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AND

AIR CONDITIONING

INTRODUCTION

The Definition

Psychrometric is the study of the properties of mixtures of air and

water vapor

The Importance

Very useful in carrying out heat

load or cooling load calculations

To select a suitable air

conditioning equipment

To solve any air conditioning

system which operated as not

as expected.

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES

considered as the fixed part and water

vapor, considered as the variable part.

The dry air is a mixture of a number of

permanent gases : Nitrogen (78.03%),

Oxygen (20.99%), Argon(0.94%), Carbon

Dioxide (0.031%), Hydrogen (0.01%) and

other gases (Neon, Xenon, Methane, etc)

Both dry air and water vapor can be

considered as ideal gas.

Hence ideal gas law can be applied to then

individually.

In addition Gibbs and Dalton laws can be

applied to the dry air part only to obtain its

properties as a single pure substance.

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES

Daltons Law of Partial Pressures

an English chemist and physicist

Dalton's law of partial pressure, it states that

the sum of exerted pressure of the whole

mixture of gases is equal to the sum of all

pressures in the mixture.

Let

say

the

pressure

of

atmospheric air is 1.013 bar. If the

air temperature is 30oC, then

Ps = 4.2469 kPa.

Thus,

Pa = P Ps = 101.13 - 4.2469

= 96.88 kPa

P = P1 + P2

Ps = the partial pressure of water vapor

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES

The temperature of air measured by a

thermometer freely exposed to the air but

shielded from radiation and moisture.

Usually referred to as air temperature.

Wet Bulb Temperature, TWB

The temperature of adiabatic saturation.

Can be measured by using a thermometer with

the bulb is covered by the wet cloth and exposed

to the air flow

Always lower than the dry bulb temperature but

will be identical with 100% relative humidity (the

air is at the saturation line)

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES

Dew Point Temperature, TDP

to condense out of the air (the temperature

at which air becomes completely saturated).

If moisture condensates on a cold bottle

taken from the refrigerator, the dew-point

temperature of the air is above the

temperature in the refrigerator.

Can be measured by filling a metal can with

water and some ice cubes. Stir by a

thermometer and watch the outside of the

can. When the vapor in the air starts to

condensate on the outside of the can, the

temperature on the thermometer is pretty

close to the dew point of the actual air.

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES

Dew Point Temperature, TDP

atmospheric air is 3.1698 kPa at

30oC. The water vapor is said at a

dew point temperature, when it is

cooled to state 2 (saturated)

30

25

Ps = 3.1698 kPa

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES

Specific Humidity or Moisture Content

vapor to the mass of dry air in a given volume of the mixture and

denoted by

m V / s a

s

ma V / a s

water vapor present in the air and is measured in kg per kg of dry air

(kg/kg of dry air).

paV ma

Ru

T

Ma

ma

paVMa

RuT

and

psV ms

Ru

T

Ms

ms

psVMs

RuT

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES

Thus,

ms PsVMs

ma

RuT

PaVMa

PM

18.016Ps

s s

RuT

PaMa 28.966Pa

0.622

622

Ps

kg / kg d.a.

Pa

Ps

g / kg d.a.

Pa

Daltons Law

P = Pa + Pw Pa = P - Pw

Then

0.622

Ps

Ps

kg / kg d.a 0.622

kg / kg d.a.

Pa

P Ps

Example 1

Given the moisture from air begins to condense on a metal container when its

temperature is 10 oC. Find

a) Partial pressure of the water vapour

b) Moisture content of the air in the room with p = 101.325 kPa.

Solution

a) From water properties table, TDP = 10 oC, PS = 1.227 kPa

b) 0.622

pw

1.227

0.622

0.007624 kg / kg d.a.

p pw

101.325-1.227

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES

Relative Humidity (RH)

Denoted by or RH

Define as the ratio of the actual mass of the water vapor, ms in a given

volume of moist air to that which it would have if it were saturated at

the same temperature.

ms PsV RT Ps

mg PgV RT Pg

the temperature of the mixture

From V m , then,

From, 0.622

From,

ps

pg

V s g

V g s

ps

pa

ps

pa

0.622 ps

ps pg , then 0.622

pg

pa

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES

Relative Humidity (RH)

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES

Percentage of Saturation or

Degree of Saturation

Denoted by

Defined as the ratio of the specific humidity, of the mixture to the

specific humidity of the mixture when saturated at the same

temperature. Thus

ps

0.622

p ps

p p pg

pg

g

pg p ps

0.622

p pg

in range of 0.5 2%.

pg

p pg

and g 0.622

g

g

0.622 pg

p pg

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Example 2

The air supplied to a room of a building in winter is to be at 15oC and have a

percentage relative humidity of 60%. If the barometric pressure is 1.01326 bar,

calculate the specific humidity. What would be the dew point under these

conditions?

Solution

From water properties table, at 15oC, Pg = 1.7051 kPa

ps

Ps pg 0.6 1.7051 1.02306 kPa

pg

0.622

ps

1.02306

0.622

0.00634 kg / kg d.a.

p ps

101.326-1.02306

If the air is cooled at constant pressure, the vapour will begin to condense at the

saturation temperature corresponding to 1. 02306 kPa. The the Tdp

1.02306 0.8721

o

Tdp

10 5 5 7.12 C

1.2276 0.8721

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Example 3

If air at the condition of Example 2 is passed at the rate of 0.5 m3/s over a cooling coil which

is at a temperature of 5oC, calculate the amount of vapor which will be condensed. Assume

that the barometric pressure is the same as in Example 2 and that the air leaving the coil is

saturated.

Solution

pa p ps 101.326 1.02306 100.303 kPa

pV

100.303 0.5

ma a

0.6067 kg/s

RaT 0.287 15 273

1 ms ma ms1 1 ma 0.00634 0.6067 0.003846 kg/s

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Example 3

After passing the cooling coil, = 1, (saturated) then ps = pg. For this condition and at 5oC,

Pg = 0.8721 kPa

2 0.622

ps

0.8721

0.622

0.005400 kg / kg d.a.

p ps

101.325 - 0.8721

Mass of condensate ms1 ms2 0.003846 0.003276 3600

= 2.052 kg/hr

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES

Psychrometric Chart

psychrometric properties of air.

By using psychrometric charts the HVAC engineers can graphically

analyze different types of psychrometric processes and find solution to

many practical problems without having to carry out the long and

tedious mathematical calculations.

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES

Advantages of using the

Psychrometric Chart

If all the values are calculated manually using the formulae, it

takes lots of time, but with psychrometric chart these values

can be found within seconds or minutes.

With psychrometric chart we can easily find out the present and

the final condition of the air. Say if the air is cooled from 100oF

to 75oF, all we have to do is draw the horizontal line to locate

the initial and final condition of the air.

Psychrometric chart is very useful in carrying out heat load or

cooling load calculations.

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES

Lines on Psychrometric Chart

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES

Lines on Psychrometric Chart

Relative Humidity,

%

Saturation Line

Dry Bulb Temp, oC

Sensible

Heat

Factor

Moisture Content,

kg/kg of d.a.

Specific Volume,

m3/kg

Specific Entalpy,

kJ/kg

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES

Specific Enthalpy of Moist Air, h

According to Gibbs Law, the enthalpy of an ideal gas is the summation of

the enthalpies of the constituents.

Thus the enthalpy of moist air, h is equal to the sum of the enthalpies of dry

air and water vapor,

mh ma ha ms hs

ms hs

= ha hs

ma

At low partial pressure the specific enthalpy of water vapor can be

expressed as,

mh / ma = ha

hs hg c ps Ts Tg at ps

hg and cps can be taken as 2500 kJ/kg and 1.88 kJ/kgK respectively, thus

hs hg c ps Ts Tg 2500 1.88 Ts Tg

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES

Specific Enthalpy of Moist Air, h

The enthalpy of the mixture per unit mass of dry air can be expressed as,

h c pT hg c ps T Tg at ps

Specific heat capacity of mixture, c p

mac pa

ms c ps

m

m

Specific heat capacity of mixture per unit mass of dry air,

mc

c pma c pa s ps c pa c ps

m

cpa = 1.005 kJ/kgK and cps = 1.88 kJ/kgK

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Summer Air Conditioning

The sensible heat load : the energy added per unit time which increases

the dry bulb temperature. i.e. heat transfer through fabric, solar radiation,

people, lighting, machinery, etc.

Latent heat load : the energy added per unit time due to the enthalpy of

the moisture added plus the heat required to evaporate the moisture

added. i.e. mainly from the occupants of the room.

Room Condition Line

mac pma Tx T1

m c pa c ps Tx T1

Room design

condition

Air entering

the room

QS

h h

Sensible heat load

x 1

Total heat load

QS QL h2 h1

Room Condition Line

Consider the adiabatic mixing process,

m2 m3 m4 m3 m4 m2

m2 h2 m3 h3 m4 h4

m2

m4 m2

h

m 2 m

h3 h4

4

4

Defining r as the mass flow of dry air

recirculated air per unit mass of dry air

supplied to the room, m2 / m4 ,

rh2 1 r h3 h4 r

h3 h4

h3 h2

Room Condition Line

And r 1 r 3 4

r

Thus, r

3 4

3 2

h3 h4 3 4 line 3 - 4

h3 h2 3 2 line 3 - 4

Contac factor

line 5 - A

line 4 - A

line 4 - 5

line 4 - A

EXAMPLE 15.3

An air conditioned room is to be maintained at

18oC and percentage saturation 40%. The

fabric heat gains are 3000 kW and there are a

maximum of 20 people in the room at any

time. Neglecting all other heat gains or

losses, calculate the required volume flow

rate of air to be supplied to the room and its

percentage saturation when the air supply

temperature is 10oC.

Room design

condition

Air entering

the room

Data :

Sensible heat gain = 3000 + (20 x 100)

= 5000 W

Latent heat gain = 20 x 30 = 600 W

EXAMPLE 15.3

From air water properties table at 18oC, pg2 = 0.02063 bar

0.622 pg 0.4 0.622 0.02063

0.00517

p p

g

1.01325

0.02063

g

1 2

600

ma 2533.9

where hg = hg at

T2 = 2533.9 kJ/kg

600

0.2368

0.00517

ma 2533.9

ma

5000 ma 1.005 1.881 18 10

ma

5000

8.04 15.041

Room design

condition

Air entering

the room

EXAMPLE 15.3

Combining 1 0.00517

0.2368

ma

and

ma

5000

8.04 15.041

0.2368

8.04 15.041 1 0.00479

5000

5000

ma

616.4 kg/s

8.04 15.04 0.00479

1 0.00517

1 0.622

ps1

0.622

0.622

pa1

1

0.00479

pa1

ps1

p pa1

0.622

0.00479

1.01325 pa1

EXAMPLE 15.3

pa1 1.00551 10 2

RT 1

a1

1.238 kg/m 3

p

RT1

0.287 283

m V Va1

616.4

498 m 3 / s

1.238

100a1 p pg1

0.622 pg1

62.8%

0.622 0.01227

QS

5000

Sensible heat factor

0.893

QS QL 5600

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

EXAMPLE 15.4

Air at 1oC dry bulb and 80% and

percentage saturation mixes adiabtically

with air at 18oC dry buld and 40%

percentage saturation in the ratio of 1 to 3

by volume. Calculate the temperature and

percentage saturation of the mixture.

Take the barometric pressure as 1.01325

bar.

3

T1=1oC

T3 T2=18oC

2

3

1

EXAMPLE 15.4

Given :

ma1

V2

3

V1

Va1

a1

and ma2

Va2

a2

2.82

ma1 Va1 a2 1 0.83

ma1

ma1

line 3 2

0.262

line 1 2 ma1 ma2 ma1 2.82ma1

Line 1-2 = 7.9 mm

Line 3-2 = 0.262 x 7.9 = 2.07 mm

T2 T3

0.262 T3 18 0.262 18 1 13.6 o C

T2 T1

By locating the point 3, T3 can be

determined, T3 = 13.6oC

T1=1oC

T3 T2=18oC

2

3

1

EXAMPLE 15.5

An air conditioning plans is designed to maintain a room at a condition of 20oC

dry bulb and specific humidity 0.0079 when the outside condition is 30oC dry

bulb and 40% percentage saturation and the corresponding heat gains are

18000 W (sensible) and 3600 W (latent). The supply air contains one-third

outside air by mass and the supply temperature is to be 15oC dry bulb.

The plant consists of a mixing chamber for fresh air and recirculated air, an air

washer with chilled spray water with an efficiency of 80% an after heater battery

and supply fan. Neglecting temperature changes in fan and ducting, calculate :

i. The mass flow rate of supply air necessary

ii. The specific humidity of the supply air

iii. The cooling duty of the washer

iv. The heating duty of the after heater

Use the psychrometric chart assuming the barometric pressure is 1.01325 bar.

EXAMPLE 15.5

Solution :

Points 2 and 3 can be fixed since the conditions are known.

Fresh air is to be one-third by mass of the total air to the room, thus point 4

is 1/3 from point 2.

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

EXAMPLE 15.5

Sensible heat ratio

QS

18000

QS QL 18000 3600

0.833

it cuts the dry bulb of 15oC which gives point 1.

Point 5 must lie on the horizontal line through point

1 since there is no change in moisture content.

5

Line 4 5

0.8 4

Line 4 A

4 A

A 4

4 1

0.8

0.0089

0.0089 0.0075

0.8

0.00715

Point 5 is fixed by joining points 4 and A, where this

line cuts the horizontal line through point 1, T5 =

12oC.

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

EXAMPLE 15.5

i)

Total load = 18 + 3.6 = 21.6 kW

21.6

Mass flow rate of supply air ,ma1

3.43 kg/s

40.2 33.9

ii) From the chart, the specific humidity of supply air = 0.00745 kg/kg d.a.

iii) From the chart, h4 = 46.2 kJ/kg and h5 = 31.1 kJ/kg

Cooling load of the coil ma1 h4 h5 3.43 46.2 31.1 51.8 kW

3.43 33.9 31.1

9.6 kW

The End

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