© All Rights Reserved

Als DOC, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

16 Aufrufe

© All Rights Reserved

Als DOC, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Continuum Electromechanics cem_811
- Flow in Open Channels-K Subrahmanya
- Fluid Properties assignment questions
- Calibration of Bourdon Gauge
- CFD Determination of Inside Fluid Reservors Movements and Wall Loads Earthquake 1698
- Flexural-gravity waves due to transient disturbances in an inviscid fluid of finite depth
- Fluid Diff Gage Finale1
- Fluid Mechanics
- Pressure.pdf
- expi1
- Datasheet Differential Pressure Sensor SDP1108 SDP2108
- Cfd Final Submission Draft
- Fluids Lecturenotes
- PNAAW239
- Fluid Flow
- คู่มือการใช้งาน Pressure Gauge Nuova Fima
- Mulit Phase 2
- Catloge Dead Weight Tester
- 1404261257_Well%20Testing-1982-9.doc
- SPE-290-PA

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 14

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction: Flow parameters and useful conversion factors

Chapter 1: Statics

Chapter 2: Hydrostatic forces

Chapter 3: Pipeline flows

Chapter 4: Flow measurement

Chapter 5: Forces in pipe systems

Chapter 6: Pumps and pump selection

Chapter 7: Dimensional analysis

The study of fluid flow requires a good understanding of the parameters which define

the character of the flow as well as some fundamental laws such as the conservation

of Mass, Momentum and Energy. Both liquids and gases can be dealt with using the

same theory but only if the gases are in the incompressible part of the flow regime. i.e.

the density is constant everywhere. It is also assumed, in this course, that all

properties or parameters are constant with time (Steady State).

Frequently problems in Fluids are not easily expressed in equation form (analytical

solutions) and this stems mainly from the presence of viscosity in the flow as well as

the turbulent behaviour of the flow. These concepts will be expanded later on in the

degree.

This course will rely entirely on the Metric system and therefore the standard SI units

(System Internationale) i.e. m (Metre), kg (Kilogram) and s (Second) will be used

throughout. However, a set of tables have been provided at the end of this section to

allow the British system of units to be converted to SI units.

Common flow variables are,

Pressure.Force per unit area. i.e. N/m2 note that 1 atm= 1 bar = approximately

105 N/m2 where 1 Pa is 1 N/m2 . Thus 1 bar =100kPa. It should be noted that

differences in pressure from one point in a flow to another, drive the movement of

fluid and hence a thorough conceptual understanding of pressure and pressure

gradients is vital. There is a further categorisation of pressure into gauge pressure or

absolute pressure.

Gauge pressure implies a pressure measured above the surrounding Atmospheric

pressure. In the case of a transducer measuring gauge pressure, one side of the

diaphragm will be vented to atmosphere whilst the other side will then be exposed to

the pressure to be measured. Such gauges are common and relatively inexpensive.

Absolute pressure, on the other hand, is pressure measured with respect to the

absolute zero pressure condition. An absolute pressure gauge (they are rare) therefore

requires, for example, that one side of a measuring diaphragm is evacuated to a

perfect vacuum. The other side will then be exposed to the pressure to be measured.

These gauges are expensive due to the need to create the vacuum in the capsule and to

ensure it is maintained without leaking.

Static pressure would correspond to the pressure that is measured in a stationary

liquid. To ensure that the static pressure in a moving flow is not influenced by a

component of the Dynamic pressure, the static pressure tappings are drilled through

the container/pipe walls at right angles to the material of the wall.

Dynamic pressure. This takes into account that there is a component of energy (the

Kinetic energy) which can be recovered as an increase in Static pressure should one

bring the flow to a standstill. The Dynamic pressure is expressed as a product i.e.

Dynamic pressure

1

V2

2

2

where V is the flow velocity in m/s and the density of the flow.

Total pressure is given by the sum of the Static and Dynamic pressures i.e.

Total pressure P s

1

V2

2

Density. The term , (rho is the Greek symbol reserved for density) is commonly

used to denote the density of a fluid and is a measurement of the mass/ per unit

volume i.e. kg/m3.

i.e.

Air

= 1.2 kg/m3.

Hydrogen

= .083 kg/m3.

Mercury

= 13600 kg/m3.

Steel

= 7800 kg/m3.

In fluids the density is nearly always constant i.e. they are incompressible. Gases on

the other hand are compressible and when the pressure is suddenly relieved or

released, this leads to a massive expansion of the stored gas. This is akin to the release

of the energy stored in a spring. For this reason Pressure vessels are often tested to

determine their compliance with a pressure rating by pressurising them with water; an

incompressible liquid which will not project steel plate in all direction should a

rupture occur!!!!.

Specific Gravity or SG this is simply a ratio of the density of the liquid under

consideration to the density of water. In other words the SG of water is 1 whilst that of

Mercury is 13.6

Specific Weight this is the density of the material multiplied by the gravitational

constant g. It is noted that Force is the product of mass and acceleration hence by

multiplying the density by gravity, we are, in effect, converting a mass density to a

force density. Specific weight will be used infrequently but it is as well to

remember that mass is reserved as a descriptor for the amount of matter in an object

or flow whilst weight is reserved for use as a parameter indicating force i.e.

mass*acceleration .

The above parameters are primary characteristics of a fluid. There are a number of

other parameters which are extremely useful but stem from a combination of the

above such as the Reynolds number, Viscosity etc. These are often referred to as

secondary variables.

swimming across a pool of treacle would require an enormous amount of power

compared to a swim in water yet the densities might not be too different. The

difference, however, lies in the swimmer requiring a lot of energy to shear through

the treacle i.e. the molecules are tightly attracted to each other. If we were to heat the

treacle, the swim would be easier as the viscosity would drop. Hence viscosity is

usually strongly dependent on temperature.

In equation form,

u

where, , is the shear stress and, , the coefficient of viscosity and the

y

derivative is the rate of change of velocity with distance, y, from say a surface.

The following viscosity table is appropriate for conditions at 20 Celsius and 1 atm.

only.

Fluid

Viscosity, ,kg/

(m.s)

Density,,

kg/m3.

Air

Water

Alcohol

Mercury

SAE30 oil

Glycerine

1.8E-5

0.001

0.0012

0.0015

0.29

1.5

1.2

998

789

13580

891

1264

Parameter

Convert To

Multiply by

Acceleration

ft/s2

m/s2

.3048

Area

ft2

m2

.092903

Density

slug/ft3

lbm/ft3

kg/m3

kg/m3

515.38

16.019

Energy

Btu

Calories

Joules

Joules

1055.1

4.1868

Force

lbf

Newtons 4.4482

Length

ft

0.3048

Mass

Slug

Lbm

kg

kg

14.4594

0.45359

Mass Flow

Slug/s

lbm/s

kg/s

kg/s

14.594

.45359

Power

ft.lbf/s

hp

Watt

Watt

1.3558

745.70

Parameter

Pressure

Convert To

lbf/ft2

Pa

Multiply by

47.880

Viscosity

lbf.s/ft2

g/(cm.s)

N.s/m2

N.s/m2

47.880

0.1

Density

slug/ft3

lbm/ft3

kg/m3

kg/m3

515.38

16.019

Volume flow

rate

ft3/s

gal/min

m3/s

m3/s

.028317

6.3090 E-5

Fluid Dynamics:

Chapter 1 Statics

aneroid capsules. Both devices could be used with gases and liquids, though aneroid

capsules are best suited to air pressure measurements.

U-Tubes

The U-tube comes in various guises i.e. tilted tube, U-tubes with two liquids, U tubes

with dissimilar diameter ends etc. and examples are shown below.

In such cases the pressure that is being applied is obtained by referring to the column

height of liquid displaced by the pressure difference being measured,

Pressure = gH

Where, = (rho) is the density of the liquid in the column, kg/m3

g = Gravitational acceleration, 9.81 m/s2

H = Column height of displaced liquid, m

In addition, the following laws hold,

Pressures measured at the same depth in a liquid of constant density are equal

provided the fluid is at rest.

The pressure acting at a point acts equally in all directions.

Aneroid Pressure Gauges

Aneroid pressure measuring devices rely on an evacuated corrugated box. The

vacuum in the box is prevented from collapsing the box by a spring. With changing

pressures, the corrugated surface experiences a force sufficient to overcome the

opposing spring force and the surface moves a small distance.

This movement is amplified by a system of levers and gears to drive a needle over a

calibrated dial.

There are numerous designs of aneroid barometer which employ this basic approach.

Bourdon Gauge

The Bourdon gauge is equally common and uses much the same approach. Here,

however, the interior of a circular tube is exposed to the pressure of interest. An

increase in pressure sees the tube trying to straighten. This movement, in turn drags a

series of linkages which are coupled to gears to produce a needle rotation proportional

to pressure.

then the Bourdon gauge will record the Absolute Pressure.

Venting this same volume to the ambient atmospheric pressure means the

pressure is relative to atmospheric, i.e. records Gauge pressure.

Often such Bourdon tubes are submerged in Glycerine. This damps out needle

vibration in pulsating flows which may otherwise lead to needle failure from

metal fatigue.

A common approach is to have a second indicator needle which is not attached

directly to the tube but instead is dragged ahead by the main needle as the

pressure increases. Conversely, it is left behind when the needle recedes. This

provides a useful indication of the maximum pressures reached. The indicator

needle can then be returned to the zero position by hand.

The following sketch indicates the internal workings of a typical Bourdon gauge.

Example (1)

Consider a U tube that is

measuring pressure in a water

pipeline. This water comes in

contact with Mercury (Hg) in

the manometer as shown

below. The left hand Hg

meniscus is 300mm below the

pipe centre line whilst the right

hand meniscus is 200mm

above the same line.

200mm

Cl

water

300mm

B

Hg

H2O=1000kg/m3 ,Hg=13600kg/m3

P A PB

P A P cl H 2 o g 0.30

Relying on Eqtn (1) we may equate Eqtn (2) and (3) but bear in mind that the pressure

at C = 0 if we are working with a gauge pressure reference.

Thus,

Solving yields,

Example 2

If the angle of a U-tube manometer limb is 30 degree from the horizontal, the

sensitivity of the measurement will double. Prove this to be the case.

From simple trigonometry, the length of the liquid column as measured along the tube

length will double for a given vertical height change in the liquid level, i.e.

Sin (30) 0.5

Y

( Liquid column length)

(thus proven).

Example 3

The sensitivity of a U-tube manometer can also be increased by enlarging the ends of

the tubes and using dissimilar liquids in the same device. Oil SG =0.95 and water

SG=1 (Density=1000kg/m3) are used as shown in the sketch below with water, being

the denser, gathering at the lowest point in the U and oil floating on the surface.

Care is taken to keep the liquids in their respective limbs as shown. The diameter of

the tube is 5mm whilst that of the ends is, equally 35mm giving a surface area

difference of 1225/25=49 times (the ratio of the square of the radii).

Recalling that the pressure at the same

level in a liquid of constant density is

constant provided that the liquid is at

rest, we can equate the pressure at the

Oil/water interface in the right limb, B,

to the same height in the left limb. Here,

i.e at A, we may define the pressure,

quite simply, as that caused by the

column height of liquid above that point

plus the unknown pressure applied to the

free water /air surface,

P1

P2

Oil

ha

A

Water

P A water g h A P1

If the unknown pressure that is applied to the free water surface is greater than that

existing above the free surface of the oil, the water surface will ride down on the LHS

whilst on the RHS the oil will rise up in the 35mm diameter tube section. The volume

of fluid displaced downwards for, say, a y mm change in surface level is given by,

Volume

2

D *y

4

Example 4

The example above used equal diameters in the two expanded tube ends. If these are

made different as shown in the sketch below, it is possible to produce a force

amplifying device or Jack as shown below.

A force of 1000N is applied to a

piston , A to support a mass,

m at B. For equilibrium to

occur both forces must be equal

otherwise movement would

occur. The force at A is 1000N

and leads to a pressure beneath

the piston of

P1

1000N

Mass, m

P1

OIL

P1

1000

Area of piston LHS

Seeing the pressure at the same level in a liquid of constant density is constant, the

pressure beneath the RHS piston is identical i.e. P1. However, this is acting over a

much larger area and hence supports a much larger load. i.e.

P1

mg

Area of piston RHS

2

Area of piston RHS

Drhs

mg 1000 *

1000 * 2

Area of piston LHS

d lhs

Clearly this force is significantly greater than the applied force of 1000N and the

difference in piston areas has acted so as to amplify the applied force. In a jack,

though, it will be necessary to provide a practically acceptable displacement (stroke)

of the load, mg. If this were to be a vertical lift of 100mm then we would have to

displace,

10

Volume 0.1

2

2

D rhs as compared to Volume Y d lhs in the LHS chamber.

4

4

Clearly then Y is much greater than 0.1m and hence a number of pumping actions are

required in the LH chamber.

_____________________________________________________________________

Tutorial Question 1

Use diameters of 15mm and 60mm for the LHS and RHS chambers respectively to

calculate the load that is counterbalanced by the applied force of 1000N and also

determine the number of 10cc strokes needed to lift the load by 0.1metre.

Tutorial Question 2

Using the dimensions of Question (1) above, calculate the mass that could be held in

equilibrium if the piston supporting the mass was positioned 100mm below the piston

that is subjected to the 1000N force.

Example 5

A U-tube manometer is used to

measure a small pressure head

of gas. The U-tube has one side

enlarged. It contains oil of

SG=0.87 on the enlarged side,

the oil overlays fresh water of

SG=1.0. The oil/water interface

occurs in the small tube below

the enlarged end. The gas

pressure is equivalent to 40mm

of water head and the surface

of separation moves 35mm

when the pressure is applied.

Determine the diameter of the

enlarged end that leads to these

changes when the smaller

diameter of the tube is 8mm.

P2

P1=40mm Wg

y

X

h

Oil

x

Y

x

35mm

y

Diam 8mm

yet, equal pressures apply at xx i.e.

gh ga ......................................................................................................

oil

h a.

w

oil

11

When pressure P1 above the oil is increased above P2 the oil/water interface drops a

distance y=35mm in the left tube and the level in the right tube rises by a distance

y=35mm. The level in the enlarged tube also drops but by a distance x such that

an identical volume is displaced. This volume is given by

Volume = Area.x and in the small tubes this same volume is given by Volume=area.y

Therefore Area.x = area.y or rearranging, x = y.(area/Area)

Now referring to the sketch above, we have a new position of the oil/water interface at

Y-Y and on the LHS,

P y P1 oil g (h Y x)

on the RHS we may in a similar manner (and at the same level in the liquid) write,

P y P2 water g (a y Y )

But these equations represent the same pressure and may be equated to give,

P1 P 2 water g (a 2 y ) oil g (h y x)

But h and x were defined above and hence may be substituted in the above

equation to give finally

area

Now the pressure difference was given as

Thus we may substitute in Eqtn (2) to give

N

m

and

y = 35mm.

392.4=0.035*9.81(2*1000-870+870*(area/Area))

solving yields D= 65.8mm diameter for a small tube diameter of d= 8mm.

Example 6

Oil of density 800kg/m3 flows in a pipeline as shown in the adjacent sketch. This

pipeline isl connected at its centreline height to a U-tube manometer containing a

liquid of density 1250kg/m3. Determine the pipeline pressure in metres of oil as well

as its equivalent in mWg at the pipe centreline. (Answer -2.03m of liq SG=0.8)

12

SG=0.8

2.5m

0.3m

A

B

SG=1.25

Example 7

The following manometer is both inclined at a small angle as well as being stepped in

diameter to improve sensitivity. It is required to measure a pressure of 20mm water

gauge. The large tube diameter is 56mm whilst the smaller tube is 7mm in diameter.

The manometer fluid has an SG of 0.75.

Calculate the horizontal angle of inclination of the small tube if an accuracy of +/- 2%

of the pressure reading is required and therefore, that the linear measurement of the

liquid column displacement may be accurately read to +/- 0.5%.

20mm Wg

Oil

Diam

56mm

Diam

=7mm

Example 8: In a U tube manometer the addition of water will immediately lead to the

meniscus in either limb adopting the same horizontal level. This presumes that equal

pressures apply at the water levels. The question that is posed here is, Will the

addition of a volume of oil on one side cause the levels to be different? This may be

solved by considering the mass of liquid in the individual limbs. First assume each

limb has 100mm of water depth.

Now add oil such that the RH limb drops by 20mm to 80mm and the LHS must

therefore rise to 120mm. The RH limb now has a volume of oil in it which together

13

with the 80mm column of water must exactly balance the LH side column of 120 mm

of water. i.e.

D2

D2

D2

* 0.120 h 20

* 0.080 Oil

*H

h 20

4

4

4

Here H is the unknown height of the oil in the RH limb

After significant cancellation and using 1000kg/m3 and 900kg/m3 for water and oil

density respectively we may write,

1000*.12=1000*0.08 +900H

or

H = 0.04/0.9=0.0444m

Thus the RH limb is of height 80mm+44.4mm=124.44mm. Thus although the

pressures experienced by either meniscus is the same, the heights of the two limbs are

different by 4.44 mm.

14

- Continuum Electromechanics cem_811Hochgeladen vonkgrhoads
- Flow in Open Channels-K SubrahmanyaHochgeladen vonSai Kiran
- Fluid Properties assignment questionsHochgeladen vonshalom_pkl
- Calibration of Bourdon GaugeHochgeladen vonAnonymous GwNjCF7
- CFD Determination of Inside Fluid Reservors Movements and Wall Loads Earthquake 1698Hochgeladen vonIoan Sorin Leoveanu
- Flexural-gravity waves due to transient disturbances in an inviscid fluid of finite depthHochgeladen vonDong-Qiang Lu
- Fluid Diff Gage Finale1Hochgeladen vonNope Not Neil
- Fluid MechanicsHochgeladen vonmohamedfarag_eng
- Pressure.pdfHochgeladen vonMohd Nazri Salim
- expi1Hochgeladen vonzakibrant23
- Datasheet Differential Pressure Sensor SDP1108 SDP2108Hochgeladen vonjaijaddu
- Cfd Final Submission DraftHochgeladen vonsoubhadra nag
- Fluids LecturenotesHochgeladen vonuglymutt12335
- PNAAW239Hochgeladen vonDeans BoogElzz
- Fluid FlowHochgeladen vonKN
- คู่มือการใช้งาน Pressure Gauge Nuova FimaHochgeladen vonParinpa Ketar
- Mulit Phase 2Hochgeladen vonsb ali
- Catloge Dead Weight TesterHochgeladen vongeorgarcia
- 1404261257_Well%20Testing-1982-9.docHochgeladen vonMelody Vance
- SPE-290-PAHochgeladen vonAlejo Parra
- Stari Tecsis ManometriHochgeladen vonDavorin Siuc
- EXP5Hochgeladen vonKhairil Ikram
- Physical of FluidHochgeladen vonnurul aini
- Assignment 1 SoluHochgeladen vonAmirul Amin
- Problem a RioHochgeladen vonKoe Chien Thong
- 62Hochgeladen vonMarcelo Protz
- Pressure GaugesHochgeladen vonmarcos
- CapabilitiesBrochure 2010-2011Hochgeladen vonKhaled Bahbah
- Production notesHochgeladen vonAbbas Atashdehghan
- DKE292_Ch15.pdfHochgeladen vonGustavo Hernandez

- Green Nature and Reducing of Air Pollution with Vehicle Drag Coefficient CorrectionHochgeladen vonSEP-Publisher
- AFD-week-14-15Hochgeladen voniftikhar4498929
- Silicone Emulsion Aspects and ApplicationHochgeladen vonmiletic89
- Gas Dynamics-Nozzles and DiffusersHochgeladen vonRahul
- basiceqs.pdfHochgeladen vondabeerali
- unit 2 qpHochgeladen vonRaj Manova
- TI01C20K00-01E.pdfHochgeladen vonSardar Perdawood
- 2 - Sediment TransportHochgeladen vonNguyễn Thao
- Answer 2 & 16 Marks HMT.docHochgeladen vonbalajigandhirajan
- Causes of Sand ProductionHochgeladen vonAtulJamkhindikar
- Bubble ColHochgeladen vonNorberto Garcia Verdin
- modeling arterial blood flow with navier-stokesHochgeladen vonapi-358127907
- Mathematical Modeling of CoalescenceHochgeladen vonmexicanu99
- Back Water CurveHochgeladen vonIfrah Ilham Maharsa
- The Differential Sticking Coefficient of Water BasedHochgeladen vonwjawich
- Bernoulli PrincipleHochgeladen vonPrasillaPrisi
- Turbiscan data interpretation.pptHochgeladen vonwjawich
- Icasert Paper Id 473Hochgeladen vonMohammad Asif Kabir
- Ch3 Understanding Roughness Conveyance and AffluxHochgeladen vonRicardo Barros
- Heat and Mass Transfer Through a Porous Medium in a Vertical Channel With Chemical Reaction and Heat SourceHochgeladen vonAmitKumar
- Me 544 Course OutlineHochgeladen vonMohamed H. Shedid
- BERNOULIEHochgeladen vonNikhil Chordiya
- Fluid Mechanics_01 Problem_CIVE2400-2007.pdfHochgeladen vonTania Edna Bhakty Soetjipto
- q1Hochgeladen vonManu K Vasudevan
- Production EngineeringHochgeladen vonEdgar
- Flow Around SphereHochgeladen vonmilad
- Minor Friction Losses in Pipe FittingsHochgeladen vonEdward Razorhands
- TCC - AMSOIL Synthetic Chaincase & Gear OilHochgeladen vonamsoildealer
- TwoPhaseFlowUndergradLevel (1)Hochgeladen vonO'sNachi De GeAnt
- TM X- 26 .pdfHochgeladen vonracio7

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.