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Lenin

Stalin

How did the Bolsheviks stay in power? (at the start)

How Stalin triumphed in the power struggle?


A.
B.

A. Weak and divided opposition


- power of the soviets declined, unable to keep workers united
-there was no leader nor leadership
-SR and Mensheviks underestimated the Bolshevik government
-Tsars army collapsed at the front, no loyal troops
-workers and peasants distracted by their own problems
-political apathy widespread after the war
B. Terror
-Cheka was a police force, known as All Russian extraordinary commission for
combating counter revolution and sabotage
-Dzerzhinsky was the head
-given unlimited powers of arrest,trial and execution
-prominent deaths were the Tsarist family
-Cheka arrests were random, people were arrested on the basis of suspicion
-In provinces, local cheka bosses acted as petty tyrants with no court of appeal
-Cheka carried out grain requisitioning, quotas were filled although peasants were
starving
-instilled fear in everyone
C. Concessions to the people
-Sovnarkom ruled be decree to please the people
-Land Decree :
Peasants could take over estates of the gentry without compensation, Land
belonged to the entire people
-Workers Control Decree:
factory committess were given the right to control production and finance,

Lenin
supervise management
-Rights of the People of Russia decree:
Self determination given to the national minorities of former Russian Empire

Stalin

Lenin
How did the Bolsheviks consolidate their power by 1924?
A. Centralisation of power
-sovnarkom entirely made up of bolsheviks
-refused to take part in socialist coalition government and crushed the constituent
assembly
-exploited the weaknesses of the opposition e.g. closing down Kadets, newspapers
-Ban on factions 1921
-winning the civil war against the Whites
B. Ruthless methods and Red Terror
-Cheka
-class warfare
-execution of Tsar and his family
-Political repression during the NEP (censorships, show trials, GPU)
C. Pragmatic decisions to ensure survival
-Rule by Decrees
-Treaty of Brest Litovsk (Bread,Land,Peace)
-War communism
-NEP

Stalin

Lenin

Stalin

Why did the Bolsheviks win the civil war?

Terror under Stalin


Causes?
A.
B.
C.

A. Incompetence of Whites
-made up of different groups such as Tsarists, foreign troops and had no aim
-no coherent leadership
-hard to cooperate,no strategy
-relied on foreign aid which was half-hearted
-White leaders were cruel and treated their men with contempt, many soldiers
deserted
-level of indiscipline high
B. Bolsheviks strength
-Unity and organisation:
Single,unified command structure
-Trotskys leadership turned the Red army into an effective fighting force
-Trotsky disciplined the army with Tsarist officers, many inspired by his charisma
-strength in numbers compared to the Whites
C. Other factors :
-Geographical
Bolsheviks held the central area(petrograd, Moscow). They moved their capital to
Moscow, at the hub of railway network which made it easier to transport men. This
area also contained armament factoris. Central area was heavily populated,
enabled widespread conscription.
-Propaganda against Whites
-Present the Bolsheviks as the defenders of the revolution
-Anyone who supported the Whites were traitors as they contained Tsarists
-Used powerful images such as the Whites taking away lands from peasants,
foreign invaders supporting the whites and the Red offering a new society for
workers and peasants

Impact of Terror?
D.
E.

Lenin

Stalin

Lenin or Trotsky more important in winning the Civil war?

Collectivisation
Success or failure?

A. Lenin more important


-Provided overall leadership in the civil war, respected for dynamism
-inspiration for everyone, even Trotsky due to pragmatism
-It was Lenin who appointed Trotsky to his role in the war
-trotsky needed Lenins final approval for all decisions eg. enlisting ex Tsarist
officers
B. Trotsky more important
-single minded military strategist, loyal, dedicated to his profession
-reorganised the Red Army from a flabby mess to an effective task force
-Ruthless in enacting discipline
-To ensure soldiers loyalty, he held their family as hostage
-Attached a political commissar to each army unit who was to watch and report on
actions of the officers and make sure they were politically correct
-soldiers committees and election of officers ended, thus Trotsky gained a stronger
hold on the soldiers as there was no room for dissent
C. Neither more important, other factors need to be taken into consideration:
-incompetence of whites
-propaganda
-geographical advantage
-support of Reds

Cause for collectivisation?

Lenin

Stalin

War Communism (1918-1921), success or failure?

FYP
Success or failure?

Purpose of War Communism :


(Economical) The Red Army needed to be supplied with food and weapons to
help it fight the Civil War against the Whites.
(Political) The Bolsheviks were Communists. They wanted to take control of
industry and food production in Russia.

A. Success
Enabled Civil War Victory as the soldiers were thoroughly fed
Supplied food to the capital of Russia
Political success it allowed Bolsheviks to consolidate their power through the
Cheka, all revolutionary activity banned
Enabled the Bolsheviks to strengthen their Bolshevik ideology to the people
B. Failure
Created 3 year famine, as 100% of the produce was surrendered to the state
Many travelled to the countryside to barter for food
Horses disappeared from the streets to appear only as Civil War Sausage
Sanitary conditions were appalling, cannibalism rife
The middle classes were affected badly as they were the enemies thus not
allowed to work, forced to sell their belongings for food
1921, Kronsdat uprising wanted an end to war communism
C. Neither complete success nor failure, but extension of class warfare
Political success, but social failure
To lenin, War Communism was a way of expelling counter-revolutionary forces
whether they came from the left or right
Way of wiping out old bourgeoise attitudes and any lingering bourgeoise
powers
Economic Terror was essential in creating class warfare

Lenin

Stalin

New Economic Policy, success or failure?

How far had Stalin achieved his domestic aims?

A.Success
-Production levels started to increase
-Peasants were happy as grain requisitioning ceased and they could sell surplus
goods for profit
-Growth of trade led to the beneficiary of NEPMEN
-Money flowed back into the economy
-Small businesses sprouted
B. Failure
-NEP only liberalised one sector of economic policy, not in general
-Only benefitted NEPMEN and Kulaks
-By an large, the state policies were still repressive such as the creation of GPU,
show trials, tightening censorships
-This meant that the policy was not for the people but for the state
-70% of produce still had to be surrendered to the state
-no political and social liberalisation
-no social progress and freedom
-crushing of peasant revolts
-attack on churches
C. Neither complete success nor failure
Politically a failure, as the Bolsheviks saw this is a retreat to capitalism
created major conflict within the party between the lefts and the rights, hence
providing one of the basis' for the power struggle
Economically it was a success as it allowed for the rejuvenation of the
Bolsheviks economy, after the implementation of War Communism that
created famine

Lenin

Socially it was a success yet a failure, peasants were allowed to earn profits
thus increasing standard of living however it was a failure as the state
government clamped down on repressive measures and carried out random
arrests through the GPU

Stalin

Lenin
Significance of Lenin
A.Significant as a revolutionary leader
-historical icon, his name was invoked to justify policies
-magnificent theorist, adapted Marxism to suit the needs of the USSR
-as a leader, created the concept of a one party state
-initiated the October Revolution, won the Civil War
-Trotsky condeded his primacy in his biography of Lenin
-created the worlds first communist state
B. Insignificant as he was an absent revolutionary
-Many regarded him as an absent revolutionary
-When the revolution turned to defeat, he fled in 1905 and 1917
-many say that he has no contact with the regular russian people
-merely a ruthless dictator who acted out of his own interests and motives
-trotsky was much more well known and revered compared to Lenin
-trotsky was the one who won the civil war with his skills
-Revisionist historians such as Fitzpatrick and Service downed his importance as a
tyrant
C. Symbol of Russian Revolution
-he planned his philosophy of revolution and was committed to achieving his way in
success
-his success laid in creating a Marxist-Leninist revolution in 1917
-Although he was a committed to his ideals, he was also a pragmatist and
opportunist, seized the opportunity
-Whether or not he was significant, many still regard him as the ultimate icon of the
Russian Revolution

Stalin

Lenin

Stalin

Lenin

Stalin

To what extent had Lenin created a totalitarian state in Russia by 1924?

Totalitarian state created by Stalin?

A. Yes, created Totalitarian State


-He created the cheka
-He created show trials
-He initiated WAR COMMUNISM
-He initiated NEP repression
-Ban on factions
B. No, he was already in a Totalitarian System
-he did not create it as the Tsars had been ruling under totalitarianism
-circumstances had forced Lenin into taking harsh measures
-for example, to win the Civil war he had to implement War Communism
-but yet Lenin was flexible and pragmatic, he implemented the NEP to appease the
peasantry
C. Lenin created within a socialist framework only a partial totalitarian state
-compared to his predecessors and successors, he was considered libertarian
-social rules were much more relaxed, Gay marriages were legalised, divorce was
allowed
-under the NEP there was limited free trade

Lenin

Stalin

How far had Lenin established a Marxist State in Russia by 1924?

Stalinist state NOT marxist state?

A. Marxist
-ardent disciple of Karl Marx
-objective was to set up the dictatorship of the proleteriat (All power to Soviets)
-Marxism Socialism to replace Western Capitalism

B. Socialist
-Strong bolshevik socialist, endorsed command economy that ensured that
property was shared by the people
-grain requisitioning
-War communism
C. Marxist-Leninist state
-NEP
-War Communism
-pragmatic, Lenin did not follow a particular blueprint nor mould as he altered the
Marxist ideology for the USSR

Lenin
How far had Lenin created a socialist state in Russia by 1924?
A.Yes, Socialist State
-WAR Communism

B. Not socialist state but dual policy


-NEP

c. He created a partial socialist state.


-Lenin had moved partly towards creating a Socialist-style economy but had
abandoned a full-blown Socialist-style economy in March 1921 (NEP).
-It also showed that Lenin and the Communists could not pursue an economic
policy purely down ideological lines and not take circumstances into consideration.

Stalin