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Fluid Mechanics 1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction: Flow parameters and useful conversion factors
Chapter 1: Statics
Chapter 2: Hydrostatic forces
Chapter 3: Pipeline flows
Chapter 4: Flow measurement
Chapter 5: Forces in pipe systems
Chapter 6: Pumps and pump selection
Chapter 7: Dimensional analysis

The study of fluid flow requires a good understanding of the parameters which define
the character of the flow as well as some fundamental laws such as the conservation
of Mass, Momentum and Energy. Both liquids and gases can be dealt with using the
same theory but only if the gases are in the incompressible part of the flow regime. i.e.
the density is constant everywhere. It is also assumed, in this course, that all
properties or parameters are constant with time (Steady State).
Frequently problems in Fluids are not easily expressed in equation form (analytical
solutions) and this stems mainly from the presence of viscosity in the flow as well as
the turbulent behaviour of the flow. These concepts will be expanded later on in the
degree.
This course will rely entirely on the Metric system and therefore the standard SI units
(System Internationale) i.e. m (Metre), kg (Kilogram) and s (Second) will be used
throughout. However, a set of tables have been provided at the end of this section to
allow the British system of units to be converted to SI units.
Common flow variables are,

Pressure.Force per unit area. i.e. N/m2 note that 1 atm= 1 bar = approximately
105 N/m2 where 1 Pa is 1 N/m2 . Thus 1 bar =100kPa. It should be noted that
differences in pressure from one point in a flow to another, drive the movement of
fluid and hence a thorough conceptual understanding of pressure and pressure
gradients is vital. There is a further categorisation of pressure into gauge pressure or
absolute pressure.
Gauge pressure implies a pressure measured above the surrounding Atmospheric
pressure. In the case of a transducer measuring gauge pressure, one side of the
diaphragm will be vented to atmosphere whilst the other side will then be exposed to
the pressure to be measured. Such gauges are common and relatively inexpensive.
Absolute pressure, on the other hand, is pressure measured with respect to the
absolute zero pressure condition. An absolute pressure gauge (they are rare) therefore
requires, for example, that one side of a measuring diaphragm is evacuated to a
perfect vacuum. The other side will then be exposed to the pressure to be measured.
These gauges are expensive due to the need to create the vacuum in the capsule and to
ensure it is maintained without leaking.
Static pressure would correspond to the pressure that is measured in a stationary
liquid. To ensure that the static pressure in a moving flow is not influenced by a
component of the Dynamic pressure, the static pressure tappings are drilled through
the container/pipe walls at right angles to the material of the wall.
Dynamic pressure. This takes into account that there is a component of energy (the
Kinetic energy) which can be recovered as an increase in Static pressure should one
bring the flow to a standstill. The Dynamic pressure is expressed as a product i.e.

Dynamic pressure

1
V2
2
2

where V is the flow velocity in m/s and the density of the flow.
Total pressure is given by the sum of the Static and Dynamic pressures i.e.
Total pressure P s

1
V2
2

Density. The term , (rho is the Greek symbol reserved for density) is commonly
used to denote the density of a fluid and is a measurement of the mass/ per unit
volume i.e. kg/m3.
i.e.

fresh water has = 1000 kg/m3.


Air
= 1.2 kg/m3.
Hydrogen
= .083 kg/m3.
Mercury
= 13600 kg/m3.
Steel
= 7800 kg/m3.

In fluids the density is nearly always constant i.e. they are incompressible. Gases on
the other hand are compressible and when the pressure is suddenly relieved or
released, this leads to a massive expansion of the stored gas. This is akin to the release
of the energy stored in a spring. For this reason Pressure vessels are often tested to
determine their compliance with a pressure rating by pressurising them with water; an
incompressible liquid which will not project steel plate in all direction should a
rupture occur!!!!.

Specific Gravity or SG this is simply a ratio of the density of the liquid under
consideration to the density of water. In other words the SG of water is 1 whilst that of
Mercury is 13.6

Specific Weight this is the density of the material multiplied by the gravitational
constant g. It is noted that Force is the product of mass and acceleration hence by
multiplying the density by gravity, we are, in effect, converting a mass density to a
force density. Specific weight will be used infrequently but it is as well to
remember that mass is reserved as a descriptor for the amount of matter in an object
or flow whilst weight is reserved for use as a parameter indicating force i.e.
mass*acceleration .
The above parameters are primary characteristics of a fluid. There are a number of
other parameters which are extremely useful but stem from a combination of the
above such as the Reynolds number, Viscosity etc. These are often referred to as
secondary variables.

Viscosity A simple qualitative explanation of viscosity would be its stickiness. i.e.


swimming across a pool of treacle would require an enormous amount of power
compared to a swim in water yet the densities might not be too different. The
difference, however, lies in the swimmer requiring a lot of energy to shear through
the treacle i.e. the molecules are tightly attracted to each other. If we were to heat the
treacle, the swim would be easier as the viscosity would drop. Hence viscosity is
usually strongly dependent on temperature.

In equation form,

u
where, , is the shear stress and, , the coefficient of viscosity and the
y

derivative is the rate of change of velocity with distance, y, from say a surface.
The following viscosity table is appropriate for conditions at 20 Celsius and 1 atm.
only.
Fluid

Viscosity, ,kg/
(m.s)

Density,,
kg/m3.

Air
Water
Alcohol
Mercury
SAE30 oil
Glycerine

1.8E-5
0.001
0.0012
0.0015
0.29
1.5

1.2
998
789
13580
891
1264

Useful Conversion Factors


Parameter

Convert To

Multiply by

Acceleration

ft/s2

m/s2

.3048

Area

ft2

m2

.092903

Density

slug/ft3
lbm/ft3

kg/m3
kg/m3

515.38
16.019

Energy

Btu
Calories

Joules
Joules

1055.1
4.1868

Force

lbf

Newtons 4.4482

Length

ft

0.3048

Mass

Slug
Lbm

kg
kg

14.4594
0.45359

Mass Flow

Slug/s
lbm/s

kg/s
kg/s

14.594
.45359

Power

ft.lbf/s
hp

Watt
Watt

1.3558
745.70

Parameter
Pressure

Convert To
lbf/ft2
Pa

Multiply by
47.880

Viscosity

lbf.s/ft2
g/(cm.s)

N.s/m2
N.s/m2

47.880
0.1

Density

slug/ft3
lbm/ft3

kg/m3
kg/m3

515.38
16.019

Volume flow
rate

ft3/s
gal/min

m3/s
m3/s

.028317
6.3090 E-5

Fluid Dynamics:

Chapter 1 Statics

The earliest forms of pressure measurement relied on Manometers or U-tubes and


aneroid capsules. Both devices could be used with gases and liquids, though aneroid
capsules are best suited to air pressure measurements.
U-Tubes
The U-tube comes in various guises i.e. tilted tube, U-tubes with two liquids, U tubes
with dissimilar diameter ends etc. and examples are shown below.

In such cases the pressure that is being applied is obtained by referring to the column
height of liquid displaced by the pressure difference being measured,
Pressure = gH
Where, = (rho) is the density of the liquid in the column, kg/m3
g = Gravitational acceleration, 9.81 m/s2
H = Column height of displaced liquid, m
In addition, the following laws hold,
Pressures measured at the same depth in a liquid of constant density are equal
provided the fluid is at rest.
The pressure acting at a point acts equally in all directions.
Aneroid Pressure Gauges
Aneroid pressure measuring devices rely on an evacuated corrugated box. The
vacuum in the box is prevented from collapsing the box by a spring. With changing
pressures, the corrugated surface experiences a force sufficient to overcome the
opposing spring force and the surface moves a small distance.

This movement is amplified by a system of levers and gears to drive a needle over a
calibrated dial.
There are numerous designs of aneroid barometer which employ this basic approach.
Bourdon Gauge
The Bourdon gauge is equally common and uses much the same approach. Here,
however, the interior of a circular tube is exposed to the pressure of interest. An
increase in pressure sees the tube trying to straighten. This movement, in turn drags a
series of linkages which are coupled to gears to produce a needle rotation proportional
to pressure.

If the volume surrounding the tube is evacuated to near vacuum conditions


then the Bourdon gauge will record the Absolute Pressure.
Venting this same volume to the ambient atmospheric pressure means the
pressure is relative to atmospheric, i.e. records Gauge pressure.
Often such Bourdon tubes are submerged in Glycerine. This damps out needle
vibration in pulsating flows which may otherwise lead to needle failure from
metal fatigue.
A common approach is to have a second indicator needle which is not attached
directly to the tube but instead is dragged ahead by the main needle as the
pressure increases. Conversely, it is left behind when the needle recedes. This
provides a useful indication of the maximum pressures reached. The indicator
needle can then be returned to the zero position by hand.

The following sketch indicates the internal workings of a typical Bourdon gauge.

Examples of U-tube calculations


Example (1)
Consider a U tube that is
measuring pressure in a water
pipeline. This water comes in
contact with Mercury (Hg) in
the manometer as shown
below. The left hand Hg
meniscus is 300mm below the
pipe centre line whilst the right
hand meniscus is 200mm
above the same line.

200mm
Cl

water
300mm

B
Hg

Determine the pipeline pressure at its centre.


H2O=1000kg/m3 ,Hg=13600kg/m3

P A PB

(same level in a liquid of constant density (at rest))..............................(1)

Consider the left hand limb

P A P cl H 2 o g 0.30

(pressure increases with depth)......................................(2)

Consider the right hand limb

P B PC mercury g (0.20 0.30)

(pressure increases with depth ),

note Pc is at atmospheric pressure i.e. Zero gauge pressure)......................................(3)


Relying on Eqtn (1) we may equate Eqtn (2) and (3) but bear in mind that the pressure
at C = 0 if we are working with a gauge pressure reference.
Thus,

PCl H 2o g 0.30 Hg g (0.20 0.30) .....................................................(4)

Solving yields,

PCentreline 63.76 kN/m

Example 2
If the angle of a U-tube manometer limb is 30 degree from the horizontal, the
sensitivity of the measurement will double. Prove this to be the case.
From simple trigonometry, the length of the liquid column as measured along the tube
length will double for a given vertical height change in the liquid level, i.e.
Sin (30) 0.5

Y
( Liquid column length)

Thus liquid column length =Y/0.5 =2Y

(thus proven).

Example 3
The sensitivity of a U-tube manometer can also be increased by enlarging the ends of
the tubes and using dissimilar liquids in the same device. Oil SG =0.95 and water
SG=1 (Density=1000kg/m3) are used as shown in the sketch below with water, being
the denser, gathering at the lowest point in the U and oil floating on the surface.
Care is taken to keep the liquids in their respective limbs as shown. The diameter of
the tube is 5mm whilst that of the ends is, equally 35mm giving a surface area
difference of 1225/25=49 times (the ratio of the square of the radii).
Recalling that the pressure at the same
level in a liquid of constant density is
constant provided that the liquid is at
rest, we can equate the pressure at the
Oil/water interface in the right limb, B,
to the same height in the left limb. Here,
i.e at A, we may define the pressure,
quite simply, as that caused by the
column height of liquid above that point
plus the unknown pressure applied to the
free water /air surface,

P1

P2

Oil
ha
A

Water

P A water g h A P1
If the unknown pressure that is applied to the free water surface is greater than that
existing above the free surface of the oil, the water surface will ride down on the LHS
whilst on the RHS the oil will rise up in the 35mm diameter tube section. The volume
of fluid displaced downwards for, say, a y mm change in surface level is given by,

Volume

2
D *y
4

This volume reappears in the RHS limb as an identical volume of oil.

Example 4
The example above used equal diameters in the two expanded tube ends. If these are
made different as shown in the sketch below, it is possible to produce a force
amplifying device or Jack as shown below.
A force of 1000N is applied to a
piston , A to support a mass,
m at B. For equilibrium to
occur both forces must be equal
otherwise movement would
occur. The force at A is 1000N
and leads to a pressure beneath
the piston of
P1

1000N

Mass, m

P1

OIL

P1

1000
Area of piston LHS

Seeing the pressure at the same level in a liquid of constant density is constant, the
pressure beneath the RHS piston is identical i.e. P1. However, this is acting over a
much larger area and hence supports a much larger load. i.e.
P1

mg
Area of piston RHS

Equating these two equations gives,


2
Area of piston RHS
Drhs
mg 1000 *
1000 * 2
Area of piston LHS
d lhs

Clearly this force is significantly greater than the applied force of 1000N and the
difference in piston areas has acted so as to amplify the applied force. In a jack,
though, it will be necessary to provide a practically acceptable displacement (stroke)
of the load, mg. If this were to be a vertical lift of 100mm then we would have to
displace,

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Volume 0.1

2
2
D rhs as compared to Volume Y d lhs in the LHS chamber.
4
4

Clearly then Y is much greater than 0.1m and hence a number of pumping actions are
required in the LH chamber.
_____________________________________________________________________
Tutorial Question 1
Use diameters of 15mm and 60mm for the LHS and RHS chambers respectively to
calculate the load that is counterbalanced by the applied force of 1000N and also
determine the number of 10cc strokes needed to lift the load by 0.1metre.
Tutorial Question 2
Using the dimensions of Question (1) above, calculate the mass that could be held in
equilibrium if the piston supporting the mass was positioned 100mm below the piston
that is subjected to the 1000N force.

Example 5
A U-tube manometer is used to
measure a small pressure head
of gas. The U-tube has one side
enlarged. It contains oil of
SG=0.87 on the enlarged side,
the oil overlays fresh water of
SG=1.0. The oil/water interface
occurs in the small tube below
the enlarged end. The gas
pressure is equivalent to 40mm
of water head and the surface
of separation moves 35mm
when the pressure is applied.
Determine the diameter of the
enlarged end that leads to these
changes when the smaller
diameter of the tube is 8mm.

P2

P1=40mm Wg

y
X
h

Oil
x
Y

x
35mm

y
Diam 8mm

When P1= P2 initially i.e. no pressure applied


yet, equal pressures apply at xx i.e.
gh ga ......................................................................................................
oil

therefore, by rearranging Eqtn (1)

h a.

w
oil
11

When pressure P1 above the oil is increased above P2 the oil/water interface drops a
distance y=35mm in the left tube and the level in the right tube rises by a distance
y=35mm. The level in the enlarged tube also drops but by a distance x such that
an identical volume is displaced. This volume is given by
Volume = Area.x and in the small tubes this same volume is given by Volume=area.y
Therefore Area.x = area.y or rearranging, x = y.(area/Area)
Now referring to the sketch above, we have a new position of the oil/water interface at
Y-Y and on the LHS,

P y P1 oil g (h Y x)
on the RHS we may in a similar manner (and at the same level in the liquid) write,

P y P2 water g (a y Y )
But these equations represent the same pressure and may be equated to give,

P1 P 2 water g (a 2 y ) oil g (h y x)
But h and x were defined above and hence may be substituted in the above
equation to give finally
area

P1 P 2 yg ( 2 water oil oil Area ) ...........................................................(2)


Now the pressure difference was given as

P1 P2 1000 * 9.81 * 0.040 392.4


Thus we may substitute in Eqtn (2) to give

N
m

and

y = 35mm.

392.4=0.035*9.81(2*1000-870+870*(area/Area))
solving yields D= 65.8mm diameter for a small tube diameter of d= 8mm.
Example 6
Oil of density 800kg/m3 flows in a pipeline as shown in the adjacent sketch. This
pipeline isl connected at its centreline height to a U-tube manometer containing a
liquid of density 1250kg/m3. Determine the pipeline pressure in metres of oil as well
as its equivalent in mWg at the pipe centreline. (Answer -2.03m of liq SG=0.8)

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SG=0.8

2.5m
0.3m
A

B
SG=1.25

Example 7
The following manometer is both inclined at a small angle as well as being stepped in
diameter to improve sensitivity. It is required to measure a pressure of 20mm water
gauge. The large tube diameter is 56mm whilst the smaller tube is 7mm in diameter.
The manometer fluid has an SG of 0.75.
Calculate the horizontal angle of inclination of the small tube if an accuracy of +/- 2%
of the pressure reading is required and therefore, that the linear measurement of the
liquid column displacement may be accurately read to +/- 0.5%.

20mm Wg

Oil

Diam
56mm

Diam
=7mm

Example 8: In a U tube manometer the addition of water will immediately lead to the
meniscus in either limb adopting the same horizontal level. This presumes that equal
pressures apply at the water levels. The question that is posed here is, Will the
addition of a volume of oil on one side cause the levels to be different? This may be
solved by considering the mass of liquid in the individual limbs. First assume each
limb has 100mm of water depth.
Now add oil such that the RH limb drops by 20mm to 80mm and the LHS must
therefore rise to 120mm. The RH limb now has a volume of oil in it which together

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with the 80mm column of water must exactly balance the LH side column of 120 mm
of water. i.e.

D2
D2
D2
* 0.120 h 20
* 0.080 Oil
*H
h 20
4
4
4
Here H is the unknown height of the oil in the RH limb
After significant cancellation and using 1000kg/m3 and 900kg/m3 for water and oil
density respectively we may write,
1000*.12=1000*0.08 +900H

or

H = 0.04/0.9=0.0444m
Thus the RH limb is of height 80mm+44.4mm=124.44mm. Thus although the
pressures experienced by either meniscus is the same, the heights of the two limbs are
different by 4.44 mm.

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