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CHEMISTRY FORM 4

CHAPTER 2 THE STRUCTURE OF AN ATOM


TIME : 830 1000 PM
2.1 Matter
1. Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass.
2. The particle theory of matter states that matter is made up of a large
number of tiny and discrete particles.
Solid
Shape and

Fixed

Volume
Manner

Vibration /
Rotation
Compression

Liquid
Fixed but follow

Gas
Far Apart from

the shape of

each other

container
Packed in Orderly Packed closely

Move in random

Manner

but not in orderly motion

Vibrate

manner
Vibrate and

Vibrate and

Cannot

rotate
Cannot be

rotate
Can be done

compressed easily easily


Try to draw arrangement for solid, liquid and gaseous atoms in the box below.
Solid

Liquid

Gases

Diffusion & Brownian Motion


1. Diffusion is a process of spreading of a substance from a region of high
concentration to a region of low concentration.

2. The rate for diffusion for solid, liquid and gases are totally different.
Compared the situation below,

Diffusion of solid After a few days

Diffusion of liquid After a few hours

Diffusion of gases After a few minutes


3. Brownian motion is the physical phenomenon that tiny particles immersed
in a fluid move about randomly.

4. Brownian motion only applied for ?


Examples of Brownian movement are
A. movement of smoke particles in air
B. movement of pollen grains in water

2.2 Atom, molecule and ions


Atoms

A. An atom is the smallest particle characterizing a chemical element.


B. An atom has no charge
C. Example of atom : Helium, Hydrogen

Molecule

A. A molecule is the smallest particle in a chemical element or compound


that has the chemical properties of that element or compound.
B. Molecules are made up of atoms that are held together by chemical
bonds.

Ions

A. An ion is an atom or molecule which has lost or gained one or more


electrons, making it positively or negatively charged.
B. A negatively charged ion, which has more electrons in its electron shells
than it has protons in its nuclei, is known as an anion.
C. A positively charged ion, which has fewer electrons than protons, is known
as a cation.

2.3 Chemical Structure of an Atom

1. Atom consists of electrons surrounding a nucleus that contains protons


and neutrons.
2. Electrons are arranged around the nucleus in energy levels or shells.
3. The mass of an atom is concentrated in nucleus which contained the
protons and neutrons.
4. The nucleus is positively charged because of the presence of protons
which are positively charged and the neutrons are neutral.

5. The atom is neutral because the number of protons and the number of
electrons are equal.

Subatomic
particles
Proton
Neutron
Electron

Symbol
P
N
e-

Relative
mass
1
1
1/1837 0

Relative
charge
0
-1

Heating and Cooling Process


Example: Naphthalene
Try to draw a curve graph of naphthalene cooling process and the set up
for this experiment.

A
Naphthalene is in solid state at any temperature below its melting point.
The particles are very closely packed together in an orderly manner.
The forces between the particles are very strong. The particles can only vibrate at a fixed
position.
A-B
As the naphthalene is heated, heat energy is converted to kinetic energy.
Kinetic energy increases and the molecules vibrate faster about their fixed positions and the
temperature increases.
B
Naphthalene is in solid state at any temperature below its melting point.
The particles are very closely packed together in an orderly manner.
The forces between the particles are very strong. The particles can only vibrate at a fixed
position.
B-C
Naphthalene exists in both solid and liquid states.
The temperature remains constant because the heat that supplied to naphthalene is used to
overcome the forces of attraction that hold the particles together.
The constant temperature is called the melting point.
The heat energy that absorbed to overcome the intermolecular forces is named as the latent
heat of fusion.
C
All the naphthalene has completely melted.
Solid naphthalene has turned into liquid.
C-D
Naphthalene is in liquid state.
As the liquid naphthalene is heated, the molecules gain more heat energy and the temperature
continues to increase.
The particles move faster and faster because their kinetic energy is increasing.
D
Naphthalene still exists in liquid state.
Naphthalene molecules have received enough energy to overcome the forces of attraction
between the particles in the liquid.
Some of the naphthalene molecules start to move freely and liquid naphthalene begin to
change into gashave received enough energy to overcome the forces of attraction between the
particles in the liquid. Some of the naphthalene molecules start to move freely and liquid
naphthalene begin to change into gas
D-E
Naphthalene exists in both liquid and gaseous states.
The temperature remains unchanged.
The is because the heat energy absorbed is used to overcome the intermolecular forces
between the particles of the liquid rather than increase the temperature of the liquid.

This constant temperature is the boiling point.


E
All the naphthalene has turn into gas.

E-F
The gas particles continue to absorb more energy and move faster.
The temperature increases as heating continues.

The substance exists as both liquid and solid.


The temperature remains constant until all the liquid changes to solid.
This is because the energy released is the same as the energy lost to the surroundings during
cooling.
This constant temperature is the freezing point.
The heat energy that releases during this freezing process is called the latent heat of fusion.
T
All the liquid freezes into solid. The particles are now closely packed in an orderly manner.
T-U
Once all the liquid has become solid, the temperature falls once again until it reaches room
temperature. The substance is in the solid state here.
U
The substance reaches room temperature and remain at this temperature as long as the room
temperature remain the same.

SUPERCOOLING

This happens when cooling of naphthalene is conducting. The temperature of the


naphthalene drops rapidly to a lower temperature and then raised back to a

higher temperature.
Why this is happen?
1. No even heating.
2. Without stirring uniformly.
3. The cooling is not uniform.

2.4 ISOTOPE
The isotopes of an element have the same number of protons but different
neutron number due to different numbers of neutrons. In an atom in the neutral
state, the number of electrons also equals the number of protons.
For example, the carbon-13 and carbon-14
The carbon-13 have 6 electrons (6 protons) and have 7 neutrons.
The carbon-14 have 6 electrons (6 protons) and have 8 neutrons.

Isotope

Use

Carbon14

radiometric dating: determination of age of carbon-containing


artefacts up to about 70,000 years
Naturally occurring radioisotope

Chlorine- measurement of sources of chloride and determining the age of


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water up to about 2 million years old
Naturally occurring radioisotope
Sodium24

location of leaks in water pipes, studies of body electrolytes


Isotope prepared in a nuclear reactor

Cobalt-60 cancer treatment as tumour cells tend to be more susceptible to


radiation than other cells
Iodine131

Medical tracer to study & treat the thyroid gland & used in the
diagnosis of adrenal medullary & for imaging suspected neural crest
and other endocrine tumours
Isotope prepared in a nuclear reactor