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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION TO MS-EXCEL

Prepared by
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Section 1: Fundamentals of Excel


Learning Objectives:
Learn about Spreadsheets,
Commercial usage of spreadsheets, types of
spreadsheets,
features of worksheet and
Applications of spreadsheet.

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Introduct
ion
Examples of
popular
spreadsheet
softwares are
MS Excel,
Gnumeric,
7
KSpread,
ZCubes-Calci ,
Lotus
Symphony
(2007) and
Resolver One
etc.

It displays multiple cells that


together make up a grid
consisting of rows and columns,
each cell containing either
alphanumeric text or numeric
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values.

What is a Spreadsheet?
Spreadsheet
programs are
developed to
automate tasks such
as technical
calculations,
inferential statistics,
analyzing data etc.
They also have a
powerful program for
graphical preparation
of numerical data.
They are commonly
used in Production,
Planning, Personnel
Management,
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Marketing,
Payroll

A spreadsheet is a document that is


entirely made up of rows and columns. It
is used to list and analyze data.

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Spreadsheet Features
Editing and formatting Excel works
much like the tables in MS Word

Creating Charts and Graphs You


can create colorful charts and graphs
from the data in your worksheet.
Excel will automatically update the
chart to display any changes you
make in your data.

Formulas and functions


Excel allows you to
perform calculations and
analyze data. Common
calculations include:
finding the sum, average
or total number of items in
a list
=sum(B6:B23)

10
8

=AVERAGE(F4:F8)

6
4
2
0
Mon

Tue

Wed

Thu

Fri

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=count(B2:B25)

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Spreadsheet details
The Ribbon
Cell
Cell A1
(Column A ,
Row 1) is
also the
Active Cell

Columns

Rows

worksheets

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Spreadsheet details

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Spreadsheet details

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The Office
button
The Office
button is
located on the
top-left of the
window.
Clicking on the
Office button
displays a drop
down menu
containing a
number of
commands.
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The Ribbon
1. The band at the
top of the Excel
2007 window is
the Ribbon.
2. The Ribbon is
made up of
different tabs.
Each tab is
related to specific
kinds of work that
people do in
Excel.
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You click the tabs at the top of the


Ribbon to see the different
commands on each tab.

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About Workbook and


Worksheet
When you start
Excel, you open
a file that's
called a
workbook.
Each new
workbook
comes with
three
worksheets,
like pages in a
document. You
enter data into
the worksheets.
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About Workbook and


Worksheet
Each
worksheet
has a name
on its sheet
tab at the
bottom left of
the workbook
window:
Sheet1,
Sheet2, and
Sheet3. You
click each

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Columns, Rows, and Cells


When you start Excel,
you open
a file that'sare
Worksheets
called a workbook.

divided into columns, rows, and


cells. That's the grid you see when you open up a
Clickworkbook.
the MicrosoftColumns go from top to bottom on the
Office
Button at the
worksheet,
vertically. Rows go from left to right on
upper left. Then click
the worksheet, horizontally. A cell is the space
New. In the New
wherewindow,
one column and one row meet.
Workbook
click Blank
workbook.

Each column has an alphabetical heading at the


top.
first 26 columns have the letters from A
1.The
firstThe
workbook
you open
is called
through
Z. Each worksheet contains 16,384
Book1. This title
columns in all, so after Z the letters begin again in
appears in the title bar
pairs,
at the
top of AA
the through AZ.
window until you save
the
with your
workbook
After
AZ,
the letter pairs start again with columns
own title.
Information
through
Technology
BZ,Training
and so on, until all 16,384
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columns
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Columns, Rows, and Cells


When you start Excel,
you open a file that's
called a workbook.

Each row also has a heading. Row


Click the Microsoft
Office
Button at the are numbers, from 1 through
headings
upper left. Then click
1,048,576.
New.
In the New
Workbook window,
clickThe
Blank alphabetical headings on the
workbook.
columns and the numerical headings
1.The
firstthe
workbook
on
rows tell you where you are in a
you open is called
worksheet
when you click a cell. The
Book1.
This title
appears in the title bar
headings
combine to form the cell
at the
top of the
window until you save
address, also called the cell
the workbook with your
own reference.
title.
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Column, Row and Cells


1.Column headings
are indicated by
letters.
2. Row headings are
indicated by
numbers.
After the first 26
column headings (A
through Z), the next
26 column headings
are AA through AZ.
The column
headings continue
through column
XFD, for a total of
16,384 columns.
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Cells
By looking in the
Name Box, you
can see the cell
reference of the
active cell.

Column C is highlighted.
Row 5 is highlighted.
Cell C5, the active cell, is shown in
the Name Box in the upper-left
corner of the worksheet.
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Cells

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Cells

Formula: A formula identifies the calculation


needed to place the result in the cell it is
contained within. A cell containing a formula
therefore has two display components; the
formula itself and the resulting value. The
formula is normally only shown when the cell
is selected by "clicking" the mouse over a
particular cell; otherwise it contains the result
of the calculation.
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Formula
A formula assigns values to a cell or range of cells,
and typically has the format:
= Expression
Example: =sum(A2..B2)
Where the expression consists of:
values, such as 2, 9.14 or 6.67E-11;
references to other cells, such as, e.g., A1 for a
single cell or B1:B3 for a range;
arithmetic operators, such as +, -, *, /, and others;
relational operators, such as >=, <, and others;
and,
Functions, such as SUM(), AVG(), and many
others.
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Cell Reference
A cell on the same sheet is addressed as
=A1
A cell on the different sheet of the same
spreadsheet is usually addressed as
=Sheet2!A1
A cell on the another spreadsheet on the
='C:\Documents and Settings\Username\My
same
computer or
a local network could
spreadsheets\[main
sheet]Sheet1!A1
be referred as

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Spreadsheet Applications
Budgets: Electronic spreadsheets are
commonly used to develop and monitor
budgets.
Inventory Management : Many small
businesses use electronic spreadsheets to
keep track of inventory.
Portfolio Management : Electronic
spreadsheets are used to keep track of
investment portfolios.
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Spreadsheet Applications
Proposal Costing : To arrive at a final bid for a
contract, an executive must consider hundreds of
costs that affect the job, including wage rates, the
costs of raw materials, taxes and the desired level of
profits. The data related to the bid may be arranged
in the form of a spreadsheet, A complex job is
generally broken down into a series of smaller tasks,
and the costs for each task are computed separately.
The cost of the entire task is obtained by adding the
costs of the smaller tasks. The electronic spreadsheet
can be used to determine the effect on the bid if
various costs change.
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Features of MS-Excel
2007
(i)Worksheet and Graphics
(ii) Data lists and Databases
(iii) Data exchange with other
applications: Excel takes advantage of
the Windows environment. The Windows
environment especially applies to the
DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange) and OLE
(Object Linking and Embedding)
concepts within Excel and between Excel
and other Windows application.
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Features of MS-Excel
2007
iv) New File formats: Excel 2007 uses Office
Open XML as its primary file format (.xlsx), an
XML-based format that followed after a previous
XML-based format called "XML Spreadsheet"
("XMLSS"), first introduced in Excel 2002.
Although supporting and encouraging the use of
new XML-based formats as replacements, Excel
2007 remained backwards-compatible with the
traditional, binary formats. In addition, most
versions of Microsoft Excel can read CSV, DBF,
SYLK, DIF, and other legacy formats
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Features of MS-Excel
2007
The file format used by Microsoft Excel 2007
is an
XML-based format.
The new format provides less rigid standards
for its files, making documents more
accessible and easier to handle.

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Features of MS-Excel
2007
v) More rows and columns and other new
limits
MS Excel 2007 supports up to 1 million rows
and 16 thousand columns per worksheet.
Specifically, the Office Excel 2007 grid is
1,048,576 rows by 16,384 columns, which
provides user with 1,500% more rows and
6,300% more columns than user had available
in Microsoft Office Excel 2003.
To improve the performance of Excel, memory
management has been increased from 1 GB of
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memory
in Microsoft
Office Excel
2003
to ICAI
2 GB

Features of MS-Excel
2007
vi) Quick connections to external data
MS-Excel 2007 provides Quick launch to select
from a list of data sources. A connection
manager in Excel allows user to view all
connections in a workbook and makes it
easier to reuse a connection or to substitute
a connection with another one.
vii) Result Oriented User Interface
- Office button
- Ribbon
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Format

Features of MS-Excel
Extension Description
2007

Excel
Workbook

.xlsx

The default Excel 2007 workbook format. In reality a ZIP


compressed archive with a directory structure of XML text
documents. Functions as the primary replacement for the
former binary .xls format, although it does not support Excel
macros for security reasons.

Excel
Macroenabled
Workbook

.xlsm

As Excel Workbook, but with macro support.

.xlsb

As Excel Macro-enabled Workbook, but storing information in


binary form rather than XML documents for opening and
saving documents more quickly and efficiently. Intended
especially for very large documents with tens of thousands of
rows, and/or several hundreds of columns.

Excel
Binary
Workbook

Excel
Macro.xltm
enabled
Template
Excel Add.xlam
in

A template document that forms a basis for actual workbooks,


with macro support. The replacement for the old .xlt format.
Excel add-in to add extra functionality and tools. Inherent
macro support because of the file purpose.

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Section 2: Working in MS-Excel


Learning Objectives:
Creating worksheet file,
Entering data into worksheet and
Opening and saving Worksheet file

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Starting MSWhen youExcel


start
Excel you're faced
with a big empty
grid or table.
There are letters
across the top and
numbers down the
left side. And there
are tabs at the
bottom named
Sheet1, Sheet2,
and so on. These
are the Columns,
Rows, Cells, and
Worksheets you
will use in Excel.
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The Editing
group
Commands are
organized in small
related groups. For
example, commands
to edit cells are
grouped together in
the Editing group,
and commands to
work with cells are in
the Cells group.
1. The Ribbon spans
the top of Excel.
2. Related commands
on the Ribbon are
organized in
groups.

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Create a New Workbook


Click the Microsoft
Office Button at
the upper left. Then
click New. In the
New Workbook
window, click Blank
workbook.
1.The first workbook
you open is called
Book1. This title
appears in the title
bar at the top of the
window until you
save the workbook
with your own title.

2. Sheet tabs at the


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bottom
of the

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Opening a Workbook
To open an existing
workbook created in a
previous version of
Excel. Click the
Microsoft Office
Button in the upperleft corner of the
window, click Open,
select the workbook
you want, and then
click Open.
1. Click the Microsoft
Office Button to
open this menu.
2. In the menu, click
Open to open an
existing workbook.

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Opening other
Files
3. click Excel
Options at the
bottom of the
menu, to set
program options.

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Executing Commands
Excel commands can be given in one of
the following ways:
1. Choosing an option form Office button
2. Choosing an option from the Shortcut
Menu
3. Selecting a tools from the Ribbon
4. Using Shortcut key combinations

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Shortcut Menu

A shortcut menu is invoked by pressing the right


mouse button
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Keyboard Shortcuts

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Keyboard Shortcuts
Formatting keys
Alt +
Ctrl + Shift
Ctrl + Shift
Ctrl + Shift
Ctrl + Shift
Ctrl + Shift
Ctrl + Shift
Ctrl + b

+
+
+
+
+
+

Display the style dialog

~ box
$ General Num. Format
% Currency format
! Percentage format
& Comma format
_ Outline border
Remove borders
Bold

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Keyboard Shortcuts
Formatting keys
Ctrl + i
Ctrl + u
Ctrl + 9
Ctrl + Shift + 9
Ctrl + 0
Ctrl + Shift + 0
Ctrl + 1
Ctrl + 5
Shift + Space
Ctrl + Space

Italic
Underline
Hide rows
Unhide rows
Hide columns
Unhide columns
Format Dialog Box
Strike Through
Select the entire row
Select the entire
column

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Keyboard Shortcuts
Formatting
Selectkeys
the entire worksheet
Ctrl + a
Ctrl + x/c/v
Ctrl + d/r
CTRL+SHIFT+*
SHIFT+ arrow key
CTRL+SHIFT+ arrow
key
SHIFT+HOME
CTRL+SHIFT+HOME
CTRL+SHIFT+END

Cut/copy/paste
File cells down/right
Select the current region around the
active cell (the current region is an area
enclosed by blank rows and blank
columns)
Extend the selection by one cell
Extend the selection to the last
nonblank cell in the same column or row
as the active cell
Extend the selection to the beginning of
the row
Extend the selection to the beginning of
the worksheet
Extend the selection to the last cell used
on the worksheet (lower-right corner)

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Keyboard Shortcuts
Auditing keys
Ctrl + ( ~ )
Ctrl + [
Ctrl + Shift + {
Ctrl + ]
Ctrl + Shift + }
F9
Shift + F9
F2

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Toggle formula display


Selects cells directly referred to by
formulas (Precedent Cells)
Selects directly and indirectly referred to
cells
Selects only cells with formulas that
refer directly to the active cell
(Dependent Cells)
Selects all cells within formulas that
directly or indirectly refer to the active
cells
Calculate all worksheets
Calculate worksheet
Toggle cell edit mode

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Keyboard Shortcuts
Window
keys Closes workbook window
Ctrl
+ F4
Alt + F4
Ctrl + F10
Ctrl + F9
Ctrl + F5
F6
Shift + F6
Ctrl + F6
Ctrl + Tab
Shift + F11
F11
Ctrl + s
F12
Ctrl + o
Ctrl + n
Alt + F8
Alt + F11

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Closes Excel
Maximizes the workbook
Minimizes the workbook
Restore window size
Next pane
Previous pane
Next window
Next window
Inserts a new sheet
Create a Quick Chart Sheet
Saves the workbook
Saves As
Opens a workbook
Creates a new workbook
Macros Dialog Box
Visual Basic Editor
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Using Templates

A template is like a pad of preprinted paper. Every


time a template is opened a copy of the template is
created. Templates can be extremely helpful when
working with workbooks with identical formatting,
labels, formulas, and so on.
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Using Sheets in Workbook


A] Rename a Worksheet

On the Sheet tab bar, right-click the


sheet tab to rename, and then click
Rename.
Select the current name, and then type
the new name.
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Copying or Moving
Worksheet
B] Copying or Moving the Worksheet

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Using Sheets in Workbook


C] Inserting additional Worksheet
1. To quickly insert a new
worksheet at the end of the
existing worksheets, click the
Insert Worksheet tab at the
bottom of the screen.
2. To insert a new worksheet before
an existing worksheet, select
that worksheet, and then on the
Home tab, in the Cells group,
click Insert, and then click Insert
Sheet.

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Using Sheets in Workbook

D] Deleting Worksheet

On the Home tab, in the Cells group, click the arrow next
to Delete, and then click Delete Sheet.

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Entering data
The outlined cell and
the highlighted
column and row
headings make it
easier for you to see
that cell C5 is the
active cell. Also, the
cell reference of the
active cell appears in
the Name Box in the
upper-left corner of
the worksheet. By
looking in the Name
Box, you can see the
cell reference of the
active cell.

You can enter two basic


kinds of data into worksheet
cells:
numbers
text.

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Entering data
The outlined cell and
the highlighted
When you enter data, it's a good idea to
column and row
startmake
by itentering titles at the top of each
headings
easier
for you toso
seethat anyone who shares your
column
that cell C5 is the
worksheet
active
cell. Also, thecan understand what the data
cell reference
means.of the
active cell appears in
the Name Box in the
upper-left corner of
the worksheet. By
looking in the Name
Box, you can see the
cell reference of the
active cell.

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The column titles are the months of


the year.
The row titles
Board
are of
work
Studies,
types.
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Entering Date
To enter a date in column B, the Date column, you
should use a slash or a hyphen to separate the parts:
16/07/2009 or 16-July-2009. Excel will recognize this
as a date. If you need to enter a time, type the
numbers, a space, and then "a" or "p" for example,
9:00 p. If you put in just the number, Excel
recognizes a time and enters it as AM.
Tip To enter today's date, press CTRL and the
semicolon (;) together. To enter the current time,
press CTRL and SHIFT and the semicolon all at once.

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Excel aligns text on the left side of


cells, but it aligns dates on the right
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Entering Number
To enter number in column for example in the
Amount column, you would type the currency
sign (Rs), followed by the amount.
Other numbers and how to enter them
1. To enter fractions, leave a space between the whole
number and the fraction. For example, 1 1/8.
2. To enter a fraction only, enter a zero first. For
example, 0 1/4. If you enter 1/4 without the zero,
Excel will interpret the number as a date, January 4.
3. If you type (100) to indicate a negative number by
parentheses, Excel will display the number as -100.

Excel aligns numbers on the right side of cel


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Entering Text
Here are two time-savers you can use to enter data in
Excel:
AutoFill Enter the months of the year, the days of the
week, multiples of 2 or 3, or other data in a series. You
type one or more entries, and then extend the series.
AutoComplete If the first few letters you type in a cell
match an entry you've already made in that column, Excel
will fill in the remaining characters for you. Just press
ENTER when you see them added. This works for text or
for text with numbers. It does not work for numbers only,
for dates, or for times.

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Auto Fill
ACTIVE CELL

FILL HANDLE

If you have just one cell selected, if you click and drag to fill
down a column or across a row, it will copy that number or text
to each of the other cells.
Excel can also auto- fill series of dates,
times,
days of the week,
months

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Auto Fill

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Navigating in the
Worksheet
TO MOVE

PRESS KEY

Left one column

Left arrow

Right one column

Right arrow

Up one row

Up arrow

Down one row

Down arrow

To the first cell of a row

Home

To cell A1

Ctrl+Home

To the last cell containing


data

Ctrl+End

Up one window

Page Up

Down one window

Page Down

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Editing data
The outlined cell and
the highlighted
column and row
headings make it
easier for you to see
that cell C5 is the
active cell. Also, the
cell reference of the
active cell appears in
the Name Box in the
upper-left corner of
the worksheet. By
looking in the Name
Box, you can see the
cell reference of the
active cell.

The cell contents can also be


rearranged apart from being
changed or edited.
Rearranging involves
copying, moving, clearing
cells or inserting and deleting
rows.

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Copying Cells
When copying or
moving data, a
copy of that data
is placed in the
Clipboard.
To copy a range
of data, select the
range and press
Ctrl+C or click
the Copy button
in the Clipboard
from Home tab.

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Select the destination cell


and click the Paste button
in the Clipboard from Home
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tab.

Moving Cells
Moving data is
similar to
copying, except
that the data is
removed from its
original place.
To move data
choose the Cut
button from the
Clipboard from
Home tab.

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Select the destination cell


and click the Paste button
in the Clipboard from Home
tab.
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Using drag and drop


The fastest way
to copy is to drag
and drop the
data.
To do this, select
the cells to be
copied, hold down
the Ctrl key, and
drag the border of
the selected
range. On
releasing the
mouse button the
data is copied to
the
location.
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Delete Cells
Now you will see
this dialogue box.
Choose the correct
option. This will
depend on where you
want to put the new
cells.

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Saving a
When weWorkbook
open a
workbook in
Excel, by default,
the name of the
workbook is
called Book
followed by a
number (For
example,
Book2). The
workbook will
keep that name
until you save the
workbook
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Saving a
Workbook
The first time a
workbook is
saved, the user
must decide three
things:
File Location
File Name
File Type

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Saving a
Workbook
To access the
Save As dialog
box, perform one
of the following
techniques:
1. Click the
Office button,
then select Save
As
2. Click the Save
icon

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3. Press Ctrl+S on the keyboard


4. Press the F12 key on the keyboard

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Save a file in PDF


When you start Excel,
you
open created
a file that's
Files
called a workbook.

in MS-Excel can also be saved in


Portable Document Format (PDF), which is a
Click
the Microsoft
common
format for sharing documents.
Office Button at the
upper left. Then click
New. In the New
PDF is a fixed-Layout electronic file format
Workbook window,
click
Blank
that
preserves document formatting and
workbook.

enables file sharing. The PDF format ensures


1.The
workbook
thatfirstwhen
the file is viewed online or printed,
you open is called
it retains
Book1.
This title exactly the format that is intended,
appears
the title
bar in the file cannot easily be
and in
that
data
at the top of the
changed.
window
until you The
save PDF format is also useful for
the
workbook with your
documents
that will be reproduced by using
own title.
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printing
methods. Board of Studies, ICAI
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Close a Workbook
When you start Excel,
you
open a fileathat's
Closing
workbook
called a workbook.

can be achieved in two

different ways :

Click the Microsoft


Office Button at the
Click
button, then select Close.
upper
left.the
Then Office
click
New. In the New
Do not click Exit unless, of course, you want
Workbook window,
click
toBlank
close, not just the workbook but Excel too.
workbook.

You can also close the workbook by clicking


1.The
workbookX in the upper right corner of
thefirst
bottom
you open is called
the This
screen.
Please be aware that if you click
Book1.
title
appears
in theon
titletop,
bar
the X
it will close Excel.
at the top of the
window until you save
the workbook with your
own title.
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Questions
1. Rows are represented by ___
2. Columns are represented by ____
3. The ___ are where column and rows
interact.
4. ___ is a spreadsheet software.
5. The entire document created using
Excel is known as ____
6. PDF stands for ____
100hrs Information Technology Training

Board of Studies, ICAI

Answer
1. Rows are represented by Numbers
2. Columns are represented by Alphabets
3. The cells are where column and rows
interact.
4. Excel is a spreadsheet software.
5. The entire document created using
Excel is known as Workbook
6. PDF stands for Portable Document
Format.
100hrs Information Technology Training

Board of Studies, ICAI

Exercise

In this exercise, you will be


required
to
use
an
Excel
spreadsheet
to
answer
the
following questions:

1. The table shows the quarterly


expenditure of five people in a
household.

2. Load Excel application and


enter the data on a worksheet as
shown ->

3. Insert another column after


March and name it "Total" and
calculate the Total Quarterly
expenditure for each person in the
household.

4. Save the document under the


100hrs Information Technology Training

Name

Jan

Feb

March

Abdul

310.56

403.10

384.10

James

431.72

342.00

344.00

Samuel

600.00

299.18

402.17

Lydia

456.07

466.00

610.00

Tina

201.10

342.19

334.04

Board of Studies, ICAI