are briefly described. The intermodulation factors used to make these calculations are affected by many parameters and they also depend on electrical resonances in the components which make up the mast and antenna arrays. The overall loss, A CI , between a transmitter providing the unwanted emissions giving rise to the intermodulation product is given by the sum of:

A

CI

A

C

A

I

where A C is the coupling loss defined as the ratio of the power emitted from one transmitter to the power level of that emission at the output of another transmitter which may produce the unwanted intermodulation product. The intermodulation conversion loss, A I , is the ratio of power levels of the interfering signal from an external source and the intermodulation product, both measured at the output of the transmitter. [5] Using this definition, mitigation of intermodulation products means increasing the overall loss A CI . It is obvious that a reduction of the non-linearity, particularly of the odd-numbered orders, will improve the overall performance and increase the value of intermodulation conversion loss

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

Examples of intermodulation products generated on a radio site with FM

FM: FM1: f1 = 88 MHz,

FM2: f2 = 92.7 MHz and

FM3: f3 = 95.7 MHz

The three FM transmitters are combined via directional multiplexers (Mux) made of 3 dB couplers and filters (see Figure below):

Block diagram of a directional multiplexer

Input (narrow-band) Output to antenna Input (wideband)
Input (narrow-band)
Output to antenna
Input (wideband)

Figure 4.3.Block diagram of a directional multiplexer

Intermodulation between FM transmitters

The deep selectivity brought by the directional multiplexers used for the FM transmitters will lead to

considerable reduction of the following products which will nevertheless appear on the site and will be radiated (intermodulation source in bold) see Figures below.

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

FIGURE 4A IM 3 at 2 f 1 – f 3 = 80.3 MHz

 

f 2

Mux1 Mux2
Mux1
Mux2
  • 2 f 1 – f 3

f 1
f 1
f 1
f 1
 

f 3

3
 

FIGURE 4B

 

IM 3 at 2 f 1 – f = 2 83.3 MHz and at 2 f 3 – f 2 = 98.7 MHz

 

f 2

2 2 f – f
  • 2 f 1 – f 2

f 1
f 1
f 1 Mux1 Mux2
Mux1 Mux2
Mux1
Mux1
Mux1 Mux2
Mux2
Mux2
 
2 f – f

2

f 3 – f 2

 

f 3

Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters FIGURE 4A IM at 2 f – f = 80.3 MHz 2

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

FIGURE 4C IM 5 at 2 f 1 – 2 f 3 + f 2 = 77.3 MHz

f 2 2 f 1 – (2 f 3 – f 2 ) Mux1 Mux2 f
f 2
2
f 1 – (2 f 3 – f 2 )
Mux1
Mux2
f 1
2
f 3 – f 2
f 3

Figure 4.4.IM in Directional multiplexers used for the FM transmitters

  • A. Suppression at transmitters

One way of mitigating this problem is to generate the wanted signal directly at the final frequency using a vector modulator, as shown below in Fig.5. In this case, in-phase and quadrature (I and Q) baseband signals are used to directly modulate a carrier at the output frequency. Although spectral spreading of the signal into the adjacent channels can still occur, the harmonic mixing effect is eliminated, since there is only a single carrier component applied to the mixers

RF output

FIGURE 5

Vector modulator transmitter architecture I Baseband  inputs 90° Power amplifier Q Vector modulator
Vector modulator transmitter architecture
I
Baseband
inputs
90°
Power
amplifier
Q
Vector
modulator

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

  • B. Filtering

Filtering (generally bandpass filtering) of the transmitter output can be used in conjunction with the other techniques discussed in this Report to reduce the residual spurious output levels. The choice of the type of filter to be used is, as usual, a compromise between a number of interacting, usually conflicting, requirements such as out-of-band rejection, bandpass attenuation, time domain response, size, weight, cost, etc.

  • C. Linearization

Linearization of a transmitter system may be accomplished by a number of methods:

Feedforward linearization: This technique compares the amplified signal with an appropriately delayed

version of the input signal and derives a difference signal, representing the amplifier distortions. This difference signal is in turn amplified, and subtracted from the final HPA output. The main drawback of the method is the requirement for a 2nd amplifier – the technique can, however, deliver an increase in output power of some 3 dB when used with a TWT.

Feedback linearization:

In audio amplifiers, linearization may readily be achieved by the use of

feedback, but this is less straightforward at high RF frequencies due to limitations in the available open- loop amplifier gain. It is possible, however, to feedback a demodulated form of the output, to generate

adaptive pre-distortion in the modulator. It is clearly not possible to apply such an approach in a bent-pipe transponder, however, where the modulator and HPA are rather widely separated.

Predistortion:

Rather than using a method that responds to the actual instantaneous characteristics of the

HPA, it is common to pre-distort the input signal to the amplifier, based on a priori knowledge of the transfer function. Such pre-distortion may be implemented at RF, IF or at baseband. Baseband linearizers, often based on the use of look-up tables held in firmware memory are becoming more common with the ready availability of VLSI techniques, and can offer a compact solution. Until recently, however, it has been easier to generate the appropriate pre-distortion function with RF or IF circuitry. RF amplifier linearization techniques can be broadly divided into two main categories:

Open-loop techniques, which have the advantage of being unconditionally stable, but have the

drawback of being unable to compensate for changes in the amplifier characteristics. Closed-loop techniques, which are inherently self-adapting to changes in the amplifier, but can

suffer from stability problems.

Prototype Two

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

The Another proposed system has been designed, with main Frequency Modulation (FM) channel at its maximum power and another FM channel with lower power, simultaneously. The system has been designed & developed to utilize the capacity of an existing transmitter to its maximum extent, without

affecting the existing main carrier RF power. The capacity of the existing single channel FM transmitters can be increased by using wide band capability and by applying two or multi tone excitation. This way two or more carriers can be produced at the RF output, for broadcasting more than one audio channel(s). Prototype of this design has been successfully tested for one additional channel in normal broadcasting environment without any performance degradation to any of the channels. The additional channel(s) are meant for small coverage area than the main channel as the additional channel(s) will have to be broadcasted at lower power level. The technique can be appropriately named as FM Multicasting. [4] FM transmitter proposed multi channel transmission system is utilizing the existing system power amplifiers, power combiners/ dividers, feeder cable and antenna system, so it will incur a very little extra cost, to broadcast another channel. Also the height of the antenna system, its gain and its radiation pattern provide the benefit of larger coverage area with the lesser RF power This additional channel may also be used utilize this extra capacity of the transmitter to broadcast two or multi channels simultaneously ,with out deteriorating the quality of any channel.

Selection of Frequencies

Any two (or more) frequencies in the FM broadcast band can be radiated. The selectivity of carriers

separation should be between 300 KHz to 3 MHz. However if more separation is used, it would require additional excitation power in the secondary channel ( approximately 1 dB/MHz) to maintain the similar the performance/ coverage area.

RF Level Optimization

The RF Power requirement of the additional channel at 20 dB lesser power (i.e.50 W) is sufficient to cover the city. It is known that the 100 watt of power (320 watt ERP) with 100 meters of height of the antenna is sufficient to produce the field strength of more than 50 dB micro volt/m, to cover approx. 15Kms of radial

area. Thus the power of -18dBc for a 5 KW transmitter is sufficient to cover a moderate town.

IMD Reduction

Following procedure may be adopted to minimize the Inter Modulation Distortion (IMD), which is produced due to non-linearity of the entire system, particularly in amplification with multi tone excitation.

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

  • 1. Covert the existing wide band filter at the O/P of intermediate stage (10 W and 30 W) to a narrow band. BPF by tuning the variable capacitors.

  • 2. Extra sharp-cut off filter may be introduced at the output of intermediate stage and at final output stage. However the filter at final out will be at the cost of reduction in radiated power of the order of 0.5 dB or more.

To Antenna
To Antenna
Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters 1. Covert the existing wide band filter at the O/P of intermediate

Figure 4.6.Multichannel prototype The prototype shown in Figure below is used design in 5KW power two channel in normal broadcasting environment.

Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters 1. Covert the existing wide band filter at the O/P of intermediate

Figure 4.7.Prototype for Two Channels FM

RF Performance

The performance of the designed system with both the channels, measurements were carried out at various power levels. The results of 2.5 kW and 5 KW are verified at different frequencies. The RF spectrum (without filter to reduce IMDs) at 5 KW power in main channel at 100.3 MHz and with 20 dB lesser modulated secondary carrier at 101.3 MHz is shown in Figure below

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters
Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

Figure 4.8.Test Results at 5 kW RF Power

CONCLUSION

This project tested successfully for two channels, the same may be extended and implemented for multiple Analog /Digital, Audio/RDS channels broadcasting. This system even with the 19dB lesser power in the additional channel, yielded a satisfactory range of more than 15 km with satisfaction in terms of area coverage. It is expected that this system is acceptable and viable for any kind of city coverage purpose, sporting Community, Commercial to Educational radio services.

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Multichannel Terrestrial FM Transmitters

REFERENCES

[1] E. H. Armstrong Web Site, http://users.erols.com/oldradio/ [2] S. Haykin, Communication Systems, 3rd Edition, Wiley, 1994 [3] R. E. Ziemer, W. H. Tranter, Principles of Communications, Systems, Modulation, and Noise, Fourth Edition, Wiley, 1995 [4] MULTIPLE CHANNELS ON FM TRANSMITTER (by Singh Yogendra Pal) [5] REPORT ITU-R SM.2021 (PRODUCTION AND MITIGATION OF INTERMODULATION PRODUCTS IN THE TRANSMITTER) [6] FM Broadcast Transmitters (by Geoffrey N. Mendenhall, P.E. Vice President of Engineering The Engineering Staff of Broadcast Electronics Inc. Quincy, Illinois)

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