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Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are networks of autonomous nodes used for monitoring an
environment. Developers of WSNs face challenges that arise from network coverage constraints. Particle swarm
optimization (PSO) is a simple, effective and computationally efficient optimization algorithm. This paper
improves the unreasonable distribution of the random deployment of sensor nodes, and to improve network
coverage, with network coverage as the optimization objective, we propose a variant of Quantum behaved
Particle Swarm Optimization, for avoiding global optimization problem, to avoid local optima and to improve
the convergence speed.


Particle Swarm Optimization, Quantum behavior, Wireless Sensor Networks


Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a technique used to explore the search space of a given problem
to find the settings or parameters required to maximize a particular objective. This technique, first described by
James Kennedy and Russell C. Eberhart in 1995 [1], originates from two separate concepts: the idea of swarm
intelligence based off the observation of swarming habits by certain kinds of animals (such as birds and fish);
and the field of evolutionary computation.

Quantum computing is a new theory which has emerged as a result of merging computer science and
quantum mechanics. Its main goal is to investigate all the possibilities a computer could have if it followed the
laws of quantum mechanics. The origin of quantum computing goes back to the early 80 when Richard
Feynman observed that some quantum mechanical effects cannot be efficiently simulated on a computer. During

the last decade, quantum computing has attracted widespread interest and has induced intensive investigations
and researches since it appears more powerful than its classical counterpart.

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is made up of abundant cheap micro-sensor nodes deployed
in the monitoring area, which achieves the task of target monitoring and information acquisition through
wireless communication. Measuring network coverage can understand network coverage status of the
monitoring area, re-adjust sensor node distribution or guide how to effectively add sensor nodes in the future, to
ensure the reliability of measured data, reduce resource waste, and extend network lifetime.

In recent years, researchers have made extensive research in the aspect of WSN coverage control;
reference [2] proposed a wireless sensor network coverage particle swarm optimization method; reference [3]
proposed a genetic algorithm based wireless sensor network coverage control optimization strategy; reference
[4] proposed an ant colony algorithm based underground wireless sensor network node localization method.
These algorithms can increase coverage, but are easy to fall into "premature" phenomenon in space search,
affecting coverage optimization.

Therefore, using the particle swarm optimization and quantum computing, we propose a quantum
behaved particle swarm optimization, and applies it to wireless sensor network coverage optimization.


Assuming in a planar monitoring area Z2 = {(x,y),0 x a,0 y a}, randomly sowing n sensor nodes,
the set of node = (T1,T2, ,Tk, ,Tn); sensor node Tks position PTk = (xk,yk), and effective sensing radius is r,
i.e., the coverage model of each node is a circle with node coordinates as the center and r as radius; target
position P = (x,y), and the distance between target and node Tk is d(PTk,P) = p((xk x)2 + (yk y)2). In practice,
because of the interference of monitoring environment and noise, sensor node perceptual model is a certain
probability exponential distribution, i.e., the coverage Cxy(Tk) of node PTk to target P is:

Cxy(Tk) =


if r + r e d(PTk,P)

e ,

if r re d(PTk,P) r + re


if r re > d(PTk,P)

Where, re(re < r) is sensor error range, = d(PTk,P)+rer,, are Ps probability coefficients in Tks re
range. Assuming each node is independent, the joint coverage of target p by node Tk,Th is:
Cxy(Tk,Th) = 1 (1 Cxy(Tk))(1 Cxy(Th))

Extended to the joint detection of n nodes, the coverage of target P is:

Cxy(T) = 1 Y (1 Cxy(Tk))
Define cth as the minimum threshold of the coverage of each target point, i.e.:
min{Cxy(T)} cth
To effectively evaluate the performance of network coverage, the test region is divided into a m n grid,
and the cells are simplified as pixels. In this article, network coverage is defined as the ratio of the number of
cells satisfying (4) to the total number of cells, i.e.:



As a variant of PSO, QPSO was proposed in 2004, inspired by quantum mechanics and fundamental
theory of particle swarm. QPSO is characterized by good search ability and fast convergence. According to
uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics, the velocity and position of a particle in quantum world cannot be
determined simultaneously. Thus, QPSO is different from standard PSO mainly in that the exact values of
position and velocity are uncertain.

In the quantum model of a PSO, the state of a particle is depicted by wavefunctionY(x, t) , instead of
position and velocity. The dynamic behavior of the particle is widely divergent from that of the particle in
traditional PSO systems.

The particles move according to the following iterative equations

x(t +1) = p +b * |mbest x(t)| *ln(1/ u) ,if k 0.5
x(t +1) = p b * |mbest x(t)| *ln(1/ u) ,if k < 0.5

p (c1 pid + c2Pgd ) /(c1 c2 )

Flow of QPSO Algorithm:

Initialize the swarm

Calculate mean best for all particles
Update particle position
Update Pbest
Update Gbest
While maximum iteration is reached

The QPSO algorithm is superior to the standard PSO mainly in three aspects as follows. Firstly, quantum
theory is an uncertain system. More different states of the particles and a wider searching space of the algorithm
can be generated in this system. Secondly, the introduction of mbest into QPSO is another improvement. In the
standard PSO, PSO converges fast, but sometimes the fast convergence happens in the first few iterations and
replaces into a local optimal situation easily. While QPSO with mbest introduced, the convergence to average
error is lower, because each particle cannot converge fast without considering its colleagues, which makes the
frequency of falling into lower than PSO. Falling into local means that an algorithm gets converged into local
and fails to get a best solution. Lastly, QPSO has fewer parameters than standard PSO, and it is much easier to
program and run it. Hence the performance of the algorithm is significantly improved by QPSO.


1. Kennedy J, Eberhart R C. Particle swarm optimization. In Proceedings of IEEE International

Conference on Neural Network, pages 1942 1948, 1995.

2. ZHANG Lun, LU Dan, DONG Decun, CHEN Lan. A Wireless Sensor Network Coverage Particle
Swarm Optimization. Journal of Tongji University (Natural Science Edition), 37 (2): 262 266,

3. QU Wei, WANG Jinkuan, ZHAO Xu, LIU Zhigang. Genetic Algorithm Based Wireless Sensor
Network Coverage Control Optimization Strategy. Systems Engineering and Electronics, 32 (11):
2476 2479, 2010.

4. LIANG Meiyu, LI Li, CHEN Kun. Ant Colony Algorithm Based Underground Wireless Sensor
Network Node Localization Research. Mining Machinery, 31 (12): 48 50, 2010.

5. Hui SUN, Jai ZHAO, Application of Particle Sharing Particle Swarm Frog Leaping Hybrid Optimization
Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Network Coverage Optimization.