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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA


GEOLOGY AND DRILLING LABORATORY
(CGE 558)
NAME
:
NO
TITLE
MUHAMMAD SHALIHAN BIN MUSTAFA
SARIFAH LIYANA AMIRAH
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ABSTRACT/ SUMMARY
MOHAMAD AZALI BIN ABDUL RAZAK
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INTRODUCTION
ADRIAN
NASIR ANAK
GERINANG
ADNAN
ZAINAL AIMS/ OBJECTIVES
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ALLOCATEDMATRIC NO
MARKS
MARKS % 2015238396
2015278752
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2015826694
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2015859466
2015208916
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THEORY
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EXPERIMENT:
EXPERIMENT
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THIN
SECTION
AND
PETROGRAPHY
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APPARATUS
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DATE PERFORM: 11TH October 2013
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PROCEDURES
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SEMESTER: 3
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RESULT
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PROGRAM: OIL AND GAS ENGINEERING
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GROUP:
EH2233A CALCULATIONS
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DISCUSSIONS
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CONCLUSIONS

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RECOMMENDATIONS
REFERENCES

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5

13

APPENDICES
TOTAL

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TABLE OF CONTENT

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CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION
OBJECTIVES
THEORY
PROCEDURES
APPARATUS
RESULTS
DISCUSSIONS
CONCLUSIONS
RECOMMENDATION
REFERENCES
APPENDICES

1.0 ABSTRACT

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Study the rocks and minerals cross section by using a microscope is the main objective of the
experiment. Cross sections are useful for the identification of rocks, minerals, and ores. The
experiment starts by cutting four sample of rock about 4 mm thick by using rock cutting
machine. The sample was undergo the thinning process by geoform thin sectioning lapping
machine to make it thinner after cementing the rock sample onto plate. This is to make sure it is
thin enough to use microscope later. The rock cross section sample are observed under the
microscope with different lens magnification of X4, X10, X20 and X40. The result obtained is in
terms of the picture that contained the surface structure, shape and colour of each rock samples
with different lenses magnification. Thin sections are useful for the identification of rocks
minerals and ores in the study of the rocks and minerals. Polarizing microscope is a very
impressive apparatus used in order to achieve this objective.

2.0 INTRODUCTION

The study of the structure and characteristics of minerals is important to identify igneous,
metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and the revelation of the earth in which they shaped. The
polarizing microscope is the main tool used to study minerals in rock thin sections, which
become the foundation of learning to recognize, characterize and identify rocks. The diverse
nuclear structures of minerals and their attributes are clarified, and the unit builds up the abilities
to distinguish minerals utilizing elements, for example, mineral shape, colour, grain size, opacity,
refractive index and cleavage. The exceptional elements of the polarizing microscope are
additionally secured, including extinction, birefringence and pleochroism.

In order to learn how minerals were formed, recognizing minerals, recognizing rocks and
interpreting micro textures and understanding their structure is the basis that needed to be
understood. Evidence gathered via careful study of minerals in thin sections is an important part
of the interpretation of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. By distinguishing minerals
and inspecting their interrelationships, rock study confirmation can be utilized to recognize rock
and conclude how they shaped.

There are three major groups of rocks:

Igneous rocks are those that have formed by the cooling and crystallisation of magma,

either at the Earth's surface or within the crust;


Sedimentary rocks are those that have formed when weather-beaten particles of other
rocks have been deposited (on the ocean floor, stream/lake beds, etc) and compacted and
lithificated, or by the precipitation of minerals from water;

1. Clastic sedimentary rocks - formed by erosion of pre-existing rocks, subsequent


transport of the resulting particles by water or air, and their eventual deposition (e.g.
sandstones, mudstones)

2. Chemical sedimentary rocks - formed by direct precipitation of minerals from water


(e.g. limestones, dolomites)

Metamorphic rocks are those that have formed when existing rocks have undergone
pressure and / or temperature changes so that their original mineralogy has been changed.

Each of these stone gatherings contains various sorts of rock, and each can be recognized
from its physical components. Having the capacity to depict and name its rocks is one of the
major aptitudes of a geologist. Critical data in regards to the way of rocks is imparted through
brief, exact depictions. This data permits the geologist to recognize the stone, and, all the while,
to find out about its history and the land environment in which it was shaped.

Information of field connections between various rock units is crucial to the investigation
of rocks. It is picked up from mapping and watching rocks in the field. . In depth analysis of
rocks using a microscope or sophisticated analytical laboratory equipment provides important
information on their structure.

In this experiment, apparatus and machine such as plorizing microscope were used. This
microscope contain a few magnifiction such 4X, 10X, 20X, and 40X. This is to observe the
patttern with more accuracy. . Polarizing microscope is the main tool used to study minerals in
rock thin sections, which is to recognize, characterize and identify rocks. The different atomic
structures of minerals and their characteristics are explained, and the unit develops the skills to
identify minerals using features such as mineral shape, color, grain size, opacity, refractive index
and cleavage.

3.0 OBJECTIVE

The objective of this experiment is to study the rocks and minerals using a microscope. Cross
sections are useful for the identification of rocks, minerals and ores.

4.0 THEORY

Thin sections are made from small section of a rock sample about 4 mm, being glued to a
glass plate were provided by the assistant engineer. At this thickness most minerals turn out to be
pretty much transparent and can then be studied by a microscope via transmitted light.

The environment of formation produces characteristic textures in igneous rocks which aid
in their identification. These composition are

Phaneritic - This texture describes a rock with large, easily visible, interlocking crystals
of several minerals. The crystals are indiscriminately distributed and not aligned in any
constant direction. A phaneritic texture is developed by the slow cooling and
crystallization of magma trapped within the Earth's crust and is characteristic of plutonic

rocks.
Porphyritic - This texture describes a rock that has well-formed crystals visible to the
naked eye, called phenocrysts, set in a very fine grained or glassy matrix, called the
groundmass. A porphyritic texture is developed when magma that has been slowly
cooling and crystallizing within the Earth's crust is suddenly erupted at the surface,
causing the remaining uncrystallized magma to cool rapidly. This texture is characteristic

of most volcanic rocks.


Aphanitic - This texture describes very fine grained rock where individual crystals can be
seen only with the aid of a microscope, i.e. the rock is mostly groundmass. An aphanitic
texture is developed when magma is erupted at the Earth's surface and cools very quickly
for large crystals to grow. This surface is shown by some volcanic rocks.

Eutaxitic (applies just to welded ignimbrites) - This composition portrays a stone with a
planar fabric in which leveled pumice clasts are encompassed by a fine grained
groundmass of sintered slag. The leveled pumice clasts are lenticular (lens-molded) in
cross-segment and are called fiamme (Italian for flame). An eutaxitic surface is produced
when hot, pumice-rich material is ejected vigorously and is then compacted by overlying

material while still in a hot, plastic state.


The chemical structure of the magma figures out which minerals will form and in what
extents they will happen. Along these lines, identification of the minerals present in the
stone is a critical stride in having the capacity to effectively distinguish the stone.
Magmas that are moderately low in silica (SiO2) crystallize olivine, pyroxene (augite)
and calcium-rich plagioclase, while magmas that are high in SiO2 take shape quartz,
sodium-rich plagioclase, orthoclase, biotite and hornblende. Likewise with minerals,
volcanic rocks can be comprehensively divided into mafic and felsic sorts. Mafic rocks
are for the most part darker, and have higher concentration of mafic minerals. Felsic
rocks are basically lighter in colour, having a higher concentration of felsic minerals.

There are two noteworthy group of sedimentary rocks:

Clastic sedimentary rocks

The parts of previous rocks or minerals that make up a sedimentary rock are called clasts.
Sedimentary rocks made up of clasts are called clastic (clastic demonstrates that particles have
been broken and transported). Clastic sedimentary rocks are essentially characterized on the size
of their clasts.
Table 3.1: Clast size in clastic rocks
Name
Boulder
Gravel

Sand

Grade
Very coarse
Coarse
Medium
Fine
Coarse
Medium
Fine

Size range (mm)


> 200
60 200
20 60
6 20
26
0.6 2
0.2 0.6
0.06 0.2

Comments
Clasts should be identifiable.

Clasts visible to the naked eye.


Grains often identifiable.

Mud

< 0.002 0.06

Clasts not visible to the naked eye.


Feels smooth.

Clast shape is vital in differentiating some sedimentary rocks. Clasts differ in shape from
rounded to angular, depending on the distance they have been transported and / or the
environment of deposition, e.g. rounded clasts are generally the product of long transportation
distances and / or deposition in high energy environments (beaches, rivers).

The level of sorting of clasts can be a vital pointer of depositional environment. In water,
bigger clasts are large do travel a short distances, and they settle quicker. For instance, in a blend
of mud and sand being transported in a stream to the ocean, the sand (bigger clast size, heavier)
would start to settle as soon as the river's energy dissipated, while the mud (fine, light-weight)
would be transported far off shore. Along these lines, a very much sorted (clasts of roughly the
same size); coarse sandstone shows affidavit in a sensibly high energy environment (close shore)
presumably near the wellspring of the sand. Then again, a mudstone for the most part shows
deep water deposition (low energy environment, far away shore). Structures produced during
deposition, e.g. bedding and cross-bedding, can give clues as to depositional environment. So
can structures produced by re-working by tidal or storm-generated currents, e.g. ripple marks,
rip-up clasts.

Figure 4.1 Different Size Clast Movement

Non-clastic sedimentary rocks

These sedimentary rocks occur when minerals are precipitated directly from water, or are
concentrated by organic matter / life. Components have not been transported prior to deposition.
No clasts are present.
The two distinctive metamorphic textures are:

Foliation - This represents a distinct plane of weakness in the rock. Foliationis caused by
the re-alignment of minerals when they are subjected to high pressure and temperature.
Individual minerals align themselves perpendicular to the stress field such that their long
axes are in the direction of these planes (which may look like the cleavage planes of
minerals). Usually, a series of foliation planes can be seen parallel to each other in the
rock. Well developed foliation is characteristic of most metamorphic rocks. Metamorphic
rocks often break easily along foliation planes.

Granular - This describes a metamorphic rock consisting of interlocking equant crystals


(granules), almost entirely of one mineral. A granular texture is developed if a rock's
chemical composition is close to that of a particular mineral. This mineral will crystallise
if the rock is subjected to high pressure and temperature. A granular texture is
characteristic of some metamorphic rocks.

Note: As the grade of metamorphism increases (more temperature and pressure), both crystal
size and the coarseness of foliation increase. Therefore, gneiss represents more intense
metamorphism (or a higher grade) than does schist. Some fine-grained metamorphic rocks,
e.g. schist, have larger crystals present. These crystal are called porphyroblasts. Porphyroblasts

represent minerals that crystallise at a faster rate than the matrix minerals. Garnet is a common
porphyroblast mineral.

Table 2.2: Guide to the classification of metamorphic rocks by texture

Poorly foliated
Well foliated
Well foliated and sheared

Grain size
Fine
Hornfels
Slate
Mylonite

Medium
Marble, quartzite
Schist
Mylonite, schist

Coarse
Marble, quartzite
Gneiss
Augen gneiss

Thin sections are time consuming and costly to prepare. Thin sections are viewed using a
petrographic microscope under two different lighting conditions- plain polarized light and
crossed polarizer. Plane polarized light is light that is constrained to a single plane. The light
wave is a simple sine wave that has the vibration direction lying in the plane of polarization.
When viewing under plane polarized light, a single polarizer (lower polar) is used. Inserting the
upper polarizer is referred to as crossed polarizer (or, crossed nicols), the name given because the
two polarizing lenses are set at right angles to each other. Minerals can be classified as
anisotropic or as isotropic, depending on their light properties. Isotropic minerals show the same
velocity of light in all directions, while anisotropic minerals show the velocity of light varying in
different orientations. The absorption color in plane polarized light - this is not the same as the
color of the mineral in hand specimen. Most minerals are colorless in thin section. Some are
opaque, light cannot pass through them and they appear black, so we cannot identify them using
this type of microscopy. Magnetite, hematite and pyrite are opaque. Chlorite is green, Biotite is
brown.

5.0 APPARATUS AND MATERIALS

Figure 5.1: Geological Cutter

Figure 5.2: Thin Sectioning Equipment

Figure 5.3: Transmitted Polarized Light Microscope, connected to a computer for image viewing

6.0 PROCEDURES

1. Four samples of rocks were prepared and were cut to the thickness of 4mm by using the
rock cutting machine.
2. The power supply and light of the machine were switched on. The hood was opened and
the first sample was clamped firmly to the clamping device inside the machine.
3. Before the cutting, the path of the flange was checked. If the black knob and the screw
pin could touch the flange, re-position the vise assembly. Then, the hood was closed.
4. The pump was turned on and then, the start button was pressed.
5. The cut-off wheel was taken slowly towards the sample until the rock was cut completely.
The stop button was pressed and the hood was opened. The sample was collected and the
entire ward from the cutting area was cleaned up.
6. The pump and the light were turned off. The power supply was also switched off.
7. Then, the sample was polished using the sandpaper and was attached to the glass slide
with the help of thermoplastics in the fume hood.
8. The rock sample was thinned to 30m (0.03mm) using the thin sectioning machine and
polished again using the sandpaper.
9. After that, the sample was being observed under the transmitted polarized light
microscope for 4x, 10x, 20x and 40x magnification. All the data were recorded.
10. Step 2 until 9 were repeated for the second, third and fourth sample.

7.0 RESULT

1st Sample (Specimen Number 9)

Magnified 4x

Magnified 20x
The rock sample is Gypsum.

2nd Sample (Specimen Number 12)

Magnified 10x

Magnified 40x

Magnified at 4x

Magnified at 20x
The rock sample is Marble.

3rd Sample (Specimen Number 14)

Magnified at 10x

Magnified at 40x

Magnified at 4x

Magnified at 10x

Magnified at 20x

Magnified at 40x

The rock sample is limestone.

4th Sample (Specimen Number 13)

Magnified 4x

Magnified 10x

Magnified 20x

Magnified 40x

The rock sample is siliceous oolite.

8.0 DISCUSSION

Based on the experiment, the result shows that the grain of the rocks was made up of several
types of minerals, pore, matrix and cements. The samples are cut until it reaches the 0.01mm
thickness that light can passes through the sample. Observation of these components have been
made and four types of magnification used were 4x, 10x, 20x and 4x by the microscope.
Images that captured are compared with the images captured by geoscientist via the
internet. There are differences between their image, grains, matrices and cements could not be
distinguished and the colour quietly similar with grains. Only pore can be distinguished clearly.
The first rock sample show light blue at X4 magnificient show and also grey at X40
magnificient show that the sample was gypsum. The colour was grey due to the impurities. The
grain size is larger due to the solubility of the gypsum with water.
The second rock is marble. Based on the result the sample show blue glycolorin at X4
magnificient and also pinkish at X40 magnificient indicated that the sample was marble. For the
texture, the sample also show the flat sized crystal which is one of the characteristic of the
marble.
Besides, the third rock sample showed light graycolorin at X10 magnificient show and
the texture were were fine to crystalline. Based on the color and texture, the sample of the rock
was limestone. It also showed the fossil based on the feature of the sample rock by using the
microscope. In term of surface structure, third rock sample have smoother surface rather than
rock one and two.
The forth sample of the rock showed it is oolotic limestone. The texture of the rock is
sand sized spheres (ooids) which is also thelimestone.

9.0 CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the study of rocks and minerals using a microscope and cross section are
useful for identification of rocks, minerals to achieved. Rock minerals can be identified depends
on its color, hardness, shape, weights, cleavage, fracture, taste and etc. Microscope are used to
reflect the color of minerals in rocks. Its also can be identified all of the type minerals content in
reservoir and also can be observed to know if it is good porosity or permeability to be a good
reservoir.

10.0 RECOMMENDATION

1) While cutting the rock sample using the rock cutting tool, lower the blade slow and
carefully so that the rock will not break into pieces.
2) Make sure the not to clamp the rock sample either too tight or too loose in the cutting
rock machine to avoid from cutting failure.
3) Clean the rock sample evenly with sand paper to completely remove the bubble layers on
the rocks surfaces.
4) Reduce the thickness to the range where light is able to go through the minerals to assist
in observation of the rock sample under the microscope.
5) Spread the thermoplastic cement evenly on the glass slide so that it covers the whole rock
surface and it would not wears off during thinning process by using the thin section
lapping machine.
6) Wear gloves to hold the glass slide after it is heated onto the hot plate and make sure
there is no bubble between the glued area.
7) Adjust the light intensity to get a clearer image while doing the observation under the
polarized light microscope.

11.0 REFERENCES

1. Drilling laboratory manual.


2. S. Peng, Jincai Zhang, (2007), Engineering Geology for Underground Rocks,Springer.
3. Tengku Amran, (2013), Introduction to Petroleum Technology, Fundamental of Petroleum
Geology.
4. http://www.learner.org/interactives/rockcycle/types.html, Retrieved on 8 May 2016.
5. http://www.scienceviews.com/geology/rockproperties.html, Retrieved on 10 May 2016.

12.0 APPENDICES

Figure: Interferance Colour Chart