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Current trends in vocabulary studies

Conference Handbook
Wednesday 18 Friday 20 December 2013
Rutherford House,
Victoria University of Wellington,
New Zealand


Thank you to our Sponsors

Kia ora, gidday, and a very warm welcome to Vocab@Vic!

Many thanks to the following organisations for their generous support of our conference. We encourage all delegates to
support them, now and in the future.

We are very glad you could join us for this special pre-Christmas conference here at Victoria University of Wellington.
Were looking forward to three full days of time together to talk about all kinds of vocabulary research and pedagogy,
amongst other things.
If you are a visitor to our capital city, we hope you take some time to look around Wellington. Ask us if youd like some
suggestions on things to do and see here that you might not be able to do anywhere else. It wouldnt be an Aotearoa/
New Zealand experience without a walk by the water, an ice cream or two, fish and chips, some good wine and beer,
and other local delights. A little tip from us about Wellington leave your umbrella at home.

Conference Partner

Were grateful for the support of our sponsors. We couldnt have had the conference without Paardekooper and
Thanks again for making this first Vocab@Vic conference come to life.
The Vocab@Vic Conference Planning Committee

Major Sponsors
Vocab@Vic 2013 Conference Planning Committee


Te Whanga Aronui

Back row: Averil Coxhead, Anna Siyanova, Stuart Webb, Peter Gu, Irina Elgort
Front row: Paul Nation, Frank Boers




General Conference Information

Conference Events

Conference Venue


Mihi Whakatau and Welcome

Conference Dinner

Rutherford House, Pipitea Campus, Victoria University

of Wellington, Cnr Bunny Street and Lambton Quay,
Wellington, New Zealand.

A message board will be located by the registration desk.

Check this board regularly for messages, as there is no
paging system at the conference.

Thursday 19 December, 4:15pm 9:15pm

Entry is by ticket only

Conference Rooms

Mobile phones

Professor Piri Sciascia, Pro Vice Chancellor (Maori),

Victoria University of Wellington, will give a mihi
whakatau (an informal speech in Te Reo Maori),
welcoming guests on the morning of the first day and
wishing the conference well, followed by an opening
speech from Professor Neil Quigley, Deputy Vice
Chancellor (Research), Victoria University of Wellington.

Conference sessions will be held in Lecture Theatres

RHLT2 and RHLT3, located on the ground floor of
Rutherford House.

Registration Desk
The registration desk will be located on the mezzanine
floor of Rutherford House, and will remain open
throughout the conference. Feel free to ask us any
questions about the programme, social events, venue or
other information.

Conference Organiser

Please be considerate to other conference delegates and

speakers by turning mobile phones off during sessions.

Parking at the venue

There is limited street car parking on the streets
surrounding the conference venue. These have a 2 hour
time-limit at a rate of $4 per hour. All day car parking
buildings closest to the venue are provided by Wilson

Opening and welcome reception

Wednesday 18 December, 5:40pm 7:00pm
Join us to celebrate the opening of Vocab@Vic 2013.
After a short overview of the conference from the
planning committee, well move on to the nibbles and
refreshments in the Trade Exhibition area.
Sponsored by

Taxis & Shuttles

Wellington Combined Taxis
+64 4 384 4444
Co-op shuttles
+64 4 387 8787


Te Whanga Aronui

Name badges



Name badges should be worn at all times for entry into

conference sessions, the trade exhibition and social

Complimentary WiFi tokens are available at the

registration desk.

Below are the contact details for the official conference

accommodation providers.

Poster Sessions

Rydges Wellington
75 Featherston Street
T: +64 4 499 8686

Bags and coats can be stored at the registration desk
during the conference. Although this area is staffed at all
times, items are left at your own risk.

All morning teas, lunches and afternoon teas will be held
in the mezzanine floor, amongst the trade exhibition. If
you indicated on your registration form that you have
a special dietary requirement, please liaise with the
registration desk regarding the collection of meals.


Posters will be on display throughout the conference in

the trade area on the mezzanine floor. Presenters will be
available to discuss their posters during lunch break on
Thursday 19 December.

Join us for a fabulous evening at Boomrock, a lodge

which is situated on 8kms of stunning coastline.
Boomrock sits high above the Tasman Sea and is
surrounded by 3,000 acres of farmland. Boomrock is
named for the sound of the waves thundering against
the 250-metre cliffs and the echo back out across the
expansive sea.
If you have registered to attend the dinner, your ticket
will be located behind your name badge. A ticket to the
dinner includes pre-dinner drinks and nibbles, a three
course meal, a few refreshments, and transport to and
from the conference dinner venue. There will be a cash
bar with EFTPOS facilities.
Ticket in hand, meet outside the front of Rutherford
House at 4:15pm. We will go by bus directly to Boomrock.
At the conclusion of the dinner, buses will return
you to the following hotels: Rydges, Ibis Wellington,
InterContinental and Downtown Backpackers. Buses will
depart from Boomrock at 8:30pm.
If you havent purchased a ticket to the Conference
Dinner and would like to attend, please check with the
registration desk for availability. If you do not have a
ticket, you will not be able to board the bus.

Ibis Wellington
153 Featherston Street
T: +64 4 496 1880
Intercontinental Hotel
2 Grey Street
T: +64 4 472 2722
Downtown Backpackers
1 Bunny Street
T: +64 4 473 8482



Stand 2 - Compass Media

Compass Media is a global leader in ELT publishing with a network of educators, distributors, and fans in over 50
countries. We provide a full list of products including vocabulary material, course books, skill books, readers, test prep,
and more. With a focus on the future, weve developed innovative e-learning solutions designed to enrich products
and prepare for new 21st-century classrooms. Todays educators use Compass to find direction in English education!

We are pleased to support Vocab@Vic and the work of educators in New Zealand and around the world.

Connect with us!:

Twitter: @CompassELT Facebook:

Stand 3 - Ako Aotearoa

Champions of tertiary teaching and learning in Aotearoa, New Zealand

Our vision is the best possible educational outcomes for all learners. Our work towards this vision focuses on building
strong and collaborative relationships with tertiary organisations, practitioners and learner representatives to enhance
the effectiveness of tertiary teaching and learning.

Strategic initiatives that support our vision our work with the sector involves; providing high quality, evidencebased professional development, strategic forums, funding teaching and learning projects, managing national Tertiary
Teaching Excellence Awards, and much more.

See our advert in this handbook for more information about our strategic initiatives, or visit:



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Sheppard, C.
Vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension: A meta-analysis
Opportunity to move to the other room
Zhong, H.F.
Aizawa, K. & Iso, T.
The dynamic interface between receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge
Better predictor of reading comprehension: Lexical coverage or vocabulary size?
Opportunity to move to the other room
Sugino, N., Fraser, S. & Aoani, N.
Quero, B.
Capturing and representing asymmetries in Japanese EFL learners mental lexicon
Lexical text coverage of medical texts written in English
Opportunity to move to the other room
Akbari, N,
Dang, Y. & Webb, S.
Comparing the trends of development in L2 and L1 mental lexicon, associations, vocabulary size, and reaction time
The lexical profile of academic spoken English
Lunch, Mezzanine Floor
Hulstijn, J.
The notion of shared vocabulary: Size and theoretical relevance
Opportunity to move to the other room
Racine, J.
Qian, D. & Lin, L.
Priming and profiles in first and second language word association
Power of the Vocabulary Levels Test for predicting writing proficiency
Opportunity to move to the other room
Daulton, F.
Gonzalez, M.
The heated exchange of (loan) words between Japan and America
The relationship between vocabulary size and diversity in L2 writing
Opportunity to move to the other room
Jiang, N., Guo, T. & Li, M.
White, R.
The translation frequency effect in L2 word recognition
The developing literate lexicon in L1 secondary school academic writing
Opportunity to move to the other room
Horst, M. & White, J.
Pinchbeck, G.
She loves me/she adores me: Cognates and reading comprehension
Vocabulary profiling of Canadian High School Diploma exam expository writing
Afternoon tea, Mezzanine Floor
Newton, J.
Nomura, M.
L2 vocabulary teaching: What do teachers actually do?
Lexical diversity in Japanese EFL learners spoken and written production
Opportunity to move to the other room
Hestetraeet, T.I.
Hsu, W.
Teacher perceptions of vocabulary teaching and learning
Frequent multi-word sequences in English-medium textbooks of engineering core courses
Opportunity to move to the other room
Mizumoto, A., Yamanishi, H. & Urano, K.
Anthony, L.
Incorporating a self-regulated learning approach into vocabulary learning courses
A novel approach to medical program assessment using vocabulary profiling
Opportunity to move to the other room
Manalo, M. & Henning, M.
Ker, A.
Why students make little effort in learning L2 vocabulary
Ultra-dark matter: How lexical superlatives supplement their grammatical equivalents
Welcome Reception, Mezzanine Floor Sponsored by Victoria University of Wellington Faculty of Humanities & Social Sciences

The Vocab@Vic Conference Planning Committee express their thanks and appreciation to the following organisations
for their contribution to the conference.

10:55 11:15am

10:50 10 :55am

Nigel McQuitty, ELT Sales and

Marketing Manager, Australia and New Zealand

10:30 10:50am

Cambridge University Press is one of

the worlds leading English language
teaching publishers, and our products
are used by people in nearly every
country in the world to learn and teach
the English language. The organisation
is respected worldwide for its
commitment to advancing knowledge,
education, learning, and research. It
was founded on a royal charter granted
to the University by Henry VIII in 1534
and has been operating continuously
as a printer and publisher since the first
Press book was printed in 1584.

Schmitt, N.
Size and depth of vocabulary: A review of the research
Opportunity to move to the other room
Elgort, I.
L2 vocabulary learning at different proficiencies: Do the rich really get richer?

Stand 1 - Cambridge
University Press

Registration desk open, Mezzanine Floor

Mihi whakatau by Prof Piri Sciascia, Victoria University of Wellington, and welcome by Prof Neil Quigley, Victoria University of Wellington, RHLT2
Opening plenary by Paul Nation, Victoria University of Wellington Sponsored by Cambridge University Press
Morning tea, Mezzanine Floor

We invite you to explore the sponsor exhibits and learn about new products and services and perhaps new
things about old products and services! Use this opportunity to keep up with the latest industry information and

8:00am 6:30pm
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Trade Exhibition and Exhibitors



Registration desk open, Mezzanine Floor

White, J., Horst, M. & Cobb, T.
Mid-frequency vocabulary: Is it there? Is it recycled?
Opportunity to move to the other room
Tono, Y.
Gyllstad, H.
The semantics of word combinations Learners processing of collocations and free combinations
Sampling biases and implications for better wordlist creation
Opportunity to move to the other room
Siyanova-Chanturia, A.
Waring, R.
Quality and quantity of learner collocation: A longitudinal perspective
What kind of vocabulary is in course books and graded readers?
Opportunity to move to the other room
Cobb, T.
A lot of banks: can collocates tell them apart?
Morning tea, Mezzanine Floor
Laufer, B.
Collocations: hard to get and easy to forget
Opportunity to move to the other room
Hu, M.
Fraser, S.
The effects of different tasks on EFL learners collocation learning
Corpus design and the creation of medical English wordlists
Opportunity to move to the other room
Kasahara, K.
Fujieda, M., Suzuki, H. & Koyama, Y.
Pedagogical implications of known-and-unknown word combinations
Creating corpus-informed word lists for a college radiology ESP program
Opportunity to move to the other room
Thomson, H.
Gu, P. & Wang, C.
Noticing and acquiring lexical bundles with schematic linguistic representation
Creating an Advanced Practical Word List
Lunch, Mezzanine Floor
Poster presentations:
Fan, N.: A study of vocabulary knowledge and vocabulary learning strategies
Browne, C. : A new General Service List: Celebrating 60 years of vocabulary learning
Zhao, Q.: Chinese learners perception of second language vocabulary learning strategies
Gharibi, K.: Bilinguals L1 vocabulary knowledge: The case of young Iranians in New Zealand
Lin, C.: Partial word knowledge: Insights from an analysis of word learnability
Sheppard, C. & Ueno, Y.: Multiple-choice testing of productive vocabulary
Wu, J.: Metaphor and collocation: Teaching collocations from a cognitive perspective
Van Hees, J.: Assessing vocabulary knowledge in primary schools: Evaluating whats available
Franken, M. & Wu, S.
Browne, C.
The questions of learners use of a corpus-based system for collocation learning
Introducing the Online Graded Text Editor (OGTE)
Opportunity to move to the other room
Lindstromberg, S., Eyckmans, J. & Boers, F.
Anthony, L. & Nation, P.
Gauging the memorability of alliteration and assonance in phrasal expressions
Freeware vocabulary profile and simplification tool for mid-frequency reader creation
Opportunity to move to the other room
Vasiljevic, Z.
Matsushita, T.
Effects of learner-generated illustrations on comprehension and recall of L2 idioms
How do we evaluate a group of words in gaining text coverage?
Afternoon tea, Mezzanine Floor
Stengers, H., Eyckmans, J. & Deconinck, J.
Ryan, G.
Improving L2 idiom learning through attention to form or to meaning?
The Incidental acquisition of technical vocabulary through texts
Opportunity to move to the other room
Webb, S. & Boers, F.
Kamimoto, T.
Do textual enhancement techniques increase incidental learning of collocation?
The function of stems in a vocabulary test
Buses depart Rutherford House for Conference Dinner
Conference Dinner - Boomrock Lodge
Brown, D.
Three approaches to an operational definition of collocation

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8:30am 5pm

Registration desk open, Mezzanine Floor

Altalhab, S.
Teaching and learning vocabulary through reading at Saudi Universities
Opportunity to move to the other room
Jiang, G.
Lwin, S.M.
Bottom-up and Top-down Approaches in Second Language Vocabulary Teaching
Providing exposure to spoken vocabulary through multimodal storytelling interaction
Opportunity to move to the other room
Tegge, F.
Boutorwick, T.J.
Music mnemonics and vocabulary learning Using Songs in the Classroom
The effects of extensive reading on learners lexical richness
Opportunity to move to the other room
Van Hees, J.
Chang, A.
The vocabulary knowledge gap in primary schools: Professional development for teachers
Learning Vocabulary from Graded Readers: Text Levels and Learning Rates
Morning tea, Mezzanine Floor
Barcroft, J.
Four input-retrieval patterns and incidentally oriented vocabulary learning during reading
Opportunity to move to the other room
Boers, F., Warren, P. & Siyanova-Chanturia, A.
Yu, A.
Does adding pictures to glosses promote uptake of new words?
Learning technical vocabulary with Wikcab
Opportunity to move to the other room
Nakata, T.
Agustin Llach, M. P.
Does gradually increasing spacing increase second language vocabulary learning?
Preliminary description of CLIL vs. traditional EFL learners vocabulary profiles
Opportunity to move to the other room
Deconinck, J., Eyckmans, J. & Stengers, H.
Coulson, D.
Can form-meaning motivation foster L2 word recall? An exploratory study.
Testing word-recognition ability of East-Asian learners of English
Lunch, Mezzanine Floor
Hu, M.
Coelho, L.
Vocabulary learning measured by Involvement Load Hypothesis and Technique Feature Analysis:
An automated version of Nations VLT for studies with bilinguals
Which accounts for a more comprehensive model?
Opportunity to move to the other room
McLean, S.
Folse, K.
Investigating university students vocabulary sizes and the VST
Vocabulary or grammar: Whats being taught in Spanish 101?
Opportunity to move to the other room
Yuen, B.
Ruegg, R. & Brown, C.
Investigating a Rasch-based validation of the ELPA vocabulary test
Digging Deep: Analysing task potential to increase vocabulary retention
Opportunity to move to the other room
Read, J.
Reflecting on the validity of vocabulary assessments
Afternoon tea, Mezzanine Floor
Hananto, H.
Parent, K.
Measuring word-form and word-meaning link: a new vocabulary-size test format
Polysemy and the language learner
Opportunity to move to the other room
Kent, H.
Strong, B.
Bricklayer: A computerized vocabulary assessment instrument
Methods of learning phrasal verbs: A Cognitive Linguistic approach
Opportunity to move to the other room
Coxhead, A.
Are six new versions of the VST all created equal?
Opportunity to move to RHLT2
Closing plenary by Paul Nation, Victoria University of Wellington, RHLT2
Conference close, RHLT2
Benson, S.
Student perspectives on using Lextutor in the classroom


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(in alphabetical order by presenter surname)

Agustin Llach, Maria Pilar (Universidad de La Rioja,

Preliminary description of CLIL vs. traditional EFL learners vocabulary profiles
The present paper presents a comparative study of the lexical profiles of young CLIL and traditional EFL learners. Vocabulary
has been given a prominent role in CLIL approaches. CLIL instruction contributes positively to vocabulary learning and
development as well as to enhancing use of vocabulary learning strategies (Dalton-Puffer 2008, Sylven 2010). CLIL learners
use the FL as a vehicle for content transmission. We scrutinized the writings of 72 CLIL and 68 non-CLIL traditional EFL
learners for frequency bands of words used, word origin, L1 influence in lexical production, and phonetic spelling. We also
compared learners writings in terms of writing quality and measured their vocabulary sizes. Learners attended the 4th level
of Primary school, averaged 9-10 years and had Spanish as their L1. CLIL learners had been exposed to 700 hours of English,
and traditional learners to 419. Very similar results were obtained: similar global lexical profile, and similar amounts of
borrowings, L1 adaptation types, and instances of phonetic spelling. Writing quality assessment shows that traditional EFL
learners obtain significantly better assessments than their CLIL peers. CLIL and traditional learners do not differ significantly
in their lexical knowledge of high frequency words. Results are interpreted in terms of the young age of the learners which
might impose certain cognitive constraints that override hours of instruction and the beneficial communicative nature of
the CLIL approach. Furthermore, the low L2 proficiency of learners may also play a significant role in the results obtained,
together with their little CLIL experience.
Friday 20 December, 11:55 - 12:15pm, Room: RHLT3, paper

Altalhab, Sultan (King Saud University,

Teaching and learning vocabulary through reading at Saudi Universities
The present research examines two issues: first, it looks at the vocabulary teaching techniques employed by the teachers
involved in this study. Second, considering different aspects about vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs) since existing VLSs
studies have mainly focused on the frequency of use (Schmitt, 2010:93). It examines the VLSs identified by students as the
most useful and the strategies students felt competent in using while reading. One hundred and fifty students majoring in
English from six colleges in four different universities completed a semi-structured questionnaire and twenty-two of them
were interviewed. In addition, nine teachers of vocabulary and reading subjects were interviewed and their classes observed.
The findings revealed that the teachers were textbook-centralised with a high dependence on the textbook since they did not
use any materials outside the textbook. They employed diverse vocabulary teaching techniques with a focus on techniques
such as using synonyms, defining new words in English and using Arabic. The students used a range of VLSs and employed the
strategies that they thought were fast and easy to use. They tended to avoid complex strategies that require deep mental
processes. They identified specific benefits from using certain VLSs in relation to providing accurate and diverse information
about new words and retaining these words. They made a link between the strategies they used most often and their level of
competence in employing these strategies. Teachers were asking students to deploy particular strategies rather than teaching
them how these strategies can be used effectively.
Friday 20 December, 9:00 - 9:20am, Room: RHLT3, paper
Anthony, Laurence (Waseda University,
Non-presenting author: Andrew Burd, Chinese University of Hong Kong

Aizawa, Kazumi (Tokyo Denki University,, Iso, Tatsuo (Reitaku University,

A novel approach to medical program assessment using vocabulary profiling

Better predictor of reading comprehension: Lexical coverage or vocabulary size?

Traditionally, medical programs have been divided into two distinct stages. In the pre-clinical stage, students would study
subjects in biological and natural sciences in a traditional classroom environment. This would be followed by a clinical stage,
often attached to a working hospital, where students would learn general medicine and surgery and begin to specialize. In
recent years, however, these traditional programs have been criticized for overloading students with content and separating
medicine knowledge from medical practice both temporally as well as geographically. (McKimm, 2010). Recently, many
universities have begun adopting an integrated program design, in which the pre-clinical and clinical stages are less distinct
(vertically integration) and knowledge and skills across traditional content areas are grouped together into themes or panels
(horizontally integration). However, these vertically and horizontally integrated programs pose a new challenge for medical
program administrators, i.e., ensuring that important content is not overlooked or taught repeatedly across themes. In this
paper, we propose that vocabulary profiling of medical terminology can allow administrators to identify which key items
are under-emphasized or overemphasized in medical programs. The first step in this approach is to identify the vocabulary
associated with key concepts, diseases, signs, and symptoms of a particular theme. Using the example of dermatology, we
show how this vocabulary can be extracted from medical textbooks and course materials. We then show how vocabulary
profiling can be applied in the evaluation of a medical program in Hong Kong, before discussing some of the limitations of the

This study investigates which is the better predictor for reading comprehension, text coverage or vocabulary size. Two reading
texts (400 words length) with ten multiple questions were prepared for this study. Participants were fifty-two Japanese
learners of English at an engineering university. By using JACET 8000, beyond-2000 frequency band words used in each text
and their word tokens were analyzed and made into a list. The actual text coverage was calculated by taking the number of
unknown words in the list from the results of the self-report and multiplying it by the number of occurrences of such words
in the passages. As for vocabulary size, learners were asked to take the VLT Flash to estimate their vocabulary size. This online
vocabulary test was established by the authors to estimate the vocabulary size of the learner based upon the JACET 8000.
By using these data, learners vocabulary size and their text coverage of the texts were calculated. They finally read two texts
and answered twenty reading comprehension questions. The resulting correlation coefficients were .54 (p < .05) for reading
comprehension and text coverage and .46 (p < .05) for reading comprehension and vocabulary size. This showed that the
correlation between reading comprehension and text coverage did not differ much from that of reading comprehension and
vocabulary sizes. However, it was suggested that knowledge of passage-specific vocabulary, as opposed to general vocabulary,
may be a better indicator of successful reading comprehension.
Wednesday 18 December, 11:20 - 11:40am, Room: RHLT3, paper
Akbari, Neda (University of Canberra,
Comparing the trends of development in L2 and L1 mental lexicon, associations, vocabulary size, and reaction time
Words are an important component of language in second language (L2) learning since words carry meaning, and the ability
to communicate occurs through the meaning of words. This study investigated the trend of development in the L2 mental
lexicon (ML) from the three dimensions of associations, vocabulary size, and reaction time. The main purposes of this study
were to determine whether the L2 ML had a similar trend of development to the first language (L1) ML if the L2 was learned in
similar circumstances to the L1, and whether the L2 ML could resemble the L1 ML at some age. The immigrant students aged
6-17 undertaking mainstream education in the L2 (English) participated in this study. A Word Association Task and a yes/no
Lexical Decision Task were utilised in order to elicit associations and measure vocabulary size and reaction time respectively.
The findings of this study revealed a relatively similar trend of development for the L2 and L1 ML with small differences
between them. The findings also demonstrated large similarities between the L2 and L1 ML of students aged 15-17. The
findings were discussed in the broader context of childrens cognitive and linguistic development. The impacts of age and
environment for language learning were also discussed.
Wednesday 18 December, 12:10 - 12:30pm, Room: RHLT2, paper

Wednesday 18 December, 4:45 - 5:05pm, Room: RHLT3, paper

Anthony, Laurence (Waseda University,, Nation, Paul (Victoria University of Wellington,
Freeware vocabulary profile and simplification tool for mid-frequency reader creation
Many studies have reported on the effective use of graded readers in developing a learners depth and breadth of vocabulary
knowledge. Most graded reader schemes end at around the 3000 word-family level, but research has shown that unassisted
comprehension of texts requires a vocabulary size of around 8000 word families (Nation, 2006). This means that more
advanced learners, who have completed a traditional graded reading program, have no suitable materials to bridge the 50006000 word family gap to reach the level of native-speakers. Mid-Frequency Readers are a new concept in graded reading that
are designed to address this issue. Mid-Frequency Reader texts are very slightly simplified and/or modified versions of the
original with low frequency words removed or replaced by words at the target level. Typically, the adaption results in changes
to only a few hundred words in a novel. However, the task of locating which words to adapt and finding suitable replacements
can involve many tens of hours of laborious work unless a software tool is employed. In this paper, we present recent changes
to a freeware, multiplatform vocabulary profiling tool that allows Mid-Frequency Readers to be created easily and quickly.
We will first explain the concept of Mid-Frequency Readers. Next, we will introduce our freeware software tool and show how
it can be easily used by authors, teachers, and researchers. Finally, we will outline interesting areas for further research and
suggest planned extensions to the software tool.
Thursday 19 December, 1:55 - 2:15pm, Room: RHLT3, paper




Barcroft, Joe (Washington Univesity in St. Louis,

Four input-retrieval patterns and incidentally oriented vocabulary learning during reading
Previous research indicates that allowing learners to retrieve target words on their own improves intentional second language
(L2) vocabulary learning (e.g., Royer, 1973; McNamara & Healy, 1995). Barcroft (2011) also demonstrated benefits of retrieval
on incidentally oriented L2 vocabulary learning during reading: gains were obtained when learners viewed target words
translated once and were then allowed to retrieve them twice, as compared to viewing them three times without being cued to
retrieve them. The present study expanded on Barcrofts study by comparing four patterns of input (target words translated)
and retrieval (blanks in which to write target L2 words). Seventy-five Spanish-speaking intermediate learners of L2 English read
an English text for meaning. Each of 6 target words (e.g., smidgen) appeared 3 times in the text. Participants were randomly
assigned to one of four groups based on input (I) retrieval (R) patterns. Group 1 (control) (n = 19) always viewed Spanish
translations of the target words (pattern III). Group 2 (n = 19) received pattern IIR. Group 3 (n = 19) received pattern IRI. Group
4 (n = 19) received pattern IRR. First language (L1)-to-L2 and L2-to-L1 posttests were administered. Results indicated greater
gains for IRI and IRR than III (control) group and greater gains in IRI than in IIR with no significant differences between IRI and
IRR. As compared to III (control), gains were 34.9% in IRR and 42.0% in IRI. These findings suggest that retrieval strengthens
developing lexical representations while interacting with input in an identifiable and telling manner.
Friday 20 December, 11:05 - 11:25am, Room: RHLT2, paper
Benson, Stuart (Kanda University of International Studies,
Student perspectives on using Lextutor in the classroom
This presentation will report on the explicit use of Lextutor by students to critically analyse written texts. Two intact classes
of third and fourth year students at an International University in Japan received 8 hours of in-class time instruction over
one week with the goal of using the web program Lextutor to critically analyse the most appropriate written text for their
vocabulary level. Before the treatment, the students were administered the vocabulary size test (Nation and Beglar, 2007) in
order to understand their vocabulary level. The students then received explicit instruction on aspects of analysing written
texts such as high frequency, academic and low frequency words. Finally, explicit instruction in using Lextutor was given in
class. Students then picked 5 written texts to analyse using Lextutor and subsequently presented their results. A questionnaire
was given to analyse the students perspective on both the treatment and use of Lextutor. This presentation will discuss the
materials used in the treatment, the results of the questionnaire and pedagogical implications from the study.
Friday 20 December, 9:00 - 9:20am, Room: RHLT2, paper
Boers, Frank (Victoria University of Wellington,, Eyckmans, June (Ghent University, Belgium, june.
Non-presenting author: Seth Lindstromberg, Hilderstone College, Kent
Gauging the memorability of alliteration and assonance in phrasal expressions
It has been estimated that up to 20% of English phrasal expressions manifest alliteration (e.g., a slippery slope) or assonance
(e.g., small talk) (Boers and Lindstromberg, 2009: 114). This could be encouraging news for ESL/EFL learners, as it is widely
assumed that catchy sound patterns such as alliteration help phrases stick in memory. Lindstromberg and Boers (2008a, b)
report small-scale experiments where EFL learners indeed recalled alliterative / assonant items better than control items.
These learners had been instructed to look for alliteration / assonance in the stimuli, however, and so the attested effect
may well have been task-induced. In this presentation, we report eight more recent experiments (total N > 300) designed to
gauge and compare the effect of alliteration and assonance on EFL learners recall of phrasal expressions with and without
instruction drawing participants attention to the sound patterns. All treatments included a dictation of alliterative / assonant
items and controls, and were followed by unannounced recall tests. Large positive effects of alliteration and assonance were
obtained only after directing the learners attention to the presence of the sound pattern. Without such intervention only
small and short-lived effects were observed. We conclude that capitalizing on the mnemonic potential of alliteration and
assonance for phrasal expressions learning hinges on conscious attention.
Thursday 19 December, 1:55 - 2:15pm, Room: RHLT2, paper


Boers, Frank (Victoria University of Wellington,, Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna (Victoria University of
Wellington,, Warren, Paul (Victoria University of Wellington,
Does adding pictures to glosses promote uptake of new words?
Marginal glosses are a common means to facilitate learners uptake of words from a text. It has been asserted in several
publications that glosses with a picture added to the verbal clarification of the words meaning are particularly effective in that
regard (Al-Seghayer, 2001; Kost, Foss, & Lenzini, 1999; Yeh & Wang, 2003; Yoshii, 2006; Yoshii & Flaitz, 2002). In the first part of
our presentation we re-assess the evidence presented in those publications. We then report data from new experiments where
we gauged adult L2 learners (total N > 130) recall of the form as well as the meaning of glossed words after conditions with
or without pictures added to the verbal clarifications. None of the experimental trials yielded data that showed an advantage
of having a picture with the gloss. Indeed, that condition consistently generated poorer post-test recall scores for the form of
the words. This suggests that pictures in marginal glosses distract from the form of the words that are clarified in them. That
suggestion is further explored in the third part of our presentation, where we report data from an eye-tracking experiment
(N > 20) in which we compared the amount of attention that readers give to words in glosses with and without incorporation
of pictures.
Friday 20 December, 11:30 - 11:50am, Room: RHLT2, paper
Boutorwick, TJ (Kwansei Gakuin University,
The effects of extensive reading on learners lexical richness
This presentation will discuss the results of a case study examining how EFL learners written lexical richness (LR) is affected
by extensive reading. LR, the term for a variety of statistics that attempt to quantify the degree to which a writer is using
a varied and large vocabulary, constitutes an insightful avenue for examining productive vocabulary knowledge in second
language acquisition. Empirically, LR statistics have been found to correlate with other productive vocabulary-assessing
measures including holistic composition profiles and discrete-point vocabulary size tests. However, there are virtually no
studies that have investigated the effects of extensive reading on learners LR, even though research has suggested ER to
be an effective method for improving productive vocabulary knowledge. To address this gap, the current study tracked 13
EFL students LR over 10 weeks for any systematic changes in two commonly-used LR measures: lexical variation and lexical
density. Each week the students read one graded reader. After reading, they were given approximately 30 minutes to compose
a summary/response to the story. Results show unstable fluctuations over the 10 weeks, suggesting a 10-week ER treatment
may be insufficient for notable increases in learners writing quality.
Friday 20 December, 9:50 - 10:10am, Room: RHLT3, paper
Brown, Dale (Osaka University,
Three approaches to an operational definition of collocation
Collocations have prompted much discussion in L2 research in recent years, and yet it has proven difficult to pin down a
definition of collocation. This presentation will discuss three approaches to an operational definition of collocation in the
context of the refinement of an instrument designed to elicit the productive collocational knowledge of learners of English.
The instrument, LexCombi (Barfield, 2009), presents learners with 30 noun cues and asks for three collocates in response
to each. The intention is that these responses can then be rated and the quality of learners knowledge of collocations
determined. In order to do this it is thus necessary to judge the acceptability of the learners responses; in other words,
the idea of collocation must be operationalised and strictly defined. This presentation will report on the trialling of three
approaches to operationalising collocation: (1) a dictionary-based approach, in which lists from dictionaries of collocations
have been combined; (2) a corpus-based approach, involving multiple searches of corpora using different criteria; and (3)
a norms-based approach, using the responses of native speakers of English and of advanced L2 users of English to define
acceptable responses. The presenter will discuss the similarities and differences between the lists of acceptable collocations
produced, looking both at where the lists overlap and at how and why differences arise between them, consider the possiblity
of combining the lists in different ways, and reflect on the implications of each approach.
Thursday 19 December, 9:00 - 9:20am, Room: RHLT2, paper
Browne, Dr. Charles (Meiji Gakuin University,
A new General Service List: Celebrating 60 years of vocabulary learning
In 1953, Michael West published a list of important vocabulary words known as the General Service List (GSL). Although the
corpus used was small by todays standards (only 2.5 million words) and is of course missing many modern high frequency
words such as email, Internet or cell phone, the list was the remarkable culmination of nearly 2 decades of pre-computer
era corpus research and a series of meetings and discussions with corpus linguists and experienced EFL and ESL teachers
around the world. On the 60th anniversary of the publication of this list, we (Browne, Culligan and Phillips, 2013) would like
to introduce a New General Service List (NGSL). The NGSL is based on a carefully selected 273 million word subsection of the



more than 1.5 billion word CEC (Cambridge English Corpus) and uses the power of modern computers and corpus analysis
software to help create a list of high-frequency words that provides a higher coverage of texts with fewer words than the
original GSL. Like the GSL before it, this interim list is seen as a starting point for discussion and debate with corpus linguists
and experienced EFL and ESL teachers about what words should be added/deleted - a website dedicated to refining this list
will be introduced at the end of the presentation.
Thursday 19 December, 12:40 - 1:30pm, Room: Mezzanine Floor, poster
Browne, Dr. Charles (Meiji Gakuin University,
Introducing the Online Graded Text Editor (OGTE)
This presentation introduces the online, free-to-use, open-source Online Graded Text Editor (OGTE) webpage for writing
and editing graded materials. The tool, created by Drs. Charles Browne and Rob Waring, is part of their free website called which pulls together as many relevant resources as possible for those who are interested in online gradedreading and vocabulary learning. Similar in function to the wonderful VocabProfile tool available on Tom Cobbs website, the
OGTE is less focused than VocabProfile on the ANALYSIS of texts and much more focused on helping teachers and authors
to be able to EDIT and WRITE texts. In its current beta form, the OGTE allows users to set the intended difficulty of the text
they want to simplify (or create) from 16 levels of lexical difficutly based on the ERF Scale (Extensive Reading Foundation).
Users then paste their own text into the web page which calculates the frequency and level of each word in the text. For ease
of identification, the web app graphically colors all words that are outside the set level and words not appearing in the word
lists at all. Users edit the text by removing out-of-level words and the web app re-analyses the text automatically. Soon, users
will also be able to select from additional word lists such as the GSL and NGSL, AWL, Business lists, TOEIC, etc. Users can
also set certain words (e.g. proper nouns) to be ignored in the analysis so they do not affect the detailed statistics or analysis
Thursday 19 December, 1:30 - 1:50pm, Room: RHLT3, paper
Chang, Anna C-S (Hsing-Wu University,
Learning Vocabulary from Graded Readers: Text Levels and Learning Rates
This study explores text levels and vocabulary learning rates. Thirty-one students, who had previously read 25 graded readers
up to level two, were asked to read five level one readers and then to read five level three readers in 13 weeks. A total of
126 target words were tested (51 and 75 from levels one and three). Students receptive vocabulary knowledge was tested
through a meaning-matching method. Twenty-one low frequency words from both text levels were further tested with the
contextualized translation method. Students were given a pre-test, post-test, and a three-month delayed post-test. The
results show that with the meaning-matching test method, students vocabulary learning rates were about 83% for level one
texts, and 80% for level three texts, and 95% of the words learned were retained after a three-month period for both text
levels. For the contextualized translation method test, the acquisition rates were 92% and 85% for level one and level three,
respectively, and the retention rates were the same, 94%. The overall results show that students learning rates for reading
level one graded readers were slightly higher than reading level three texts in both test methods. The retention rates however
were similar for both text levels and also for both test methods. The unusually high learning and retention rates surprised the
researcher. After interviews with the participants, the researcher found that continuous reading was the key to their higher
learning rates. The more they read, the easier it was for them to acquire vocabulary knowledge.
Friday 20 December, 10:15 - 10:35am, Room: RHLT3, paper
Cobb, Tom (Universit du Qubec Montral,
A lot of banks: can collocates tell them apart?
The Range or Vocabprofile family of text analysis computer programs (which analyze a text according to the frequency of its
words in a corpus) has had a major impact on ESL reading, materials selection/creation, and testing. In conjunction with a
frequency based vocabulary test, such an analysis can reliably match texts and learners to achieve specific reading goals. Its
power can probably be increased, however, by refining the concepts of frequency and word. Frequency can be cut finer by
considering what is frequent to particular groups of learners, such as L2 words already known in L1. Word can be cut finer by
(1) dissociating different words that happen to share a common word form (bank), and (2) combining different words that in
fact have a single meaning and are processed as a single unit (a lot, in certain contexts). Work on the frequency modification
with regard to French learners will be discussed in the presentation by Horst et al. My talk will look at ways to achieve the
word modification, which involves training computer programs to distinguish contexts rather than items. A first guess how
is to train computers to recognize and assess the collocates of particular words. Can a program use the frequent collocates of
bank and bank, or a lot and a lot, to make such distinctions reliably? With what increase in power of the analysis? Two years
work incorporating the Sharp BNC-based Just-the-Word collocational database within Vocabprofile will be presented, and
proposals for empirical testing with learners.
Thursday 19 December, 10:15 - 10:35am, Room: RHLT2, paper


Coelho, Lucas (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG),

An automated version of Nations VLT for studies with bilinguals
This research concerns the modeling, implementation and validation of an automated version of Nations VLT (Vocabulary
Levels Test) (Nation, 1990), aiming to uncover possible correlations between linguistic experience of bilinguals and their
scores on the test. The VLT consists of sets of six words and three definitions distributed on five levels of progressively lower
frequency of occurrence on the language. This version uses Nations BNC/COCA word family lists, the Academic Word List
(Coxhead, 2000) and definitions retrieved from WordNet (Miller, 1995). The test is applied via the internet, being created
automatically upon access of each test-taker. The lexical items are chosen randomly from the word lists given a set of rules to
constitute consistent sets, generally respecting the considerations stated by Schmitt et al. (2001: 59). Other special features
were added, such as presenting each set individually and allowing restricted response time, to accomplish its intended task
of measuring the ability of activation of lexical items and avoiding much guessing or deduction. For validation purposes
each set is presented alternately with one of those from Schmitt et al. (2001)s revised version. References: Coxhead, A. 2000:
A New Academic Word List. TESOL Quarterly, 34(2), 213-238. Miller, G. A. 1995: WordNet: A Lexical Database for English.
Communications of the ACM, 38(11), 39-41. Nation, P. 1990: Teaching and learning vocabulary. Boston, MA: Heinle and
Heinle. Schmitt, N. and Schmitt, D. and Clapham, C. 2001: Developing and exploring the behaviour of two new versions of the
Vocabulary Levels Test. Language Testing 18(1), 5588.
Friday 20 December, 1:30 - 1:50pm, Room: RHLT2, paper
Coulson, David (University of Niigata Prefecture,
Testing word-recognition ability of East-Asian learners of English
This presentation will examine proficiency in high-frequency word-reading skill of learners whose first language does not
use the Roman alphabet. Nation (2001) divides vocabulary into categories of Form, Meaning and Use, each having active and
passive components. One aspect of lexical knowledge is knowing what a word looks like (passive) and how it is spelled (active).
Indeed, word recognition is a critical component of reading comprehension, yet there are few recognized, reliable methods for
its assessment in classrooms. Two studies will be reported, both of which originate in testing for English L1 reading disability.
One is based on the word-chain methodology (e.g. Jacobson, 1995). Secondary school students (age 12-18) in Japan and
Korea were given a new version of this test. Items such as gohousesing had to be divided with pencil strokes (e.g. go/house/
sing) as rapidly as possible. In the results, Koreans, whose L1 writing system is much closer to English than Japanese, showed
stronger performance. Further, Japanese high-school students ability on this test started regressing after age 15. The second
test was a replication of a study (Wydell and Kondo, 2003) on a Japanese-English bilingual severely dyslexic in English. The
test was given to Japanese university students at distinct proficiency levels. In the results, most students performed poorly
on the test and those with lower English proficiency performed as if they were dyslexic. While some may be dyslexic, the
main implication is that word decoding skill, especially in Japan, is considerably weak. Causes and appropriate pedagogical
responses are discussed.
Friday 20 December, 12:20 - 12:40pm, Room: RHLT3, paper
Coxhead, Averil (Victoria University of Wellington,
Are six new versions of the VST all created equal?
This paper will report on the development and trialling of six forms of a 20,000 version of Nations Vocabulary Size Test. Forty
six native and non-native adult speakers of English took all versions of the test. The data from the 46 participants was used to
check for equivalence of the tests across variables including the first language of the test takers, their gender, whether they
were currently studying at university or not, as well as their age and level of education. This talk will begin by outlining the
VST before moving on to the development of the new tests. We will then look at each of the variables above and their effect
on the equivalence of the tests. We will then consider whether these six versions can be considered parallel forms in light of
individual scores and pair comparisons. Implications for teaching and further testing will conclude the paper.
Friday 20 December, 4:25 4:45pm, Room: RHLT2, paper



Dang, Thi Ngoc Yen (Victoria University of Wellington,

Elgort, Irina (Victoria University of Wellington,

Non-presenting author: Stuart Webb, Victoria University of Wellington

L2 vocabulary learning at different proficiencies: Do the rich really get richer?

The lexical profile of academic spoken English

What is the role of lexical proficiency in learning new words in a second or foreign language? Is its effect on learning quantitative,
qualitative, or both? Studies in applied linguistics suggest that there is a quantitative effect, with more proficient bilinguals
being able to learn more new words from reading (Pulido, 2007; Horst, Cobb & Meara, 1998). There is also evidence from
psycholinguistic studies that the learning of meaning proceeds differently for less and more proficiency bilinguals (Finkbeiner,
Forster, Nicol, & Nakamura, 2004; Kroll, Michael, Tokowicz, & Dufour, 2002). Recent neurolinguistic studies suggest that there
are qualitative differences in lexical processing, as L2 processing involves more extended activity of the neural system for
less proficient than more proficient bilinguals and native speakers, with brain areas related to cognitive control involved
in the former (Autalebi, 2008). In this presentation, results from two experimental studies will be used to provide evidence
of quantitative and qualitatively differences in the outcomes of intentional and incidental L2 vocabulary learning. In the
first study, deliberate learning using bilingual flashcards resulted in high quality lexical-semantic representations for
higher but not lower proficiency adult German-English bilinguals, even though there were no differences in their ability to
connect meaning and form in a pen and paper test. In the second study, higher proficiency but not lower proficiency adult
L2 participants were able to access abstracted meanings of incidentally learned words in a speeded semantic judgment task.
Implications of these findings for L2 vocabulary learning will be discussed.

This study investigated (a) the lexical demands of academic spoken English and (b) the coverage of the Academic Word List
(AWL) in academic spoken English. The researchers analyzed the vocabulary in 160 lectures and 39 seminars from four
disciplinary sub-corpora of the British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus: Arts and Humanities, Life and Medical
Sciences, Physical Sciences and Social Sciences. The results showed that knowledge of the most frequent 4,000 word families
plus proper nouns and marginal words provided 96.05% coverage, and knowledge of the most frequent 8,000 word families
plus proper nouns and marginal words provided 98.00% coverage of academic spoken English.
The vocabulary size necessary to reach 95% coverage of each sub-corpus ranged from 3,000 to 5,000 word families plus proper
nouns and marginal words and 5,000 to 13,000 word families plus proper nouns and marginal words to reach 98% coverage.
The AWL accounted for 4.41% coverage of academic spoken English. Its coverage in each sub-corpus ranged from 3.82% to
5.21%. With the help of the AWL, learners with knowledge of proper nouns and marginal words will need a vocabulary of 3,000
and 8,000 word families to reach 95% and 98% coverage of academic spoken English, respectively.
Wednesday 18 December, 12:10 - 12:30pm, Room: RHLT3, paper

Wednesday 18 December, 10:55 - 11:15am, Room: RHLT2, paper

Daulton, Frank (Ryukoku University,
The heated exchange of (loan) words between Japan and America

Fan, Na (Macquarie University,

In Japan, English borrowing is the juggernaut of lexical growth. Each day, English (and pseudo-English) words are unilaterally
adopted by various individuals such as students, academics, bureaucrats and marketers. Sometimes these loanwords reach
the lexical mainstream, often through dissemination by the mass media. Along with this lexical flood have come nearly half
of the top-3000 word families of the British National Corpus (BNC), and the resulting cognates facilitate various aspects of
vocabulary acquisition: aural recognition and pronunciation; spelling; listening comprehension; retention of spoken and
written input; and recognition and recall at especially advanced levels of vocabulary. Naturally the Japanese greatly depend on
these cognates in their English production, and they are open to information on loanwords efficacy. Unfortunately teachers
and academics in Japan either ignore these cognates or acknowledge them disparagingly. Meanwhile, in contrast to the flood
of English words in Japanese, there are relatively few Japanese words in English, and their uses are circumscribed, typically
filling lexical gaps intrinsically related to Japan and therefore of narrow use. Yet Japanese is considered a major source of
loanwords, and these borrowings play a prominent role, clustering in culturally salient areas highly relevant to sophisticated
individuals, as can been in the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA).

A study of vocabulary knowledge and vocabulary learning strategies

Wednesday 18 December, 2:20 - 2:40pm, Room: RHLT2, paper

Deconinck, Julie (Department of Applied Linguistics, Free University of Brussels (VUB),, Eyckmans,
June (Department of Linguistics Ghent University (UGent),, Stengers, Helene (Department of
Applied Linguistics Free University of Brussels (VUB),
Non-presenting author: Frank Boers, Victoria University of Wellington
Can form-meaning motivation foster L2 word recall? An exploratory study.
The notion of form-meaning motivation (FMM) in cognitive linguistics refers to the idea that a retrospective explanation can
be sought for why a lexical unit in a specific language comes in a particular form or with a particular meaning. If known words
can basically be defined in psycholinguistic terms as form-meaning-mappings, the present paper explores whether FMM can
be harnessed to speed up discrete L2 vocabulary learning. To operationalize this, we designed a think-aloud protocol where
upper-intermediate Dutch-speaking learners of English (N=30) were invited to evaluate the potentially motivated nature of
the connection between word form (new) and word meaning (known) of 14 novel words, and to explain each evaluation, if
possible. Afterwards, participants were unexpectedly tested on their form and meaning recall of the new words. Transcripts
show that, in order to explain their ratings, learners drew on cross-lexical associations most frequently (50%), referring to
soundalike or lookalike words in the target or other known language(s). This tally was closely followed by sound-symbolic
associations (38%), where referential values were assigned to the intrinsic sound or shape of a word. Our post-test results
indicate that cross-lexical and sound-symbolic associations were equally successful in fostering both form and meaning
recall. We suggest that the FMM rating task, by exposing cross-lexical connections and/or generating creative associations,
may help to integrate new words faster in long-term memory.

What is the status quo of vocabulary knowledge (VK) and vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs) of Chinese non-English major
students at tertiary level? What is the role played by individual and overall variables (e.g. gender, discipline, proficiency level,
vocabulary learning strategy use) to a comprehensive exploration of the flora and fauna of the landscape of their VK? What
are the Chinese EFL students perception of their VK and VLSs, and how do they think VLSs affect their VK accumulation? This
session purports to illuminate their VK construction mechanism in relation to the aforementioned variables. Based upon
Cochrans (1977) formula for sample size, this paper intends to invite a total of 360 second-year and third-year non-English
majors from three Chinese universities of different areas. The computational tool Coh-Metrix will be adopted to analyze the
essays written by them using lexical indices related to depth, breadth and accessibility to core lexical items, with Vocabulary
Size Test (VST), Word Associates Test (WAT) being carried out along, in order to arrive at an in-depth understanding of their
depth and breadth of VK. In addition, a VLS questionnaire will also be implemented. To confirm the quantitative results of the
study, a follow-up qualitative semi-structured interview will be administered for purpose of triangulation. A fuller picture
of the VK and VLSs of Chinese EFL leaners at tertiary level will be made possible through the findings, which will inform
curriculum developers and other stakeholders and shed light on both vocabulary teaching and learning.
Thursday 19 December, 12:40 - 1:30pm, Room: Mezzanine Floor, poster
Folse, Keith (University of Central Florida,
Vocabulary or grammar: Whats being taught in Spanish 101?
Research has clearly established the need for learning a tremendous number of vocabulary items, and foreign language
learners acknowledge the severe lexical gap they face. Given the preponderance of evidence supporting increased emphasis
on increasing students lexicons, we would expect that foreign language courses would emphasize vocabulary. In stark contrast
to these research findings and related learner needs, however, many if not most language courses still focus on grammar over
vocabulary. Based on the design of a study of the extent to which vocabulary was taught in an academic prep intensive English
program, this paper presents findings of a preliminary investigation into what is actually taught in first-year Spanish classes
at a large university in the U.S. While we in TESOL focus on English, there are many more students of Spanish as a foreign
language in the United States than there are ESL learners.
Friday 20 December, 1:55 - 2:15 pm, Room: RHLT3, paper

Friday 20 December, 12:20 - 12:40pm, Room: RHLT2, paper




Franken, Margaret (The University of Waikato,, Wu, Shaoqun (University of Waikato, shaoqun@
The questions of learners use of a corpus-based system for collocation learning
The last decade has seen significant possibilities through technological tools (including the web, digital library software) to
expose students to large amounts of language data that is searchable and browseable for vocabulary, collocations, and lexical
sequences. This affordance is beyond what Johns (1990), an early proponent of data driven learning, probably envisioned
when he advocated for students to become language research workers. But in fact, we know little about students use of such
technological tools. In this presentation, we discuss the perennial questions: How do we know students are using them? How
can we know how theyre using them? How can we tell if their use makes a difference? We share the challenges and limitations
that we as researchers have experienced in our development and evaluation of a self-access, data-driven, and corpus-based
system for collocation learning, called FLAX (Flexible Language Acquisition). The paper evaluates whether the questions
above have been, or can be, adequately addressed in our own studies, and those of other researchers working in this tradition.

Gharibi, Khadij (Victoria University of Wellington,

L1 Vocabulary Knowledge: The case of young Iranian bilinguals in New Zealand
My study investigates L1 vocabulary knowledge in young Iranian bilinguals in New Zealand. Participants in the study are
thirty Persian-English bilinguals who have been living in NZ for different lengths of time.
Productive L1 vocabulary knowledge is measured by using a verbal fluency task. In this task, the participants are asked to
produce as many words as possible from a particular semantic category such as animals and food in a short time span. In
order to investigate receptive vocabulary knowledge, an auditory picture-word matching task is used. In this task, a picture
is presented on a computer screen and the participant is asked to listen to recorded L1 words and tell me the name of the
corresponding picture. To my knowledge, auditory tasks have not been used in any attrition studies yet, while they are a
necessarily alternative for written mode tests when participants are illiterate in their L1.

Thursday 19 December, 1:30 1:50pm, Room: RHLT2, paper

In addition, I collected information (through semi-structured interviews) about the participants age, length of residence
in NZ, their use of L1, their attitude toward L1 maintenance, and other factors that are believed to influence development
and attrition of vocabulary knowledge. In my presentation I report and discuss the extent to which each of these factors is
correlated with the participants scores on the two vocabulary tests in my study.

Fraser, Simon (Hiroshima University,

Thursday 19 December, 12:40 - 1:30pm, Room: Mezzanine Floor, poster

Non-presenting authors: Walter Davies, Hiroshima University; Keiso Tatsukawa, Hiroshima University
Corpus design and the creation of medical English wordlists

Gonzalez, Melanie (Salem State University,

We report on the initial stage of a collaborative research project between the Institute for Foreign Language Research and
Education and the Faculty of Medicine at Hiroshima University, Japan. Our ultimate aim is to provide university learners of
medical English with the means, via a highly specialised corpus and wordlists, to efficiently acquire the most useful lexis
and phraseological/rhetorical patterns of their discipline. We expect these lists to provide the basis of a highly relevant and
practical English syllabus, leading eventually to the creation of a set of lexically-based materials. To compile such a specialised
corpus, selecting the most appropriate texts is of primary importance. However, achieving this is usually far from easy for the
non-specialist English teacher, who will often rely on informed guesswork, particularly in a difficult, multidisciplinary field
like medicine. Although we have had some previous success in compiling wordlists which provide good coverage of medical
texts, the corpus from which they were derived may not have included the subjects and text types most relevant to our
students. To address this limitation, we conducted interviews and surveys enabling us to build up an accurate picture of
learners requirements. We ascertained 1) the various, and wide-ranging, medical sub-disciplines encountered in the different
years of university study; 2) the precise contents of the medical syllabus and the materials used; and 3) the key medical texts
and seminal research articles in each of the major areas. We show how this information informed the design stage of our
medical English corpus.

The relationship between vocabulary size and diversity in L2 writing

Thursday 19 December, 11:30 - 11:50am, Room: RHLT3, paper

Although vocabulary has long been an important criterion for assessing second language (L2) writing proficiency, recent
research on academic discourse has positioned word study as a leading method to improve learner writing. As a result, teachers
must make decisions on which words warrant instructional time and how to help learners deploy these words effectively
in production. While there has been a growing trend in research investigating word lists, comparatively fewer studies have
examined how words are actually used to achieve writing quality. Thus, the present paper reports the findings of a quantitative
study that examined the extent to which vocabulary size and lexical diversity contributed to writing scores on 172 native and
advanced non-native English speakers academic essays. Results revealed that lexical diversity had a significantly greater
impact on writing score than vocabulary size in both native and non-native speaker essays. Nevertheless, vocabulary size
did initially facilitate writing scores at the lower score levels; however, it was lexical diversity that promoted an essay into
the higher score range. Additional findings demonstrated that vocabulary size had only a moderate relationship to lexical
diversity. Outcomes from this study suggest that variation of mid-range vocabulary may play a more important role in writing
proficiency than the use of infrequent terms that signal a larger productive lexicon. Furthermore, the results indicate that it
is not enough to simply teach vocabulary words in the L2 composition classroom, but to also guide learners in how to employ
these words in a varied manner within their writing.
Wednesday 18 December, 2:20 - 2:40pm, Room: RHLT3, paper

Fujieda, Miho (Kyoto College of Medical Science,, Suzuki, Hiroko (Tokai University, hirosuzu@, Koyama, Yukie (Nagoya Institute of Technology,
Creating corpus-informed word lists for a college radiology ESP program
In this age of English as a global lingua franca, a key role of post-secondary education in an EFL context is supporting students
to fully participate as bilingual specialists in professional discourse communities (Fukui et al., 2009). To this end, college
English instructors are responsible for designing curricula and providing materials that anticipate students future careers.
If English for specific purposes (ESP) materials introduced as primary sources of language input are selected or developed
according to students English proficiency rather than their knowledge of the content, English reading texts will fall short of
providing fundamental profession-specific vocabulary. A variety of English for academic purposes (EAP) and ESP word lists
have been generated in the past through a range of methods (Coxhead, 2000; Wang, Liang, & Ge, 2008; Ward, 2009). The present
study goes further emphasizing the vocabulary students need exposure to, specifically corpus-informed graded ESP word
lists in the field of radiology. Three specialized corpora were compiled from sources targeting audiences with different levels of
specialized knowledge: 1) patient education information for ordinary people, 2) texts from introductory university textbooks,
and 3) research journal articles. From each corpus, key words were extracted based on frequency, range, and keyness. These
three word lists were compared and analyzed in terms of semantic relationships and degrees of overlap in order to reflect the
paths of learners specialized content knowledge. Pedagogical implications of the lists as a tool for developing ESP reading
materials will be discussed.
Thursday 19 December, 11:55 - 12:15pm, Room: RHLT3, paper


Gu, Peter (Victoria University of Wellington,

Non-presenting author: Wang, Chen (Jiangxi Normal University, China,
Creating an Advanced Practical Word List
Many advanced non-native users of English may function well in their respective domains of work but encounter many
embarrassments for not having the right words for daily communication purposes. This presentation focuses on the creation
of an Advanced Practical Word List (APWL), a list of words of high practical utility in the daily lives of people living in an Englishspeaking environment. These words are known to most native speakers of English, but are unknown to most advanced nonnative speakers. Three contemporary dictionaries were used in the initial development of the APWL. Seven native speakers
were then asked to rate the usefulness of the initial word list. Sixty advanced non-native speakers and 40 native speakers
of English were asked to identify the words that were known to them. Based on these criteria, 867 word families have been
identified by all native speakers as of high practical value but were unknown to most of the advanced non-native speakers
in this study. The APWL comprises words from a wide range of frequency levels, although the overwhelming majority fall
between the 5th and the 11th thousand frequency bands in the BNC-20. The APWL should be an important practical aid for
advanced learners in an English-speaking context. It is also a theoretical attempt at fine-tuning our understanding of midfrequency vocabulary from the perspective of advanced learners.
Thursday 19 December, 12:20 - 12:40pm, Room: RHLT3, paper



Gyllstad, Henrik (Lund University,

Non-presenting author: Brent Wolter, Department of English and Philosophy Idaho State University
The semantics of word combinations Learners processing of collocations and free combinations
Even though vocabulary studies have traditionally been focused on single words, there is now a growing body of research
that highlights the importance of word combinations such as collocations. One theoretical approach to the study of word
combinations assumes a continuum of semantic transparency, from the most transparent category free combinations
through collocations, to the least transparent category idioms. Of these three types, collocations are often seen as a major
hurdle for second language (L2) learners, whereas free combinations are largely considered unproblematic. The present
study was designed to determine if the assumed greater difficulty of collocations has psychological validity. Specifically, a
lexical decision task was used to assess both L1 and advanced L2 speakers reaction times to free combination items versus
collocational items. In the study, collocations were seen as word combinations where one of the constituent words is either
used in a delexical, technical or figurative sense, whereas free combinations where seen to consist of words used in their
literal sense. The underlying assumption was that if collocations are indeed more difficult to process, then they should be
processed more slowly (and perhaps with less accuracy) than free combinations. If, on the other hand, no differences were
detected, then it may have implications for our understanding of how collocations are stored and processed. The results of
study will be discussed with regard to L2 acquisition theory and implications for teaching.
Thursday 19 December, 9:25 9:45am, Room: RHLT2, paper
Hananto, Hananto (Universitas Pelita Harapan,
Measuring word-form and word-meaning link: a new vocabulary-size test format
This paper reports the development of a three-year goverment-funded vocabulary project in Indonesia focusing on
monitoring the progress of vocabulary learning using software developed in the project. The program automatically generates
various exercise formats based on the target words and the meaning given, either their synonyms /simple definitions or
their meanings in Indonesian. This paper focuses on its unique format combining the most sensitive gap-filling format and
multiple-choice format. It requires learners to do two things at once: supplying (1) the missing letter and (2) the number
indicating the meaning of the target word. Therefore, it can measure two different word knowledge strengths (i.e. word-form
and word-meaning) at once. Bases on the double-task three scoring systems are possible to give credits to partial word
knowledge: (1) Word-Form Score: based on the first task only, (2) Word-Meaning Score: based on the second task only, (3)
Word-Form & Word-Meaning Score: based on both the first and second tasks. The exercise scores so far show that the wordform scores are significantly higher than the word-meaning scores indicating that learners may know the word-forms without
necessary knowing their meanings.
Friday 20 December, 3:35 - 3:55pm, Room: RHLT2, paper
Hestetraeet, Torill Irene (Department of foreign languages, University of Bergen,
Teacher perceptions of vocabulary teaching and learning
This talk presents a qualitative study of vocabulary teaching and learning in English language classrooms in four primary
schools in Norway. The aim is to compare four 7th grade teachers perceptions of the teaching and learning of vocabulary,
namely linking vocabulary to the field of teacher cognition. The study is based on a three-stage combination of pre-observation
interviews, classroom observation and follow-up interviews. The aims of the pre-observation interviews included to find out
how vocabulary was promoted in the teachers educational background and how it is promoted in their own teaching and in
their schools. The teachers were asked about their approach to English teaching and that of the school, how they themselves
had been taught vocabulary, how they teach vocabulary and how they think learners best develop their vocabulary. In the
post-observation interviews, the teachers were asked to elaborate on and explain key episodes observed in the lessons. The
intention was to access the teachers theoretical rationale for their teaching, especially their choices concerning the teaching
of vocabulary.
Wednesday 18 December, 4:25 - 4:45pm, Room: RHLT2, paper

Hsu, Wenhua (I-Shou University,

Frequent multi-word sequences in English-medium textbooks of engineering core courses
This research aimed to establish a pedagogically useful list of multi-word sequences for EFL engineering undergraduates,
called the Engineering English Phrase List (EEPL). The EEPL was derived from a corpus containing 4.57 million running words
of one hundred college textbooks across twenty engineering subject areas. Through the program Collocate plus manual
checking, five criteria were applied: frequency, range, dispersion and cohesiveness of word groups for meaningful units as well
as comprehensible units that do not span two syntactic constituents. Totally, 1,000 of the most frequent lexical bundles of two
to six words were ultimately selected and compiled into the EEPL. They accounted for approximately 25.73% of the running
words in the engineering textbook corpus. Furthermore, this research explored how these frequent multi-word combinations
relate to the engineering field. Their attributes may be approached from technicality in terms of subject relatedness and
how they are used in context. One of the findings in this research was that the most frequent engineering-related words (i.e.
technical, sub-technical, lay-technical or crypto-technical words) may not be found in any of the most frequent multi-word
sequences in the same corpus. Therefore, the researcher wishes to propose that for EFL engineering novices, the present EEPL
and the EEWL (Engineering English Word List) in the literature may be mutually complementary in facilitating lexical mastery
in engineering academic texts.
Wednesday 18 December, 4:25 - 4:45pm, Room: RHLT3, paper
Hu, Hsueh-chao Marcella (Overseas Chinese University,
The effects of different tasks on EFL learners collocation learning
It has been widely recognized that much of our vocabulary consists of different kinds of prefabricated chunks (Lewis, 2000),
among which the single most important kind is collocation. Lewis (2000) pointed out that both native speakers of a language
and successful advanced learners of a foreign language have a high level of collocational competence. However, most foreign
language learners of English with the intermediate language proficiency lack this collocational competence. Recent research
has further indicated that mere exposure does not guarantee language acquisition for EFL learners. Effective learning
integrates the concept of noticing and attention into a language course for collocational knowledge development, followed
by form-focused activities to strengthen the form-meaning connections (Laufer &Girsai, 2010; Laufer & Waldman, 2011).
The present study is designed to investigate to what extent drawing learners attention to the target collocations via textual
enhancement techniques plus different form-focused activities would facilitate their receptive and productive knowledge
of collocations. Three tasks with varying levels of attention will be included in this study: reading a text with L1 glossed and
highlighted collocations; reading a text with L1 glossed and highlighted collocations followed by multiple-choice exercises,
and finally reading a text with L1 glossed and highlighted collocations followed by fill-in-the-blanks activities. One week
prior to and two weeks after the study, participants will be given the same four tests assessing their productive knowledge of
collocation, knowledge of collocation recognition, productive knowledge of meaning, and knowledge of meaning recognition.
Preliminary findings will be discussed.
Thursday 19 December, 11:30 11:50am, Room: RHLT2, paper
Hu, Hsueh-chao Marcella (Overseas Chinese University,
Vocabulary learning measured by Involvement Load Hypothesis and Technique Feature Analysis: Which accounts for a more
comprehensive model?
L2 vocabulary development through reading is a complex process in which various components are involved and integrate
with one another. In particular, learners need to attend to the connections between new lexical forms and their meanings
so as to make elaboration by associating the word with its existing knowledge sources or maintaining it in working memory
for rehearsal (Ellis, 1994; Hulstijn, 2001; Pulido, 2007; Rott, 2007). An attempt to operationalize the construct of attention
is Laufer and Hulstijns (2001) Involvement Load Hypothesis, which proposes that retention of new words depends on the
degree of need, search, and evaluation. The Involvement Load Hypothesis assumes that the greater the involvement in a
given task, the better the retention. Nation and Webb (2011) further proposed a technique feature analysis with five elaborate
criteria (i.e., motivation, noticing, retrieval, generation, and retention) to compensate for the inadequacy inherent in the
Involvement Load Hypothesis. However, they noticed that some vocabulary learning activities with a lower ranking by the
involvement load hypothesis have a higher rating with technique feature analysis, and vice versa. To gain better insight into
and also more precise definitions of the involvement load indexes and technique feature factors, this study also investigated
to what extent tasks with consistent and inconsistent rankings between Involvement Load Hypothesis and Technique Feature
Analysis contribute to L2 vocabulary learning. The preliminary findings suggested that Technique Feature Analysis appears to
be more sensitive in terms of its ranking in predicting vocabulary learning.
Friday 20 December, 1:30 - 1:50pm, Room: RHLT3, paper




Hulstijn, Jan (University of Amsterdam,

The notion of shared vocabulary: Size and theoretical relevance
In this presentation, I will first present a model of language proficiency in native and non-native speakers, distinguishing
between basic language cognition (BLC) and higher (or extended) language cognition (HLC). BLC is the language, used in
the aural/oral modes, which all native speakers have in common; HLC concerns all other language knowledge and use. An
important empirical question arising from the model is how small or large vocabulary knowledge in BLC might be. I will
report on two studies conducted in the Netherlands, in which we administered a battery of Dutch-language tests, including
vocabulary-size tests, to, respectively, 96 and 239 adult native speakers differing in age (from 18 to 82 years old) and level of
education (low vs high). The items in the productive (study 1) and receptive (study 2) vocabulary tests were selected on the
basis of their frequency of occurrence in, respectively, a corpus of spoken Dutch (9 million words) and a corpus of written
Dutch (50 million words). A cautious interpretation of the results leads us to propose that the shared active and passive
vocabularies of adult native speakers of Dutch amounts to 7000 lemmas. I will discuss the relevance of these findings for both
generative and usage-based theories of L1 and L2 acquisition, arguing that all theories of language acquisition must account
for the acquisition of BLC. I will also address problems in estimating shared vocabulary validly and reliably, and the extent to
which the findings can be extrapolated to other languages and societies.
Wednesday 18 December, 1:30 - 1:50pm, Room: RHLT2, paper
Jiang, Nan (University of Maryland,, Guo, Taomei (Beijing Normal University,, Li,
Man (University of Maryland,
The translation frequency effect in L2 word recognition
The representation and processing of lexical knowledge is an integral part of research on vocabulary acquisition. Several
models have postulated that L2 words are linked to their L1 translations at an early stage and this link becomes less activated
as ones L2 proficiency increases. However, direct evidence of L1 lexical involvement is scarce. Interference errors in L2 word
use that have been considered as evidence for L1 involvement can be a result of conceptual transfer. The present study
examined L1 lexical involvement in L2 word recognition in terms of a translation frequency effect (TFE). Chinese ESL speakers
were asked to perform a lexical decision task on English words that were matched in frequency, length, and part of speech, but
differed in the frequency of their Chinese translations. The mean frequency of their Chinese translations was 801.3 and 20.6 per
million for the high-translation-frequency (HTF) and low-translation-frequency (LTF) conditions, respectively. In Experiment
1 (reported at SLRF 2012), intermediate Chinese ESL speakers were found to respond to the HTF words significantly faster
than the LTF words while no such TFE was found among native controls. In the present Experiment 2 where an advanced
Chinese ESL speaker group and an English frequency manipulation were added, intermediate L2 speakers replicated the
TFE but advanced Chinese ESL speakers showed no such effect. Furthermore, both groups showed a reliable English lexical
frequency effect. The findings offered new insights on the processes involved in L2 word recognition.
Wednesday 18 December, 2:45 - 3:05pm, Room: RHLT2, paper

Kamimoto, Tadamitsu (Kumamoto Gakuen University,

The function of stems in a vocabulary test
Nation and Beglar (2007) recently developed the Vocabulary Size Test (VST). Some validation studies have since appeared
(Beglar 2010; Karami, 2012; Nguyen & Nation, 2011). This study, though on a much smaller scale, also aims at validating the
test, focussing on the manner in which test items are presented. The VST adopts a multiple-choice format with each item being
made up of a stem and four options. In regards to writing guidelines for stems, Beglar (2010: 104) explains that each item is
placed in a short non-defining context. An underlying assumption here is that such a stem wont give away a correct option.
This assumption needs to be tested. A total of 110 Japanese EFL university students participated in the study. To control
for English reading proficiency, a bilingual Japanese VST form was used. Stem sentences were omitted to develop a form
without stems. Two forms of the test, with or without stems, were randomly distributed to the participants. A maximum score
possible was 80 points. Results show that means were 50.38 for the original group and 52.60 for the modified group, yielding
a difference of 2.22. A t-test showed that the difference was statistically significant at the .05 level. Contrary to expectation,
students performed better on the test without stems than on the test with stems. Context was found to be a hindrance rather
than a facilitator. The presentation will report its follow-up item analysis and discuss what the findings may imply.
Thursday 19 December, 3:35 - 3:55pm, Room: RHLT3, paper
Kasahara, Kiwamu (Hokkaido University of Education,
Pedagogical implications of known-and-unknown word combinations
This paper is a full report of several studies on the effect of known-and-unknown word combinations for intentional vocabulary
learning. The term combination in this paper means a two-word collocation of a familiar word and a word that is new to L2
learners. Kasahara (2010, 2011) found that attaching a known word to a word to be remembered could help learners to retain
and retrieve the meaning of the target word. In the encoding phase, the newly-formed link between the known word and
the target word seemed to help the learners to fix the new word into their mental lexicon. In the decoding phase, the known
word appeared to help them to limit the scope of searching the meaning of the target word. Learning words in known-andunknown collocations is superior to learning words in isolation (paired-associate learning) in that it gives a clue (a known
word) for learners to keep and remember the meaning of the target word. This way of learning words puts fewer burdens on
learners than learning words in context such as learning new words in example sentences or passages. This paper deals with
the following three points: (a) the mechanism of learning words in known-and-unknown word combinations, (b) effective
types of two-word combinations, and (c) the effect of this word learning for beginning level L2 learners. Several suggestions
will be made in order to make use of learning words in two-word combinations.
Thursday 19 December, 11:55 - 12:15pm, Room: RHLT2, paper
Kent, Heidi (Simon Fraser University,
Bricklayer: A computerized vocabulary assessment instrument

Jiang, Guowu (The University of Newcastle,

Non-presenting authors: Christo Moskovsky, The University of Newcastle; Alan Libert, University of Newcastle; Seamus Fagan,
University of Newcastle
Bottom-up and Top-down Approaches in Second Language Vocabulary Teaching
This paper presents a quasi-experimental study examining the effectiveness of two essentially different types of vocabulary
teaching approaches: bottom-up and top-down. The study involved 120 first-year university students in Hebei province,
China, who were allocated into two research groups. Participants received 48 hours of exposure to EFL academic vocabulary
instruction over eight weeks, but the groups differed in that each was only exposed to one method of vocabulary teaching,
either bottom-up or top-down. Two dimensions of participants academic English vocabulary development (reception and
controlled production) were measured quantitatively at the start and at the end of the treatment. The analyses of the test
results revealed that both groups made significant gains in the attainment of English academic vocabularyboth in terms
of vocabulary size and in terms of controlled productive vocabulary knowledge. However, the studys findings indicate that of
the two approaches the bottom-up one worked marginally better for this population of EFL learners. A range of factors are
likely to have been responsible for this outcome, including processing differences between language perception and language
production, the learners proficiency level, the nature of L2 lexical acquisition, and the specifics of the Chinese cultural and
educational tradition. Additionally, it seems that the EFL academic vocabulary course that was specifically constructed for the
purposes of the study was quite effective in achieving good learning outcomes, in both of the two instructional approaches.
These findings strengthen the argument for explicit vocabulary teaching which has been put forth in relevant literature.

Vocabulary assessment commonly focuses either on breadth estimates (Nation, 1990) or depth assessment for a few items
(Wesche & Paribakht, 1996). The checklist test (Meara & Buxton, 1987) relies on self-assessment for large numbers of words,
but there are concerns about its reliability. This presentation introduces Bricklayer, a computer game which modifies selfassessment by spot-checking learners self-report. Learners must rank their knowledge for a list of words. Performance results
in a game score. Unlike traditional tests in which each item is measured individually, words are ranked in relation to each
other, making the results highly contextualized. Intermediate ESL learners (N = 28) were assessed twice on each of 72 words. A
subsequent multiple-choice test elicited actual word knowledge. A logistic regression model was built using the participants
overall word rankings in Bricklayer, each users specific word rankings, and the users overall ability level based on game scores.
The models predictive accuracy was comparable to a checklist assessment (61% accuracy for known words; 73% accuracy for
unknown words). However, accuracy for unknown words increased to 87% when considering only low scoring games and
accuracy for known words increased to 71% for high scoring games. These results suggest that, given Bricklayers sensitivity to
the overall context, it is well suited to assessing large numbers of words in a computer adaptive environment in which the user
is given word lists based on previous performance. The presentation will discuss pedagogical implications and also explore
Bricklayers sensitivity to partial semantic knowledge.
Friday 20 December, 4:00 - 4:20pm, Room: RHLT2, paper

Friday 20 December, 9:25 - 9:45am, Room: RHLT2, paper




Ker, Alastair (Victoria University of Wellington,

Lwin, Soe Marlar (National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore,

Ultra-dark matter: How lexical superlatives supplement their grammatical equivalents

Providing exposure to spoken vocabulary through multimodal storytelling interaction

Comparatives and superlatives in English are identified most closely with inflected and phrasal forms of adjectives (e.g. better,
more important, greatest, most common). Biber et al. (1999) found that in a corpus consisting of news, academic prose, fiction
and conversation, comparative forms of adjectives were twice as common as superlative ones. Given the human predilection
for expressing ourselves in superlative terms, such a high ratio appears surprising. The paper will begin by revisiting the
nature of comparison. A taxonomy will be presented which expands the semantic range of how comparison is traditionally
understood to include categories like non-scalar (same / different) comparison (Ker, 2006). A conceptual framework for the
case of superlative meanings building on Huddleston & Pullums (2002) distinction between absolute and relative superlatives
will also be established. Against this background, findings from the ICE-NZ corpus will be reported which demonstrate the
important though under-appreciated role lexis plays in comparison in general. Further concordance data from ICE-NZ will
then be used to demonstrate that lexical superlatives provide a varied and frequently-used alternative to their inflectional
and phrasal equivalents. If the frequency of lexical superlatives is taken into account, the gap between comparative and
superlative adjective forms which Biber et al. pointed out narrows significantly hence the analogy with dark matter.
Implications of these findings for the teaching of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) will be explored. Some key semantic
features of lexical superlatives will be explained, together with patterns of collocation and colligation which are relevant to
their use.

This study investigates how verbal and non-verbal features of storytelling interaction could facilitate young childrens
understanding of the meanings of spoken vocabulary items. Many studies have been done on parent-child interactions
during shared storybook reading to examine their benefits on childrens vocabulary development. Few studies have examined
the interactional strategies used by trained storytellers whose storytelling is not typically accompanied by a book but only by
their well-coordinated gestures, elaborate facial expressions and voice modulation. Applying a multimodal spoken discourse
analysis, this study qualitatively examines the verbal, vocal and visual features used by three trained storytellers during their
storytelling sessions for young children. The results show that besides verbal features, such as scaffolding through questioning
or providing a synonym, the storytellers used specific types of gestures, facial expressions and voice modulation to help
children in making inferences about unfamiliar words in relation to the plot and characters. Inviting and allowing children
to become involved in the storytelling process by acting out the meanings or representations of certain words was another
common interactional strategy used by the three storytellers. The childrens verbal and non-verbal responses shows evidence
of how these interactional strategies have possibly facilitated their understanding of the meanings of several vocabulary
items. The study offers implications for leveraging on the multimodal meaning-making potential of storytelling interaction
while providing young children exposure to spoken vocabulary which has important links to their language development.
Friday 20 December, 9:25 - 9:45am, Room: RHLT3, paper

Wednesday 18 December, 5:15 - 5:35pm, Room: RHLT3, paper

Laufer, Batia (University of Haifa,

Manalo, Emmanuel (Waseda University,, Henning, Marcus (The University of Auckland,

Collocations: hard to get and easy to forget

Why students make little effort in learning L2 vocabulary

The use of L2 collocations is problematic for learners regardless of years of instruction they received, their native language,
or the task they have to perform (Alterberg & Granger, 2001; Granger, 1998; Hasselgren, 1994; Howarth, 1996; Liu, 1999;
Kaszubski, 2000; Nesselhauf, 2005; Schmitt, 2004). The use of L1 collocations, on the other hand, seems to be less immune to
attrition than other language features (Laufer, 2003; Pavlenko, 2010). I report on two studies, one of L2 acquisition, the other
of L1 attrition. The first study compared highly advanced L2 users and native speakers on five areas of lexical proficiency:
richness and variation in writing, vocabulary size, collocation knowledge and use. The number of L2 users who performed like
native speakers was lowest on collocation use and collocation knowledge test. The second study compared Russian- speaking
immigrants in Israel who remained monolingual, i.e. did not acquire Hebrew (L2) with immigrants who acquired Hebrew and
with Russian speaking controls in Russia. Four areas of L1 were examined: lexical retrieval, production of irregular verbs,
production of the future tense of regular verbs and correctness judgment of collocations. Attrition of collocations was found
in the results of both immigrant groups: those who learnt Hebrew and those who remained monolingual. I will relate the
results to the issues of input, instruction, direct and indirect cross linguistic influence in order to explain why collocations,
more than other language features, are difficult to acquire and easy to attrite.

The influence of cognitive cost on students selection and use of learning strategies has not been adequately investigated
in previous research. In this study, we examined whether students make adequate effort in learning second language (L2)
vocabulary words, and considered possible reasons for the amount of effort they use. The participants were 84 Japanese
undergraduate university students taking a compulsory course in English. The course required learning of words from
Coxheads (2000) academic words list; the students received bi-weekly tests on selected words. We examined the students
performance in two consecutive tests, and their responses to surveys about the learning strategies they used. The results
showed that on average the students employed a strategy requiring low effort, and half of the strategies were of a shallow
processing type involving only repetition and rote memorization. Sixty-two per cent of the students indicated that they could
think of a more effective strategy. However, in the second test, only 22% of those students reported using the more effective
strategy, while 71% of the total reported using the exact same strategy as in the first test. An examination of the relationships
between the types and difficulty levels of the strategies employed, and the students scores in the tests, suggest that more
effort did not necessarily equate to the use of deeper processing strategies; nor did it result in better outcomes in the tests.
These disconnections between effort, strategy type, and test outcomes likely explain the low cognitive effort the students
were making in learning.

Thursday 19 December, 11:05 - 11:25am, Room: RHLT2, paper

Wednesday 18 December, 5:15 - 5:35pm, Room: RHLT2, paper

Lin, Chen-Chun Camille (University of Sydney,
Partial word knowledge: Insights from an analysis of word learnability

Matsushita, Tatsuhiko (The University of Tokyo,

The role of receptive morphological knowledge in partial word written form production has not received proper attention in
second language vocabulary research. Addressing this issue, the current paper examined 54 Taiwanese university students
existing receptive morphological knowledge, as measured by the tests of word class and word segmentation, and their
productive vocabulary knowledge. Preliminary results indicated: (1) the participants receptive morphological knowledge was
significantly positive moderately correlated with their productive word knowledge; (2) repeated measures (within-subjects)
analysis of variance showed that more completed words were produced when the word length ranges from 6-letters to
8-letters, and more partial words were produced for the lengths from 9-letters to 12-letters; and (3) non-parametric Friedman
test revealed that the participants produced longer partial words for each word length category. These findings led to further
investigation for understanding the pattern of partial word written form and its relationship between the students existing
morphological knowledge. The results from further investigation of the students partial word production revealed that the
students produced longer letter-strings for partial words based on their knowledge of affixes and knowledge of word class.
These farther results lend support to the contribution of receptive morphological knowledge to partial word production.
Implications for integrating morphological knowledge into productive vocabulary teaching and learning are provided.

How do we evaluate a group of words in gaining text coverage?

Thursday 19 December, 12:40 - 1:30pm, Room: Mezzanine Floor, poster

Domain-specific words such as academic words (Coxhead, 2000) are often extracted for efficient vocabulary learning in a
genre. Text coverage has been used for evaluating these groups of words (Coxhead, 2000; Hyland & Tse, 2007); however, it
is not appropriate for comparing the efficiency between grouped words when the numbers of words are different between
the groups. To solve this problem, this study developed an index titled Text Covering Efficiency (TCE) which is the mean text
coverage per unit number of words of each group of words. The validity of TCE was tested by applying it to Japanese Common
Academic Words (Matsushita, 2011), Japanese Literary Words (Matsushita, 2012) and other types of grouped words. The result
shows that TCE clearly indicates the efficiency in gaining text coverage, and thus it is useful for deciding a more efficient
learning/teaching order of words. In addition, TCE is a robust index by which different lexical features in different genres can
be clarified as well. For example, such an analysis allows you to say things like, Learning the intermediate Japanese Common
Academic Words is 6.2 times more efficient in covering Japanese social science texts than learning other words at the same
level, and 8.3 times more efficient than learning the advanced common academic words. TCE enables us to compare many
different types of grouped words in many different genres. Therefore, it makes easier to decide what words should be learned
first to read texts in a genre and to examine the lexical features of texts in different genres.
Thursday 19 December, 2:20 - 2:40pm, Room: RHLT3, paper




McLean, Stuart (Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine,

Newton, Jonathan (Victoria University of Wellington,

Investigating university students vocabulary sizes and the VST

Non-presenting author: Stuart Webb, Victoria University of Wellington

Rasch validated (Beglar, 2010); the Vocabulary Size Test (VST) (Nation& Beglar, 2007) is an increasingly popular measure of
decontextualized written receptive vocabulary size. While Beglar (2010) indicates that the VST has high internal reliability, the
overestimating of learners vocabulary sizes due to cognates and guessing remain issues. This paper reports on results from
4,831 Japanese university student VST tests. The students were grouped by year, major and hensachi (national ability test
results). In the study, we found the VSTs reliability to be high (Chronbachs alpha = .92). Mean VST scores decline progressively
from 1st through 4th year students. English majors demonstrated greater lexical knowledge than science majors, who in turn
out-performed arts majors. Unexpected patterns were found in the knowledge students demonstrated: greater knowledge
of less frequent 1000-word bands than more frequent word bands, and variations of up to 60% in correct responses between
consecutive items. Rasch analysis indicates that guessing is inflating participants scores. Significant correlations were found
between VST scores and hensachi scores, TOEIC scores and TOFEL scores. In line with Okamotos (2007) and Cobb & Horsts
(1999) research in Japan and Hong Kong respectively, the data collected in this study posits that Japanese English education
is facilitating lexical attrition. The VST effectively separates participants in line with their lexical ability, however assigning a
written receptive vocabulary size through the VST remains problematic. Thus, the VST and other vocabulary size instruments
would benefit from further editing, being based on less formal corpora, being more sensitive, and not containing more
cognates/loan words than the L1 within the range of vocabulary being tested.

L2 vocabulary teaching: What do teachers actually do?

Friday 20 December, 1:55 - 2:15pm, Room: RHLT2, paper

Mizumoto, Atsushi (Kansai University,, Yamanishi, Hiroyuki (Kansai University, hiyamani@, Urano, Ken (Hokkai-Gakuen University,
Incorporating a self-regulated learning approach into vocabulary learning courses
This study aimed to explore the effects of incorporating a self-regulated learning approach into vocabulary learning courses.
A group of 220 learners of English as a Foreign Language from a university in Japan participated in this study. This study
involved two types of courses: (a) an intensive vocabulary learning course and (b) a normal reading and vocabulary learning
course. The participants were assigned as the treatment groups and the contrast groups in both courses. Only the treatment
groups received the intervention which was a self-regulated learning approach. The participants completed a questionnaire
on self-efficacy in vocabulary learning and vocabulary learning strategies before and after the intervention. They also took
a multiple-choice vocabulary test as a pretest and a posttest. The gain scores in the questionnaire and the vocabulary test
were submitted to ANOVA. The results showed that the two treatment groups showed a steady increase in self-efficacy and
vocabulary knowledge compared with the contrast groups. The findings from the current study provide empirical evidence
suggesting that through a self-regulated learning approach, it might be possible to enhance self-efficacy, which in turn
may contribute to the better development of vocabulary knowledge. The pedagogical implications of the current study are
discussed mainly in terms of incorporating instructions aimed at enhancing self-efficacy and self-regulation in vocabulary
teaching and learning.
Wednesday 18 December, 4:50 - 5:10pm, Room: RHLT2, paper
Nakata, Tatsuya (Victoria University of Wellington,
Does gradually increasing spacing increase second language vocabulary learning?
Expanding spacing refers to a practice schedule where the intervals between encounters of a given item are gradually increased,
whereas in equal spacing, the intervals between encounters are held constant. Although expanding spacing is often regarded
as the most effective practice schedule (e.g., Ellis, 1995; Hulstijn, 2001; Nation, 2001; Schmitt, 2007), studies comparing equal
and expanding spacing have yielded mixed results. Specifically, while some studies failed to find any advantage of expanding
over equal spacing, other studies found the superiority of expanding spacing under limited conditions: when (a) feedback
is not provided after retrievals, (b) the treatment involves a large amount of spacing, and / or (c) the retention interval
(i.e., interval between the treatment and posttest) is shorter than 24 hours (for reviews, see Balota et al., 2007; Roediger &
Karpicke, 2010). The present study examined whether the amount of spacing and retention interval may influence the effects
of expanding and equal spacing on second language vocabulary learning. One hundred and twenty-eight Japanese college
students studied 20 English-Japanese word pairs. The type of spacing (expanding and equal) as well as the amount of spacing
(massed, short, medium, and long) were manipulated. Results suggested that the type of spacing may have little effect on
vocabulary learning regardless of the amount of spacing or retention interval. The main effect of the amount of spacing,
however, was significant. Pedagogically, the findings imply that introducing a large amount of spacing between encounters
may be more important than gradually increasing spacing.

Despite the sizable body of recent research on L2 vocabulary teaching and learning (e.g., Nation 2001, 2008) and the range
of publications advising teachers on effective vocabulary teaching strategies (e.g., Nation and Gu, 2007; Schmitt, 2000), there
is a distinct lack of research on how teachers actually address vocabulary in their classroom practice. This paper reports on
a study that addresses this gap through an extensive survey-based investigation into the vocabulary-related practices of
teachers in a variety of settings (EFL and ESL, high schools, universities and private language schools) and national contexts.
The paper reports on main findings from the analysis of survey responses and looks at how the data corresponds to principles
and advice for vocabulary teaching found in the research literature.
Wednesday 18 December, 4:00 - 4:20pm, Room: RHLT2, paper
Nomura, Mariko (Kanda University of International Studies,
Lexical diversity in Japanese EFL learners spoken and written production
This study investigates the lexical richness of Japanese EFL learners spoken and written production from the perspective of
lexical diversity. Previous vocabulary research has suggested that a value called D (or Diversity) is a good measure of lexical
diversity even for short texts, not being influenced by text length (e.g., Durn, Malvern, Richards & Chipere, 2004). Previous
studies have tested the validity of D with respect to the lexical diversity of Japanese EFL learners production by using spoken
or written data alone. For instance, Koizumi (2007) showed that D was a valid index of lexical diversity for spoken data
produced by Japanese secondary school students. Little is known as to how valid D values are for both spoken and written
texts from the same learners at the secondary school level. The present study used spoken and written texts on two different
topics produced by 42 Japanese secondary school students who had three levels of EIKEN certification (Grades 3, Pre-2 and
2). EIKEN is Japans most widely used English language testing program which measures English proficiency. D values for the
paired data were calculated using Meara and Miralpeixs (2007) D_Tools program. The results showed that learners written
texts were more lexically diverse than their spoken texts: the mean D score was about 20 higher in the written texts. More
proficient learners also used more lexically diverse language than less proficient learners. In this study, D proved to be valid
for both modes of short texts produced by Japanese secondary school students.
Wednesday 18 December, 4:00 - 4:20pm, Room: RHLT3, paper
Parent, Kevin (Korea Maritime University,
Polysemy and the language learner
This presentation discusses the concepts of polysemy and homonymy, and the problems they pose to language learners.
It reports on a study conducted with learners encountering high frequency words employing rare meanings (the culinary
meaning of cure, the sea-inlet meaning of sound, etc.) which shows a strong tendency for learners to cling to the familiar
meaning even when it results in sentences we might expect would be rejected. Also discussed are whether all meanings of
a polyseme be taught at once when the word is introduced or if this increases the learning burden. We will also examine the
most frequent words with multiple but unrelated meanings and how this should influence the construction of word lists. If, for
example, the homonym miss is two different words (one a title and the other a verb and its related noun), should its inclusion
on high frequency word lists be adjusted?
Friday 20 December, 3:35 - 3:55pm, Room: RHLT3, paper
Pinchbeck, Geoffrey (University of Calgary,
Vocabulary profiling of Canadian High School Diploma exam expository writing
This presentation will examine the relationship between vocabulary use and academic success in mainstream grade 12 English
Language Arts (ELA) classrooms. Canadian urban centres are undergoing a rapid demographic shift, one result of which has
been a call for academic language to be given a more prominent role in public educational planning across the curricula.
Working towards the development of an academic lexical syllabus component within the mainstream K-12 secondary
curricular framework, we hope to refine the construct of general academic language within Canadian secondary education
settings (as opposed to post-secondary settings, e.g. Coxhead, 2000). We are in the process of compiling a >2,000,000-word,

Friday 20 December, 11:55 - 12:15pm, Room: RHLT2, paper




grade-12-student written corpus from a large random sample of essays from a provincial diploma ELA exam. Lexical indexes
such as frequency and diversity data and vocabulary profiles then will be generated by aligning essay vocabulary with reference
corpora of adult British5 and American7 English as well as an American K-12 textbook and reader corpus. Vocabulary profiles
will then be compared to the following associated data: 1) official provincial exam essay scores (holistic rubric), 2) writing
error data using a detailed coded rubric, and 3) student high-school transcripts. Using a combination of discriminant and
regression analytical approaches, we plan to identify a domain of mid-frequency vocabulary that explains unique variance
of both essay quality and general academic success. We present how this research might be used to develop tools to monitor
English academic literacy development for diagnostic purposes and to inform a strategic K-12 academic language pedagogy.
Wednesday 18 December, 3:10 - 3:30pm, Room: RHLT3, paper
Qian, David (The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,, Lin, Linda (The Hong Kong Polytechnic
Power of the Vocabulary Levels Test for predicting writing proficiency

Racine, John (Dokkyo University,

Priming and profiles in first and second language word association
One of the assumptions underlying experimental design in word association (WA) research is that the order in which cues
are presented will affect respondents response patterns. To minimize such influence on their data, researchers routinely
create multiple, randomized versions of WA tests. At the same time however, there is growing evidence that response profiles
remain relatively stable over time, and that they remain stable even across languages. That is, proficient language learners
L2 responses more closely resemble their own L1 responses than they do native speakers responses. To date, very few studies
have been conducted to determine whether cue order has a significant effect on response types or whether respondents
continue to adhere to their individual response pattern despite manipulations to cues. This study was designed to measure
the influence of priming on WA responses of both native speakers and non-native speakers of English. Two WA tasks were
administered to groups of participants five to eight weeks apart. Using data gathered at T1, individualized forms were created
to intentionally prime certain response types at T2. While no priming effects were observed in the responses of the NNS group
at T2, a statistically significant amount of priming was observed in native-speaker responses. Results will be discussed in
terms of second language proficiency and response profile strength. Future research will be suggested.

The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) has played a useful role in predicting various aspects of EFL learners proficiency (Laufer,1997;
Qian, 1999, 2002; Staehr, 2008). Staehr, for example, identifies a strong correlation between learners scores from the VLT and
those from an English proficiency test. Little research, however, has hitherto extended to comparisons between the VLTs
predicative power and that of high-stakes proficiency tests, for example, Use of English (UE) and the National Matriculation
English Test (NMET), two English language tests in the university entrance examinations in Hong Kong and China respectively.
This paper presents an empirical study exploring the extent to which the VLT can predict one aspect of EFL learners language
proficiency, namely, writing. Two groups of first-year degree students in a major university in Hong Kong, 67 from Hong Kong
and 83 from mainland China, participated in the study. The participants were asked to take the VLT and a writing test. Scores
from these tests were then compared with their scores from UE and the NMET. It was found that VLTs predictive power for
assessing writing performance was considerably lower than that of UE, a well-established proficiency test, but significantly
higher than that of the NMET, also a long-established high-stakes test. An analysis of lexical richness (lexical profile, lexical
sophistication and lexical variation) in the writing of these two groups of learners added more empirical evidence to this
finding. Results of the study also suggest that the 5000 vocabulary level is an important threshold for the writing of EFL
students at the tertiary level. References Laufer, B. (1997). The lexical plight in second language reading: words you dont know,
words you think you know and words you cant guess. In J. Coady & T. Huckin (Eds.) Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition:
a Rationale for Pedagogy (pp. 20-34). Cambridge University Press. Qian, D. D. (2002). Investigating the relationship between
vocabulary knowledge and academic reading performance: An assessment perspective. Language Learning. 52(3), 513-536
Qian, D. D. (1999). Assessing the roles of depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge in reading comprehension. Canadian
Modern Language Review, 56(2), 282-307. Staehr, L. S. (2008). Vocabulary size and the skills of listening, reading and writing.
Language Learning Journal, 36(2), 139-152.

Wednesday 18 December, 1:55 - 2:15pm, Room: RHLT2, paper

Wednesday 18 December, 1:55 - 2:15pm, Room: RHLT3, paper

Friday 20 December, 2:45 - 3:05pm, Room: RHLT2, paper

Quero, Betsy (LALS, Victoria University of Wellington,

Lexical text coverage of medical texts written in English
It is widely accepted that vocabulary learning can be sequenced from focusing first on acquiring the most general and frequent
words of the language and then moving progressively to the least frequent ones (Nation, 2001; Coxhead, 2000; Konstantakis,
2007; Sutarsyah et al., 1994; Ward, 1999). One problem students of English for Specific Purposes encounter when sequencing
the vocabulary learning of general high frequency words, academic words, mid frequency words, technical words, and low
frequency words of their L2 is to be able to acquire an important amount of content-specific words in a relatively short time
span (one or two years of their English for Medical Purposes courses). This study explains the lexical text coverage that a 5.4
million medical corpus of written English has over the 25 thousand British National Corpus/COCA lists. First, the cumulative
text coverage results of these 25 general lists over the medical corpus are presented. Then the results of running through the
RANGE program (Heatley, Nation, and Coxhead, 2000) some medical word lists on top of the 25 thousand British National
Corpus/COCA lists are explained. Finally this study concludes by reflecting on the most suitable sequence to organise the
learning of the most frequent medical words needed for good unassisted reading comprehension of medical texts written in
Wednesday 18 December, 11:45 - 12:05pm, Room: RHLT3, paper

Read, John (University of Auckland,

Reflecting on the validity of vocabulary assessments
In his influential volume Assessing vocabulary (2000), John Read analysed the gap that existed at that time between
vocabulary testing and the mainstream field of language assessment. He proposed a simple framework that could help bridge
the gap, consisting of three continua: discrete vs. embedded construct definitions, selective vs. comprehensive sampling of
vocabulary items, and context-independent vs. context-dependent assessment procedures. These distinctions are still helpful
in integrating conventional vocabulary tests into a field that is still dominated by the work on the development of task-based
proficiency and achievement tests. However, much has changed in the last decade. On the one hand, there has been an
upsurge of articles in the major journals Language Testing and Language Assessment Quarterly, reporting more sophisticated
analyses of the technical quality and validity of particular vocabulary measures. In addition, two recent research manuals
(Schmitt, 2010; Nation & Webb, 2011) have spelled out standards for the measurement of outcomes in vocabulary research
studies in particular. On the other hand, there has been a renewed interest among language testers in diagnosis as a purpose
of language assessment, opening a new role for lexical measures in the field. The paper will review the implications of these
developments and consider the current status of vocabulary testing within language assessment, with particular reference
to the issue of the appropriate criteria for validating lexical measures. The dominance of the Assessment Use Argument in
contemporary thinking about the process of test validation does not necessarily accommodate vocabulary assessment very

Ruegg, Rachael (Akita International University,, Brown, Cherie (Akita International University,
Digging Deep: Analysing task potential to increase vocabulary retention
Learning and retaining vocabulary are inherent requirements in the acquisition of any language. Teachers and learners are
rightly concerned with identifying and maximizing the potential effectiveness of learning tasks, in order to enhance the
possibility of learning success. In the process of incidental vocabulary acquisition, the extent to which tasks require depth of
processing, termed task-induced involvement by Laufer and Hulstijn (2001), and the potential effects of this on subsequent
vocabulary retention, deserve greater attention. Laufer and Hulstijn (2001) claim that when need, search and evaluation
are required in order to complete a task, learners engage with words more deeply, thus optimizing potential for successful
vocabulary retention. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the extent to which tasks, in commonly used reading textbooks
and integrated skills course books, induce deep involvement with vocabulary, thus facilitating vocabulary retention. The
tasks in 10 reading textbooks and 10 integrated skills course books were analysed in terms of the three elements identified
by Laufer and Hulstijn (2001). The study found that the tasks in many commonly used textbooks offered too much vocabulary
support to learners, thereby avoiding the need for deep involvement with the vocabulary and potentially limiting vocabulary
retention. The research method and findings will be discussed in detail and practical suggestions for more effective tasks will
be given, in order to facilitate more successful vocabulary retention.
Friday 20 December, 2:20 - 2:40pm, Room: RHLT3, paper




Ryan, Geraldine (Eastwest College of Intercultural Studies,

Sheppard, Chris (Waseda University,, Ueno, Yoshio (Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan,

The Incidental acquisition of technical vocabulary through texts

Multiple-choice testing of productive vocabulary

In the field of EAP the acquisition of the technical vocabulary of a subject is generally consigned to the mainstream classroom
with little research on how well such vocabulary can be acquired in those classrooms. This paper will report on a corpus study
which examined the percentage, number and frequency of occurrence of technical vocabulary (both individual words and
fixed phrases) in theology books at Masters level in order to examine the extent to which the texts provided the lexical input
necessary to aid in incidental learning of that vocabulary in a mainstream classroom over a semester by L2 students. The
reading material for the semester was used to form the corpus. From a corpus of 256,238 word tokens the study found that
technical words and fixed phrases made up 9.8% of the corpus. While the percentage of technical words and phrases was not
high there was a large number (1005) to meet in one semester and their frequency of occurrence was low. 25.5% occurred
eight or more times, while only 16.9% occurred 15 or more times. It was concluded that this would make the incidental
acquisition of such vocabulary difficult. In addition non-technical low frequency vocabulary formed another 5.73% of the
corpus. Therefore if L2 students did not know the technical vocabulary of their discipline and were unfamiliar with the LF
vocabulary, the percentage of unknown vocabulary in their texts would be too high to facilitate much incidental vocabulary
acquisition. These and other findings will be discussed.

In a context where a large number of participants (12,000-13,000) take a pen and paper test and results are required within a few
days, the usual fill-in-the-blank format of question which tests productive vocabulary is not practicable and other approaches
must be found. This paper reports research which validates one such alternative approach, i.e., multiple-choice testing of
productive vocabulary. A disadvantage of standard multiple-choice vocabulary test items is that, along with distractors, they
require the correct answer to be supplied and, as a result, they are unable to measure productive knowledge. One solution to
this problem is to provide testees with a code where each letter of the alphabet can be matched to a number. In order to select
a correct answer, the testee needs to produce the word first, transform each letter of the word into a number according to the
given code, and then match this with the correct option. Two studies were conducted in order to examine the validity of this
style of multiple-choice test. The first study included an item analysis of 20 items used in entrance examinations over four
years of testing and reports the results in terms of the internal reliability and the construct validity of the testing. The second
study, using a much smaller sample size, reports the content validity and face validity of the test. The general reliability and
validity of testing productive vocabulary using the code format are discussed and suggestions are made for further revisions.

Thursday 19 December, 3:10 - 3:30pm, Room: RHLT3, paper

Schmitt, Norbert (University of Nottingham,
Size and depth of vocabulary: A review of the research
It has been common to describe vocabulary knowledge in terms of size and depth since the 1980s. While the ideal case would
be where learners have a large lexicon in which each item is well known, it is possible to think of cases where learners have a
small lexicon of well-practiced and well-known items. Conversely, learners using extensive rote memorization might be found
to have large vocabularies in which all that is known about the individual items is the memorized meanings. While these
extremes do exist, what does the research show is the typical relationship between size and depth? Some researchers have
even suggested there is little real difference between the two constructs in practice (e.g. Vermeer, 2001). This presentation
will first discuss different ways depth of vocabulary knowledge can be conceptualized: 1. developmental progress from no
knowledge to full mastery 2. knowing the form-meaning link of a word 3. knowing other word knowledge components, such
as multiple meaning senses, derivative forms, and collocation 4. being able to use the word receptively and productively (i.e. in
reading, writing, speaking, listening, and the ability to inference from context) 5. how well the words in the mental lexicon are
organized 6. the ability to use the lexical item fluently The presentation will then report on a critical synthesis of vocabulary
studies in which both size and depth have been measured to develop an empirically-based description of the relationship
between breadth and depth.

Thursday 19 December, 12:40 - 1:30pm, Room: Mezzanine Floor, poster

Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna (Victoria University of Wellington,
Quality and quantity of learner collocation: a longitudinal perspective
The fact that second language (L2) learners have problems with collocation in their written and spoken language is widely
attested. However, few studies have investigated the development of L2 collocational knowledge longitudinally. Fewer still
have employed more than a handful of participants. In addition, virtually all studies to date have looked at advanced L2
learners of English. Other L2 proficiencies and L2 backgrounds have, by and large, been disregarded.
Twenty beginner L1 Chinese learners of L2 Italian wrote a composition at the beginning (Level 1), in the middle (Level 2), and
at the end (Level 3) of an intensive language course. A small corpus of L2 Italian was compiled with the aim to investigate the
quality and quantity of N+Adj collocations.
Analyses revealed that the number of learner collocations was comparable across the three levels, suggesting no quantitative
increase. However, further analyses showed a significant qualitative increase in collocation usage. Level 3 compositions
contained more frequent and strongly associated collocations than Level 1 compositions. In addition, less repetition was
observed in Level 3 compositions than in Level 1 compositions. Taken together, the study provides new insights into the
development of L2 collocational competence.
Thursday 19 December, 9:50 - 10:10am, Room: RHLT2, paper

Wednesday 18 December, 10:30 - 10:50am, Room: RHLT2, paper

Sheppard, Chris (Waseda University,

Stengers, Helene (Vrije Universiteit Brussel,, Eyckmans, June (Universiteit Gent, june., Deconinck, Julie (Vrije Universiteit Brussel,

Vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension: A meta-analysis

Improving L2 idiom learning through attention to form or to meaning?

Vocabulary knowledge has long been acknowledged as an important part of the reading process. This paper reports the results
of a meta-analysis conducted on research investigating the extent to which vocabulary knowledge influences comprehension
in both first and second language (L1 and L2) reading. 30 studies containing 59 data sets were located through an extensive
search of the literature and were entered into a correlational meta-analysis (Hunter and Schmidt, 2004). A cohort of 8973
participants was involved. The results found the sample-size-weighted population correlation to be = .69, s = .057 after
accounting for sampling error and other measurement artifacts. Further analysis demonstrated that the mean correlation
does not differ depending on the language. However, it was determined that age as a factor does have an effect on the
correlations, and that it behaves differently depending on the language. For L1 there appears to be a linear decrease, with
higher correlations found for studies conducted with primary school aged participants, and significantly lower correlations
with tertiary aged and adult participants. L2 demonstrates a different pattern. Studies reporting correlations with primary
and secondary school aged participants showed the same pattern as in L1 studies. However, studies investigating tertiary
aged and adult participants reported a significant increase, with adults showing the strongest (= .86, s = .044). Two competing
explanations for these results are discussed. The analysis also determined that a large percentage of the variance in the
correlations is yet unaccounted for, indicating that further research needs to be conducted.

This paper describes an experiment that was set up to measure the relative mnemonic effects of enhanced attention to form
versus attention to meaning during the acquisition of L2 figurative idioms. Intermediate L2 English students were presented
with online exercises on a set of 25 English idioms that they were unfamiliar with. In the first series of exercises, all participants
were invited to elaborate on the meaning of the idioms. Afterwards, half of the participants were requested to copy the
idioms, whereas the other group of participants was asked to rate the usefulness of the idioms, an activity relying mainly
on semantically-oriented processing. Recall was measured after the treatment by means of a gap-fill exercise in which each
idiom was presented in context with a keyword missing. The results of the experiment are discussed in light of the levels-ofprocessing theory (Craik & Lockhart 1972), the transfer-appropriate -processing theory (TAP)(Morris et al. 1977) and Barcrofts
transfer-of-processing-resources-allocation (TOPRA) model for lexical learning (2002). We also show that cognitive-style
variables may enhance or constrain the proposed mnemonic effects. Barcroft, J. (2002). Semantic and Structural Elaboration
in L2 Lexical Acquisition. Language Learning, 52 (2), 323-363. Craik, F.I.M., & Lockhart, R.S. (1972). Levels of processing. A
framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671-684. Morris, C.D., Bransford, J.D., &
Franks, J.J. (1977). Levels of processing versus transfer appropriate processing. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior,
16, 519-533.

Wednesday 18 December, 10:55 - 11:15am, Room: RHLT3, paper

Thursday 19 December, 3:10 - 3:30pm, Room: RHLT2, paper




Strong, Brian (Kwansei Gakuin University,

Thomson, Haidee (Fuji Womens University,

Methods of learning phrasal verbs: A Cognitive Linguistic approach

Noticing and acquiring lexical bundles with schematic linguistic representation

The relevance of formulaic language for foreign language teaching and learning stems from not only its pervasiveness in
everyday language, but also its status as a perennial source of confusion. Corpus linguistic studies provide quantitative data
that indicates a large portion of language involves the use of formulaic sequences. Whereas some estimates calculate that
over 50% of language use is formulaic, other studies speculate that nearly four formulaic expressions are produced every
minute of spoken discourse. Although many types of multiword units fall under the category of formulaic language, this
presentation focuses on phrasal verbs because while they are considered to be the most frequently occurring formulaic
string, only a handful of studies have investigated ways to enhance methods of teaching and learning phrasal verbs. This
quasi-experimental study applied a cognitive linguistic approach to raising learners awareness of the underlying semantic
contribution of the adverbial particles to the meaning of the phrasal verbs. This approach was compared to a traditional
method encouraging rote-memorization. The results show that participants employing a rote-memorization strategy scored
significantly lower than the cognitive linguistic group. On a 3-week delayed post-test, the cognitive linguistic groups scores
were higher than the traditional group. The results show promise that aspects of a cognitive linguistic approach are able to
contribute to EFL learners comprehension of verb-particle constructions.

Knowledge of formulaic language helps second language English speakers to anticipate, process, and produce language
more fluently. Lexical bundles are the most common type of formulaic language, therefore helping second language learners
of English to acquire receptive and productive knowledge of lexical bundles is desirable. Liu (2012) suggested presenting
lexical bundles with schematic linguistic representation for acquisition, but this method had not been tested empirically.
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to empirically test this instruction method. The investigation was carried out using
three university groups of Japanese first language speakers with comparable proficiency in English as a foreign language.
Pre-tests determined nine target items, which were then presented to learners within two purpose made texts along with
Japanese translation. Each group was treated to a different instruction method: bare noticing of the lexical bundles within
the text, noticing the lexical bundles with schematic linguistic representation and as a comparison method, using the texts
to answer meaning focused questions. The immediate post-test results showed that the noticing with schematic linguistic
representation group had acquired significantly more productive knowledge of the target lexical bundles than the comparison
groups. However, delayed post-tests showed no significant difference across the instruction methods. The methodology and
results will be presented and discussed in light of the involvement load hypothesis, classroom application and future research

Friday 20 December, 4:00 4:20pm, Room: RHLT3, paper

Thursday 19 December, 12:20 12:40pm, Room: RHLT2, paper

Sugino, Naoki (Ritsumeikan University,, Fraser, Simon (Hiroshima University, fraser@hiroshima-u., Aotani, Noriko (Tokai Gakuen University, Japan,
Non-presenting authors: Kojiro Shojima, National Center for University Entrance Examinations, Japan; KOGA Yuya, Waseda
University, Japan
Capturing and representing asymmetries in Japanese EFL learners mental lexicon
The priming effect in the word association task as well as such notions as asymmetric collocation or directional collocation
indicate that the probability of either of the collocating pairs occurring after the other is not always equal. Such asymmetric
relations are also observed with adjective and noun pairs; some of the adjectives are used both attributively and predicatively
(e.g., rich - businessperson), while some are restricted either to the attributive use (e.g., total - nonsense) or to the predicative
use (e.g., baby - asleep). However, such syntactic restrictions are not always clear-cut, and sometimes both uses are possible
with subtle changes in meaning. Furthermore, it has been pointed out that Japanese EFL learners are not sensitive to such
probabilistic distributions. Thus, attaining normative categorization of adjectives poses difficulty for them. In the present
study, we employ AMISESCAL (Asymmetric von Mises Scaling), a newly developed statistical model, to investigate how
Japanese EFL learners at different proficiency levels categorize adjectives. One of the advantages of using AMISESCAL is
that it visualizes asymmetric relations among elements on a two dimensional map. In this study, adjectives are controlled in
terms of their use (attributive, predicative, both), and nouns are either concrete or abstract nouns. Participants are instructed
to judge, using a Likert scale, the naturalness of word pairs presented randomly and at timed intervals in the order of both
Adj-N and N-Adj. The output of the AMISESCAL analysis will be compared across the proficiency levels, and implications will
be discussed.
Wednesday 18 December, 11:45 - 12:05pm, Room: RHLT2, paper

Tono, Yukio (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies,

Sampling biases and implications for better wordlist creation
One of the problems of compiling educational wordlists is that word frequency distributions are very skewed and only a
handful of very highly frequent words comprise a majority of texts. For example, after the first 2,000 word (lemma) level, which
will cover approximately 80% in written texts of the British National Corpus, the coverage of an additional 1,000 words will add
only 3-4 percent of the total text coverage. This range of mid-frequency words is nevertheless very important for intermediate
to advanced learners because it will provide the foundations for EAP and ESP vocabulary. At the same time, a precise definition
of general EAP and ESP vocabulary is not so straightforward because this mid-frequency vocabulary is susceptible to sampling
biases. In this study, an experiment was carried out to examine how sampling biases affect the selection of mid-frequency
vocabulary for the educational wordlist. First, the sampling frames were defined based on the British National Corpus. Like
the New Model Corpus on the Sketch Engine, by limiting the web searches to particular subdomains on the net, BNC-clones
(c. 100 million words with similar text domains) were automatically created. This procedure was replicated 10-20 times, and
the first 1,000 - 10,000 frequency lists were compared across the corpora. This statistics provided the word frequency stability
scores across corpora, which could be used to better select mid-frequency words which occur fairly consistently at a certain
frequency range everytime new texts are selected. Implications for developing new wordlists will be discussed based on the
Thursday 19 December, 9:25 - 9:45am, Room: RHLT3, paper
van Hees, Jannie (Faculty of Education, University of Auckland,

Tegge, Friederike (Victoria University of Wellington,

The vocabulary knowledge gap in primary schools: Professional development for teachers

Music mnemonics and vocabulary learning Using Songs in the Classroom

Primary school teachers are well aware of the impact of students vocabulary knowledge on how well they can comprehend and
express in all areas of the curriculum. However, most admit to having limited in-depth knowledge about vocabulary generally,
and about vocabulary assessment and how to gain traction on expanding students vocabulary knowledge and capabilities.
This paper will describe the professional development (PD) model being used in some Auckland primary schools to address
the vocabulary knowledge gap of teachers, where the theory-practice interface is core. It will discuss highest impact, schoolwide vocabulary focuses and the effects these are having on the teachers vocabulary knowledge and practices, and most
importantly, on the students acquisition of and attention to vocabulary. The PD model includes iterative cycles of enactment,
deconstruction, reflection and identification of next steps. The effectiveness of this approach will be discussed and enactment
examples will be shown.

In EFL and ESL teaching, language instructors make use of the appeal that popular music holds and use pop songs, at least
occasionally, as teaching material inside the classroom. A frequent purpose of using songs is to introduce new or practice
previously introduced vocabulary. In an international teacher survey with over 500 participants in 40 countries (author, in
preparation), teachers repeatedly stated that music appears to be an aid to memorising. In this paper I explore the question
whether songs have a mnemonic effect that can be used to aid vocabulary learning. I present an intervention study on the
retention of verbatim text and vocabulary when presented in a song as compared to in a poem (no melody) or prose text (no
melody, no rhyme, no metre). Participants were intermediate and advanced EFL learners in Belgium, Serbia and Germany
(N > 150). They listened to and read a text in song, poem or prose format and engaged in classroom activities related to
the text. Recall of verbatim text and vocabulary was assessed immediately and one week later using a number of tests,
including verbatim text recall, text recognition and tests of receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. The experiment
was designed to reflect classroom reality. To ensure a high degree of ecological validity, both treatment and material were
informed by the above-mentioned teacher survey as well as by a corpus study on the lexical profile of songs used for English
teaching (Tegge, in preparation).

Friday 20 December, 10:15 - 10:35am, Room: RHLT2, paper

Friday 20 December, 9:50 - 10:10am, Room: RHLT2, paper




van Hees, Jannie (Faculty of Education, University of Auckland,

Assessing vocabulary knowledge in primary schools: Evaluating whats available
In primary schools in New Zealand, a limited range of assessment tools are available and being used to gauge students
understanding and use of vocabulary. Internationally normed vocabulary tools are rarely if ever used and nationally normed
vocabulary assessment tools are largely not available. This paper scopes the field of vocabulary assessment tools available
and being used in New Zealand primary schools, and evaluates the insights these offer teachers. The state of affairs will be
discussed in light of teachers need to know about students current vocabulary knowledge in order make student-focused
pedagogical decisions, particularly for students from low SES communities who have significant gaps in vocabulary in English.
New developments in vocabulary assessment tools for use in New Zealand primary schools will be briefly shared.
Thursday 19 December, 12:40 - 1:30pm, Room: Mezzanine Floor, poster
Vasiljevic, Zorana (Faculty of Language and Literature at Bunkyo University, Japan,
Effects of learner-generated illustrations on comprehension and recall of L2 idioms
Research in cognitive semantics has shown that the dual coding of input (i.e. presentation of both verbal and visual
information), promotes the formation of memory traces and consequently, the retention of information. The results of
earlier studies that examined the effects of pictorial elucidation on idiom learning suggest that pictures may facilitate
comprehension, but contribute little to learners retention of linguistic forms and may even interfere with it. This presentation
will review the results of two studies that were conducted to examine whether learner-generated illustrations could serve as a
way of integrating images and verbal descriptions so that both the comprehension and the production of idiomatic language
are facilitated. The first study compared instruction through verbal definitions with the condition where verbal instruction
was combined with learner-generated pictures. The second study compared the retention of meaning and form of the target
idioms when pictures were provided by the instructor with the condition when the learners had to draw their own images after
reading verbal explanations. The results of the two studies suggest that a combination of visual and verbal clues has a limited
effect on retention of the meaning of idiomatic phrases, but a positive effect on the recall of their linguistic form.
Thursday 19 December, 2:20 - 2:40pm, Room: RHLT2, paper
Waring, Rob (Notre Dame Seishin University, Okayama,
What kind of vocabulary is in course books and graded readers?
This talk presents data on the vocabulary profiles of over 800 graded readers and 40 textbooks from Japan, Korea and
Mexico. The aim of the analysis is to determine which words are in these texts and what the likely uptake might be from just
completing the course books and by adding one or two graded readers a week. The results differed by country with the lowest
uptake rates in Japanese course books and the highest in Mexico. After 6 years of Junior and Senior High school Japanese
learners can expect to know (words met 20 times or more) fewer than 500 words plus several hundred partially known
words. Approximately 40%-60% of the types will be met fewer than 5 times which shows that despite great efforts, most of
their learning will be futile unless supported by a commitment to extensive reading and listening. Adding one or two graded
readers per week increases the uptake rates by 50-70%.
Thursday 19 December, 9:50 10:10am, Room: RHLT3, paper

Webb, Stuart (Victoria University of Wellington,, Boers, Frank (Victoria University of Wellington,
Do textual enhancement techniques increase incidental learning of collocation?
When collocations are repeatedly encountered in a single text, incidental learning of these items is relatively small (Webb,
Newton, & Chang, 2013). With insufficient classroom time to teach the thousands of single word items, time to explicitly focus
on collocations is lacking. A useful avenue for research is thus finding ways to increase incidental learning of collocation.
Textual enhancement techniques such as glossing, and bolding target vocabulary can increase vocabulary learning (Peters,
2012; Rott, 2007). The present study looks at how incidental learning of collocation through reading might be increased using
textual enhancement techniques. 187 Japanese university students learning English as a foreign language simultaneously
read and listened to one of four versions of a modified graded reader that included five encounters with a set of 18 target
collocations. In version 1 the text was unenhanced. In version 2, the target collocations were bolded in each occurrence. In
version 3, the first occurrence of the target collocations was glossed, and in the fourth version the first and fifth occurrences
of the collocations were glossed. The study used a pretest/posttest design. Two tests were used to measure learning. One test
measured knowledge of the written form of the collocations, and the other measured knowledge of form-meaning connection.
The results indicated that (a) all three enhanced texts contributed to significantly higher scores on the test of written form
than the unenhanced text, and (b) the two glossed texts contributed to greater knowledge of form-meaning connection than
the bolded and the unenhanced versions.
Thursday 19 December, 3:35 - 3:55pm, Room: RHLT2, paper
White, Rebecca (Victoria University of Wellington,
The developing literate lexicon in L1 secondary school academic writing
One of the major developments in later language acquisition is the attainment of the literate lexicon (the vocabulary
used in scholarly texts). Carrying implications for academic success and social status, development of the literate lexicon
typically begins at adolescence, a time when individuals are cognitively ready and well-placed in a lexically rich schooling
environment. While research has focused on acquisition of the core lexicon (the vocabulary first acquired for initial language
learning purposes), less is known about how the literate lexicon grows during adolescence. This presentation looks at one
aspect of the development of the literate lexicon: the level of low-frequency words used in writing, as seen through lexical
sophistication levels in secondary school essays. As part of a larger study looking at lexical richness features in adolescent
written texts, lexical sophistication measures were applied to the writing samples collected from English classes at three
different secondary school year levels (years 9, 11, 13). The analysis, looking at differences in word use across year levels,
offers an interesting and complex picture of the state of the literate lexicon during the secondary school years. This study
contributes to the growing field of later language acquisition research and discusses the New Zealand-based findings in the
context of international studies. From a pedagogical perspective, claims made about links between lexical sophistication and
educational achievement highlight the value of understanding the developing literate lexicon among New Zealand secondary
school students.
Wednesday 18 December, 2:45 - 3:05pm, Room: RHLT3, paper
White, Joanna (Concordia University,, presented by Horst, Marlise (Concordia University,
Non-presenting author: Tom Cobb, Universite du Quebec a Montreal
She loves me/she adores me: Cognates and reading comprehension
French-speaking learners of English have a potentially important advantage when it comes to comprehending English texts
-- provided they can see the connection between contrary and contrairement, and recognize the many other good friends
available in English. Our analyses of French-English cognates on the BNC lists of 10,000 frequent word families shows that
helpful cognates far outweigh false friends. But do learners recognize these helpful cognate connections and importantly, are
they able to make use of them? To answer these questions, we developed a cognate recognition test and administered it to 350
learners of English in French-medium secondary schools. The first part of the test focused on single words. Here performance
on cognates was higher than on comparable non-cognates, and words like origin (French origine) were translated more
accurately than words where the formal resemblance across the two languages is less obvious (e.g. slave/esclave). So while
the learners recognized many easy cognates, we conclude there is scope for training in recognition strategies. As for the use
question, learners performance on a second task requiring them to read and translate two short texts one that was cognate
rich and another that was cognate-impoverished -- did not consistently show the expected comprehension advantage for the
cognate-rich passages. This may be explained by a preponderance of very frequent non-cognate words (e.g. love vs. cognate
adore) in the cognate-low texts. In the presentation, we explore uses of a new software tool (VPCognate) in overcoming this
problem and report findings of a follow-up investigation.
Wednesday 18 December, 3:10 - 3:30pm, Room: RHLT2, paper




White, Joanna (Concordia University,, presented by Horst, Marlise

Yuen, Brenda (The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,

(Concordia University,, Cobb, Tom (Universit du Qubec Montreal, cobb.tom@uqam)

Investigating a Rasch-based validation of the ELPA vocabulary test

Non-presenting author: Juliane Martini, Concordia University and Universit du Qubec Montreal

This study is to investigate the construct validity of the English Language Proficiency Assessment (ELPA) Vocabulary Test,
which is developed by the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology to assess the written receptive and productive
vocabulary knowledge of the most frequent 3000-word, 5,000-word and 10,000-word and academic word lists. Data for this
study, from the administration of the test which consists of both multiple-choice and gap-fill questions to 1,805 first-year
undergraduate students , were analysed by using the Rasch model to compare the difficulty of test items with student ability,
identify misfitting items who fail to act as an accurate measure of this construct and evaluate how well this assessment
differentiates student ability into statistically distinct strata. Results from item reliability, person reliability, person-item
map, person fit and item fit of Rasch modelling indicated that this test can be an effective assessment tool to be used with
test takers with widely differing levels of written receptive and productive lexical knowledge. This study also provides useful
implications for the design, development and evaluation of a vocabulary assessment tool for tracking test takers lexical
acquisition over long periods of time.

Mid-frequency vocabulary: Is it there? Is it recycled?

Research showing learners need 98% known-word coverage of texts for effective reading comprehension and that this
corresponds to knowing at least 8,000 frequent English word families raises the question of whether ESL classrooms can
provide adequate opportunities to learn these words. Previous analyses of textbook corpora indicate that opportunities to
learn high frequency (1K and 2K) vocabulary are good, but what about support for the less frequent vocabulary in the midfrequency zone that more advanced learners with academic goals need to know? To examine the vocabulary available for
learning in textbooks designed for Quebec ESL learners in the last three years of their secondary education, we collected
a large textbook corpus. We found, as expected, that 1K and 2K words were well represented and were recycled often over
three-year textbook sequences. In contrast, while almost all of the families at the 3K level could be found in each of the series
we examined, only a fifth of these words were recycled ten times or more. The findings for the 4K and 5K levels are similar
but with even less recycling. We report this research and results of vocabulary size testing that identified serious deficits
in knowledge of mid-frequency vocabulary in this learner population. We also discuss a new study that considers whether
classroom activities address the recycling deficit identified in our textbook analysis. We recorded two teachers as they taught
three units from the textbooks to determine whether they provided additional support for the mid-frequency vocabulary
found in those units.

Friday 20 December, 2:20 2:40pm, Room: RHLT2, paper

Zhao, Qing (Shaanxi Youth Vocational College,
Chinese learners perception of second language vocabulary learning strategies

It is of great importance to obtain good collocation knowledge for fluent and appropriate language use; many words are used
in a limited set of collocations and knowing these is part of what is involved in knowing the words. The author of the present
paper, by working on the special collocation problems experienced by Chinese English learners, tries to study the interaction
between collocation and metaphor from cognitive perspective. Finally, she proposes the motivation-oriented principle,
semantic-oriented principle, pragmatics-oriented principle and culture-oriented principle to incorporate cognitive factors
to collocation teaching.

This paper reviews the literature of popular schools of language learning strategy and provides a status quo of Chinese EFL
learners English study at a tertiary institution. The purpose of the study is to find out: What strategies do target EFL learners
use more frequently in terms of English vocabulary learning? Regarding language learning strategy teaching in class, do
target EFL learners really understand strategies that they have been taught? The Oxford second language learning strategy
inventory was used to survey students most frequently used strategies. The results were analyzed and then a semi-structured
interview was designed based on the results. Altogether 110 students participated the survey. The students were freshmen
and sophomores with an English score ranging from 60-100(out of a total score of 150) in Chinese Entrance Examination.
Findings indicate that learning strategies employed varies as learners English proficiency differ. An explicit instruction of
learning strategy is beneficial to subjects understanding of English learning; however, real strategy understanding and
employment is also restricted to subjects language proficiency. And regardless of the differences between individual subjects
English proficiency, the employment of paralinguistic-related strategies and social strategies are relatively low in learners
use, and subjects English proficiency is usually directly proportional to their employment of affective strategies.

Thursday 19 December, 12:40 - 1:30pm, Room: Mezzanine Floor, poster

Thursday 19 December, 12:40 - 1:30pm, Room: Mezzanine Floor, poster

Yu, Alex (Waikato Institute of Technology,

Zhong, Hua Flora (University of Sydney,

Learning technical vocabulary with Wikcab

The dynamic interface between receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge

Many studies have stressed the importance of technical vocabulary in specialised texts and the difficulty students face when
learning the technical terms in order to acquire the subject knowledge. Learning strategies suggested by researchers include
looking up common collocations and paying attention to the use of the words whenever possible. This paper presents the
design and evaluation of the Wikcab system that aims to help students learn technical vocabulary productively and effectively.
Wikcab takes domain specific texts, automatically identifies and highlights terms that have an article in Wikipedia so that
students can see the Wikipedia definition of the terms, reviews related terms and expands their knowledge by reading the
Wikipedia articles. To help students build up collocation knowledge, Wikcab provides access to a massive collocation database
that is also extracted from the Wikipedia. Using the identified terms, definitions, collocations and the texts, teachers can also
create a wide variety of learning activities to increase the opportunity for students to encounter and practice the domainspecific technical words. Evaluation of the effectiveness of system in terms of better understanding of the technical vocabulary
and related concepts is still ongoing. Preliminary results from incorporating Wikcab into two introductory programming
courses have suggested that the students were motivated to learn and the system helped strengthen longer retention of the
technical vocabulary than by simply reading the glossaries in the textbook.

The present study looks at the internal structure of vocabulary knowledge along the receptive and productive continuum
under a multi-aspect framework informed by Nation (2001) and Coxhead (2011, 2012). It examines receptive knowledge
of meaning, form, morphology, collocation and association and explores their relationship with productive vocabulary
knowledge over time with a multi-task approach. Participants were 620 Year 8 EFL learners from two secondary schools in
China. They completed two sets of five different tests capturing five different receptive aspects and productive use of 26 target
words with a four-month interval. Correlation and regression analysis was used to quantify the contribution of each receptive
aspect to productive word use, and to show the changes in their contribution to productive word use over time. Results
support the claim that meaning and form are two fundamental aspects for productive word use, and as productive vocabulary
knowledge develops, increases the importance of receptive depth aspects association and collocation. The findings offer a
new perspective on the construct of vocabulary knowledge that the relationship between receptive and productive vocabulary
knowledge is dynamic; and suggests that the receptive knowledge learners draw upon in their word use varies depending on
their level of productive vocabulary knowledge. Implications for vocabulary teaching and learning are discussed in terms of
cost-effective time allocation for each aspect in the classroom instruction.

Friday 20 December, 11:30 - 11:50am, Room: RHLT3, paper

Wednesday 18 December, 11:20 - 11:40am, Room: RHLT2, paper

Thursday 19 December, 9:00 - 9:20am, Room: RHLT3, paper

Wu, Jihong (Guangdong University of Foreign Studies,
Metaphor and collocation : Teaching collocations from a cognitive perspective




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For full details about each map location, visit the conference
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Must dos -

Walking Wellington - - there is an iphone app called Welly Walks too.

Wine bar/pub

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Museum of City and Sea -
Getting around Wellington -

Weta Workshop -


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An updated edition of the key

reference work in the area of
second and foreign language
vocabulary studies.



Rutherford House
Vocab@Vic Conference Venue


Thistle Inn Tavern


Sweet Fanny Annes Cafe




New World Railway Metro (Supermarket)


Wine Loft


Kirkcaldies & Stains (Department Store)


Caf Astoria


Leuven Belgium Beer


Mojo Coffee




Foxglove Bar and Kitchen


Made in New Zealand (Souvenirs)


Nikau Gallery Cafe


The Lido Cafe


Macs Brewbar & Restaurant


Vic Books: Pipitea Campus