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Anwendungen von FVW (Teil1)

Christof Kindervater
Vorlesung WS 2007/2008
DLR Stuttgart, Institut fr Bauweisen- und
Konstruktionsforschung

Kindervater FKV_2007_2008_Applications

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Polymer Composite Applications


Aeronautics
- sailplanes
- man powered light aircraft, ultra-lights
- light single engine aircraft
- propellers
- military aircraft
- transport civil aircraft
- helicopters
Space applications
- antennas
- satellite structures
- pressure vessels
- parabolic antennas
- platforms for optical equipment and
measurement set ups
Energy technology
- wind turbine rotor blades
- wind tunnel fans

Kindervater FKV_2007_2008_Applications

Sporting equipment
Ship building

Vehicle Technology
- cars, trucks, racing cars, motorbikes
- trains
Civil engineering

Medicine technology
Mechanical engineering,
plants/facilities
Electro technical applications,
electronics
Other applications

Applications-1: 2

Aeronautical composite applications


General
-

topics

wide applications of polymer composites

- advantages compared to metals:


> weight reduction due to high specific strength and stiffness
> less weight results in higher performance and lower
operational costs
> less single parts due to integral design which results in less
assemblage costs
> longer life time due to high fatigue performance
> realisation of high quality aerodynamic surfaces
- structural design comprise monolithic stringer stiffened and
sandwich shells and
panels, sandwich design with foam cores and paper or
aluminium honeycombs

Kindervater FKV_2007_2008_Applications

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Aeronautical composite applications


Sailplanes

series application since 1957

use of glass, carbon and aramid fibres and fabrics

application of epoxy matrices

hand lay-up manufacturing

use of vacuum assisted resin infusion and low pressure


prepregs are increasing

high design flexibility

German sailplane manufactures provide 90% of the


world production

Kindervater FKV_2007_2008_Applications

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High performance sail planes

Phnix Akaflieg Stuttgart (1954)

FS-29 Akaflieg Stuttgart 1976

First composite sailplane in series


production

CFRP telescope wing 13 - 19 m

glass fibre/balsa sandwich

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High performance sailplanes and ultra-lights

Musculair 1

Nimbus 4 Schempp/Hirth
1994 (CFRP/GFRP)

Spannweite: ca. 20 m
Leergewicht: ca. 28 kg
Zuladung: ca. 84 kg

wing span: 26 m, empty weight: 470 kg


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Aeronautical composite applications contd


Man powered ultra-light aircraft

realisation of extreme light designs, especially CFRP and aramid


fibres and fabrics

Single engine light aircraft and commuter type aircraft

applications of composites in series production since 10 years


high aerodynamic quality comparable to sailplanes
use of GFRP and CFRP in primary structures, aramid fabrics in
secondary structures like fairings

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Light single engine aircraft

BL 11-KEA (Bernd and Lucia Hinz)

FFT SC 01 B-160 Speed Canard

design GFRP sandwich (foam core)


rudder: CFRP-Nomex

wing span: 8 m (10,7 m), one spar,


GFRP/CFRP-sandwich

wing span: 10 m (12m)

Fuselage: 7,12 m, GFRP monolithic shell

fuselage: 6.75 m

empty weight: 630 kg, MTO: 820

empty weight: 440 kg/MTOW:720kg

Vcr: 343 km/h

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Icar 2 - solar powered motor glider


Winner of Berblinger Award of the City of Ulm 1996

Designed and fabricated by the Aeronautical faculty


of the University of Stuttgart
wing span 25 m (25,7 m2), carbon and carbon foam
sandwich laminates
MTOW: 360 kg
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Solar Impulse
Ultraleichte Struktur
Spannweite: 80 m
Ultra dnne und flexible Solarzellen
-60C - +80C
UV resistent
Flughhe: 12.000 m
Weltumrundung: 1 Stop auf jedem
Kontinent

Title: SOLAR IMPULSE


Description: Solar airplane
Copyright SOLAR IMPULSE/EPFL
Artist: Claudio Leonardi

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Die Brennstoffzelle hebt ab HyFish


Spannweite 1,5 m
Vcruise: 200 -300 km/h
Flughhe: bis 7000 m
Anwendung: UAV, Atmosphrenforschung

Brennstoffzelle

Sauerstofftank
Wasserstofftank
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Quelle: DLR, SmartFish GmbH


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High performance single engine aircraft flying at high altitudes

Grob/E-Systems D 500

D 500 fuselage manufacturing

wing span: 33 m (40,5 m),


GFRP/CFRP laminates/sandwich

mould in two part divided along the


x-axis

fuselage: 12 m
MTOW: 4200 kg
Vcr: 300 km/h
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Aeronautical composite applications contd

Military aircraft

major use of carbon fibre UD-prepregs in autoclave technique


with stepwise vacuum consolidation
thermoplastic matrices ( PEEK, PEI, PES) and manufacturing
technologies under consideration
80% of outer composite surfaces, 45% of total weight
tooling and moulds in CFRP sandwich and monolithic designs

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Alpha Jet - Horizontal stabiliser

Development/manufacturing:
Fa. Dornier/DLR Stuttgart (1980)
CFRP-Prepreg, autoclave in-situ
manufacturing of skins and ribs

mass: metal: 62 kg, CFRP: 53kg


single parts: metal: 215, CFRP:80
fasteners: metal: 5000, CFRP: 1200

cost reduction: 7,5 %


mass reduction: 14%
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CFRP-mould and C-scan inspection for Eurofighter fuselage shell

CFRP-Mould
provides thermal compatibility of
CFRP shell and mould

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C-scan of CFRP fuselage upper


shell
detects voids and delaminations
which could have occurred during
autoclave manufacturing
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Aeronautical composite applications contd


Civil transport aircraft

dual use from military applications


autoclave technique is the standard manufacturing technology
using GFRP
and CFRP tapes and fabric (lower cost) prepregs
automation by tape-laying, mechanical finishing and ultrasonic
scanning
Use of textile pre-forms and resin infusion techniques will
increase
primary structures: horizontal and vertical stabiliser in stringer
stiffened monolithic shells/panels and frames
composite wing and fuselage under development
secondary structure: flaps, spoiler, fairings, engine cowlings,
radar domes, interior panels in Nomex core sandwich with fire
resistant resins

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History of CFRP Applications at Airbus

Quelle: Airbus/Breuer
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A300/310 vertical CFRP-stabilizer

production since 1985


total height: 12 m

Mass:

Al: 640 kg, CFRP: 508kg (-20%)

single elements: Al; 2072, CFRP: 96

two stringer stiffened


shells are assembled via
spars
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A300/310 vertical CFRP stabiliser - design and manufacturing principle

Half shell of vertical stabiliser


Manufacturing steps: - tape lay up of outer shell - tape winding
around rib moulds - autoclave curing - de-moulding
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American Airlines Flight 587, Belle Harbour, NY, 12th Nov. 2001

Vertical stabilizer (tail fin) attachment point

Right side forward and center attachment points

One center and two aft attachment points

One of the forward attachment points


Left forward attachment point

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Forward attachment points of fin (attached to empenage)

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Airbus CFRP applications


CFRP
AFRP or GFRP

Source: EADS Airbus


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Composite material distribution

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Source: EADS Airbus

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Share of structural materials

Source: EADS Airbus


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Weight saving through composite application

Source: EADS Airbus

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New Components for A380

Floor Beams
for Upper Deck

GLARE

Vertical
Tail Plane

Section 19.1

Outer Flaps

J-Nose
Horizontal
Tail Plane
Section 19
Wing Ribs
Center Wing Box

Rear Pressure
Bulkhead

Belly Fairing
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Source: Airbus Deutschland GmbH

Boeing 787 Dreamliner

CFK-Rumpfsektion (Barrel)
Rohbau
CFK-Tragflgel

CFK-Rumpf
CFK-Anteil Struktur: ca. 50%

CFK-Cockpitbereich
Fertiges Bauteil
Quelle: Boeing.com

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Gondelkonzept ein CFK-Rumpf in neuer Bauweise


-Gesamtkonzeption-

CFK-Rumpf in neuer Bauweise:


separat ausgefhrter druckbelfteter
Passagierraum (1) mit Unterschale
(2), mittragenden Fubodenplatten
(3)und mittragenden Sitzschienen (4)
(nicht) mittragender und (nicht)
druckbelfteter Frachtraum (5) als
ausgeprgte
Opferstruktur
hinsichtlich
Crash/Impact
inkl.
plastische Gelenke (6), Crashrohre
(7), Zugbnder (8) undImpactschutzAuenschale(9)

2
7

6
8

5
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Gondelkonzept ein CFK-Rumpf in neuer Bauweise


- Demonstrator: Schalenkonzepte in Nasstechnolgie 3

6
Passagierraum
integral gefertigtes
Sandwich inSLI-Verfahren
Aufbau: Detektorschicht (1), Schaum (2),
auenliegende Stringer (3), tragende
Innenhaut(4),innenliegendeSpanten(5)
Verbindungstechnik - Bolzenverbindung
durch
ununterbrochene
Verbindungslaschen (6) aus HybridComposite CFK/Titan

4
6
5
8

Frachtraum - integral gefertigtes Sandwich


mitHybridkern imVARI-Verfahren
Aufbau: innen NOMEX-Wabe (7), auen
PEI-Schaum (8) mit PBO-Fangschicht im
Decklaminat (9),Innenhaut(10)

9
10
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HGF - Project Schwarzer Rumpf

CFK-Rumpf Demonstrator (ILA 2002/Berlin)

Gondel

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Project Schwarzer Rumpf Gondola concept

Energy absorber

Tension strap

Plastic
hinges

crash
bulkheads

Impact&fire resistant shell


Rumpfkontur: Dr. Kolesnikov (DLR; SM-BS)

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Protective
shell:
Impact&fire
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Untersuchung eines Crashspants (Schwarzer Rumpf)


HGF - Projekt Schwarzer Rumpf

Crashtest und numerische Simulation


Fallmasse: 200 kg
Aufprallgeschwindigkeit: 8 m/s

Film des Crashtests im BK-Fallprfstand


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Ca. 7500 Finite Elemente


Randbedingungen entspr. Testumgebung
Spezielle Interfaces fr Spantablsung

Vergleich Test und Simulation


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A310 and A320 water tanks

A320 waste water tank


filament winding with carbon or aramid
fibres
A310 fresh water tank in
differential design
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Do328 composite application in the rear fuselage and empennage


structure

Total: -30% Gewicht


Source: Flemming, Ziegmann, Roth

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CFK im Triebwerk: Fan-Schaufel; Verstellring

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Aeronautical composite applications contd


Helicopters

Wide use of composites in airframes, innovative adaptive rotor


systems and rotor blades, crash energy absorption management
use of GFRP, CFRP and aramid fibres (UD- tapes and fabrics)
Monolithic frames and sandwich shells and panels
manufacturing in autoclave technique, hand-lay-up, RTM, resin
infusion

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Helicopter composite applications

BK117 composite airframe

EC135 main rotor system

CFRP and CFRP/aramid nomex


sandwich in autoclave technique

design without mechanical


hinges

monolithic CFRP frames


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NH90 and Tiger composite applications


NH90 composite
applications
airframe in CFRP and
AFK Nomex, AFK/CFRP
hybrid laminates
rotor systems in CFRP
and GFRP

Tiger antitank helicopter


airframe in CFRP and
AFK Nomex
rotor systems with
CFRP and GFRP

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Helicopter crashworthiness CW
- system design aspects -

CW
Crew/Troop
Seats

CW landing
gear

CW Airframe

CW Fuel system
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NH90 airframe crash components


Objectives:
development and validation of EA
structural concepts
component crash tests
validation of simulation methods
generation of input data for KRASH

Sub-structures and components:


floor beams - sandwich concepts
structural intersections
sub-floor-box with fuel tank
complete frame 6

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Tiger Cockpit sub-floor sine wave beam

EA sine wave beam


carbon/aramid hybrid
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Tensor skin concept

Tensor skin
design

Corrugated core: Dyneema fabric

Picture frame shear test


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Panel impact test


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Design Concept for Composite Demonstrator (1)


Final Design of Composite Demonstrator

Carbon/ Aramid
Crush cones
CFRP beam

Aluminium
angle
Triggered lower rib
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Trolley
attachments
Sandwich skin
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Design Concept for Composite Demonstrator (2)


Sandwich Skin Concept

Carbon

Rohacell core

AVI

Aramid

Design of sandwich skin edge

Evaluation in static test (IAI)


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Dynamic evaluation at 1 m/s (DLR)


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Final Simulation of Water Impact

Non-linear material properties for aluminium


Composite damage law: degenerated bi-phase model
SPH water model: Same as for full-scale helicopter simulation (MAT 7)
Separation of sandwich layer

AVI

Crushing Sequences (60ms) with z-Velocity


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Bird Impact
Composite sandwich shell with tensor core

Composite LE after quasi-static test (NLR)

Composite leading edge with energy absorbing tensor skin core


Dyneema/epoxy (HPPE) tensor skin unfolds to absorb impact energy
Simulation tools under development to support design and certification
Figure shows FE simulation of quasi-static indentation test
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Detail of tensor skin geometry


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NH90 Nose Landing Gear Crashtube


Partner: Liebherr Aerospace

Limit load: 110 kN; stroke: 190 mm


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Composite Airframe Crash Structures


(EU project CRASURV/FW4)
Airliner structure
mass: 433 kg, E0: 10,6 kJ

Commuter structure
mass: 719 kg, E0: 19 kJ

Impact velocity:
7 m/s

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Composite Propellers
application of glass and carbon hybrids

with high performance epoxy matrix


share of glass and carbon in hybrids
controls the torsion frequency of the
propeller blade
less weight and high design flexibility
high fatigue performance regarding the
high vibration loading
environmental resistance (sand, oil, salt
water)
good impact resistance (hybrids!) and
damage tolerance
Propeller for regional aircraft SAAB 2000
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low repair cost

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Composite space applications

structures, antennas, and mirrors with low or zero thermal


expansion under changing sun radiation conditions

very stiff and extreme light structures (ultra high modulus


(UHM) graphite fibres)

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CFRP antenna structure for space applications


CFRP tubes with rovings, fabrics or
braidings and epoxy matrix
filament winding, fabric winding on
mandrel, pultrusion
major advantages:
- less weight
- very stiff with UHM graphite fibres
- high Eigenfrequency provides good
positioning accuracy
- no thermal strains or deformations

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CFRP Satellite Central Tubes and Adapters

Spacebus Central Tube (Saab)

Spacebus 4000:
Automated fibre
placement

Launch Vehicle Adapter


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