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Masonry Design

Definitions
________

______

________
________

________

______

_____
Excalibur Hotel, Las Vegas
28 story reinforced masonry bearing wall structure

Monadnock Building, Chicago (1891)


16 story unreinforced brick bearing wall structure;
6 ft thick walls at base

_____
_____
Introduction

Unreinforced masonry: Tensile


resistance of ______ is included in
design; resistance of any ________
______ present is neglected.
Reinforced masonry: Tensile
resistance of _______ is neglected
g
in design (except for ______).
Introduction

Reinforced Masonry

Masonry Elements
Element
Column

Length

Height

3 x thickness

> 4 x thickness

Foundation Pier 3 x thickness

4 x thickness

Pier

> 3 x thickness
6 x thickness

< 5 x length

Wall

> 3 x thickness

________: wall portion,


generally
g
yp
projecting
j
g from either
or both wall faces, serving as
vertical column and/or beam

Introduction

Introduction

Wall Types
_______: wall built of masonry arranged
to have a continuous air space (with or
without insulation) within the wall;
wythes are tied together
________: multi-wythe wall in which the
wythes are tied together so that the
combined
bi d wythes
th actt as a single
i l unit
it
__________: wall carrying vertical loads
greater than 200 lb/ft in addition to its
own weight
_______: exterior non-load-bearing wall
not wholly supported at each story
______:: exterior non-load-bearing
non load bearing wall
wholly supported at each story
______: wall having a facing of masonry
units securelyy attached to backing
g

Cavity Wall: Cross-section

__________

Cavity wall

Section through cavity


wall sample panel

_______

Composite wall
Introduction

Cavity Wall: Cross-section

Introduction

Horizontal Elements
Lintels: beams over openings
Precast Concrete
Steel
Masonry
Bond beams
Continuously reinforced horizontal element

Introduction

Introduction

Bond

Mortar Joint Types


Concave, Vee, Grapevine, or
Weathered recommended for
exterior use; compression off
mortar in tooling makes joints
more weatherproof.

MSJC Code:
__________
__________

Introduction

Introduction

Building Codes

MSJC Code Overview


Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (C pages)
Specifications for Masonry Structures (S pages)
Commentary on Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (CC pages)
Commentary on Specifications for Masonry Structures (SC pages)

Codes
Code adopted by jurisdictional body
Codes
International Building Code - 2009
Chapter 7: Fire
Fire-resistance
resistance
Chapter 14: Exterior walls
Chapter 21: Masonry
International Residential Code - 2009

1988: First edition


1995 S
1995:
Seismic
i i requirements
i
t moved
d from
f
Appendix
A
di tto main
i b
body
d off code;
d
chapter on veneers added; chapter on glass block added
1998: Major reorganization of code; prestressed masonry chapter added
2002 St
2002:
Strength
th d
design
i chapter
h t added;
dd d d
definitions
fi iti
off shear
h
walls
ll added
dd d tto
correspond to IBC definitions; code moved to a three year revision cycle
2005: Changed lap splice requirements, requiring much longer lap lengths

Codes
B ildi C
Building
Code
d R
Requirements
i
ffor M
Masonry S
Structures
TMS 402-08/ACI 530-08/ASCE 5-08
Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
ASCE 7-10
7 10
Introduction

10

2008 M
2008:
Major
j reorganization
i ti off seismic
i i requirements;
i
t added
dd d AAC masonry iin
Appendix
2011: Eliminated one-third stress increase and recalibrated allowable stresses;
added infill provisions in Appendix
11

Introduction

12

ASCE 7-10 Strength Load Combinations

ASCE 7-10 ASD Load Combinations

(1) 1.4D

(1) D

(2) 1
1.2D
2D + 1
1.6L
6L +0
+0.5(L
5(Lr or S or R)

(2) D + L

(3) 1.2D +1.6(Lr or S or R) + (L or 0.5W)

(3) D + (Lr or S or R)
(4) D + 0
0.75L
75L + 0
0.75(L
75(Lr or S or R)

(4) 1.2D + 1.0W + L + 0.5(Lr or S or R)

(5) D + (0.6W or 0.7E)

((5)) 1.2D + 1.0E +L +0.2S

(6a) D + 0
0.75L
75L + 0.75(0.6W)
0 75(0 6W) + 0
0.75(L
75(Lr or S or R)

(6) 0.9D + 1.0W

(6b) D + 0.75L + 0.75(0.7E) + 0.75S

(7) 0
0.9D
9D + 1.0E
1 0E

(7) 0
0.6D
6D + 0.6W
0 6W

Load factor on L in combinations (3), (4), and (5) is permitted to equal 0.5
for all occupancies in which Lo is less than or equal to 100 psf,
psf with the
exception of garages or areas occupied as places of public assembly.
Introduction

(8) 0.6D + 0.7E

MSJC ASD Load Combinations which allowed 1/3 stress increase have
been eliminated in 2011 version.

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Introduction

Lateral Loads

Lateral Force
Resisting System

Wind

Seismic

Vertical Spa
V
anning

__________

Wall with
Pilasters

14

Masonry Organizations

___________

Section through building

It shall be permitted to replace 0.6D with


0.9D in combination (8) for the design of
Special Reinforced Masonry Shear Walls

Organization

Web Address

Comments

Brick Industry Association

www.bia.org

Technical Notes on Brick


Construction

International Masonry
Institute

ww.imiweb.org

Masonry Bibliography,
1830-1990

Masonry Institute of America

www masonryinstitute org


www.masonryinstitute.org

Reinforced Masonry
Engineering Handbook

National Concrete Masonry


Association

www.ncma.org

Manual of Facts on
Concrete Masonry;
e-TEK notes

The Masonry Society

www.masonrysociety.org

Masonry Society Journal;


Designers Guide; Database

P tl d C
Portland
Cementt A
Association
i ti

www.portcement.org
t
t

Concrete
C
t M
Masonry
Handbook

Western States Clay Products


Association

www.brick-wscpa.org

Technical Publications on
Veneer and Structural Brick

Wall with Parapet


Introduction

15

Introduction

16