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Giving Possible Causes/Effects


Learning Objectives

Give the possible causes/effects to situations heard.

Listen to paragraphs read expressing cause and effect relationship.

Enumerate ways of protecting our Mother Earth.

II. Subject Matter

a. Topic:

Giving Possible Cause/Effect Relationship

b. References:

PELC Listening I 1.7

c. Materials:

pictures, cassette tapes

Value Focus: Harmony and Unity

III. Procedure
A. Preparatory Activities
1. Review
Recall how sequencing helps us organize stories/paragraphs.
2. Motivation
Show a picture of a sea or ocean and ask these questions:

Who are fond of going to the seashore and viewing the sea?
How do you feel when you do these?
What can we get from the sea and ocean?

B. Development of Lesson
1. Presentation
Read this paragraph as the pupils listen.
All living things in the ocean are endangered by humans
polluting the water. Pollution occurs in several ways. One way is the
dumping of certain waste materials, such as garbage and sewage, into
the ocean. The cause-decaying bacteria that feed on the garbage use

up much of the oxygen in the surrounding water, so other creatures in

the area often dont get enough.
Other substances, such as radioactive waste material, can also
cause pollution. These materials which are often placed in the water in
securely sealed containers may begin to leak.
Oil is another major source of concern. It is spilt into the ocean
when tankers run around and sink or when oil wells in the ocean
cannot be capped. The oil covers the gills of fish and causes them to
smother. Diving birds get the oil on their wings and are unable to fly.
When they clean themselves, they are often poisoned by the oil.
Rivers also can contribute to the pollution of oceans. Many
rivers receive the runoff water from farmlands. Fertilizers used on the
farms may be carried to the ocean.
Worse yet are the pesticides carried to the ocean. These
chemicals slowly build up in shellfish and other small sea animals.
These animals then pass the pesticides on to the larger animals that
feed on them. The buildup of these chemicals in the animals can make
them ill or cause their babies to be born dead or deformed.
2. Analysis and Discussion
a. Ask these questions to the pupils.
What are the reasons why living things in the ocean are
What are these substances that make the ocean polluted?
What will happen if humans keep on polluting the water?
Why do we have to protect our Mother Earth? How are we going to
protect her?
b. Lead the pupils in identifying that a cause is anything that brings
about a condition or result and that condition or result is the effect.
c. Go back to the story, read it again and ask the pupils to give causeeffect relationship found in the story.
3. Generalization
What is a cause? What is an effect?
A cause is anything that brings about a condition or result. Effect is
the condition or result.
C. Post Activity
1. Application

Activity 1 (Paired Work)

Listen as the teacher reads the paragraphs below then identify all the
cause/effect relationships. Fill out the table below.
1. Red tide develops when the water is polluted. It is the episodic
appearance of a reddish discoloration in coastal waters because of
the proliferation of certain minute, toxic protozoans.
2. Dynamite fishing is very destructive. It could kill not only the fish
but the other living things underwater as well. It is even dangerous
to the lives of the fishermen.
3. Vehicles eject poisonous gases which contain carbon monoxide.
Industries and factories burn fuels giving a tremendous amount of
carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. As a result, the ozone layer is
damaged and it allows the ultraviolet radiation to pass through the
earth that causes skin cancer and other diseases.


Activity 2
Call a pupil. Let others listen to him as he gives a sentence that
expresses a cause and calls for another classmate to complete the
sentence by giving the possible effects.
The theme of this activity can be based on the following:
- Study Habits and their Results
- Eating the Right Food and Keeping One Healthy
- Friendliness in the School Campus
IV. Evaluation
Listen to the teacher as he/she reads the selection.
questions that follow.

Then answer the

For the teacher to read:

The rapid increase in population in a country is a root of poverty. It greatly
affects the need for food, shelter, employment, health, as well as for peace
and order. Problems on environmental sanitation or shortage of supplies,
whether organic or inorganic, are also attributed to overpopulation. Hence,

the government has sought ways on how to control birth rate, one of which is
a program in using contraceptives.
Pupils Copy:
Pick out the letter of the correct answer.
_____ 1. Poverty is the effect of
a. unemployment of many people
b. rapid increase of population
c. shortage of food
d. polluted cities
_____ 2. Because of increasing number of people in the country
a. there is a problem on housing
b. death rate increases
c. many overseas contract workers go back to the country
d. many are physically fit
_____ 3. The government wants to solve the problem in population so
a. people apply work abroad.
b. it warns the youth to get married at an early age.
c. it prohibits the adults from using birth control pills.
d. it launches different programs to control the rapid increase of
_____ 4. The most likely reason for people from provinces prefer to live in
Metro Manila is that:
a. the city has a lot of bars and restaurants.
b. it is boring and lonely in the province.
c. the city gives more opportunities for employment.
d. life is more adventurous in the city.
_____ 5. Crime rate increases in an overpopulated country because
a. many people are unemployed.
b. many people have cell phones.
c. many people have expensive jewelries.
d. more people live in subdivision.

Ask your parents about the effects for having such size of your family. Write
down the effect/s in your notebook.