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IGCSE QUESTIONS

SET 1 (Atomic Structure)

A2 The diagram shows the nuclei of five different atoms.


key
neutron
proton

atom A
atom B
atom C
(a) Which atom has an atomic number of 3?

atom D

atom E

..................................................................................................................................... [1]
(b) Which atom has a mass number of 6?
..................................................................................................................................... [1]
(c) Which two atoms are isotopes of the same element?
..... and ......
[1]
(d) Complete the table below to show the number of sub-atomic particles in both an atom
and an ion of potassium.
potassium atom

39
19

potassium ion

39
19

K+

number of protons
number of electrons
number of neutrons

[2]
Total / 5

IGCSE QUESTIONS

SET 2 (Atomic Structure)

A3 Complete the table below to show the number of subatomic particles in each of the two ions
number of
protons

ion

number of
neutrons

number of
electrons

40

Ca2

37

Cl

[2]

IGCSE QUESTIONS

SET X (Atomic Structure)

A4 The diagram shows the atomic structure of an atom of element X.


XX
XX
electron
X

nucleus

= a proton
= a neutron
(a) Complete the table.
sub-atomic
particle

relative charge

electron

relative mass

neutron
proton

1
12

(b) Carbon-12 has the symbol 6C.


Write the symbol for an atom of element X.

[2]

...................................................................................................................................... [2]
(c) Draw a diagram to show the atomic structure of another isotope of element X.

[2]
[Total:
6]

IGCSE chemistry

SET X (Atomic Structure)

A2 The table shows the atomic structure of six particles, represented by the letters L to Q. The particles
are atoms or ions. The letters are not the symbols of the elements.
particle

electrons

protons

neutrons

12

12

12

10

12

12

10

13

14

Use the letters L to Q to answer the following questions.


(a) Which two particles are ions?
............................................................ and ..................................................................[1]
(b) Which particle is an atom of a noble gas?
......................................................................................................................................[1]
(c) Which two particles are an atom and an ion of the same element?
............................................................ and ..................................................................[1]
(d) Which two particles are isotopes of the same element?
............................................................ and ..................................................................[1]
(e) Which particle has the highest atomic mass?
......................................................................................................................................[1]
Total / 5

IGCSE chemistry
2

SET X (Atomic Structure)

(a) Complete the table which gives the names, symbols, relative masses and relative charges of the
three subatomic particles.
name

symbol

electron

e-

relative mass

proton

relative charge

1
n

0
[3]

(b) Use the information in the table to explain the following.


(i) Atoms contain charged particles but they are electrically neutral because they
have no overall charge.

[2]
(ii) Atoms can form positive ions.

[2]
(iii) Atoms of the same element can have different masses.

[2]
(iv) Scientists are certain that there are no undiscovered elements missing from the
Periodic Table from hydrogen to lawrencium.
[1] [Total:
10]
IGCSE chemistry
3

SET X (Atomic Structure)

The following is a list of the electron distributions of atoms of unknown elements.


element

electron distribution

2,5

2,8,4

2,8,8,2

2,8,18,8

2,8,18,8,1

2,8,18,18,7

(a) Choose an element from the list for each of the following descriptions.
(i) It is a noble gas.
(ii) It is a soft metal with a low density.
(iii) It can form a covalent compound with element A.
(iv) It has a giant covalent structure similar to diamond.
(v) It can form a negative ion of the type X 3-.

[5]

(b) Elements C and F can form an ionic compound.


(i) Draw a diagram that shows the formula of this compound, the charges on the ions
and the arrangement of the valency electrons around the negative ion.
Use o to represent an electron from an atom of C.
Use x to represent an electron from an atom of F.

[3]
(ii) Predict two properties of this compound.

[2]
[Total: 10]

IGCSE chemistry
2

SET X (Atomic Structure)

The table below gives the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in atoms or ions.
number of
electrons
10

number of neutrons

number of
protons
9

11

11

12

18

18

22

15

18

16

13

10

14

particle

10

symbol or
formula
19
9

(a) Complete the table. The first line is given as an example.

[6]

(b) Which atom in the table is an isotope of the atom which has the composition 11p,
11e and 14n? Give a reason for your choice.

[2]
[Total: 8]
IGCSE chemistry

SET X (Atomic Structure)

11 This question is about atoms.


(a) Look at the diagram. It shows a lithium atom.
electron

X
X X
proton

part A
neutron

(i) Part A contains protons and neutrons.


What is the name of part A?
..................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) What is the charge on an electron?
Choose from the list.

negative
neutral
positive
answer ......................................................................................................................... [1]
(iii) Which group of the Periodic Table is this element in?
Group .......................................................................................................................... [1]
(iv) The outer electron is removed.
This forms a charged particle, Li+.
What is a charged particle, such as Li+, called?
..................................................................................................................................... [1]
(b) Look at the Periodic Table on the back page.
Find the element with the symbol Na.
What is the atomic number of this element?
............................................................................................................................................. [1] [Total:
5]

IGCSE chemistry

SET X (Atomic Structure)

12 This question is about atomic structure.


Look at the diagram.
It shows the electronic structure of an atom.
X

electron

XX
XX
X

nucleus

X
X

X
X

XX
X

(a) The nucleus contains two types of particles.


What are the names of these two particles?
.................................................................. and ................................................................. [1]
(b) What is the atomic number of this element?
............................................................................................................................................ [1]
(c) Look at the diagram of the electronic structure of an atom.
An element contains atoms with this electronic structure.
(i) Which group of the Periodic Table is this element in?
.................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) Explain how you can tell that this element is in Period 3 of the Periodic Table.
...........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [1]
[Total: 4]

IGCSE chemistry
SET X (Atomic Structure)
13 This question is about atomic structure.
Look at the diagram.
It shows the structure of an atom.
XX
XX
electron

nucleus

= a proton
= a neutron
(a) What is the atomic number of this atom?
....................................................................

[1]

(b) What is the mass number of this atom?


....................................................................

[1]

(c) An element is made up of these atoms.


(i) Which group of the Periodic Table is this element in?
...................................................................

[1]

(ii) Which period of the Periodic Table is this element in?


...................................................................

[1]
[Total: 4]

IGCSE chemistry

SET X (Atomic Structure)

12 This question is about atomic structure.


Look at the diagram. It shows the structure of an atom.
XX
XX
electron

nucleus

= a proton
= a neutron
(a) What is the atomic number of this atom?
....................................................................

[1]

(b) What is the mass number of this atom?


....................................................................

[1]

(c) An element is made up of these atoms.


(i) Which group of the Periodic Table is this element in?
...................................................................

[1]

(ii) Which period of the Periodic Table is this element in?


...................................................................

[1]

(d) Finish the diagram to show an isotope of the element above.


XX
XX

= a proton
= a neutron

nucleus
[1]
TOTAL / 5

IGCSE QUESTIONS

SET X (Atomic Structure)

A4 Helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon are noble gases.


(a) State a use for argon.
......................................................................................................................................[1]
(b) Use ideas about electronic structure to explain why the noble gases are unreactive.
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................[1]
(c) Complete the table to show the number of particles in two isotopes of argon.
isotope

36

number of
protons

number of
electrons

number of
neutrons

Ar

18

40

Ar

18

[2]
(d) Explain why potassium comes after argon in the Periodic Table even though it has a relative
atomic mass which is lower than that of argon.
.......................................................................................................................................
Total / 4
IGCSE QUESTIONS

4.

SET X (Atomic Structure)

Complete the table.


Particle
65
30

Zn

Number of protons Number of neutrons Number of electrons


30

K+

20

39
19

16

16

Total 6 marks
18