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PSYCHROMETRY

AND
AIR CONDITIONING

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

INTRODUCTION
The Definition
Psychrometric is the study of the properties of mixtures of air and
water vapor
The Importance
Very useful in carrying out heat
load or cooling load calculations
To select a suitable air
conditioning equipment
To solve any air conditioning
system which operated as not
as expected.

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES

The moist air comprising of dry air,


considered as the fixed part and water
vapor, considered as the variable part.
The dry air is a mixture of a number of
permanent gases : Nitrogen (78.03%),
Oxygen (20.99%), Argon(0.94%), Carbon
Dioxide (0.031%), Hydrogen (0.01%) and
other gases (Neon, Xenon, Methane, etc)
Both dry air and water vapor can be
considered as ideal gas.
Hence ideal gas law can be applied to then
individually.
In addition Gibbs and Dalton laws can be
applied to the dry air part only to obtain its
properties as a single pure substance.

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES
Daltons Law of Partial Pressures

Introduced in the early 1800s by John Dalton,


an English chemist and physicist
Dalton's law of partial pressure, it states that
the sum of exerted pressure of the whole
mixture of gases is equal to the sum of all
pressures in the mixture.

Let
say
the
pressure
of
atmospheric air is 1.013 bar. If the
air temperature is 30oC, then
Ps = 4.2469 kPa.
Thus,
Pa = P Ps = 101.13 - 4.2469
= 96.88 kPa

P = P1 + P2

For moist air, P = Pa + Ps Pa = P - Ps

Pa = the partial pressure of dry air


Ps = the partial pressure of water vapor

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES

Dry Bulb Temperature, TDB


The temperature of air measured by a
thermometer freely exposed to the air but
shielded from radiation and moisture.
Usually referred to as air temperature.
Wet Bulb Temperature, TWB
The temperature of adiabatic saturation.
Can be measured by using a thermometer with
the bulb is covered by the wet cloth and exposed
to the air flow
Always lower than the dry bulb temperature but
will be identical with 100% relative humidity (the
air is at the saturation line)

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES
Dew Point Temperature, TDP

The temperature at which water vapor starts


to condense out of the air (the temperature
at which air becomes completely saturated).
If moisture condensates on a cold bottle
taken from the refrigerator, the dew-point
temperature of the air is above the
temperature in the refrigerator.
Can be measured by filling a metal can with
water and some ice cubes. Stir by a
thermometer and watch the outside of the
can. When the vapor in the air starts to
condensate on the outside of the can, the
temperature on the thermometer is pretty
close to the dew point of the actual air.

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES
Dew Point Temperature, TDP

Let say the water vapor in


atmospheric air is 3.1698 kPa at
30oC. The water vapor is said at a
dew point temperature, when it is
cooled to state 2 (saturated)

30

25

Ps = 3.1698 kPa

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES
Specific Humidity or Moisture Content

Specific humidity or moisture content is the ratio of the mass of water


vapor to the mass of dry air in a given volume of the mixture and
denoted by
m V / s a
s

ma V / a s

water vapor present in the air and is measured in kg per kg of dry air
(kg/kg of dry air).

From ideal gas equation,


paV ma

Ru
T
Ma

ma

paVMa
RuT

and
psV ms

Ru
T
Ms

ms

psVMs
RuT

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES

Thus,

ms PsVMs

ma
RuT

PaVMa
PM
18.016Ps
s s
RuT
PaMa 28.966Pa
0.622
622

Ps
kg / kg d.a.
Pa

Ps
g / kg d.a.
Pa

Since P denotes the actual total atmospheric pressure, from the


Daltons Law
P = Pa + Pw Pa = P - Pw

Then

0.622

Ps
Ps
kg / kg d.a 0.622
kg / kg d.a.
Pa
P Ps

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

Example 1
Given the moisture from air begins to condense on a metal container when its
temperature is 10 oC. Find
a) Partial pressure of the water vapour
b) Moisture content of the air in the room with p = 101.325 kPa.
Solution
a) From water properties table, TDP = 10 oC, PS = 1.227 kPa
b) 0.622

pw
1.227
0.622
0.007624 kg / kg d.a.
p pw
101.325-1.227

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES
Relative Humidity (RH)
Denoted by or RH
Define as the ratio of the actual mass of the water vapor, ms in a given
volume of moist air to that which it would have if it were saturated at
the same temperature.

ms PsV RT Ps

mg PgV RT Pg

Pg is the saturation pressure at


the temperature of the mixture

From V m , then,

From, 0.622
From,

ps

pg

V s g

V g s
ps
pa
ps
pa
0.622 ps

ps pg , then 0.622

pg
pa

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES
Relative Humidity (RH)

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES
Percentage of Saturation or
Degree of Saturation
Denoted by
Defined as the ratio of the specific humidity, of the mixture to the
specific humidity of the mixture when saturated at the same
temperature. Thus
ps
0.622
p ps
p p pg

pg
g
pg p ps
0.622
p pg

In air conditioning practice, the percentage difference between and is


in range of 0.5 2%.

pg

p pg

and g 0.622

g
g
0.622 pg
p pg
Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

Example 2
The air supplied to a room of a building in winter is to be at 15oC and have a
percentage relative humidity of 60%. If the barometric pressure is 1.01326 bar,
calculate the specific humidity. What would be the dew point under these
conditions?

Solution
From water properties table, at 15oC, Pg = 1.7051 kPa

ps
Ps pg 0.6 1.7051 1.02306 kPa
pg

0.622

ps
1.02306
0.622
0.00634 kg / kg d.a.
p ps
101.326-1.02306

If the air is cooled at constant pressure, the vapour will begin to condense at the
saturation temperature corresponding to 1. 02306 kPa. The the Tdp
1.02306 0.8721
o
Tdp
10 5 5 7.12 C
1.2276 0.8721
Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

Example 3
If air at the condition of Example 2 is passed at the rate of 0.5 m3/s over a cooling coil which
is at a temperature of 5oC, calculate the amount of vapor which will be condensed. Assume
that the barometric pressure is the same as in Example 2 and that the air leaving the coil is
saturated.

Solution
pa p ps 101.326 1.02306 100.303 kPa
pV
100.303 0.5
ma a
0.6067 kg/s
RaT 0.287 15 273
1 ms ma ms1 1 ma 0.00634 0.6067 0.003846 kg/s
Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

Example 3

After passing the cooling coil, = 1, (saturated) then ps = pg. For this condition and at 5oC,
Pg = 0.8721 kPa

2 0.622

ps
0.8721
0.622
0.005400 kg / kg d.a.
p ps
101.325 - 0.8721

2 ms ma ms2 2 ma 0.005400 0.6067 0.003276 kg/s


Mass of condensate ms1 ms2 0.003846 0.003276 3600
= 2.052 kg/hr
Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES
Psychrometric Chart

The psychrometric charts are the graphic representations of the


psychrometric properties of air.
By using psychrometric charts the HVAC engineers can graphically
analyze different types of psychrometric processes and find solution to
many practical problems without having to carry out the long and
tedious mathematical calculations.

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES
Advantages of using the
Psychrometric Chart
If all the values are calculated manually using the formulae, it
takes lots of time, but with psychrometric chart these values
can be found within seconds or minutes.
With psychrometric chart we can easily find out the present and
the final condition of the air. Say if the air is cooled from 100oF
to 75oF, all we have to do is draw the horizontal line to locate
the initial and final condition of the air.
Psychrometric chart is very useful in carrying out heat load or
cooling load calculations.

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES
Lines on Psychrometric Chart

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES
Lines on Psychrometric Chart
Relative Humidity,
%

Saturation Line
Dry Bulb Temp, oC

Sensible
Heat
Factor

Wet Bulb Temp, oC


Moisture Content,
kg/kg of d.a.

Specific Volume,
m3/kg

Specific Entalpy,
kJ/kg

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES
Specific Enthalpy of Moist Air, h
According to Gibbs Law, the enthalpy of an ideal gas is the summation of
the enthalpies of the constituents.
Thus the enthalpy of moist air, h is equal to the sum of the enthalpies of dry
air and water vapor,

mh ma ha ms hs

Specific entalphy of mixture per unit mass of dry air


ms hs
= ha hs
ma
At low partial pressure the specific enthalpy of water vapor can be
expressed as,
mh / ma = ha

hs hg c ps Ts Tg at ps

hg and cps can be taken as 2500 kJ/kg and 1.88 kJ/kgK respectively, thus
hs hg c ps Ts Tg 2500 1.88 Ts Tg

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

PSYCHROMETRIC MIXTURES
Specific Enthalpy of Moist Air, h

The enthalpy of dry air can be expressed as,

ha c paT 1.005T kJ/kg

The enthalpy of the mixture per unit mass of dry air can be expressed as,

h c pT hg c ps T Tg at ps

Taking the term hg cpsTg as C, then

h c pT C c psT 1.005T 2500 1.88T


Specific heat capacity of mixture, c p

mac pa

ms c ps

m
m
Specific heat capacity of mixture per unit mass of dry air,
mc
c pma c pa s ps c pa c ps
m
cpa = 1.005 kJ/kgK and cps = 1.88 kJ/kgK
Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS


Summer Air Conditioning

The air conditioning load on a room can be divided into 2 parts:


The sensible heat load : the energy added per unit time which increases
the dry bulb temperature. i.e. heat transfer through fabric, solar radiation,
people, lighting, machinery, etc.
Latent heat load : the energy added per unit time due to the enthalpy of
the moisture added plus the heat required to evaporate the moisture
added. i.e. mainly from the occupants of the room.

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS


Room Condition Line

The enthalpy of dry air can be expressed as,

Sensible heat load ma hx h1


mac pma Tx T1
m c pa c ps Tx T1

Room design
condition

Latent heat load mahg 2 1

Total heat load ma h2 h1

The room ratio line

Air entering
the room

QS
h h
Sensible heat load

x 1
Total heat load
QS QL h2 h1

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS


Room Condition Line
Consider the adiabatic mixing process,

m2 m3 m4 m3 m4 m2
m2 h2 m3 h3 m4 h4
m2
m4 m2
h

m 2 m
h3 h4
4

4
Defining r as the mass flow of dry air
recirculated air per unit mass of dry air
supplied to the room, m2 / m4 ,

rh2 1 r h3 h4 r

h3 h4
h3 h2

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS


Room Condition Line
And r 1 r 3 4
r
Thus, r

3 4
3 2

h3 h4 3 4 line 3 - 4

h3 h2 3 2 line 3 - 4

Coil bypass factor

Contac factor

line 5 - A
line 4 - A

line 4 - 5
line 4 - A

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

EXAMPLE 15.3
An air conditioned room is to be maintained at
18oC and percentage saturation 40%. The
fabric heat gains are 3000 kW and there are a
maximum of 20 people in the room at any
time. Neglecting all other heat gains or
losses, calculate the required volume flow
rate of air to be supplied to the room and its
percentage saturation when the air supply
temperature is 10oC.

Room design
condition

Air entering
the room

Data :
Sensible heat gain = 3000 + (20 x 100)
= 5000 W
Latent heat gain = 20 x 30 = 600 W

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

EXAMPLE 15.3
From air water properties table at 18oC, pg2 = 0.02063 bar
0.622 pg 0.4 0.622 0.02063

0.00517
p p
g
1.01325

0.02063
g

Latent heat load mahg 2 1 2 1

1 2

600
ma 2533.9

where hg = hg at
T2 = 2533.9 kJ/kg

600
0.2368
0.00517
ma 2533.9
ma

Sensible heat load ma c pa 1c ps T2 T1 5000


5000 ma 1.005 1.881 18 10
ma

5000
8.04 15.041

Room design
condition
Air entering
the room

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometric Analysis of Air Conditioning System

EXAMPLE 15.3
Combining 1 0.00517

0.2368
ma

and

ma

5000
8.04 15.041

0.2368
8.04 15.041 1 0.00479
5000
5000
ma
616.4 kg/s
8.04 15.04 0.00479

1 0.00517

1 0.622

ps1
0.622
0.622
pa1
1
0.00479
pa1
ps1
p pa1

0.622
0.00479
1.01325 pa1

pa1 1.00551 bar

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

EXAMPLE 15.3
pa1 1.00551 10 2
RT 1

a1

1.238 kg/m 3
p

RT1
0.287 283
m V Va1

616.4
498 m 3 / s
1.238

Percentage saturation of supply air,

100a1 p pg1
0.622 pg1

100 0.00479 1.01325 0.01227


62.8%
0.622 0.01227

Using psychrometric chart : Draw the sensible heat factor line


QS
5000
Sensible heat factor

0.893
QS QL 5600
Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

EXAMPLE 15.4
Air at 1oC dry bulb and 80% and
percentage saturation mixes adiabtically
with air at 18oC dry buld and 40%
percentage saturation in the ratio of 1 to 3
by volume. Calculate the temperature and
percentage saturation of the mixture.
Take the barometric pressure as 1.01325
bar.
3

T1=1oC

T3 T2=18oC

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

2
3
1

Psychrometric Analysis of Air Conditioning System

EXAMPLE 15.4
Given :
ma1

V2
3
V1

Va1

a1

From chart a1 0.78 m 3 / kg and a2 0.83 m 3 / kg

and ma2

Va2

a2

ma2 Va2 a1 3 0.78


2.82
ma1 Va1 a2 1 0.83

ma1
ma1
line 3 2

0.262
line 1 2 ma1 ma2 ma1 2.82ma1

By measurement from the chart,


Line 1-2 = 7.9 mm
Line 3-2 = 0.262 x 7.9 = 2.07 mm

T2 T3
0.262 T3 18 0.262 18 1 13.6 o C
T2 T1
By locating the point 3, T3 can be
determined, T3 = 13.6oC

T1=1oC

T3 T2=18oC

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

2
3
1

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

EXAMPLE 15.5
An air conditioning plans is designed to maintain a room at a condition of 20oC
dry bulb and specific humidity 0.0079 when the outside condition is 30oC dry
bulb and 40% percentage saturation and the corresponding heat gains are
18000 W (sensible) and 3600 W (latent). The supply air contains one-third
outside air by mass and the supply temperature is to be 15oC dry bulb.
The plant consists of a mixing chamber for fresh air and recirculated air, an air
washer with chilled spray water with an efficiency of 80% an after heater battery
and supply fan. Neglecting temperature changes in fan and ducting, calculate :
i. The mass flow rate of supply air necessary
ii. The specific humidity of the supply air
iii. The cooling duty of the washer
iv. The heating duty of the after heater

Use the psychrometric chart assuming the barometric pressure is 1.01325 bar.

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

EXAMPLE 15.5

Solution :
Points 2 and 3 can be fixed since the conditions are known.
Fresh air is to be one-third by mass of the total air to the room, thus point 4
is 1/3 from point 2.
Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

EXAMPLE 15.5
Sensible heat ratio

QS
18000

QS QL 18000 3600
0.833

Draw the sensible heat ration line from point 2 until


it cuts the dry bulb of 15oC which gives point 1.
Point 5 must lie on the horizontal line through point
1 since there is no change in moisture content.

5
Line 4 5
0.8 4
Line 4 A
4 A
A 4

4 1
0.8

0.0089

0.0089 0.0075
0.8

0.00715
Point 5 is fixed by joining points 4 and A, where this
line cuts the horizontal line through point 1, T5 =
12oC.
Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

Psychrometry and Air Conditioning

EXAMPLE 15.5
i)

From the chart, h1 = 33.9 kJ/kg and h2 = 40.2 kJ/kg


Total load = 18 + 3.6 = 21.6 kW
21.6
Mass flow rate of supply air ,ma1
3.43 kg/s
40.2 33.9

ii) From the chart, the specific humidity of supply air = 0.00745 kg/kg d.a.
iii) From the chart, h4 = 46.2 kJ/kg and h5 = 31.1 kJ/kg
Cooling load of the coil ma1 h4 h5 3.43 46.2 31.1 51.8 kW

iv) Heating load ma1 h6 h5


3.43 33.9 31.1
9.6 kW

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, 2014

The End