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APPROVAL PAGE

The Test of Natural Preservatives on Tomatoes


Submitted to Fulfill English School Final Practical Examination

AULIA NUR AZIZAH


131410088
Baleendah, March 2016
The Teacher Mentor 1

The Teacher

Mentor 2

Dedi Mulyadi, M.Pd

Dra.

Mona Haldrina Hikmat


NIP. 19670504 199001

NIP.196907311997

022022

Approved by :
The School Principal of SMA Negeri 1 Baleendah

Drs. H. Aa Sudaya, M. Pd
1

NIP. 19581201 198303 1 011

ABSTRACT

Azizah Aulia Nur, the test of natural preservatives on


tomatoes. SMAN 1 Baleendah. At this time the research research
method using the method of the experiment. Located in the
house of my parents, located in Komp. Banjaran Indah Regency
No. 40 Reading Arjasari Bandung, held Wednesday on 17 - 24
February 2016 at 17.30. Tomatoes used as a control variable
solution of salt, sugar solution and aloe vera extract as a free
variable, and long durability tomatoes as a bound variable.
From the results of research tomatoes is inserted into the
solution of salt more durable (not quickly decays) from tomatoes
is inserted into the sugar solution and aloe vera extract. Proven
from the color, texture, smell and shiny on the surface of the
tomatoes. On the 7 day tomatoes which is inserted into the salt
solution does not seem to be that change will be but the color of
the water is visible turbid. On the tomatoes which is inserted into
the sugar solution on the 6 the color of the water is already
visible turbid and were seen shiny on the surface. And on the
tomatoes which is inserted into the aloe vera extract on day 4
were seen on the skin of spots. can be deduced, it is indeed true
that the tomatoes is inserted into the solution of salt more long
lasting from the sugar solution and aloe vera extract. To know the
preservation of from tomatoes it was done observations each
day.
Key Words : Tomatoes, Salt Solution, Sugar Solution, Aloe Vera
Extract and Putrefaction.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Scientific

paper

preservative against

titled test
the

the

resilience

effectiveness
tomatoes

of

natural

could not

be

completed without assistance from the side more.


The author would like to thank the :
1. H. Aa Sudaya as head of school SMAN 1 Baleendah
2. Dedi Mulyadi, M.Pd as a Biology teacher and mentor and
guide to the author
3. Dra. Mona Haldrina Hikmat as English teachers

and the

advisor and guide to the author


4. All library staff SMAN 1 Baleendah which has helped to
provide reference
5. Parents who always support and help in this writing
scientific paper
And the last is for all those who have helped the author ,
author cannot put their names in this scientific work .

PREFACE
Bismillahirrahmanirrahim.
In the name of God, the Most Merciful and Compassionate,
all praise is for Allah Who has sent His Messenger to bring the
instructions along with the application descriptor of religion as a
whole and enough for God as a witness to the truth.
With guidance and thanks to Him I can complete the
scientific paper titled "The Test of Natural Preservatives on
Tomatoes". In the election of the title of the scientific paper, the
author chose the title because the author want to know the
effectiveness of the use of natural preservative against the
resilience of a food.
In

the writing

of

this

scientific

paper,

still

many

imperfections and weaknesses, there are also barriers and


obstacles. But do not be an obstacle to the author even a
challenge as well as lessons learned and to broaden the
experience and confidence.

Baleendah, March 2016


The author

TABLE OF CONTENTS

APPROVAL PAGE.............................................................................i
ABSTRACT......................................................................................ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...................................................................iii
PREFACE.......................................................................................iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS.....................................................................v
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION............................................................1
1.1 The Background of The Problem..........................................1
1.2 The Formulation of The Problem..........................................2
1.3 The Hypothesis....................................................................2
1.4 The Research Purpose..........................................................2
1.5 Systemic Writing..................................................................2
CHAPTER II THEORITICAL..............................................................4
2.1 Spoliation Food.....................................................................4
2.2 Preservatives........................................................................4
2.3 Description Tomatoes...........................................................5
2.4 Tomato Classification...........................................................5
2.5 Tomato Benefits...................................................................6
2.6 Description of The Salt & Sugar...........................................6
2.7 Description Aloe Vera...........................................................8
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.......................................9
3.1 Data Collection Method........................................................9
3.2 The time and place of Research...........................................9
3.3 Research Variable.................................................................9
3.4 The Appliance ...................................................................10
3.5 Working Steps....................................................................10
3.6 Data Table..........................................................................11
CHAPTER IV THE RESULTS OF RESEARCH...................................12

4.1 Observation Table..............................................................12


4.2 Analysis of the Table..........................................................12
4.3 Discussion..........................................................................13
CHAPTER V THE CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMENDATIONS............15
5.1 Conclusion..........................................................................15
5.2 Recomendations.................................................................15
BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................16
APPENDIX....................................................................................17

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1 The Background of The Problem
The type of food product is currently produced is not only
about the nutrients that contained, but also solve how the type of
food is packed, easy served, practical, or mingled with modern
way, (Denny Indra Praja, STP, 2015). This can be done with the
help of additive substances (additional materials food) for
preserves and gives the flavor of food products. The use of these
additives as a preservative in foods are grouped into 2 namely,
food preservative from natural ingredients and food preservative
from the synthetic materials. The problems often faced is often
found

the

synthetic

materials dangerous

used as

food

preservative from on natural ingredients.


The use of the food preservative compounds cannot be
avoided for various reasons such as maintaining the freshness of
the food, inhibits the growth of the organism, keep the color of
the ingredients and to maintain the quality of the food in the
storage for a certain period of time (Giesova, dkk., 2004). But the
use of preservatives experience has become a choice that many
done this time with the reason for the security of health and
security of the environment (Damalas, 2011). Many types of food
preservative from natural ingredients including three that I will
mention is salt, sugar and aloe vera.
Many people use preservatives on food because of the
characteristics of food in general is easily damaged. The level of
water that is contained in it is the main culprit of food it self. The
higher the level of water a food, will be more likely the collapsed
both as a result of the internal biological activity (metabolism) or

the entry of microbes destroyer (Nindi Silvia M, 2014). Tomatoes


is one type of food is very easy to experience the spoliation,
minimum within 7 days.
Based on the background of the above then I am interested
to do research on the impact of the solution of salt, sugar
solution and aloe vera extract against the resilience tomatoes.
From the research that I do i can know the natural preservative
that has a long time in the process of preservation tomatoes.
1.2 The Formulation of The Problem
1. How is the process of preservation tomatoes with salt

solution, sugar solution and aloe vera extract ?


2. Why are tomatoes which is inserted into the solution of salt

more durable compared with sugar solution and aloe vera


extract?
1.3 The Hypothesis
Tomatoes is inserted into the salt solution more durable
compared with sugar solution and aloe vera extract.
1.4 The Research Purpose
1. To know the natural preservatives and longer lasting or
more durable to preserves the food.
2. To avoid the danger of the use of preservatives and
synthetic materials that dangerous on the food.
The Benefits from The Research
To know the difference between tomato resilience on the solution
of salt, sugar solution and aloe vera extract.

1.5 Systemic Writing


APPROVAL SHEET
ABSTRACT
THE PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of The Problem
1.2 Research Question
1.3 The Hypothesis
1.4 The Purpose and Benefits of Research
1.5 Systemic Writing
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LIBRARY
2.1 The Spoliation Food
2.2 Preservatives
2.3 Tomato Description
2.4 Tomato Classification
2.5 The Benefits of Tomatoes
2.6 Description of the Salt & Sugar
2.7 Description Aloe Vera
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Method
3.2 The Time and Place Of Research
3.3 Research Variable
3.4 Research Design
CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION OF RESEARCH RESULTS
4.1 The observation Data
4.2 Data Analysis
CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Conclusion

5.2 Recomendations
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX

CHAPTER II
THEORITICAL
2.1 Spoliation Food
Have you ever save the fruits such as tomatoes in the
place that is open to a few days? What is happening with
tomatoes? Tomatoes that are left in the open in a long
time will rot. The spoliation is events chemical changes because
microorganisms. On the tomatoes decays, tomatoes changed to
smell, thicle waxy product, and remove the gas. Because of the
nature of the tomatoes after decay is different with tomatoes
fester, events spoliation tomatoes can be said as a chemical
changes.
The spoliation things happened because of the influence of
spoliation bacteria. The spoliation more often occurs on the
object or wet food and damp cloth. This is because the water
level is high in food speed up the process of decay has. So that
the food is not quickly rot can be assigned to a natural
preservative ingredients such as turmeric, salt (be salted), or
plugged into the refrigerator.
2.2 Preservatives
Preservatives and is one of the oldest food additional
usage. At the beginning of the human civilization and smoke has
been

used

for

preserves

meat,

fish

and

corn. Similarly

preservation with the use of salt, tamarind and palm sugar has
been known since a long time ago. Then known the use of
preservatives to keep food from microbes disorders so that food
remains durable reversible.

Ideally, of preservatives will inhibit or kill the microbes that


important then breaks down the harmful compounds became not
dangerous and toxic substances. Of preservatives will affect and
qualifying the types of microbes that can live on the condition.
The degree of inhibition of food material damage by the microbes
vary with the type of preservatives used and amount of inhibition
is determined by the concentration of preservatives used.
2.3 Description Tomatoes
The fruit of the tomato is a plant that comes from Tropical
America, planted as plants bear fruit in the field, backyard farms,
or wild found at an altitude of 1, 1600 m dpls. This plant does not
hold with the rain and the light of the sun, and want the puffed
up and fertile land. Terna 1 this year grow upright or hinges on
the other plants, high 0,5-2,5 m, diverged many, have hair and
strong smell. Round bars, thickened on his books, have coarse
hair green color whiteness.
The leaves are compound and bound pinnate, layout
berseling, have the form of the round eggs to lengthen, pointed
tip, stem and rounder, small pieces of the leaves large frame
rough, even smaller strands frame long serrated, 10-40 cm,
green color young man. Compound interest, gathered in the form
of the cluster, crown of stars, yellow color. Fruit bunni, skin is
thick, smooth, shine, various in existence or size, colors yellow or
red. Seeded many, flat color is quite yellow brown. The fruit of
the tomatoes can be eaten directly, juice erect, tomato sauce,
cooked, sambal erect fry, or pickle erect tomatoes. The shoots or
young leaves can make soup. The fruit of the vine tomatoes
generally available in the market has a round shape. That is
large, the flesh of the fruit is not thin, bearing a little, and red
said as tomatoes fruit. Tomatoes type is usually eaten fresh as
fruit. Tomatoes with smaller size is known as vegetable tomato

because is used in dishes. Small vine tomatoes large red marble


called tomatoes cherries and used for a mixture of making
sauces or in salad dishes.
2.4 Tomato Classification
The following is the classification of plants tomatoes :
Kingdom

: Plantae

The Division

: Spermatophyta

The subdivision

: Angiosperms

The Class

: Dicotyledoneae

The order of the : Plemoniales


Family

: Solanaceae

The genus

: Lycopersion

Species

: lypersion esculentum mill

2.5 Tomato Benefits


The fruit of the tomato sweet, acid, his character a little
cold.Tomatoes

Useful removes

thirst,

antiseptic

intestines,

Catholic purges easy (laksa-tif), increase appetite with step


increases the escaping saliva, stimulates the bringing of the
stomach enzymes, and streamline the flow of bile into the
intestines. Useful leaf air. Most impact and the results of research
on rats, tomato juice can lower the serum content of high
cholesterol and lower the amount of cholesterol in the liver. In

cats,

syrup

tomatoes

can

lower

blood

pressure

without

interrupting widened the heart and intellectually stimulating


environment muscle. In the animal experiments, tomatine useful
anti inflammatory and lower the permeability of blood vessels.
Efficient Tomatine to prevent the development of fungi on the
human body. Research In America, males that the consumption
of at least ten portions of fruit tomatoes and cooked in 1 weeks
can lower the risk of prostate cancer to 45%. This subject is
made possible due to no likopen, karoten on tomatoes that
recognized can escape the emergence of the tumor and reduce
the effects of heart disease.

2.6 Description of The Salt & Sugar


1. Sugar
The addition of sugar is a treatment process that is done
with the way the gift of sugar with a purpose to preserves
because the water will be settled in the end will reduce the level
of water from the food ingredients. The concentration of sugar is
added at least 40% dissolved mill while under it is not enough to
prevent damage due to the bacteria when the product is stored
in a room temperature or normal (not in a low temperature). An
example of the food with the preservation pemanisan is the
sweetness of fruit. Sweetness soaked into the sugar solution
would make the level of sugar in the fruit of the increase and the
level of the water is reduced. That makes sugar solution become
hypertonic solution because the concentration of sugar is higher
than the concentration of pelarutnya. When there are bacteria in
hypertonic solution, then the water will come out of the bacterial
cells toward the solution that more darkness namely sugar
solution.

Because

the

fluid

in

the

body

bacteria

that

concentrating on low and pelarutnya (water) out of the body of


the

bacteria

so

that

bacterial

cells

shrink

and

lose

its

function. This process is called crenation. As a result of the


process of the crenation, bacteria will become damaged and
destroyed so that the ingredients that are mixed with sugar
solution can escape from the bacteria that damage the contents
of

the

ingredients,

so

that

the

food

does

not

quickly

decays/nonsense.
2. Salt
Salt the kitchen (NaCl) since long have been used as
material for additional flavor and of preservatives. So the salt
many used in the food industry including also in the preservation
of fish. Salt with low concentration function as the former flavor,
while in concentrations high enough to participate as a preservative. Salt will be ionised gases and draw some water molecules,
this event is called hydration ion. If the concentration of the salt
of the bigger and more as hydrous ions and water molecules
captured by the activity of the salt in the interest of water this is
closely

related

with

the

events

plasmolysis,

where

water will move from the salt concentration of low to high salt
concentrations due to pressure differences osmosis.
Effect of preservation salt (NaCl) because the strength of
the ion Cl as a preservative, reduction oxidation reaction and the
reaction enzymatis. NaCl solubility in water causing solubility O 2
in water decreases, cause denaturation proteins that elevated
level activity decreases. Salt serves as a selective resistance in
microorganisms contaminant reduction in particular.
The effect of salt as a preservative is the nature of
osmotiknya is high and troubleshoot the membrane of the cell
microbes, the characteristic of hygroscopic from the salt solution

may inhibite proteolytic enzyme activity and their dissociated


ions Cl. When microorganisms are placed in solid salt solution
(30-40%), then the water in the cell will go out by osmosis and
experienced

plasmolysis

cells

and

be

hampered

in

reproduces. So with the events salt solution may inhibit damage


to the food.
2.7 Description Aloe Vera
The leaves have flesh thick fruit is similar to the tongue
with the edge of the sharp serrated knife so that the plants are
known with the pronunciation aloe vera. Loops short plants and
easy to produce children, especially when the air surrounding
contain much water. Young green leaf colors with the peacock the
peacock white. The flesh colored leaf nodes and smooth.
Terkadangdari shoots of plants out of a yellow flower that is
supported by the long handles the lofty. Aloe vera can grow in
the area of heat or in the area is weather.

10

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Data Collection Method


1. The method of study of the library
The method of study of the library which is the
method used with how to retrieve information from print
media and retrieve information from the internet or various
literature related to this paper.
2. The method of the experiment
The method of the experiment in this paper using the
solution of salt, sugar solution and aloe vera extract to
made the comparison in preserves tomatoes.

3.2 The time and place of Research


The author did an experiment for 7 days which was held at :
The day, date : Wednesday, 17 February 2016
The Place

: Komp. Banjaran Indah Regency No. 40 Arjasari


Bandung

The Time

: 17.30 WIB

And finished on

The day, date : Wednesday, 24 February 2016


The Place

: Komp. Banjaran Indah Regency No. 40 Arjasari


Bandung

The Time

: 17.30 WIB

11

3.3

Research Variable

a. The control variable


b. Bound variable

: tomatoes
: long durability tomatoes

c. Free variable

: salt solution, sugar solution,

and
extracting aloe vera.
3.4 The Appliance :
a. 3 cup medium sized plastic
b. 3 Plastics
c. 3 rubber rings
d. 3 The label paper
e. The blades
f. The spoon
g. The paper
Material :
a. 3 medium sized tomato fruit
b. 3 sdm sugar
c. 3 sdm salt kitchen
d. 1 aloe vera
e. Water

3.5 Working Steps


1. Prepare the appliance and the ingredients.
2. Wash aloe vera and third fruit tomatoes first.

12

3. Prepare fruit 3 cup medium sized plastic and insert the 3


human resources salt into the cup 1 and 3 of human
resources of sugar into the cup 2.
4. Dissolve the using water, until late.
5. Peel the skin aloe vera use blades, then take meat aloe
vera.
6. Enter the flesh aloe vera into the cup 3 with medium sized
might.
7. Mash the flesh aloe vera use the spoon.
8. Enter the three fruit tomatoes into each cup that has been
filled with the solution of salt, sugar solution and aloe vera
extract.
9. Lid of the cup using the plastic and then fix it with rubber.
10.

Store at room temperature.

11.

Watch the amendments there to for 7 days.

3.6. Data Table

The
treatment
Tomatoes in

The day to3


4
5

the salt
solution
Tomatoes
on the
sugar
solution
Tomatoes
on aloe
vera

13

extract

14

CHAPTER IV THE RESULTS OF RESEARCH

4.1 Observation Table

The
treatment
Tomatoes in

The day to3


4
5

the salt

++

++

++

+++

+++

+++

solution
Tomatoes
on the
sugar
solution
Tomatoes
on aloe
vera extract
Description :
(-)

: do not experience physical changes.

(+)

: water visible turbid.

( ++ )

: arise the white spots on the surface of the

tomatoes.
( +++ )
( ++++ )

: tomatoes started to change color.


: texture of the tomatoes become soft.

4.2 Analysis of the Table


From the data table can be concluded that the tomatoes is
inserted into the aloe vera extract more quickly experience the

15

spoliation. And tomatoes is inserted into the solution of salt more


durable though on the 7 day of salt water is starting to muddy.
4.3 Discussion
On

this

experiment

researchers

compare

natural

preservatives namely salt, sugar and aloe vera to see among the
three which the natural preservative can preserves food in a long
time. Researchers test on tomatoes, because tomatoes are
vegetables which quickly decays if stored at room temperature.
Researchers using the salt solution because salt has a high
osmotic characteristic and can solve the membranes of the cells
of the microbes, the characteristic of hygroscopic from the salt
solution may inhibite proteolytic enzyme activity and their
dissociated ions Cl. When microorganisms are placed in solid salt
solution (30-40%), then the water in the cell will go out by
osmosis and experienced plasmolysis cells and be hampered in
reproduces. So with the events salt solution may inhibit damage
to the food.
The sugar solution is also selected by the researchers as a
natural preservative because, sugar on the concentration of at
least 40% can prevent damage to the food as a result of
bacteria. Soaking tomatoes on this sugar solution can make
the level of sugar in the fruit of the increase and the level of the
water is reduced. That makes sugar solution become hypertonic
solution because the concentration of sugar is higher than the
concentration of solvent. When there are bacteria in hypertonic
solution, then the water will come out of the bacterial cells
toward the solution that more darkness namely sugar solution.
Because the fluid in the body bacteria that concentrating on low
and solvent (water) out of the body of the bacteria so that

16

bacterial cells shrink and lose its function as a result of bacteria


will be damaged and destroyed. So the food mixed with sugar
solution will hold the attacks of the bacteria and food will be
durable.

Researchers

using

the

tomatoes

because

these

vegetables are assessed quickly experience the spoliation if


stored at room temperature.
In addition researchers using aloe vera to preserves
food. In aloe vera there are various kinds of active substance
one is saponin (Purbaya, 2003; Furnawanthi, 2004) is able to
inhibit the growth of bacteria staphylococcus aureus (grampositive

bacteria which

produce

yellow

pigment)

bacteria

produce toxins called enterotoxin. If consumed by humans and


will cause severe vomiting and diarrhea (Ni Kadek Ariyanti, Ida
Bagus Gede Darmayasa, Sang Ketut Sudirga, 2012).
In fact to three natural preservative can prevent bacteria
destroyer food, but from the results of experiments that
researchers do to three ingredients have different preservation
period. Can be seen on the previous table that tomatoes which is
inserted into the solution of salt more durable if compared with
tomatoes is inserted into the solution of sugar and aloe vera
extract.

17

CHAPTER V
THE CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Conclusion
1. It is provide that tomatoes preserved by salt is more
durable than the ones preserved by sugar and aloe vera
extract.
2. Salt is proved as more the effective preservative as a
natural preservative.
5.2 Recomendations
When the experiment should be seen first freshness from
tomatoes, because it will have an effect on the result of the
experiment. The use of salt, sugar and aloe vera extract should
be used with the same quantities. If seen from the experiments
carried out of preservatives naturally could not preserves the
food until a long time, but this natural preservative material can
at least inhibits the growth of bacteria or microbes on food,
besides also safe for health.

18

BIBLIOGRAPHY
http://digilib.unimed.ac.id/public/UNIMED-Undergraduate-225384.%20BAB%20I.pdf
http://sitijumatun.blogdetik.com/2012/11/26/karya-ilmiahpembusukan-buah-tomat.
http://fredikurniawan.com/klasifikasi-dan-morfologi-tanamantomat/
https://kinanthibarru.wordpress.com/2015/09/02/mengapabahan-makanan-lebih-awet-jika-direndam-dengan-larutan-garamdan-gula/
http://www.satwa.net/484/buah-tomat-manfaat-kandungan-danklasifikasi-tomat.html
Mursito, Apt. Bambang dan Prihmantoro Heru.2011. Tanaman
Hias Berkhasiat Obat. Jakarta: Penebar Swadaya.
Furnawanthi, I. 2004. Khasiat dan Manfaat Lidah Buaya Si
Tanaman Ajaib. Jakarta: Agro Media Pustaka. Hal 1-21.
Purbaya, J.R. 2003. Mengenal dan Memanfaatkan Khasiat Aloe
vera. Bandung: CV Pionerjaya. Hal 21-165.
Ariyanti Ni Kadek, dkk. 2012. Jurnal Biologi XVI : Daya Hambat
Ekstrak Kulit Daun Lidah Buaya (Aloe Barbadensis Miller)
Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Staphylococcus Aureus ATCC
25923 dan Escherichia Coli ATCC 2592. Bali

19

APPENDIX
Tools and Materials

20

Before

After one week

Sugar solution

Aloe vera extract

Salt solution

21