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AMITY UNIVERSITY HARYANA

Amity Education Valley, Gurgaon (Manesar)

Course Manual
Name of Institution: ASET
Programme: B.Tech
Batch 2012-2016
Subject : Cryptography and Network Security
Faculty Name: Vikas Thada
Designation: Asst.Prof

Course code: CSE 2603


Semester: 6th
Email:
vthada@ggn.amity.edu

1. Course Overview:
Network Security was always important, but has gained significance with the increase of
application of Internet associated e-commerce. Threat and compromise /Breach potentially
increased with the introduction of the end user involment,communication and networking .Thus
the course is introduced to make the student acquainted with the concepts and practices to make
the network environment secure.

2. Course Coverage:
S. No.

Month

Topics/Module to be
covered

January 2015

Module 1, 2

February 2015

Module 3

March 2015

Module 4,5

3. Learning Outcomes:
At the end of the course students will be able to:

Understand theory of fundamental cryptography, encryption and decryption


algorithms.

Learn to program and apply the encryption algorithms.


Build secure authentication systems by use of message authentication
techniques.

4. Main text

Cryptography

and Network Security: Principles and Practice by William

Stallings
Introduction to Cryptography and Network Security by Behrouz A.
Forouzan

5. Additional Texts:

A Course

in Number Theory and Cryptography by Neal Koblitz

Cryptography Theory and Practice by Doug Stinson

Cryptography & Network Security, by Atul Kahate


Introduction to Algorithns, Rivest, Kormen

6. Other readings:
Introduction to Cryptography by Johannes A. Buchmann

Applied Cryptography, Bruce Schneier

7. Web Resources:
http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E19683-01/817-2694/ipsec-ov-1/index.html :
About IP Security

https://eprint.iacr.org/2013/734.pdf :About elliptic curve cryptography


http://peace.lakeheadu.ca/cs4476/slides/chap3-2.pdf: About DES modes of
use
http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/webservices/library/ws-ssl-security/:
About secure socket layer security

8. Session Plan:
Subject: Cryptography and Network Security
Total No. of Sessions -35

Ses
sio
n
(s)
1-7

Topics and
Issues
Module 1:
Introduction
to
security
attacks,
services
and
mechanism,
Classical
encryption
techniques:
substitution ciphers
and
transposition
ciphers,
cryptanalysis,
steganography,
Stream and block
ciphers.
Modern
Block
Ciphers:
Block
ciphers
principles,
Shannons theory of
confusion
and
diffusion,
fiestal

Readings/ Cases/Assignments

Books:
William Stallings Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and
Practice,(chapter 1,2,3)
Atul Kahate, Cryptography and Network Security, (chapter 1,2,3)
Web Resource:
http://peace.lakeheadu.ca/cs4476/slides/chap3-2.pdf:About
DES modes of use

structure,
Data
encryption standard
(DES), Strength of
DES,
Idea
of
differential
cryptanalysis, block
cipher modes of
operations, Triple
DES
.

813

Module 2:
Introduction
to
group, field, finite
field of the form
GF(p),
modular
arithmetic, prime
and relative prime
numbers, Extended
Euclidean
Algorithm,
Advanced
Encryption
Standard
(AES)
encryption
and
decryption,
Fermats
and
Eulers
theorem,
Primality testing,
Chinese Remainder
theorem, Discrete
Logarithmic
Problem, Principals
of public key crypto
systems,
RSA
algorithm, security
of RSA.

Books:
William Stallings Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and
Practice(chapter 4,5,8,9)
Rivest, Cormen Introduction to Algorithm, (chapter 31)

Web Resources:
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extended_Euclidean_algorithm
2. http://www-math.ucdenver.edu/~wcherowi/courses/m5410/crt.pdf
Chinese Remainder Theorem
3. https://comeoncodeon.wordpress.com/2011/10/09/modularmultiplicative-inverse/
4. https://math.berkeley.edu/~sagrawal/su14_math55/notes_shank.pdf
Discrete Logarithm

1419

2026

2735

Module 3:
Message
Authentication
Codes: Authentication
requirements,
authentication
functions,
message
authentication code,
hash
functions,
birthday
attacks,
security
of
hash
functions,
Secure
hash algorithm (SHA)
Digital
Signatures:
Digital
Signatures,
Elgamal
Digital
Signature Techniques,
Digital
signature
standards (DSS).

Module 4:
Key Management
and distribution:
Symmetric
key
distribution,
Diffie-Hellman
Key
Exchange,
Public
key
distribution,
X.509
Certificates,
Public
key
Infrastructure.
Authentication
Applications:
Kerberos

Module 5:
IP
Security:
Architecture,

Books:
William Stallings Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and
Practice(chapter 11,12,13)
Web Resources:

1.

http://web.cse.ohio-state.edu/~lai/651/6.hash-MAC.pdf

2.

http://triton.towson.edu/~mzimand/cryptostuff/N7-Hash.pdf

3.

http://www.facweb.iitkgp.ernet.in/~sourav/lecture_note9.pdf
Birthday Attack

4.

http://x5.net/faqs/crypto/q95.html Birthday Attack

Book:
William Stallings Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and
Practices(chapter 10,14)
Web Resources:
1. http://www.math.brown.edu/~jhs/MathCrypto/SampleSections.pdf
Diffie Hellman, Elgamal and Birthday Paradox
2. https://software.intel.com/sites/manageability/AMT_Implementatio
n_and_Reference_Guide/default.htm?turl=WordDocuments
%2Fintroductiontokerberosauthentication.htm Kerberos

Book:
William Stallings Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and

Authentication
Practices(chapter 16,17,18)
header,
Encapsulating
security payloads, Web Resources:
combining security
1. https://docs.oracle.com/cd/E19683-01/817-2694/ipsec-ovassociations,
key
1/index.html IPSec Security
management.
Introduction
to
2. https://www.globalsign.eu/ssl-information-center/what-is-ssl.html
Secure
Socket
SSL
Layer,
Secure
electronic
3. http://www.cs.ucsb.edu/~koc/ns/projects/03Reports/li-wang.pdf
transaction (SET).
SET
Viruses and related
threats, Firewalls.

9. Examination Scheme:
Components

CT

HA

S/V/Q

Attendance

EE

Weightage(
%)

10

70

CT: Class Test, HA: Home Assignment, S/V/Q: Seminar/Viva/Quiz, EE: End Semester
Examination

10. Detailed Session Plan:


Module 1:
Topics: Introduction to security attacks, services and mechanism, Classical encryption techniques:
substitution ciphers and transposition ciphers, cryptanalysis, steganography, Stream and block ciphers.
Modern Block Ciphers: Block ciphers principles, Shannons theory of confusion and diffusion, fiestal
structure, Data encryption standard (DES), Strength of DES, Idea of differential cryptanalysis, block
cipher modes of operations, Triple DES

Detail about the objective

Giving an insight and basic understanding about security attacks, block and stream
ciphers, terminologies related to cryptography and its related algorithms.
Learning Outcome
After studying this module , students will be able to:
Have a understanding about cryptography & security attacks
Knows about block and stream ciphers and ciphering techniques
Have a detailed understanding about DES
Question(s) for discussion in class:
1. What is the importance of fiestal structure
2. What is meant by deciphering?
3. How many bit keys are used in S-DES algorithm.
4. What do you mean by differential cryptanalysis?
5. Define Stream Cipher?
6. How secure is DES?
7. Explain any two types of cipher techniques?
8. Explain triple DES?
9. What is the difference between a mono alphabetic and a poly alphabetic cipher?
10. Define confusion and diffusion.
11. Define (i) cryptography (ii) cryptology (ii)cryptanalysis

Module 2:
Topics : Introduction to group, field, finite field of the form GF(p), modular arithmetic, prime and
relative prime numbers, Extended Euclidean Algorithm, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) encryption
and decryption, Fermats and Eulers theorem, Primality testing, Chinese Remainder theorem, Discrete
Logarithmic Problem, Principals of public key crypto systems, RSA algorithm, security of RSA

Detail about the objective


Giving an understanding of groups, modular arithematic
Understanding gcd and inverse algorithm, Chinese remainder theorem
Gaining insight into Public key cryptosystem
Learning Outcome
After studying this module , students will be able to:

have a understanding about public key systems


How modular arithmetic is used in cryptography
Understand use of primes in cryptography
Question(s) for discussion in class:
1. What are prime and relative prime numbers ?
2. Write properties of modular arithmetic ?
3. How Euclid and extended Euclid algorithm are used in finding gcd and inverse of a number?
4. Explain Euler and Fermats theorem. How do they differ?
5. What is baby step giant step algorithm ?
6. What is RSA algorithm? explain
7. How to obtain private key in RSA ?
8. What are the principles of public key cryptosystem
9. Find gcd of 120,73 and modular multiplicative inverse using Euclid algorithm.
10. Find all possible values of x2 1 mod 144
11. An old woman goes to the market with a basket of eggs. She sets the basket down and a horse
accidentally steps on it, crushing all the eggs. The rider offers to pay her for the damaged eggs and
asks how many eggs did she have. She tells the rider that she cant remember but that when she had
taken all of the eggs out 3 at a time, there were 2 left in the basket. When she took them out 5 at a
time, there were 3 left and when she took them out 7 at a time, there were 2 left. What is the
smallest number of eggs she could have had?
12. Given p=11 q=13 and with e=9 find d the private key.
13. Using the data given in Q12 encrypt and decrypt m=7

Module 3:
Topics : Message Authentication Codes: Authentication requirements, authentication functions, message
authentication code, hash functions, birthday attacks, security of hash functions, Secure hash algorithm
(SHA) Digital Signatures: Digital Signatures, Elgamal Digital Signature Techniques, Digital signature
standards (DSS).

Detail about the objective

Giving an introduction and further deep insight into MAC and hash functions, need of
authentication , digital signature and its various methods.
Learning Outcome
After studying this module , students will be able to:
have a understanding about MAC and hash functions
know about what is authentication and digital signature
have a understanding about Elgamal DS and DSS
Question(s) for discussion in class:
1. What is the need for authentication ?
2. How cryptography and authentication can be achieved simultaneously ?
3. Define Hash function and SHA?
4. What is the difference between MAC and Hash functions?
5. What is Digital signature ? How it is different from plain signature?
6. What is the concept of digital certificate?
7. What is Elgamal Signature method ?.
8. What is digital signature standard ?
9. What are main properties of hash functions?

Module 4:
Topics : Key Management and distribution: Symmetric key distribution, Diffie-Hellman Key
Exchange, Public key distribution, X.509 Certificates, Public key Infrastructure. Authentication
Applications: Kerberos
Detail about the objective
Giving insight into management and distribution of keys; Understanding of secure
exchange of keys and authentication certificate
Learning Outcome
After studying this module , students will be able to:
have a understanding about management of keys and its distribution.
know about the basics of symmetric key distribution.
knows about X.509 certificates and PKI
knows about authentication protocol: kerberos
Question(s) for discussion in class:

1. What is man in the middle attack ?


2. How secure exchange of secret key can be achieved ?
3. What is diffie hellman protocol ? Where it is useful ?
4. What do you understand by CA in X.509 certificate?
5. How an X.509 certificate can be revoked?
6. What do you understand by link to link and end to end encryption ?
7. Users A and B use the Diffie-Hellman key exchange technique with a common prime q = 71 and
a primitive root a = 7.
a. If user A has private keyX A = 5, what is A's public key YA?
b. If user B has private keyX B = 12, what is B's public key YB?
c. What is the shared secret key?
8. Consider a Diffie-Hellman scheme with a common prime q = 11 and a primitive root a = 2.
a. Show that 2 is a primitive root of 11.
b. If user A has public keyY A = 9, what is A's private key XA?
c. If user B has public keyY B = 3, what is the shared secret key K, shared with A?

Module 5:
Topics: IP Security: Architecture, Authentication header, Encapsulating security payloads,
combining security associations, key management. Introduction to Secure Socket Layer, Secure
electronic transaction (SET). Viruses and related threats, Firewalls.
Detail about the objective
Giving an understanding about IP Security, Web Security ,detail understanding of viruses,
Firewall design principle and SET.

Learning Outcome
After studying this module , students will be able to:
have a understanding IP security and SSL.
know about the how secure transaction is achieved
Question(s) for discussion in class:
1. What is the necessity of firewalls?
2. What is meant by SSL?

3. What is meant by Firewall?


4. Give the application of IP security.
5. Give different IPSec Services.
6. List any two web security threats.
7. Why does Encapsulating Security Payload include a padding field?
8. What is the main service of secure socket layer?
9. List the various types of firewall
10. Analyze the attacks on Packet Filtering Firewall.
11. What is the purpose of dual signature in SET?