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IGCSE QUESTIONS

SET X (Acid)

This table shows the soil pH ranges required by different crops for growth.
crop

pH range

peanut

5.0 6.5

millet

6.0 6.5

sunflower

6.0 7.5

paprika

7.0 8.5

mango

5.5 6.0

(a) A farmer plants peanut and millet crops. Only the peanut crop grows well.
Predict the pH of the soil.
..................................................................................................................................... [1]
(b) Which other crop is most likely to grow well in the same soil?
..................................................................................................................................... [1]
(c) The farmer adds calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, and ammonium sulphate, (NH4)2SO4, to
the soil.
Explain the purpose of using each compound.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [3]
(d) A reaction occurs between calcium hydroxide and ammonium sulphate.
(i) Complete the equation for this reaction.
Ca(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4 + + 2H2O
(ii) Explain why the farmer should not have added these two compounds to the soil at
the same time.
.............................................................................................................................. [3]
[Total: 8 marks]

IGCSE QUESTIONS
5

SET X (Acid, mol calculations, Test and organic compounds)

The diagram shows a cross section of a soil.


decaying leaves
topsoil
subsoil

limestone
3

(a) A student took 10 g of topsoil and shook it with 200 cm of distilled water.
(i) How can the student separate the solids in the soil from the solution?

stro
gly
acid
c

(ii) The topsoil had a pH of 6.


Which of the following gives the best description of this pH?
Tick one box.

weakly acidic

neutral

weakly alkaline
[1]
(b) The soil contained large amounts of calcium ions and carbonate ions.
(i) Use the information in the diagram to suggest where these ions came from.
[1]
(ii) Complete the word equation for the reaction of calcium carbonate with hydrochloric
acid.
calcium
carbonate

hydrochloric
acid

calcium
chloride

.................
.................

.................
[2]

(c) The table shows the mass of each ion present in 200 cm of soil solution.
ion

formula of ion

calcium

Ca

carbonate

CO 23

iron(III)

Fe

magnesium

Mg

nitrate

NO

phosphate

PO3

mass present/milligrams
12

2+

20

3+

2+

others

(i) Which negative ion has the highest concentration in the soil solution?
[1]
3

(ii) Calculate the mass of iron(III) ions in one litre (1000 cm ) of solution.

[1]
(iii) Which ion in the t a bl e w i l l release ammonia when h e a t e d with aqueous sodium
hydroxide and aluminium foil?
[1]
(iv) Describe a test for iron(III) ions.
test
result
[3]
(d) The air trapped in the soil has a different composition from the air in the atmosphere.
The table shows the composition of the air in the soil.
gas

percentage of gas in soil air

carbon dioxide

nitrogen

82

oxygen

15

other gases

State how the composition of soil air compares with the composition of air in
the atmosphere.

carbon
dioxide
nitrogen
oxygen

[3]

(e) Decaying leaves produce ethanoic acid.


Complete the formula for ethanoic acid showing all atoms and bonds.
H
H

C
C
H
[1]
Total / 14

IGCSE QUESTIONS

SET X (Acid)

A6 A student adds aqueous sodium hydroxide from a burette into 25.0 cm3 of dilute sulphuric acid.
The student measures the pH value of the mixture during the addition of the sodium hydroxide.
(a) Describe how the pH value changes.
......................................................................................................................................[1]
(b) Give an ionic equation to represent the neutralisation reaction between sodium
hydroxide and sulphuric acid.
......................................................................................................................................[1]
(c) Sulphuric acid is a strong acid.
(i) What is meant by the term acid ?
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(ii) What is the difference between a strong acid and a weak acid?
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................... [3]
(d) Dilute sulphuric acid reacts with magnesium to give hydrogen.
Give the ionic equation for this reaction.
......................................................................................................................................[1]
Total / 6

IGCSE QUESTIONS
3

SET X (Acid)

A student investigated the redox reaction between potassium iodate(V) and iodide ions. Two
experiments were carried out.
Experiment 1
A burette was filled up to the 0.0 cm3 mark with the solution A of sodium thiosulphate.
By using a measuring cylinder, a 10 cm3 sample of the solution B of potassium iodate(V)
was added into a conical flask. A 10 cm3 sample of dilute sulphuric acid was added to the
flask followed by 20 cm3 of aqueous potassium iodide.
Solution A was added slowly to the flask until there was a pale yellow colour in the contents
of the flask. Starch solution was then added into the flask and the colour changed to blueblack. Solution A was added to the flask until the colour just disappeared. Use the burette
diagram to record the volume in the table.
final burette reading / cm3
18
17
16

Experiment 2
Experiment 1 was repeated using solution C of potassium iodate(V) instead of solution B.
Use the burette diagrams to record the volumes in the table and complete the table.
initial burette reading /
cm3

Table of results
Burette readings/cm3
Experiment 1

Experiment 2

Final reading
Initial reading

0.0

Difference
[4]

The reaction of the mixture of potassium iodate(V), sulphuric acid and potassium iodide in the
flask produces iodine. Sodium thiosulphate then reacts with the iodine.
(a) (i) In which Experiment was the greatest volume of aqueous sodium thiosulphate used?
...............................................................................................................................[1]
(ii) Compare the volumes of sodium thiosulphate used in Experiments 1 and 2.
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[1]
(iii) Suggest an explanation for the difference in the volumes.
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]
(iv) Predict the volume of solution A which would be needed to react completely if
Experiment 1 was repeated with 20.0 cm3 of the solution of potassium iodate.
Explain your prediction.
volume of solution A .................................................................................................
explanation ...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[3]
(b) Suggest the reason starch solution was added.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[2]

Total / 13

GCSE QUESTIONS
7

SET X (Acid)

Samples of concrete were placed in solutions of different pH. The graph shows the percentage
corrosion of the samples.

70

60

50

40
% corrosion
30

20

10

pH
(a) Draw a smooth line graph on the grid

[1]

(b) Which point on the grid appears to be inaccurate? Explain your reason for
identifying this point.

[2]
(c) What happens to the percentage corrosion as the pH changes from 1 to 7?
[1]

Total / 4

IGCSE QUESTIONS
1

SET X (Separation & Analysis)

The diagrams show the apparatus used to find the concentration of a nitric acid solution.
25.0 cm3 of nitric acid was added to a flask.
Sodium hydroxide was added to the acid until the solution was neutral. The volume of the
sodium hydroxide was noted.

nitric acid

sodium
hydroxide

flask

nitric acid
nitric acid

(a) Complete the boxes to name the apparatus used.

[3]

(b) How could you tell when the solution was neutral?
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[2]
(c) How could the accuracy of the results be checked?
......................................................................................................................................[1]

Total / 6

IGCSE QUESTIONS
1

SET X (Acid)

A student investigated the neutralisation of dilute hydrochloric acid, using an excess of calcium
carbonate.
Step 1 Excess calcium carbonate was added to hydrochloric acid.
A

calcium carbonate

B
dilute hydrochloric acid

Step 2. Excess calcium carbonate was removed from the solution.


C

excess calcium carbonate

solution of calcium chloride


Step 3. The solution of calcium chloride was tested with indicator paper.
(a) Identify the pieces of apparatus labelled:
A........................................................................................................................................
B........................................................................................................................................
C....................................................................................................................................[3]
(b) What does the term excess mean?
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[1]
(c) Suggest the pH value of the solution of calcium chloride.
......................................................................................................................................[1]

(a)

Four bottles were known to contain aqueous ammonia, dilute hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide
solution and vinegar, which is dilute ethanoic acid. The bottles had lost their labels. The pH values
of the four solutions were 1, 4, 10 and 13.
Complete the table.
solution

pH

aqueous ammonia
dilute hydrochloric acid
sodium hydroxide solution
vinegar
[2]
(b) The following apparatus was set up to investigate the electrical conductivity of dilute
acids.
+

bulb/lamp

carbon
cathode

carbon
anode
dilute sulphuric acid
bubbles of
oxygen gas

bubbles of
hydrogen gas

Dilute sulphuric acid is a strong acid. If it was replaced by a weak acid, what two
differences in the observations would you expect to make?

[2]
(c) When nitric acid is added to water the following reaction occurs.
HNO3

H2O

NO 3

H3O

Give the name and the formula of the particle which is transferred from nitric acid to
water.
name
formula

[2]

(d) This question is concerned with the following oxides.


aluminium oxide

Al2O3

calcium oxide

CaO

carbon dioxide

CO2

carbon monoxide

CO

magnesium oxide

MgO

sulphur dioxide

SO2

(i) Which of the above oxides will react with hydrochloric acid but not with aqueous
sodium hydroxide?
[1]
(ii) Which of the above oxides will react with aqueous sodium hydroxide but not with
hydrochloric acid?
[1]
(iii) Which of the above oxides will react both with hydrochloric acid and with aqueous
sodium hydroxide?
[1]
(iv) Which of the above oxides will react neither with hydrochloric acid nor with
aqueous sodium hydroxide?
[1]
1.

Sally is testing the pH of soil in her garden.


The garden is divided into five different areas called plots.
She tests the soil on each plot
Look at the diagram. It shows her results.

A
pH 8.0
D
pH 6.4
B
pH 7.5

(a)

C
pH 7.0

Which soil is the most alkaline?

E
pH 5.9

Choose from A, B, C, D or E.
.Answer ............................................................................................................................[1]

(b)

The table shows the names of some plants Sally wants to grow.
It also shows the soil pH the plants need to grow well.
name of plant

best pH of soil

apple

5.0 6.5

blackcurrant

6.0 8.0

mint

7.0 8.0

potato

4.5 6.0

strawberry

5.0 7.0

Use the information to answer these questions.

(i)

Sally wants to grow potatoes.


Which would be the best plot to plant them in?
Choose from A, B, C, D or E.
Answer ...................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

Sally wants to increase the pH of plot D.


Which type of substance should she add to the soil.
Choose from the list
an acid an
alcohol an alkali
a salt
Answer ...................................................................................................................[1]

(c)

Sally puts calcium oxide onto the soil in plot D.

Calcium oxide reacts with the nitric acid in the soil. Look at
the word equation for this reaction.
calcium oxide + nitric acid calcium nitrate + water
Write down the names of the products in this reaction.

..........................................................................and .................................................................[1]

(d)

Sally adds a chemical to plot B.


The pH of plot B changes from 7.5 to 7.0. What
type of reaction has taken place? Put a tick (9) in
the correct box

electrolysis

neutralisation

oxidation

reduction
[1]
[Total: 5]

Jack investigates some reactions of dilute sulfuric acid.


(a) Jack adds some sodium hydroxide solution to dilute sulfuric acid.
Sodium hydroxide is an alkali.
The pH value of the acid increases as the sodium hydroxide is added.
(i) Explain why the pH value increases.

...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[1]
(ii) A salt is made when sodium hydroxide reacts with dilute sulfuric acid.
What is the name of this salt?
.......................................................................................................................................[1]
(b) Jack also uses the internet to investigate sulfuric acid, H2SO4.
He finds out that dilute sulfuric acid contains ions.
One of these is the sulphate ion, SO42.
Write down the name or formula of another ion found in dilute sulfuric acid.
...............................................................................................................................................[1]
[Total: 3]
5

This question is about acid-base titrations.


Judy wants to find out the volume of dilute nitric acid needed to neutralise 25.0 cm3 of an
alkali. The alkali used is potassium hydroxide solution.
Look at the apparatus she uses.
burette

dilute nitric acid

25.0 cm3 potassium hydroxide


solution and two drops of litmus
indicator
She adds dilute nitric acid slowly until the litmus suddenly changes colour.
She repeats the experiment two more times.
Look at Judys results table.
titration
number
final burette reading
in cm3
initial burette reading
in cm3
volume of acid used (titre)
in cm3

29.7

27.0

34.8

8.5

6.9

14.9

21.2

20.1

19.9

(a) It is important that the colour of the indicator changes suddenly.


Suggest why Judy cannot use universal indicator instead of litmus.
...............................................................................................................................................[1]
(b) Judy decides to only use the second and third titration results.
Explain why.
...............................................................................................................................................[1]

OCR 2008

9
(c) Look at the balanced symbol equation for the reaction between potassium hydroxide and nitric
acid.
KOH + HNO3

KNO3 + H2O

(i) The concentration of the potassium hydroxide solution is 0.100 mol / dm3.
Calculate the number of moles in 25.0 cm3 of the potassium hydroxide solution.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
number of moles of potassium hydroxide = ..................................

[1]

(ii) Use your answer to (i) to work out the number of moles of nitric acid that will react with the
potassium hydroxide.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
number of moles of nitric acid = ..................................

[1]

(iii) Calculate the concentration, in mol / dm3, of the dilute nitric acid.
Use the
average titre of titrations 2 and 3
answer to part (ii).
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
concentration of nitric acid = .................................. mol / dm3

[2]
[Total: 6]

This question is about acids and bases.


(a) What is the name of the type of reaction that happens when an acid reacts with a base?
Choose from:

decomposition
electrolysis
neutralisation
precipitation
answer ............................................................................................................................... [1]
(b) Look at the table. It shows the name and formula of some bases.
name of base

formula of base

ammonia

NH3

calcium hydroxide

(i)

Ca(OH)2

copper oxide

CuO

sodium oxide

Na2O

How many different elements are chemically bonded in sodium oxide?


...................................................................

(ii)

[1]

Which base has a formula with five atoms in total?


.................................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) (i)

Copper oxide reacts with dilute sulfuric acid.


It makes copper sulfate and one other product. What is
the name of the other product?
.................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii)

Copper oxide reacts with dilute nitric acid to make a salt.

What is the name of this salt?


.................................................................................................................................... [1]
(d) Copper carbonate reacts with dilute nitric acid. It makes a gas.
What is the name of this gas?
............................................................................................................................................ [1]
[Total: 6]
2

This question is about acids and bases.


(a) Look at the table. It shows the name and formula of some bases.
name of base
ammonia
calcium hydroxide

formula of base
NH3
Ca(OH)2

copper oxide

CuO

sodium oxide

Na2O

Which base has a formula with five atoms in total?


............................................................................................................................................ [1]
(b) (i) Copper oxide reacts with dilute sulfuric acid.
It makes copper sulfate and one other product.
What is the name of the other product?
.................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) Copper oxide reacts with dilute nitric acid to make a salt.
What is the name of the salt?
.................................................................................................................................... [1]
(c) Copper carbonate reacts with dilute nitric acid. It makes a gas.
What is the name of this gas?
............................................................................................................................................ [1]
(d) Calcium hydroxide contains hydroxide ions, OH.
Nitric acid contains hydrogen ions, H+.
Calcium hydroxide solution reacts with nitric acid.
This is a neutralisation reaction.
Write down the ionic equation for this neutralisation reaction.
............................................................................................................................................ [1]
[Total: 5]

Sulphuric acid is a typical strong acid.


(a) Change the equations given into a different format.
(i) Mg + H2SO4
MgSO4 + H2
Change into a word equation.
[1]
(ii) lithium oxide + sulphuric acid
Change into a symbol equation.

lithium sulphate + water


[2]

(iii) CuO + 2H +

Cu 2+ + H2O
Change the ionic equation into a symbol equation.
[2]

(iv) Na2CO3 + H2SO4


Na2SO4 + CO2 +
H2O Change into a word equation.
[1]

(b) When sulphuric acid dissolves in water, the following reaction occurs.
H2SO4 + H2O
HSO4 - + H3O +
Explain why water is behaving as a base in this reaction.
[2]

(c) Sulphuric acid is a strong acid, ethanoic acid is a weak acid.


Explain the difference between a strong acid and a weak acid.

[2]
[Total: 10]
5

Methylamine, CH3NH2, is a weak base. Its properties are similar to those of ammonia.
(a) When methylamine is dissolved in water, the following equilibrium is set up.
CH3NH2 + H2O
base
acid

CH3NH3+ + OH

(i) Suggest why the arrows are not the same length.
(ii)
Expla

in why water is stated to behave as an acid and methylamine as a base.


[1]

[2]
(b) An aqueous solution of the strong base, sodium hydroxide, is pH 12. Predict the pH of
an aqueous solution of methylamine which has the same concentration. Give a reason
for your choice of pH.

[2]

(c) Methylamine is a weak base like ammonia.


(i) Methylamine can neutralise acids.
2CH3NH2

+ H2SO4 (CH3NH3)2 SO4


methylammonium sulphate

Write the equation for the reaction between methylamine and hydrochloric acid.
Name the salt formed.

[2]
(ii) When aqueous methylamine is added to aqueous iron(II) sulphate, a green
precipitate is formed. What would you see if iron(III) chloride solution had been
used instead of iron(II) sulphate?
[1]
(iii) Suggest the name of a reagent that will displace methylamine from one of its salts,
for example methylammonium sulphate.
[1]
[Total: 9]

Oxides are classified as acidic, basic, neutral and amphoteric.


(a) Complete the table.
type of oxide

pH of solution of oxide

example

acidic

basic

neutral
[6]
(b) (i) Explain the term amphoteric.

[1]

(ii) Name two reagents that are needed to show that an oxide is amphoteric.

[2]
[Total: 9]

Jack investigates sulfuric acid by using the internet.


He finds out that the formula of sulfuric acid is H2SO4.
(a) What is the total number of atoms in one molecule of sulfuric acid?
...............................................................................................................................................[1]
(b) Jack finds out that sulfuric acid is used to clean the surface of metals.
Write down one other use of sulfuric acid.
...............................................................................................................................................[1]
(c) Jack decides to do some experiments with dilute sulfuric acid.
(i) He measures the pH of dilute sulfuric acid.
Suggest a pH value for dilute sulfuric acid.
.......................................................................................................................................[1]
(ii) Jack adds some sodium hydroxide solution to dilute sulfuric acid.
Sodium hydroxide is an alkali.
The pH value of the acid changes as the sodium hydroxide is added.
Describe and explain what happens to the pH value.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[2]
(iii) A salt is made when sodium hydroxide reacts with dilute sulfuric acid.
What is the name of this salt?
.......................................................................................................................................[1]
[Total: 6]

Jack investigates sulfuric acid by using the internet.


He finds out that the formula of sulfuric acid is H2SO4.
(a) What is the total number of atoms in one molecule of sulfuric acid?
...............................................................................................................................................[1]
(b) Jack finds out that sulfuric acid is used to clean the surface of metals.
Write down one other use of sulfuric acid.
...............................................................................................................................................[1]
(c) Jack decides to do some experiments with dilute sulfuric acid.
(i) He measures the pH of dilute sulfuric acid.

Suggest a pH value for dilute sulfuric acid.


.......................................................................................................................................[1]
(ii) Jack adds some sodium hydroxide solution to dilute sulfuric acid.
Sodium hydroxide is an alkali.
The pH value of the acid changes as the sodium hydroxide is added.
Describe and explain what happens to the pH value.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[2]
(iii) A salt is made when sodium hydroxide reacts with dilute sulfuric acid.
What is the name of this salt?
.......................................................................................................................................[1]
[Total: 6]
8

Imran researches acids using the internet.


He finds out that hydrobromic acid is a strong acid. He
also finds out that citric acid is a weak acid.
(a) Imran tests the pH value of both acids.
Both acids have the same concentration.
Finish the sentence.
Choose words from the list.
less than more
than the same as
The pH value of hydrobromic acid is the pH value of citric acid.
[1]
(b) Write down the name of another weak acid.
Choose from the list.
ethanoic acid
hydrochloric acid nitric
acid
sulfuric acid
answer ............................................................................................................................... [1]
(c) Ethanoic acid reacts with magnesium ribbon.

It makes a gas.
What is the name of this gas?
Choose from the list.
carbon dioxide
ethane hydrogen
oxygen
answer ............................................................................................................................... [1]
(d) The molar mass of hydrochloric acid, HCl, is 36.5 g / mol.
What is the molar mass of nitric acid, HNO3?
The relative atomic mass (Ar) of H is 1, of N is 14, of O is 16 and of Cl is 35.5.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................... molar
mass = .............................................. g / mol

[1] [Total:
4]

This question is about acids and bases.


(a) Look at the table. It shows the name and formula of some bases.
name of base

formula of base

ammonia
calcium hydroxide

NH3
Ca(OH)2

copper oxide

CuO

sodium oxide

Na2O

Which base has a formula with five atoms in total?


............................................................................................................................................ [1]
(b) (i) Copper oxide reacts with dilute sulfuric acid.
It makes copper sulfate and one other product.
What is the name of the other product?
.................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) Copper oxide reacts with dilute nitric acid to make a salt.
What is the name of the salt?
.................................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) Copper carbonate reacts with dilute nitric acid. It makes a gas.
What is the name of this gas?
............................................................................................................................................ [1]
(d) Calcium hydroxide contains hydroxide ions, OH.
Nitric acid contains hydrogen ions, H+.
Calcium hydroxide solution reacts with nitric acid.
This is a neutralisation reaction.
Write down the ionic equation for this neutralisation reaction.
............................................................................................................................................ [1]
[Total: 5]
2

A student collected some water from a polluted river.


The water contained soluble solids and insoluble clay and had a pH of 5.
(a) How can the student separate the clay from the rest of the river water?
[1]

(b) The student uses litmus paper to show that the river water is acidic.
What will be the result of this test?

(c) The student then boiled the river water to obtain the soluble solids.
The diagram shows how she heated the water.

Which of the substances named in the diagram is


(i) an alloy,

[1]

(ii) a compound which is liquid at room temperature,

[1]

(iii) an element,

[1]

(iv) a fuel?

[1]

(d) Name the main substance in natural gas.


[1]
(e) What is the normal temperature of boiling water?
[1]
(f) After the student boiled off the water, she analysed the white powder on the inside of the steel
can.
The table shows her results.

name of ion

formula of ion

mass of ion present


/milligrams

calcium

Ca2+

16

carbonate

CO32

35

chloride

Cl

nitrate

NO3

sodium

Na+

sulphate

SO42

(i) Which positive ion had the greatest concentration in the sample of river water?
[1]
(ii) Complete the following equation to show how a sodium ion is formed from
a sodium atom.
Na

Na+

+ ............

[1]

(g) Instead of using natural gas, the student could have used butane to heat the water.
The formula of butane is C4H10.
(i) What products are formed when butane burns in excess air?
[1]
(ii) Name the poisonous gas formed when butane undergoes incomplete