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INDIAN PETROCHEMICALS CORPORATION LIMITED


NAGOTHANE

TRAINING MODULE
FOR

BASICS OF PUMPS

LEARNING CENTRE
NC

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MODULE IMPEMENTATION PLAN


TOPIC: BASICS OF PUMPS
CODE NO : IPCLCB071
FOR: SELF STUDY

DATE:

REV:01
SR
NO
1

SITE:NAGOTHANE
CONT
ENT

Introduction
and
classification
Definition

AUTH
OR

RESOURCES

AVAIL
ABLE

LEARNI
NG

VALIDAT
ION

TRA
INE
R
SK

Hydraulic
institute journal

Self
study

Pump handbook
by
F.POLLAK,KAR
RASIK
Pump handbook
by
F.POLLAK,KAR
RASIK
Pump handbook
by KARRASIK
Pump handbook
by F.POLLAK
Pump handbook
by F.POLLAK
Pump handbook
by F.POLLAK

Self
Study

SK

Self
Study

SK

Self
Study
Self
Study
Self
Study
Self
Study

SK

Selection of
pump

Centrifugal
Pump
Reciprocatin
g pump
Diaphragm
pump
Gear pump

Lobe pump

Pump handbook N
by F.POLLAK

Self
Study

SK

Screw pump
Vane pump

11

Maintenance
of pumps

Self
Study
Self
Study
Self
Study

SK

10

Pump handbook N
by F.POLLAK
Pump handbook N
by F.POLLAK
Pump handbook N
by F.POLLAK
KARRASIK

5
6

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N
N
N

Quiz
Duration
hour

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SK
SK
SK

SK

Category :
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION

DESCRIPTION

PAGE

NO.
1

NO.
INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION & CLASSIFICATION
1.2 DEFINITION
1.3 SELECTION OF PUMP
1.4 STANDARDS AND CODES

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF VARIOUS TYPES


OF PUMPS
2.1 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
2.2 RECIPROCATING PUMP
2.3 DIAPHRAM PUMP
2.4 GEAR PUMP
2.5 LOBE PUMP
2.6 SCREW PUMP
2.7 VANE PUMP

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OBJECTIVE
In any industry ,various types of pumps are used to meet different requirements
of liquid handling. To understand these equipments better, it is desirable to have
basic knowledge of various types of pumps regarding their operating principle,
construction and application.

This module is prepared with a view to provide its reader basic knowledge of
various types of pumps which are commonly used in a process plant.

Hope this module will serve the purpose.

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SECTION 1

INTRODUCTION TO PUMP

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1.1 INTRODUCTION TO PUMPS :


Pumps convert mechanical energy input into hydraulic or fluid enegy. They
fall into two distinctive categories depending upon the way in which the
enegy is converted from high liquid velocity at the inlet into pressure head
in a diffusing passage. Dynamic pumps and positive displacement pumps.
Pump classification chart is shown:

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APPLICATION OF PUMPS
Application of suitable type of pump for a given service is dependent on various
factors. A guideline is given in the following figure. This represents upper limits
of pressure and capacity available currently. From the figure it is evident that the
reciprocating pumps run off the pressure scale whereas the centrifugal pumps
run off the capacity scale. Upper limits of pressure and capacity of pump class
are shown in the following figure.

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Most of the centrifugal pumps find their application in column bottom pumps,
vacuum tower separation, hydrocarbon processing, removal of sulfur and
nitrogen. They are used in steam power plants as boiler feed water pumps,
condensate circulating pumps, fuel oil systems.

In fire services, centrifugal

pumps are used as firewater pumps and as fire water jockey pumps (Smaller
pump which maintains pressure in the distribution system during periods of low
demand).

Reciprocating pumps are adapted to function as metering pumps for transfer of


fluids. The flow rates can be varied by changing the displacement per stroke.

1.2 DEFINITIONS :
Pumping is the addition of energy to a liquid to move it from one point to another.

Reciprocating pumps use pistons, plungers, diaphragms or other devices to


displace a given volume of liquid during each stroke of unit.

Centrifugal pumps employ centrifugal force to develop a pressure rise for moving
a liquid.

Impeller is the rotating member in a centrifugal pump through which liquid passes
and by means of which energy is imparted to the liquid.

Casing of centrifugal pump is the housing surrounding the impeller.

Critical speed of a centrifugal pump is that speed of the rotating shaft


corresponds to its natural frequency. At this speed, any minor imbalance of the
shaft is magnified and excessive vibration will occur.
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Rotary pumps use gears, vanes, screws, cams etc. in a fixed casing to produce
positive displacement of a liquid.

Packing is any material used to control leakage between a moving and stationery
part in the pump.

Mechanical seals are devices mounted on the shaft of centrifugal pump to seal
the liquid in the casing.

Cavitation is the phenomenon caused by vapourisation of a liquid inside a pump.

Viscosity is property of the liquid tat resists any force tending to produce flow.

Specific gravity of a liquid is that number which denotes the ratio of the weight of
the liquid to the weight of the equal volume of water.

Net positive suction head required is the energy needed on the suction side of
the pump to fill the pump to the discharge valve during operation.

1.3 SELECTION OF PUMPS


Following are important criteria for selection of any pump :

1. Fluid handled : Depending upon the process involved, fluid properties


like viscosity, density, boiling point, corrosiveness influence the on pump
and system design. Influence of operating pressures, temperatures on the
fluid also needs to be studied.

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2. System head curves :

Module No. :
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A preliminary layout of the pumping system

should be drawn which will include equipment layout, piping and


instruction diagram, elevation, various components like valves, their sizes.
This will help in developing system head curve, which will include
hydraulic losses. All such losses in the piping may then be added in this
graph.

User can then determine the total head requirement of the

pumping equipment in order to overcome the system resistance.

3. Mode of operation :

Whether operation of pump is continuous or

intermittent ? Criticality of the pump in service, which will decide upon the
stand by equipment.

4. Margins : Margins should be available for pumping parameters like


capacity and head in case of any unforeseen problems like sudden
voltage dips or malfunction of the check valve. Future expansions would
alter the operating parameters, which need to be taken into account in the
design stage only.

5. Life of the equipment need to be considered while design considering


wear of parts like sleeves, liners in abrasive services.

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Following guidelines can be adapted for selection of any type of pump in general
:

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1.4 PUMP STANDARDS :


Pumps are generally procured and manufactured in conformance to various
standards, which stipulate the design considerations, materials, manufacturing
process, inspection and shipping etc. Standards generally used for hydrocarbon
liquid include API and ANSI.

For non-hazardous services like water, IS

standards are generally used.

The nature and criticality of service decide application of a particular standard.


Generally a project standard is developed by the Engineering Consultant which
also considers the design standard of Process Licenser. However it is subjected
to approval of plant owners as these could have huge financial implications.

In recent times, many stringent clauses are included in the project standard
looking into the safety and environmental issues, which are assuming significant
importance worldwide.
A Quick check of existing pump standards will reveal that there are a number of
them. The list includes:

ANSI (American National Standards Institute) Standards for Chemical


Pumps

B73.1 for Horizontal type.

B73.2 for Vertical Inline

Hydraulic Institute Standards

API (American Petroleum Institute) 682 for centrifugal Pumps

API 674 for Reciprocating Pumps

API 675 for Controlled Volume Pumps

API 676 for Rotary Positive Displacement Pumps

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ISO (International Standards Organization) aimed at the medium duty


single stage pumps ( Metric)

DIN. West German industrial norm standard

VDMA West German standard for pump seals

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SECTION 2
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF VARIOUS
TYPES OF PUMPS

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2.1 CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS :


Principle of operation
A centrifugal pump is a one of the simplest types of equipment in any
process plant. Its purpose is to convert energy of a prime mover first into
velocity or kinetic energy and then into pressure energy of a fluid that is
being pumped. The energy changes occur by virtue of two main parts of
the pump, the impeller and the volute of the diffuser. The impeller is the
rotating part that converts driver energy into the kinetic energy. The volute
or diffuser is the stationery part that converts the kinetic energy into
pressure energy.

Generation of centrifugal force:


The process liquid enters the suction nozzle and then into suction eye of a
revolving device known as the impeller. When the impeller rotates ,it spins
the liquid sitting in the cavities between the vanes outwards and provides
centrifugal acceleration. As the liquid leaves the eye of the impeller, a low
pressure area is formed causing more liquid to flow towards the inlet.
Because the impeller blades are curved, the fluid is pushed in a tangential
and radial direction by the centrifugal force. Figure below depicts a side
cross section of a centrifugal pump indicating the movement of the liquid:

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PUMP OPERATING PARAMETERS

Now, let us discuss various other parameters that are specified for a pump
independent of pump types:

Head, Capacity, Power, Speed, Efficiency and NPSH


Head:
The pressure at any point in a liquid can be thought of as being caused by a
vertical column of the liquid due to its weight. The height of this column is called
as the static head and is expressed in terms of meters of liquid. Head of a pump
is used to measure the kinetic energy created by the pump. In other words ,
head is a measure meant of the height of the liquid column that the could create
from the kinetic energy imparted to the liquid. Head is not equivalent to the
pressure .Head has units of meters pressure has unit of force per unit area. The
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main reason for using head instead of pressure to measure a centrifugal pump
energy is that the pressure from a pump will change if the specific gravity of liquid
changes, but the head will not change. Since any centrifugal pump can move a
lot of different fluids, with different specific gravities, it is simpler to discuss pump
head than its pressure.

Conversion of kinetic energy into pressure energy:

The key idea is that the energy created by the centrifugal force is kinetic energy.
The amount of energy given to the liquid is proportional to the velocity at the
edge or vane tip of the impeller. The faster impeller revolves or the bigger the
impeller is, then the higher will be the velocity of the liquid at the vane tip and the
greater the energy imparted to the liquid.

The kinetic energy of a liquid coming out of an impeller is harnessed by creating


a resistance to flow. The first resistance is created by the pump volute that
catches the liquid and slows it down. In the discharge nozzle, the liquid further
decelerates and its velocity is converted to pressure according to Bernoullis
principle.

Therefore, the head developed is approximately equal to the velocity energy at


the periphery of the impeller.

Capacity
Capacity means the flow rate with which liquid is moved or pushed by the pump
to the desired point in the process. Quantity of flow is defined as the amount of
liquid passing through the pump in unit time. It is measured in m3/hr.

The capacity depends on number of factors like:


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Process liquid characteristics like density and viscosity


Size of the pump and its inlet and outlet sections
Impeller size
Impeller rotational speed RPM
Size and shape of the cavities between the vanes
Pump suction and discharge temperature and pressure conditions

Power
The work performed by a pump is a function of the total head and the weight of
the liquid pumped in a given time period. Pump input or brake power is the
actual power delivered to the pump shaft and pump output or the hydraulic power
is the liquid power delivered by the pump and is expressed in KW.

Efficiency:
Efficiency of the pump takes into account all the losses in the system. When
specifying a pump, the rated point should be at or to the left of the best efficiency
point. Efficiency is expressed as

Efficiency = Power used by the pump / power supplied to the pump

NPSH
The satisfactory operation of a pump requires that the vapourisation of the liquid
being pumped does not occur at any condition of operation. This is so desired
because when a liquid vapourises, its volume increases very much.
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When the pressure at the impeller eye goes down below the vapour pressure of
the fluid at which liquid begins to boil at the existing temperature, the liquid will no
longer remain in the state of liquid but in vapour state. These air bubbles are
carried along till they meet a region of higher pressure where they collapse
damaging pump internals. This phenomenon is called cavitation.

NPSH is a measure to prevent liquid vapourisation.

It is expressed as additional head required above the vapour pressure of the


liquid at the pump centre line.

Specific speed

Specific speed is a non dimensional design index that identifies the geometric
similarity of pumps. It is used to classify pump impellers as to their type and
proportions.

Pumps of the same Ns but different size are considered to be

geometrically similar , one pump being a size factor of the other.

Specific speed identifies the approximate acceptable ratio of the impeller eye
diameter D1 to the maximum impeller diameter D2 in designing a good impeller.

In British system,
Ns:500 to 5000 D1/D2>1.5:Radial flow pump
Ns:5000 to 10000;

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COMPONENTS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP


GENERAL
Acentrifugal pump has two main components:

1. A rotating component comprised mainly of impeller,shaft,bearings


2. A Stationary component comprised mainly of casing,casing cover and
bearing housing.

A typical single stage , overhung process type pump is the heart of the
process industry.A centrifugal pump essentially consists of an impeller with
vanes,surrounded by a volute casing.impeller is mounted firmly on shaft
,which is supported by two bearings,which in turn is supported in the bearing
housing. Impeller rotates with close clearance with the casing.Stuffing box
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prevents leakage of the process fluid from the impeller area to the
atmosphere.At the other end of the shaft ,coupling is fitted which takes drive
from the primemover such as electric motor or turbine.

STATIONARY COMPONENTS:

CASINGS
Pumps with volute casings are generally called as Volute pumps in which the
casing section collects the liquid discharged by the impeller and converts
velocity energy into pressure energy. Volute increases in area from its initial
point till it encompasses the full 360 deg.around the impeller and flares out to
the discharge opening.The wall dividing initial section and the discharge
nozzle of the volute is called the tongue of the volute.

In a single volute pump casing,uniform pressure act on the impeller when a


pump is operated at design capacity.At other capacities, the pressures
around the impeller are not uniform and there is a resultant radial load on the
impeller which,may deflect the pump shaft and cause wear at the impeller
wear ring and seal faces.Hence single volute designs are used in slurry and
sewage services to minimize plugging at the throat and on low head pumps
where radial loads are nominal.Application of double volute casing design

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eliminates radial loads . This design consists of two 180 deg. Volutes ,a
passage external to second joins the two volutes into a common discharge.

SEAL CHAMBER AND STUFFING BOX


Seal chamber and stuffing box both have primary function of protecting the
pump against leakage at the point where the shaft passes through the pump
pressure casing. When the pressure at the bottom is below atmospheric, it
prevents air leakage into the pump.

When the pressure is above

atmospheric, the chamber prevents leakage out of the pump. Both refer to a
chamber, either integral with or separate from pump case housing that forms
the region between the shaft and casing where sealing media are installed.
When the sealing is achieved by means of packing, the chamber is reffered
as stuffing box. The seal chambers and stuffing boxes are also provided with
cooling or heating arrangement for proper temperature control.

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GLAND PACKING
To stop the pumped fluid from escaping along the shaft, one method of
sealing is a packed gland. Rings of packing material are fitted in a packing
box and they fit around the shaft sleeve. Harder shaft sleeve is fitted for the
purpose of good wearing properties and a means of replacing a normally
wearing surface without having to replace the shaft.

BEARING HOUSING
The bearing housing encloses the bearing mounted on the shaft. The
bearings keep the shaft or rotor in correct alignment while stationery parts
under the action of radial and transverse loads. The bearing housing also
includes an oil reservoir for lubrication, constant level oiler, jacket for cooling
by circulating cooling water.

ROTATING COMPONENTS

IMPELLER
The impeller is the main rotating part that provides the centrifugal acceleration
to the fluid. They are often classified in many ways:

1.Based on major direction of flow in reference to the axis of rotation;


*Radial flow
*Axial flow
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*Mixed flow

2.Based on suction type


*Single suction :liquid inlet on one side
*Double suction:liquid inlet to the impeller symmetrically from both the
sides

3.Based on mechanical construction

*Closed :shrouds or side wall enclosing the vanes


*Open : no shrouds or wall to enclose the vanes
*Semiopen or vortex type

WEAR RINGS
Closed impellers require wear rings. Wear rings provide an easy and economical
renewable leakage joint between impeller and casing. As the wear rings wear
,the leakage loss increases and pumping efficiency goes down causing heat and
vibration .But, if the clearances are too tight, then both the both the impeller and
casing wear rings might seize resulting in jamming the pump. This is specifically
true for hot service pumps. Commonly used material for wear rings is 11-13% Cr
steel series, with casing wear ring material hardness more than the impeller wear
ring material hardness by about 50BHN to prevent galling. API 610 provides
guidelines on these clearances.

SHAFT

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The basic purpose of a centrifugal pump shaft is to transmit the torques


encountered when starting and during operation while supporting the impeller
and other rotating parts.

It must do this job with a deflection less than the

minimum clearance between the rotating and stationary part.

SHAFT SLEEVE
Pump shafts are usually protected from erosion , corrosion and wear at the seal
chambers, leakage joints, internal bearings and in the waterways by renewable
sleeves.

MECHANICAL SEAL
A mechanical seal has a rotating face and a stationary face. Means such as
bellows , wedges and O rings are used to seal the rotating face against the shaft
sleeve. O-rings are normally used to seal the stationary face to the casing. One
face with the springs is held stationary in most of the cases and other face
rotates. Both the faces are matched so they fit together perfectly.

Stationary face is many times made of carbon and rotating face of silicon
carbide.

UNDERSTANDING CENTRIFUGAL PUMP PERFORMANCE


CURVES
The capacity and pressure needs of any system can be defined with the help of a
graph called a system curve. Similarly the capacity vs. pressure variation graph
for a particular pump defines its characteristic pump performance curve.

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The pump suppliers try to match the system curve supplied by the user with a
pump curve that satisfies these needs as closely as possible. A pumping system
operates where the pump curve and the system resistance curve intersect. The
intersection of the two curves defines the operating point of both pump and
process. However, it is impossible for one operating point to meet all desired
operating conditions.

For example, when the discharge valve is throttled, the

system resistance curve shift left and so does the operating point.

Figure D.01: Typical system and pump performance curves

DEVELOPING A SYSTEM CURVE


The system resistance or system head curve is the change in flow with respect to
head of the system.

It must be developed by the user based upon the

conditions of service. These include physical layout, process conditions, and


fluid characteristics. It represents the relationship between flow and hydraulic
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losses in a system in a graphic form and, since friction losses vary as a square of
the flow rate, the system curve is parabolic in shape. Hydraulic losses in piping
systems are composed of pipe friction losses, valves, elbows and other fittings,
entrance and exit losses, and losses from changes in pipe size by enlargement
or reduction in diameter.

DEVELOPING A PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVE


A pump's performance is shown in its characteristics performance curve where
its capacity i.e. flow rate is plotted against its developed head.

The pump

performance curve also shows its efficiency (BEP), required input power (in
BHP), NPSHr, speed (in RPM), and other information such as pump size and
type, impeller size, etc.

This curve is plotted for a constant speed (rpm) and a

given impeller diameter (or series of diameters).

It is generated by tests

performed by the pump manufacturer. Pump curves are based on a specific


gravity of 1.0. Other specific gravities must be considered by the user.

NORMAL OPERATING RANGE


A typical performance curve (Figure D.01) is a plot of Total Head vs. Flow rate for
a specific impeller diameter. The plot starts at zero flow. The head at this point
corresponds to the shut-off head point of the pump. The curve then decreases to
a point where the flow is maximum and the head minimum.

This point is

sometimes called the run-out point. The pump curve is relatively flat and the
head decreases gradually as the flow increases. This pattern is common for
radial flow pumps. Beyond the run-out point, the pump cannot operate. The
pump's range of operation is from the shut-off head point to the run-out point.
Trying to run a pump off the right end of the curve will result in pump cavitation
and eventually destroy the pump.

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In a nutshell, by plotting the system head curve and pump curve together, you
can determine:
1. Where the pump will operate on its curve?
2.

What changes will occur if the system head curve or the pump
performance curve changes?

2.2 GENERAL POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMP


A positive displacement pump is one in which a definite volume of liquid is
delivered for each cycle of pump operation. This volume is constant regardless of
the resistance to flow offered by the system the pump is in, provided the capacity
of the power unit driving the pump or pump component strength limits are not
exceeded. The positive displacement pump delivers liquid in separate volumes
with no delivery in between, although a pump having several chambers may
have an overlapping delivery among individual chambers, which minimizes this
effect. The positive displacement pump differs from centrifugal pumps, which
deliver a continuous flow for any given pump speed and discharge resistance.
Positive displacement pumps can be grouped into three basic categories based
on their design and operation. The three groups are reciprocating pumps, rotary
pumps, and diaphragm pumps.
Reciprocating positive displacement pumps are generally categorized in four
ways: direct-acting or indirect-acting; simplex or duplex; single-acting or doubleacting; and power pumps.
Some reciprocating pumps are powered by prime movers that also have
reciprocating motion, such as a reciprocating pump powered by a reciprocating
steam piston. The piston rod of the steam piston may be directly connected to
the liquid piston of the pump or it may be indirectly connected with a beam or
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linkage. Direct-acting pumps have a plunger on the liquid (pump) end that is
directly driven by the pump rod (also the piston rod or extension thereof) and
carries the piston of the power end. Indirect-acting pumps are driven by means of
a beam or linkage connected to and actuated by the power piston rod of a
separate reciprocating engine.

A simplex pump, sometimes referred to as a single pump, is a pump having a


single liquid (pump) cylinder. A duplex pump is the equivalent of two simplex
pumps placed side by side on the same foundation. The driving of the pistons of
a duplex pump is arranged in such a manner that when one piston is on its
upstroke the other piston is on its down stroke, and vice versa. This arrangement
doubles the capacity of the duplex pump compared to a simplex pump of
comparable design.
A single-acting pump is one that takes a suction, filling the pump cylinder on the
stroke in only one direction, called the suction stroke, and then forces the liquid
out of the cylinder on the return stroke, called the discharge stroke. A doubleacting pump is one that, as it fills one end of the liquid cylinder, is discharging
liquid from the other end of the cylinder. On the return stroke, the end of the
cylinder just emptied is filled, and the end just filled is emptied. One possible
arrangement for single-acting and double-acting pumps is shown in Figure 13.

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Power pumps convert rotary motion to low speed reciprocating motion by


reduction gearing, a crankshaft, connecting rods and crossheads. Plungers or
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pistons are driven by the crosshead drives. Rod and piston construction, similar
to duplex double-acting steam pumps, is used by the liquid ends of the low
pressure, higher capacity units. The higher pressure units are normally singleacting plungers, and usually employ three (triplex) plungers. Three or more
plungers substantially reduce flow pulsations relative to simplex and even duplex
pumps.
Power pumps typically have high efficiency and are capable of developing very
high pressures. They can be driven by either electric motors or turbines. They
are relatively expensive pumps and can rarely be justified on the basis of
efficiency over centrifugal pumps. However, they are frequently justified over
steam reciprocating pumps where continuous duty service is needed due to the
high steam requirements of direct-acting steam pumps. In general, the effective
flow rate of reciprocating pumps decreases as the viscosity of the fluid being
pumped increases because the speed of the pump must be reduced. In contrast
to centrifugal pumps, the differential pressure generated by reciprocating pumps
is independent of fluid density. It is dependent entirely on the amount of force
exerted on the piston.

2.3 DIAPHRAGM PUMP


Diaphragm pumps are also classified as positive displacement pumps because
the diaphragm acts as a limited displacement piston. The pump will function
when a diaphragm is forced into reciprocating motion by mechanical linkage,
compressed air, or fluid from a pulsating, external source. The pump construction
eliminates any contact between the liquid being pumped and the source of
energy. This eliminates the possibility of leakage, which is important when
handling toxic or very expensive liquids. Disadvantages include limited head and

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capacity range, and the necessity of check valves in the suction and discharge
nozzles. An example of a diaphragm pump is shown in Figure 20.

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2.4 GEAR PUMP


There are several variations of gear pumps. The simple gear pump shown in
Figure 14 consists of two spur gears meshing together and revolving in opposite
directions within a casing. Only a few thousandths of an inch clearance exists
between the case and the gear faces and teeth extremities. Any liquid that fills
the space bounded by two successive gear teeth and the case must follow along
with the teeth as they revolve. When the gear teeth mesh with the teeth of the
other gear, the space between the teeth is reduced, and the entrapped liquid is
forced out the pump discharge pipe. As the gears revolve and the teeth
disengage, the space again opens on the suction side of the pump, trapping new
quantities of liquid and carrying it around the pump case to the discharge. As
liquid is carried away from the suction side, a lower pressure is created, which
draws liquid in through the suction line.
With the large number of teeth usually employed on the gears, the discharge is
relatively smooth and continuous, with small quantities of liquid being delivered to
the discharge line in rapid succession. If designed with fewer teeth, the space
between the teeth is greater and the capacity increases for a given speed;
however, the tendency toward a pulsating discharge increases. In all simple gear
pumps, power is applied to the shaft of one of the gears, which transmits power
to the driven gear through their meshing teeth.
There are no valves in the gear pump to cause friction losses as in the
reciprocating pump. The high impeller velocities, with resultant friction losses, are
not required as in the centrifugal pump. Therefore, the gear pump is well suited
for handling viscous fluids such as fuel and lubricating oils.

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There are two types of gears used in gear pumps in addition to the simple spur
gear. One type is the helical gear. A helix is the curve produced when a straight
line moves up or down the surface of a cylinder. The other type is the
herringbone gear. A herringbone gear is composed of two helixes spiraling in
different directions from the center of the gear. Spur, helical, and herringbone
gears are shown in Figure 15.
The helical gear pump has advantages over the simple spur gear. In a spur gear,
the entire length of the gear tooth engages at the same time. In a helical gear,
the point of engagement moves along the length of the gear tooth as the gear
rotates. This makes the helical gear operate with a steadier discharge pressure
and fewer pulsations than a spur gear pump.
The herringbone gear pump is also a modification of the simple gear pump. Its
principal difference in operation from the simple spur gear pump is that the
pointed center section of the space between two teeth begins discharging before
the divergent outer ends of the preceding space complete discharging. This
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overlapping tends to provide a steadier discharge pressure. The power


transmission from the driving to the driven gear is also smoother and quieter.

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2.5 LOBE PUMP :


The lobe type pump shown below is another variation of the simple gear pump. It
is considered as a simple gear pump having only two or three teeth per rotor;
otherwise, its operation or the explanation of the function of its parts is no
different. Some designs of lobe pumps are fitted with replaceable gibs, that is,
thin plates carried in grooves at the extremity of each lobe where they make
contact with the casing. The gib promotes tightness and absorbs radial wear.

There are many variations in the design of the screw type positive displacement,
rotary pump. The primary differences consist of the number of intermeshing
screws involved, the pitch of the screws, and the general direction of fluid flow.
Two common designs are the two-screw, low-pitch, double-flow pump and the
three-screw, high-pitch, double-flow pump.

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2.6 SCREW PUMP :


Two-Screw, Low-Pitch, Screw Pump
The two-screw, low-pitch, screw pump consists of two screws that mesh with
close clearances, mounted on two parallel shafts. One screw has a right-handed
thread, and the other screw has a left-handed thread. One shaft is the driving
shaft and drives the other shaft through a set of herringbone timing gears. The
gears serve to maintain clearances between the screws as they turn and to
promote quiet operation. The screws rotate in closely fitting duplex cylinders that
have overlapping bores. All clearances are small, but there is no actual contact
between the two screws or between the screws and the cylinder walls.
The complete assembly and the usual flow path are shown in Figure 17. Liquid is
trapped at the outer end of each pair of screws. As the first space between the
screw threads rotates away from the opposite screw, a one-turn, spiral-shaped
quantity of liquid is enclosed when the end of the screw again meshes with the
opposite screw. As the screw continues to rotate, the entrapped spiral turns of
liquid slide along the cylinder toward the center discharge space while the next
slug is being entrapped. Each screw functions similarly, and each pair of screws
discharges an equal quantity of liquid in opposed streams toward the center, thus
eliminating hydraulic thrust. The removal of liquid from the suction end by the
screws produces a reduction in pressure, which draws liquid through the suction
line.

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Three-Screw, High-Pitch, Screw Pump


The three-screw, high-pitch, screw pump, shown in Figure 18, has many of the
same elements as the two-screw, low-pitch, screw pump, and their operations
are similar. Three screws, oppositely threaded on each end, are employed. They
rotate in a triple cylinder, the two outer bores of which overlap the center bore.
The pitch of the screws is much higher than in the low pitch screw pump;
therefore, the center screw, or power rotor, is used to drive the two outer idler
rotors directly without external timing gears. Pedestal bearings at the base
support the weight of the rotors and maintain their axial position. The liquid being
pumped enters the suction opening, flows through passages around the rotor
housing, and through the screws from each end, in opposed streams, toward the
center discharge. This eliminates unbalanced hydraulic thrust. The screw pump
is used for pumping viscous fluids, usually lubricating, hydraulic, or fuel oil.
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2.7 VANE PUMP :


The rotary moving vane pump shown in Figure 19 is another type of positive
displacement pump used. The pump consists of a cylindrically bored housing
with a suction inlet on one side and a discharge outlet on the other. A cylindrically
shaped rotor with a diameter smaller than the cylinder is driven about an axis
placed above the centerline of the cylinder. The clearance between rotor and
cylinder is small at the top but increases at the bottom. The rotor carries vanes
that move in and out as it rotates to maintain sealed spaces between the rotor
and the cylinder wall. The vanes trap liquid or gas on the suction side and carry it
to the discharge side, where contraction of the space expels it through the
discharge line. The vanes may swing on pivots, or they may slide in slots in the
rotor.
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Positive displacement pumps deliver a definite volume of liquid for each cycle of
pump operation. Therefore, the only factor that effects flow rate in an ideal
positive displacement pump is the speed at which it operates. The flow
resistance of the system in which the pump is operating will not effect the flow
rate through the pump. Figure 21 shows the characteristic curve for a positive
displacement pump.
The dashed line in Figure 21 shows actual positive displacement pump
performance. This line reflects the fact that as the discharge pressure of the
pump increases, some amount of liquid will leak from the discharge of the pump
back to the pump suction, reducing the effective flow rate of the pump. The rate
at which liquid leaks from the pump discharge to its suction is called slippage.

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Positive displacement pumps are normally fitted with relief valves on the
upstream side of their discharge valves to protect the pump and its discharge
piping from over pressurization. Positive displacement pumps will discharge at
the pressure required by the system they are supplying. The relief valve prevents
system and pump damage if the pump discharge valve is shut during pump
operation or if any other occurrence such as a clogged strainer blocks system
flow.

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SECTION 3

MAINTENANCE OF PUMPS

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IS THERE A RELIABLE METHOD OF INTRODUCING A


CENTRIFUGAL PUMP PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE PROGRAM?
Probably not! But if you want to try you are first going to have to define what you
mean by predictive maintenance. If you mean that you are going to inspect the
pump and based on your observation, you are going to accurately predict future
life, you are going to have a problem.
The relationship between life to date and future life is generally accepted as
valid. As an example:

Measure the depth of the tread on your automobile tires, record the
distance driven on the tires, and if you do not change your driving habits,
you can accurately predict the life remaining.

Do the same thing with the shoes you are wearing and you will come up
with a similar result.

These are items that tend to "wear out" so life to date is a valid measurement.
The problem with centrifugal pumps is that seals and bearings account for over
90% of premature pump failures and neither of these items ever "wears out".
Seals should run until the sacrificial carbon face has worn away, but a close look
at used seals will demonstrate that wear is actually a minor problem. In excess of
85% of mechanical seals leak with plenty of wearable face still visible.

Bearings do not "wear out" like mechanical seals. They have a predictive fatigue
life that is based on load and cycles. Properly loaded they could last a hundred
years, but like seals, they experience a very high premature failure rate. All of
this means is that the measurements you are taking today are no indication of
what is going to happen tomorrow. It is like trying to predict an automobile
accident. There are precautions you can take, but accidents still happen.
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Most companies base their predictive maintenance programs on vibration


analysis or interval timed, visual inspection. and that is why we find "reactive
maintenance" the norm in most plants. How many times have we heard the
expression "I did not have time to do the job correctly (realignment, dynamic
balancing, etc.) because I had to get the pump back on stream".

A more sensible approach to predictive maintenance is to monitor the equipment


for changes that could be destructive in the future, but allow you to correct them
before the destruction starts. I spent my formative years in nuclear power. If, as
an operator, you did something wrong that would be harmful to the atomic
reactor it would "scram" and shut down immediately. But if you took an action
that could be potentially dangerous, the reactor would start an "insertion" that
would start to slowly shut down the reactor and give you time to correct what
ever it was you did.
Medical people use a predictive maintenance program when they:

Monitor your cholesterol level. If it exceeds some preset number (two


hundred in the U.S.) it means that your arteries are in danger of clogging,
so you should change your diet before it becomes serious. (insertion)

If your blood pressure is too high you could get a stroke. (insertion)

A high fever indicates a need to get medical attention before destruction


starts. (insertion)

Some types of pains initiate an immediate operation. (scram)

You do the same thing with your automobile:

A high engine water temperature is a sign of engine failure in the future.


You better check the fan belt and look for water leaks. Nothing is serious
yet, but you should react to the warning signs. (insertion)

High fuel consumption indicates a need for an engine tune-up. (insertion)

A loss of oil pressure means shut off the engine and react immediately.
(scram)

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Pumps also "scram" and give "insertion" signals", unfortunately vibration analysis
indicates that destruction has already started (scram). Let's look at some of the
"insertion" signals:
The stuffing box temperature is increasing. If it gets too hot you are going to have
a problem. You had better correct the condition if you do not want to experience
a premature seal failure. What can happen if the stuffing box temperature gets
too hot?

The product can change state. It can stop being a lubricant and quickly
become a destructive solid or vapor:
o

It can vaporize, expand and blow the seal faces open&emdash;


leaving destructive solids between the faces.

It can become viscous, interfering with the free movement of the


springs and bellows.

It can solidify, gluing the faces together or making the moveable


components inoperable.

It can crystallize and interfere with the moving parts of the seal.

It can cause the product to build a film on the faces (hot oil as an
example) and sliding components, making them inoperable.

Corrosion increases with increasing temperatures.

Temperature causes materials to expand. Seal faces can go out of flat,


and pressed in carbon faces can loosen in their holder. Bellows vibration
dampers can stick to the shaft sleeve, opening the faces.

Some seal faces can be damaged by high heat. Plated materials and filled
carbons are two such examples. Voids in some carbon faces can expand
causing pits in the lapped faces

Elastomers can experience "compression set" problems, causing them to


leak or in some cases fail completely at higher heat levels.

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What could be causing this high heat? If you take no corrective action one of the
above will occur.

A loss of flushing fluid. There are multiple reasons why this could happen
and I am confident you can think of many of them.

Loss of barrier or buffer fluid between two mechanical seals, or the


convection of the barrier fluid has stopped for some reason. Keep in mind
that petroleum products need forced lubrication or a pumping ring
because of the petroleum low specific heat and poor conductivity.

Loss of the quench in an A.P.I. gland.

Loss of the discharge recirculation line because of a clogged filter, cyclone


separator or heat exchanger.

Loss of suction recirculation because of solids in the fluid.

Loss of cooling in the stuffing box cooling jacket because the circulating
water was "hard" and has deposited an insulating layer of calcium on the
inside of the cooling jacket.

The seal is running dry because the stuffing box was not vented in a
vertical application.

The seal was installed incorrectly. There is too much spring load on the
faces.

You need a hydraulic balanced seal. The unbalanced design cannot


compensate for the high stuffing box pressure.

Thermal shaft expansion is over compressing an outside seal design, or


one of the seals in a dual seal application.

The open impeller adjusting technique can over compress some seal
designs.

The stuffing box is running in a vacuum because the supply tank is not
vented properly or cold weather is freezing the tank vent.

Water hammer, pressure surges and cavitation will all alter seal face
loading.

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A change in the stuffing box pressure can cause:

The product to vaporize, opening the lapped faces.

O-rings and other elastomer designs to extrude and jam the sliding
components.

Lapped seal faces to distort and go out of flat.

A stuffing box vacuum can blow open unbalanced seals.

A differential pressure across the elastomer can cause ethylene oxide to


penetrate into the elastomer and destroy it as it expands in the lower
pressure side.

If you are monitoring temperature and pressure in the stuffing box area you will
note the changes mentioned and depending upon your knowledge of the above,
you will have time to react before seal failure occurs.
An increase in the bearing case oil temperature is significant because the life of
bearing oil is directly related to the oil temperature. Lubricating oil has a useful
life of thirty years at thirty degrees centigrade (86F) and its life is cut in half for
every ten degree centigrade (18F) increase in temperature. You can figure the
temperature in the bearing is at least ten degrees centigrade (18F) higher than
the oil sump temperature. At elevated temperatures the oil will carbonize by first
forming a "varnish like" film that will turn into a hard black coke at these higher
temperatures. It is these formed solids that will destroy the bearing.
What is causing these elevated temperatures? There are a number of
possibilities:

Loss of circulation in the stuffing box cooling jacket.

Loss of cooling in the bearing case cooling sump.

Some one is cooling the outside of the bearing casing causing the outside
diameter of the bearing to shrink, increasing the load.

The bearing was installed incorrectly.

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The bearing is over lubricated. The oil level is too high or there is too
much grease in the bearing.

The lubricating oil is contaminated with water.

The shaft is overloaded because the pump is operating off of the B.E.P.,
misalignment, unbalance, etc.

There is too much axial thrust.

Oil sampling is always a good idea. It can tell you:

If water is getting into the oil.

If the oil additives are still present and functioning.

If the oil is carbonizing due to high temperature.

If there are solids due to corrosion, bearing cage destruction, or some


other reason.

If you monitor pump suction and discharge pressure and coordinate this
information with flow and motor amperage readings you can come up with a lot of
useful information such as:

You can tell if you have the right size pump.

You can estimate where you are in respect to the B.E.P. and know if the
shaft i deflecting, or is about to deflect.

You can tell if the motor is close to an overload condition.

You will know when the impeller needs adjusting or the wear rings need
replacement.

You can spot poor operating practices if you have a chart recorder
installed, instead of pressure and temperature gages.

You can tell if the tank you are pumping from is losing the proper level or if
the suction lines are clogging.

You can tell if you are getting close to cavitation.

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It goes without saying that constant monitoring is the most sensible answer to
predictive maintenance. It is the same logic you use with your automobile. You
believe that the extra expense of installed gauges is a cheap investment for
longer engine life.

There is nothing wrong with vibration analysis (an E.K.G. is still part of taking a
physical) but do not substitute it for sensible monitoring. The "scram " is too
expensive in this very competitive world of ours.

To properly maintain these pumps, there are three areas that should be
addressed. This includes the lubrication, seal replacement and alignment.

Lubrication is probably the most important part of your pump maintenance


program. Begin with checking the manufacturers recommended schedule for
lubrication and use the lubricant that they suggest. Keep detailed records on
when you lubricated the pump. Make sure you record the suction pressure, the
discharge pressure and general conditions that the pump operates under. Is the
pump hot? Do you hear noises? Record it all so that you have a base line to
compare against in the future.

Proper Alignment
Proper alignment is another area that needs to be addressed. Alignment is more
critical in higher rpm applications. Use a dial indicator if your pump is running at
3,500 rpm. For those of you running at 1,750 rpm a straight edge and taper
gauges will do the trick.
Replacement of Seals
The last area of maintenance is the replacement of seals. Whenever you replace
the seals make sure that you replace all the items and not just one part. Inspect
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the seals and try to determine why they wore the way they did. If there are
grooves in the seals, this could indicate that there is a high level of suspended or
dissolved solids that need to be addressed.

Be very careful when you replace the seals. Do not touch them with dirty hands
and be especially careful not to damage them when placing them on the shaft.
Also be careful not to scratch any of the machined surfaces that will result in a
leak path.

WHY PERFORM MAINTENANCE?


Maintenance of mechanical and electrical plant is essential if equipment is to
remain in a safe and reliable condition and perform the duty it was designed to
do and in a cost effective manner.
We maintain equipment, to ensure:

Reliability

Efficiency

Extend the assets service life

Maintenance levels vary depending on the complexity of equipment and the


consequence of failure. We must ensure our pumps and motors are maintained
in a safe and reliable condition. The level of maintenance and expenditure can be
evaluated by considering the cost of failure.

Evaluate the risk to personal safety and environment damage

Crop loss

Cost of emergency arrangements

Cost of emergency repairs

Total loss of asset

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What type of maintenance is applicable for a block pump?


Maintenance can be performed by having procedures based on:

REACTIVE MAINTENANCE

Maintenance is performed only when it has failed and you are required to
act immediately.

This form of maintenance can be supported by spare parts or in some


cases a spare pump so that down time is kept to a minimum.

Reactive maintenance is not a good method.

PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE

This form of maintenance requires you to act just prior to failure.

Deciding on what has to be performed and when is it a major problem.

PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE

By recording selected readings, noting operational conditions you can try


to predict when the unit may fail and of course act prior to this point being
reached.

Predictive maintenance is the best method.

There are other preventative maintenance programs such as Continuous


Diagnostic Maintenance which takes constant readings and notes any significant
change in the readings. Machine history is also a good tool to predict the life of a
pump. It is based upon "like" operation in that it relies upon the history of the
previous unit relating to the present unit. Since the taking of readings and
observations form a vital part of most maintenance programs what should be
looked for?

Prepared by :
SUMANT KUMAR
Rev. : 01

Reviewed by : PGD

Approved by : AKS

Date : 29.10.2004

Page 52 of 54

Category :
Mechanical

IPCL
NC : Training Module

Heat in bearings and glands

Pressure pump discharge pressure

Noise cavitation, bearings

Flow a drop off in flow

Leakage glands piping oil or grease

Power consumption

Vibration an increase could indicate problems

Module No. :
IPCLDSMEC001

Regardless of type of maintenance program practiced problems will still be


experienced. The aim of a maintenance program should be to reduce failure and
operational expenditure while still maintaining an efficient unit.

MONTHLY PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE


Procedure
1. Ensure safety of plant and equipment before performing any work
2. Record all meter readings. Calculate efficiency
3. Check all valves, glands and supports
4. Test run unit, check for correct running, noise, heat, vibration
5. Adjust gland if required
6. Check oil levels if applicable
7. Check sump drain pump if applicable
8. Clean inside and outside of station
9. Check condition of electrical components for hot spots

IMPORTANT if electrical work is to be performed ensure it is carried out


by licensed persons
10.Act on any findings

Prepared by :
SUMANT KUMAR
Rev. : 01

Reviewed by : PGD

Approved by : AKS

Date : 29.10.2004

Page 53 of 54

Category :
Mechanical

IPCL
NC : Training Module

Module No. :
IPCLDSMEC001

REFERENCES:
1. PUMP HANDBOOK

BY F.POLLOCK

2. PUMP HANDBOOK

BY KARRASIK

3. PUMP BROCHURE OF KIRLOSKAR BROTHERS LIMITED

Prepared by :
SUMANT KUMAR
Rev. : 01

Reviewed by : PGD

Approved by : AKS

Date : 29.10.2004

Page 54 of 54