Sie sind auf Seite 1von 52

Evacuation Time To Go

Presenters
Frankie Victor, EngL, BCQ
Jun H. Kim, BASc, EIT
GHL CONSULTANTS LTD
Building Codes and Fire Science

950 409 Granville Street


Vancouver, BC V6C 1T2
Phone 604 689 4449
Fax 604 689 4419
www.ghl.ca

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

BOABC May 27, 2014

This presentation is conceptual and for educational


purposes only. GHL takes no responsibility for application
of any concepts or interpretations in this presentation to
specific projects unless specifically retained for that project.
This presentation is intended to be presented by GHL and
these slides must not be considered complete or
exhaustive.
This presentation is a copyright of GHL Consultants Ltd and
all rights are reserved.

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Copyright and Limitations

ToknowandunderstandtheCode.

Toknowandunderstandthefiresciencebehindthe
Code.

ToassistincorrectapplicationoftheCode.

Todevelopnewsolutionsbasedonfirescienceto
enablecreativesafebuildings.

Tounderstandtheneedsoftheclientandofthe
AuthoritiesandFirstResponders.

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

GHLs Role

7Engineers,4withMastersdegreesinfirescience

1Architect

4CertifiedProfessionals(CPs)

2formerBuildingOfficials

4BuildingCodeQualified(BCQ)

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

GHL Team

CPCommittee(DavidGraham)

APEGBCBuildingCodeCommittee(JohnBuscemi)

BCBuildingCodeAppealBoard(FrankieVictor)

CityofVancouverBuildingBylawAppealBoard
(TeddyLai)

BCBuildingCodeInterpretationCommittee(TeddyLai)

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Building Code Committee Work

Building Code Approach To Risk

Codecompliancenorisk.
Codecompliance=risksat
acceptablelevel.

Failurewilloccur:

Limitittoanacceptablelevel.

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Buildingsaresubjecttorisks:

Building Codes Building

Maximumtraveldistance
Exitsatfullcapacity
Minimumceilingheight(2100mm)
Minimumaccesstoexitwidth(1100mmcorridors)
6m deadendsinpubliccorridors

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

TheBuildingCodesbuildinghas:

Building Codes Building

Highhazardindustrial 5m=25m
Sprinkler* +15m= 45m
Servicespace +20m =50m
Openairstoragegarage +30m =60m
Perimeterexits60mapart unlimitedtraveldistance
Publiccorridor** traveldistancex2
Mallcorridor +75m =105m(50%ofoccupants)

* Does not apply to high-hazard industrial occupancies


** Does not apply to mall corridors

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Base=unsprinklered floorarea,30mtraveldistance

Building Codes Building

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Example 45m traveldistance,2exits,2.1mceilingheight.

Geometry dimensionalandspatialfeaturesofthespace.
Demographics characteristicsofoccupants;mobility.
Psychology potentialoccupantbehaviourinfires.
Tenability visibility,breathability,toxicity,heat.

ThefollowingpresentationfocusesprimarilyonGeometry,
whichcanbeexpressedintermsoftime.

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Elements of Evacuation

10

Geometry Travel Distance

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Traveldistancetranslatestotimetowalkacrosstheroom.
Allelsebeingequal,increasingtraveldistancesimply
increasestimetoevacuate.

11

Pathfinder is an agent-based emergency egress simulator developed


by Thunderhead Engineering Inc. It utilizes the floor layout, occupant
load and predictable elements of occupant behaviour as input to
simulate the movement time. The simulator has been well validated
through comparison to hand calculations, real life experiments and
other software.

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Geometry Travel Distance

12

Geometry Exit Capacity

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Exitcapacity(width)translatestotimetopassthrougha
corridor,doorordownastair.

13

Geometry Exit Capacity


Samefloorarea.Sameoccupantload.
Increasedexitcapacity=reducedtime.

1828mm

914mm
1828mm

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

914mm

14

Geometry Exit Capacity

4 x 914mm = 3656mm

2 x 1828mm = 3656mm

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Increasingnumberofexitswithoutincreasedaggregate
widthhasnoimpact.

15

Geometry Exit Capacity

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Occupantloaddeterminesqueuingtime.
Higheroccupantload/longerqueue/increasedtime.

16

Geometry Exit Capacity

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Sameexitcapacity.Samenumberofexits.
Higheroccupantload=increasedtimetoegress.

1.2m2/person
120 persons
1.2m2/person
180 persons

17

Geometry Exit Capacity

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Sameexitcapacity.Sameoccupantload.
Smallerfloorarea=shortertraveldistance.
Equaltimetoegress.

10m x 10m
60 persons
15m x 15m
60 persons

18

Geometry Configuration of Exits

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

TheBuildingCodesfactorsforexitcapacityareasimplified
methodofdeterminingtimetopassthroughacorridor,
doorordownastair.

19

Geometry Configuration of Exits

4 x 914mm = 3656mm

2 x 1828mm = 3656mm

Effective width
= 4 x (914mm-300mm)
= 3536mm

Effective width
= 2 x (1828mm-300mm)
= 3596mm

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Reducedtotaleffectivewidth=increasedtimetoegress.

20

Geometry Configuration of Exits,


Pinch Points and Obstructions
Elementsthathinderegressbycreatingpinchpoints
orreducingcapacityofaccesstoexit:

Vestibulesatexits(interconnectedfloorspace).

Useofentryforticketcollecting,security,displays.

Retailantitheftequipment.

Turnstiles.

Etc.

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

21

Geometry Ceiling Height

Corridor1100mm x2100mm /Traveldistance45m

Corridor9000mm x4000mm /Traveldistance105m

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Relationshipbetweenceilingheight,orvolumeofspace,
andtimetoegressiscodifiedinSentence3.4.2.5.(1):

22

Geometry Ceiling Height

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Ceilingheighttranslatestotimebeforesmokedescends
toheadlevel.

23

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Geometry Ceiling Height

24

Demographics

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Occupantswithlocomotivedisabilityareconsideredinthe
averageoccupanttravelspeed.

25

Psychology

Truepanicismostlya
mythperstudiesand
expertopinion.

R.F.Fahy,G.Proulx.Panic
andhumanbehaviourin
fire. (2009)

Notnecessaryto
considerinmosttimed
egressanalyses.

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Humanbehaviouris
predictable.and
unpredictable.

26

Psychology Human Behaviour

Behaviouruponalerttoahazarddependson
occupancy:
Nightclub unfamiliar,dark,crowded,impaired,
noisy.
Home/work familiar,senseofownership,
protectiveofothers.
School familiar,additionalpreparedness,
leadership.
Weather,gender,commitmenttoatask,aloneor
inagroup,focalpoint/leader.

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Humanbehaviourcanbepredictedtoadegree:

27

Psychology Human Behaviour

Notnecessarytotryandpredictbehaviourpriorto
movementprovidedcomparisonisofthesame:

People
Space
Conditions

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Psychologyisindependentoftimedegressanalysis.

28

Whatispanic?Anoverwhelmingfear,withorwithout
cause,thatproducesanirrationalresponseandmay
spreadthroughagroup.
Whendopeoplepanic? Whentheycanseenoway
outofasituation.
Whendoesitmatter? Whenitcausesactionwithout
assessmentofsafety
Whatdopeoplemeanwhentheysaypanic?
Whatdobuildingofficialsmeanwhentheysaypanic?

Realpanicinanemergencyisrare;expertsconsidereditamythsince
about1970butthemoviesandnewschannelslikeit.

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Psychology - Panic

29

Psychology Timed Egress Analysis


Timedegressanalysisisacomparisonofthemeasurable
elementsofevacuation.(SFPEHandbook4th Ed.)
RequiredSafeEgressTime(RSET)

MarginofSafety

EvacuationTime
Premovement
Response
Recognition
Alarm

Movement

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

AvailableSafeEgressTime(ASET)

Detection
30

Psychology Timed Egress Analysis

AvailableSafeEgressTime(ASET)
MarginofSafety

MovementTime
Detection/Alarm

Alertstagecanbeadjustedbydetection
(smokedetectoractivatessoonerthansprinkler)

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

RequiredSafeEgressTime(RSET)

31

UpperLayerHeight
Visibility
Heatflux/Temperature
Toxicity

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Tenability

32

Tenability

ZoneModel:Upperlayerheight
Simplerspaces
CFDModel:Tenabilityparameters
3Dcomplexspaces

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Twotypesofcomputermodelsareused
togaugetenability:

33

Whereastraightcomparisonto
BuildingCodescenariosdoesnttell
thewholestory:
Dontmeetcumulativeexit
capacityinaninterconnectedfloor
space.
Usingopenstairforegress.
Convergingegressroutes.

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Tenability

34

Elements of Evacuation
Geometry dimensionalandspatialfeaturesofthespace.

Psychology potentialoccupantbehaviourinfires.
Tenability visibility,breathability,toxicity,heat.

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Demographics characteristicsofoccupants;mobility.

35

Hand Calculation

Firstoccupanttoreachdoor(t1)+timetoqueueatdoor(t2)

OR
Lastoccupanttoreachdoor(t3)
Timetocommencemovementisnotconsidered;
assumedtobethesameforBuildingCodeandactualscenarios.

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Timetoegressisthetimeforeither:

36

Hand Calculation

TravelDistance
Exits
Occupant Load
Assumption

BuildingCodeScenario

AlternativeSolution

45m

60m

2x914mmdoor

2x914mmdoor

2x914 6.1=300

2x914 6.1=300

Nearest person
5m fromexit
Furthestpersons
45m fromexit

Nearest person
5m fromexit
Furthestperson
60m fromexit

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Example:ComparingBuildingCodeandalternativesolution

37

Hand Calculation

Building CodeScenario
5

t 1*
t2
t3
t

1.1

300
0.914 0.3

45

AlternativeSolution

4.5
1.32

1.1

5
185

41

1.1

4.5

300
0.914 0.3

1.32

60

1.1

185

55

t1 t2 185 4.5 189.5

t1 t2 185 4.5 189.5

189.5s

189.5s

*assumed5mfornearestoccupanttoanexit.Thismayvarydependingonfloorlayout.

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Queuing(t2)isthelimitingfactor,hence15mextratravel
distancedoesnotcontributetoaddedevacuationtime.

38

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

EgressviaOpenStair.
CumulativeExiting(interconnectedfloorspace).
EgressfromTwoStoreyDwellingUnit.
ConvergingEgress(Departmentstoretraveldistance).
Parkade70m TravelDistance.

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Project Examples

39

Example 1 Egress via Open Stair

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Singleexitandopenegressstair.

40

Sentence3.4.2.1.(1) atleasttwoexitsrequired
Buildingdividedintotwostoreysuiteseachserved
byoneexitfromupperstorey.
Traveldistanceandexitcapacitymetbyexitstair.
Openstairprovidedsecondegressroute.
Timedegress,smokemodeltoconfirmtenability.
Additionalfeaturesincludedsmokedetectionfor
earlyalert.

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Example 1 Egress via Open Stair

41

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Example 2 Cumulative Exiting

42

Sentence3.4.3.2.(6) Exitstairsserving
interconnectedfloorspacebasedoncumulative
occupantload.
Cumulativeexitingnotmet.
Usedconveniencestairleadingtoexiton1st storey
asameansofegress.
Timedegress,smokemodeltoconfirmtenability.
Additionalfeaturesincludedsmokedetectionand
smokeexhausttokeepopenstairtenable.

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Example 2 Cumulative Exiting

43

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Example 3 Egress from Two Storey


Dwelling Unit

44

Sentence3.3.4.4.(2) describesegressdoorsinmulti
leveldwellingunitsatboththeupperandlower
storeys.
Egressdoorwasnotprovidedattheupperstorey
Timedegressconfirmedincreasedegressof3seconds.
Concernwastenabilityatroutefromupperstorey.
Smokemodelconfirmedtenableconditions.
Draftstopwasnecessary.
Additionalfeaturesincludedsmokealarmsforearly
alert,emergencylightinglinkedtosmokealarm.
Firealarmannunciation bothstoreysatlower.

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Example 3 Egress from Two Storey


Dwelling Unit

45

Back-of-house Corridor

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Example 4 Converging Egress

Mall Corridor
46

Clause3.4.2.5.(1)(d) 50%ofoccupantsexitviamall
corridorwithtraveldistanceof105m.

Rearcorridorconvergedwithmallcorridor.

Usedmallcorridorasameansofegressfor100%of
occupants.
Timedegress,smokemodeltoconfirmtenability.
Additionalfeaturesincludepassivesmokeventingto
maintaintenability.
Codecompliantsolution=tunneloutofthebuilding.
Arepeoplewilling?

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Example 4 Converging Egress

47

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Example 5 Parkade 70m Travel Distance

48

Sentence3.4.2.5.(1) prescribes45mtraveldistance.
Increasedtraveldistancefromcentreareas.
Increasedtotalexitwidth(extradoors).
Lowoccupantloadeliminatedqueuingatexits.
Timedegress.
Additionalfeaturesincludeexitsignage,increasedlight
levels.
Scenario

1.CodeMinimumusing
fulldoorcapacity
2. ProposedScenario

Numberof
Occupants
perExit
(persons)

Maximum
Travel
Distance
(m)

Timeto
Evacuate
(sec)

149

45

219

54

70

110

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Example 5 Parkade 70m Travel Distance

49

Occupancy

BC

IBC

NFPA101

Assembly

45m

76m

76m

Care

45m

76m

61m

Business/service

45m

90m

91m

Residential

45m

76m

61m

Retail

45m

76m

76m

25/45/45m

23/76/120m

30/122/unlimited

Industrial F1/F2/F3

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Comparison of BC to IBC and NFPA 101


(sprinklered)

50

BuildingCodelimits traveldistance,ceilingheight,
exitcapacity defineaspace,createascenario.

ReallifescenariosarecomparedtoBuildingCode
scenario.

Humanbehaviourispredictable/unpredictable.

Canreducedetection/alertstagebysmokedetection
(operateearlierthansprinklers).
Canbuytimebyincreasingceilingheightorexit
capacity.

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Summary

51

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD


950 409GranvilleStreet
Vancouver,BC
V6C 1T2
Phone6046894449
Fax6046894419
Emailfv@ghl.ca /jhk@ghl.ca

GHL CONSULTANTS LTD

Questions?

Webwww.ghl.ca
52