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Acoustic-Induced Vibration (AIV) Analysis


(Acoustic-Induced Excitation Analysis)

Acoustic-induced vibration can cause piping failure at pressure reducing valves, safety valves
or other pressure drop areas in a piping system. This study is recommended for gas systems
where pressure reducing valves are located. It can also be part of BETA's Piping Vibration and
Integrity Assessment (AVIFF) (per Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration
induced fatigue failure, 2008).
Contents [ hide ]

1 Background

2 Common Problem Areas

3 BETA's Design Approach

4 BETA's Field Services

5 Related Information

6 Related Services

7 Key Words

1 Background

Pressure reducing devices can generate high acoustic energy that excite the pipe shell
vibration modes. This acoustic-induced vibration (AIV) leads to fatigue failure in the process
piping or nearby small-bore connections and generates broadband sound radiation in the range
of 500 Hz to 2000 Hz.
Figure 1 illustrates piping shell modes that are excited by acoustic-induced energy. Shell
mode vibration causes small-bore piping to vibrate.

Unless controlled, AIV results in catastrophic piping failures (Figure 2).


The internal acoustic energy can also create external noise that affects operator safety (hearing
loss).

Figure 1. Example of Piping Shell


Mode due to AIV on piping

Figure 2. Example of AIV piping


failure. Source: Chemical and
Process Technology 2009

2 Common Problem Areas

AIV occurs in a compressible flow stream such as gas or two phase piping systems.
The AIV study is typically performed for:

Relief valves

Blowdown valves

Restrictive orifice plates

Pressure reducing valves

Recycling valves

Control valves

High flow rate piping

Concern over external noise levels

Small-bore connections, also called branch attachments, such as welded supports are most at
risk. The broadband excitation causes the locations to be resonant, resulting in cracking and
fatigue failure.
AIV fatigue failure may occur in a very short period of time (minutes to hours).
3 BETA's Design Approach

Sound Power Level (PWL) refers to the acoustic energy generated by flow through a pressure
reducing valve or device. The Acoustic-Induced Vibration Study (AIV design study)
calculates the PWL and determines if the piping system is sufficiently strong to resist AIV
fatigue. If necessary, changes are made to either the PWL or the piping system.
For a new project, the Engineering Company (EC) or Owner asks BETA to:

Evaluate the piping system;

Identify AIV sources and high risk areas; and

Recommend modifications to the piping system, valves or other solutions to reduce


dynamic stress levels.

There are two approaches for evaluating AIV:


1. Eisinger or D/t Method. This is approach is used to check for piping against
acoustic fatigue by comparing the Diameter/Thickness ratio to empirical design limits.
The design limits are a function of the PWL as established by Eisinger, Carucci &
Mueller, and NORSOK Standard.
2. Energy Institute Guidelines (2008). This method checks locations such as branches
and welded attachments. The PWL is calculated in a similar manner to the D/t method,
but there are some differences in how the fatigue limit is derived.

Energy Institute Guidelines

BETA can meet whichever of the above two approaches the customer prefers. Specialized
software is used to improve the quality and efficiency of the analysis, ensuring the project is
completed quickly and on budget.
For new systems such as Centrifugal Compressor Systems customers often conduct both the
Acoustic-Induced Vibration (AIV) Study and the Flow-Induced Vibration (FIV) Study to
ensure that both excitation sources are properly addressed.

FIV Study

If you are involved in the design or operation of high pressure systems, contact BETA for
application support relating to AIV and other vibration issues.

4 BETA's Field Services

Contact BETA should you suspect problems in your piping system due to AIV. Our field
engineers can provide onsite support to assist with measuring and resolving piping vibration
issues.

Figures illustrate examples of shell


mode piping vibration (longitudinal and
circumference)

5 Related Information

Vibration and Pulsation Analysis and Solutions (pdf)

Specification for ordering an AIV Study (pdf)

Contact BETA for case study examples or training seminars

6 Related Services

Acoustic Fatigue Assessment

Piping VibraTion and Integrity Assessment

Flow-Induced Vibration (FIV) Analysis

Surge Control Dynamic Analysis for Centrifugal Compressor Systems

Energy Institute Guideline (2008) Avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure in


process pipework (AVIFF)

Pipe stress analysis

Fuel Gas Compressor Piping Transient Analysis

Flow-Induced Turbulence (FIT) Analysis

7 Key Words

Acoustic-Induced Excitations