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# Subject :-computer oriented numerical methods.

## Unit 1 Errors and Computation

1.Iff(x) is (i) continuous in [a, b]. (ii) Differentiable in (a, b) and (iii) f(a) = f(b)
thenc (a, b) such that f(c) = 0.
It is proved by ___________theorem
A.rollesB.GeneralisedrollesC.intermidiate value. D.langrages

## 2.Letf(x)be a function which is n times differentiable on [a, b]. If f(x) vanishes

at the (n+1) distinct points x0, x1, ,xnin(a, b), then there exists a number c
in(a, b) such that f n(c) = 0.
It is proved by ___________theorem
A.rollesB.GeneralisedrollesC.intermidiate value. D.langrages
3.If f(x) is (i) continuous in [a, b] and (ii) differentiable in (a, b) then there exists
at least one value c in (a, b) such that f1(c) =f(b)-f(a)/b-a
It is proved by ___________theorem
A.rollesB.GeneralisedrollesC.intermidiate value. D.langrages
4.Let f(x) be continuous in [a, b] and k be any number between f(a) and f(b).
Then there exists a number c in (a, b) such that f(c) = k.
It is proved by ___________theorem
A.rollesB.GeneralisedrollesC.intermidiate value. D.langrages
5.There are numbers like 2/7(= 0.285714.), (= 3.14159.),
2 (= 1.4142.), e (= 2.71828.) which cannot be expressed by a finite
number of digits. These may be approximated by numbers 0.2857, 3.1416,
1.4142, 2.7183 respectively by omitting some digits, then these numbers are
called__________ numbers.
A.exactB.approximateC.round off D.right
6.numbers like 1,2,3,1/2(=0.5),3/2(=1.5) are treated as___________.
A.exactB.approximateC.round off

D.right

7.The digits that are used to express a number are called _________ digits or
_________ figures.
A.exactB.significantC.round off

D.insignificant

8.If the number does not have any decimal point, the significant figures of the number are the
digits countedfrom the________ non-zero digit on the left to the______ non-zero digit on the
right.
A.first,lastB.first,second last C.second,lastD.last,first
9.f the number has a decimal point, the significant figures of the number are the digits counted
from the first nonzerodigit on the ______ to the last digit on the _____ side.
A.left,rightB.right,leftC.center,leftD.left,center
10.12040 has _________significant digits.
A.fiveB.fourC.threeD.six
11.2100.4 has _________significant digits.
A.fiveB.fourC.threeD.six
12.0.015, has ______ significant figures.
A.fiveB.fourC.threeD.two
13.3.1416 has _______significant digits.
A.fiveB.fourC.threeD.two
14.0.00386 has _____significant digits.
A.fiveB.fourC.threeD.two
15.All _______ digits are significant
A.zeroB.firstC.lastD.non-zero
16.All zeros occurring between ________ digits are significant digits.
A.zeroB.firstC.lastD.non-zero
17.Zeros between the decimal point and preceding a non-zero digit are not
_________.
A.exactB.significantC.round off
D.insignificant
18.When the decimal point is not written, trailing zeros are not considered to
be __________.
A.exactB.significantC.round off
D.insignificant
19.4500.0 contains _______ significant digits.
A.fiveB.fourC.threeD.two
20.100.00001 has______ significant digits
A.fiveB.fourC.eightD.seven
21.Precision refers to the number of decimal positions, i.e. the order
magnitude of the ________digit in a value.
A.firstB.lastC.middleD.second

## 22.4.2301 has a precision of________

4

A. 10

B. 10

C. 10

D. 10

23._________ errorarises when data for aproblem are obtained by some experimental means
and are, therefore,of limited accuracy and precision.
A.dataB.inherentC.conversionD.round-off
24._______ error also known as empirical error.
A.dataB.inherentC.conversionD.round-off
25.________ errors also known as representation errors.
A.dataB.inherentC.conversionD.round-off
26.________ errorsarise due to the limitations of the computer to store the data exactly
A.dataB.inherentC.conversionD.round-off
27._________ errors are introduced during the process of implementation of a numerical
method.
A.dataB.inherentC.numericalD.round-off
28._________errors arise from using an approximation in place of an exact
mathematical procedure.
A.dataB.inherentC.truncationD.round-off
29.________ error is the numerical difference between its true value of aquantity and its
approximate value.
A.dataB.inherentC.truncationD.absolute
30.The _______error is the absolute error divided by the true value of the quantity.
A.relativeB.inherentC.truncationD.absolute

## Unit 2 Approximations and Round-off Errors

31.Taylors Theorem was given by ___________(1685-1734) in the year 1715
A. Brook TaylorB.johnfarnandisC.brookmayor D.d.taylor
32.Taylor series function formula

( Xo)

+..

## 33 If .Z=x+y be the addition of two numbers X and Y and

+ f (n) Xo
n!
Z a = X a + Y a be

## the sum of approximated values of X and Y. So the error in Z and

Z a is given as

z=
Z
Ans :e z- a

34.If

Za =

a+ Y a
X

Ans :e z X e y + Y e x
35.In case of division

ex
Xey
y Y2
Ans : e

z=

Er =

Er

is given by

fmax
df x 1 f x 2
F X3
F xn
= dx 1 f + x 2 f
+ x 3 F
+--------+ xn f
f

## 37.____________ error is defined as the sum of truncating error and round-off

errors.
Ans.Total numerical
38.If the truncating error is decreasing the round off error will _______
Ans:-increase
39.__________ can be either due to human imperfection or computer malfunctioning.

Ans:-errors.
40.________ error also known as model error is due to incomplete
mathematical models.
Ans:-formulation
41. ___________error is due to uncertainty in physical data upon which a model is based.
Ans:-Uncertainty
42. if a = 2.467 and b = 0.03241 both have 4 significant digits of accuracy then a-b = ________
Ans:- 2.43459
Unit:-3
43.For a given table of values (x0, y0), (x1, y1), (x2, y2), , (xn, yn) equally space
abscissas of function y = f(x), we define the first forward difference operation defined by f(x)
is defined as f(x) = f (x + h) f (x)

## Put x = x0, we get f(x0) = f (x0 + h) f (x0)

y0 = f (x1) f (x0) = y1 y0,
y0 = y1 y0. Where is called the forward difference operator
44. in forward difference

y 0 = y 1 - y 0 =f (x1) f (x0)

## 45.y1 = y2 y1 = f (x2) f (x1)

46.y2 = y3 y2 = f (x3) f (x2)
47.2 y0 =y1 y0
= (y2 y1) (y1 y0)
= y2 2y1 + y0

482 y1 =y2 y1
= (y3 y2) (y2 y1) = y3 2y2 + y1
49.3 y0 =2 y1 2 y0 = (y3 2y2 + y1) (y2 2y1 + y0) = y3 3y2 + 3y1 - y0
50.4 y0 =3 y1 2 y0 = (y4 3y3 + 3y2 y1) (y3 3y2 + 3y1 - y0)
= y4 4y3 + 6y2 4y1 + y0
51. ( f ( x ) . g ( x ) )=f ( x+ h ) g ( x ) + g( x ) f (x )
Or f(x) g ( x )+ g (x+ h) f ( x)

g ( x ) f ( x )f (x) g(x )
f (x)
52. g (x) =
g ( x ) g( x +h)

## 53.The first backward difference of f(x) denoted by f(x) is defined as

f(x) = f(x) f(x h)
Put x = x1
f(x1) = f (x1) f(x1 h) = f(x1) f (x0)
y1 = y1 y0.
Thus, the differences y1 y0, y2 y1, y3 y2, .. , yn yn1 are called first Backward difference
and they are denoted by y1, y2, y3 ..yn whereis the backward difference operator
54.In backward difference table.2 y2 = y2 y1 = (y2 y1) (y1 y0)
= y2 2y1 + y0
55.3 y3 = 2 y3 2 y2 = y3 3y2 + 3y1 y0.
56.In central difference table

0= y 1=

y 1
= y 1 y 0
2

## 57.The inverse operator E1 is defined by E1 f(x) = f (x h)and similarly, En f(x) = f (x nh)

58.The average operator is defined as

y=1/2

y1
1
+ y(
)
2
2

## D f(x) = dx f(x) = f(x)

d2
D 2 f(x) =
dx 2 f(x)=f(x)
D3 f ( x ) =d 3 / dx 3 f(x) =f(x)
60.Relationship between E and :
Ans:-E = 1 +
61.Relation between the shift operator (E) and the differential
operator (D):
Ans:- E =

e hD

Ans:-E=

## 63. Relation between E,

E1 =

Ans:-

64.Relation between E,
1

=E2
1
2

## =1/ 2(E E1/ 2)

n
65.A polynomial of the form f(x) = Y x = (x) =x(x-1)____(x-n+1)where n is a positive integer,

is known as__________.

## Ans:- factorial polynomials

66. x

is defined as_______

Ans:-1

## Unit:-4Solution of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations

67. Every algebraic equation of nth degree, where n is a positive integer, has ___and only
____roots.
Ans:-n
68.Complex roots occur in pairs
Ans:-complex
69.Bisection method is developed by__________, a mathematician from
Prague.
Ans:- Bernard Bolzano
70.Bisection method is based on repeated application of the ________Theorem.
Ans:-Intermediate Value
71.The real root of the equation f(x) = x3 3x -5 lies between________
Ans:-2 and 3
72.Inregulafalsi method
X3=x=x1-f(x1)(x2-x1)/f(x2)-f(x1)
73.The _________method is intended to produce faster convergence to the solution.
Ans:-regula-falsi
74.The convergence of an _________depends on the suitable choice of
the function (x), and x0, a suitable initial approximation to the root.
Ans:-iteration method
75._________is a very powerful method for finding the real root of an equation in the
form f(x) = 0.
Ans:-newton raphson method
76. X n +1 = x n - f ( xn) /f ' (xn)

is known as___________.

## Ans:-newton raphson formula.

77.Evaluate 12 to four decimal places by Newtons-Raphson formula.
Ans:-3.4641

## 78.The Newton Raphson method has the _______ convergence.

Ans:-fastest
79. X n +1 = x n -

## f ( xn) /f ' (xn)

] is known as___________.
m

## Ans:-generalised Newtons formula

80. ________method is described by Indian mathematical genius SrinivasaRamanujan (18871920).
Ans:-Ramanujans
81._________ is an iterative method which can be used to determine the smallest root of the
equation of the form f(x) = 0.
Ans:-Ramanujans

## Unit:-5 Matrices and Solutions of Systems of Linear Equations-Direct

Methods
82.A system of m linear equations in n unknowns x1, x2, ,xnis a set of
equations of the form
a11x1 + a12 x2 + + a1n xn= b1
a21x1 + a22 x2 + + a2n xn= b2
... ...
am1x1 + am2 x2 + ... + amnxn= bm.
aijare constants, which are called the________of the system and bi are
another constants.
Ans:-coefficient
83. If the bi are all zero, then (*) is called a __________ system.
Ans:-homogenous
84.If at least one bi is not zero, then (*) is called a ___________system
Ans:- non-homogeneous
85.A system of equations having no solution is called an ________system.
Ans:-inconsistent
86.A system of equations having one or more solution is called a
__________system.
Ans:-Consistent
87If rank A = rank A B = number of unknowns, then system has a_______solution.
Ans:-unique

88. If rank A = rank A B number of unknowns, then system has an_______ number of
solutions.
Ans:-infinite
89.________ methods produce the exact solution after a finite number of steps, disregarding
the round-off error.
Ans:-direct
90._______method give a sequence of approximate solutions, which converge when the
number of steps tends to infinity.
Ans:-Iterative
91. X= A

92. A

## = det A adjA which is ________formula.

Ans:-inverse
93. In ________method we transform the given matrix into upper triangular matrix by row
transformation.
Ans:-.Gauss Elimination
94. In _______method we transform the given matrix into diagonal matrix.
Ans:-Gauss-Jordan
96.X=

x
x

Y=

d1

x=
d2
Where
d3

y
y
y1
y2
y3

Z=

z
z

is known as ________rule.

z1
x1 d1 z1
x1

y
=

z
=
z2
x2 d 2 z2
x2
z3
x3 d3 z3
x3

y1 d 1
y2 d 2
y3 d 3

Ans:-crammers rule
97.________method is based on the fact that a square matrix A can be factorized into the form
LU, where L is unit lower triangular and U is upper triangular, if all the principal minors of A are
nonsingular
Ans:-Lu decomposition
98. InLU decomposition A = LU, where

1
0 0
L= l 21 1 0
l31 l 32 1

u 11 u 12 u13
u 22 u 22
U= 0
0
0 u 23

99.Therefore LUX = B.
Put UX = Y, then LY = B, which is equivalent to the system
y1 = b1
l21y1 + y2 = b2
l31y1 + l32y2 + y3 = b3.
We can solve by forward substitution. When Y is known, the system UX = Y
Becomes,
U11x1 + u12x2 + u13x3 = y1
u22x2 + u23x3 = y2
u33x3 = y3, which can be solved by the back substitution.
u11 = a11, u12 = a12, u13 = a13
l21u11 = a21, l21u12 + u22 = a22, l21u13 + u23 = a23,
l31u11 = a31, l31u12 + l32u22 = a32, l31u13 + l32u23 + u33 = a33.

## Unit 6 Solutions of System of Linear Equations Iterative Methods

100.Gauss - Jacobis iteration method
.a11 x + a12 y + a13z = b1
a21x + a22 y + a23 z = b2
a31x + a32 y + a33 z = b3

X= A 11 [ b 1a 12 ya 13 z ]

Y= a 22 [b 2a 21 xa23 z ]

Z= a33 [b 3a 31 x a 32 y ]

## 101.__________ is a modification of Jacobis method.

Ans:-Gauss Seidel
102.Gauss Seidel iteration method
a11x + a12 y + a13z = b1
a21x + a22 y + a23 z = b2

## a31x + a32 y + a33 z = b3

X= A 11 [ b 1a 12 ya 13 z ]

Y= a 22 [b 2a 21 xa23 z ]

Z= a33 [b 3a 31 x a 32 y ]
For x,y,z

X= x 0 , Y= y 0 ,Z= z 0

0 a 13 z 0

b 1a 12 y
=
1

a 11
1

1 a 23 z 0

]
x

1 a 32 y 1
]
x

= a 22 [b2-a21

= a33 [b3-a31

103.Given a square matrix A of order n, if there exists a scalar and a non-zero column matrix
X such that AX = X, then is called an ________of A and X is called an ________of A
corresponding to an eigen value .
Ans:-eigenvalue ,eigen vector
104.The sum of the eigen values of A is the sum of the _______of its principal diagonal, that is,
trace A = 1 + 2 + 3 +. . +.n.,
where,, 1, 2, 3,. n are the eigen values of A
Ans:-elements
105.Ifis an eigen value of A, then ______is the eigen value of A1.
Ans:- 1/
106.If _____is the eigen value of an orthogonal matrix, then 1/ is also its eigenvalue.
ns

107. A and its transpose ____________will have the same eigen values.
Ans:- A

## 108.The inverse A1 exists if and only if__________.

ns:- i0
109.The constant term in the characteristic equation equals _______of A.
Ans:-determinant
110. Inverse of a square matrix

Ans : A

= k 3 =[ A

+k1A+k2I]

## 111.power method is used to find_________.

Ans:-nth degree polynomial

## Unit 7 Curve Fitting

112. Convert the following equations into linear form.

Y= a+bx
Ans:-Y=aX+b taking Y=1/y X=1/x
113.xy = ax + b convert into linear form
Ans:- Y = a + bX.
114.Law of the form y = m X

+c.

Ans:-y=mX+c
115.Law of the form y = a X

Ans:-Y = nX + c.
116.Law of y = a X

+ b log x.

Ans:-Y=aX+b
117.When the law is y = a e

bx

## Ans:- Y = mX +c where m = b log10e and c = log10a.

118.Method of Group AveragesThne
required curve is of the form y = m X

## Ans:- log10y = log10 m + n log10x

119. Method of Least Squares
1.Let y = a + bx be the required best fit straight line.
Ans:-y = na + b x
xy = a x + b x2
120. The given straight line fit by y = ax + b.
y = nb + ax
xy = bx + ax2
121.Fitting a Parabola y = a + bx + c x
Ans:-y = na + bx + c x

ns:-xy = ax + bx2 + c x
x2y = ax2 + bx3 + c x

## Ans:- log10y = log10 a + b log10x

123.Fitting Exponential Curvey = a e

bx

## Ans:- taking log both sides log10 y = log10 a + bx log10e.

Y=Bx+A
2
B xi A xi xiYi

B xi4A Yi
124. Method of Moments
ns:- The first moment = yix = xyi
2 = The second moment = xiyix = xxiyi
3 = The third moment = = Xi

yix=x= Xi yi

## Unit 9 Interpolation with Unequal Intervals

( xx 1 )( xx 2 ) .(xxn)

y = f (x) = ( x 0x 1 )( x 0x 2 ) .( x 0xn)

( xx 0 )( xx 2 ) ..( xxn)

## y0+ ( x 1x 0 )( x 1x 2 ) ( x 1xn) y1+.

( xx 0 )( xx 1 ) .( xxn1)

## + ( xnx 0 )( xnx 1 ) ( xnxn1)

Is known as_____________for unique intervals.
Ans:-Lagranges Interpolation Formula
126.state true false.The Lagranges interpolation formula has the disadvantage that if another
interpolation point were inserted, then we have to recompute the interpolation coefficients.
Ans:-true
127.Let (x0, y0), (x1, y1), (x2, y2) , . . . , (xn, yn) be a given set of (n + 1) points.
The first divided differences are defined by the following relations
[x0,x1]=

y 1 y 0
x 1x 0

[x1,x2]=

y 2 y 1
x 2x 1

.. .
..

yn yn1

[xn-1,xn]= xnxn1

## 128.The second divided differences are defined by

Ans:-[x0,x1,x2]=

[ x 1, x 2 ] [ x 0, x 1]
x 2x 0

## 129.The third divided differences are defined by

Ans:-[x0,x1,x2,x3]= ]=

[ x 1, x 2, x 3 ] [ x 0, x 1, x 2]
x 3x 0

## 130.In general the nth divided difference is defined by

Ans:- [x0,x1,x2,x3,xn]=

[ x 1, x 2 .. xn ] [x 0, x 1 . xn1]
xnx 0

## 131The Newtons divided difference formula is given by

Ans:- y(x) = y0 + (x x0) [x0, x1] + (x x0) (x x1) [x0, x1, x2] + (x x0) (x x1)
(x x2) [ x0, x1, x2, x3] + . . . + (x x0) (x x1) . . . (x xn1) [x0, x1, x2 . . . xn].

( y y 1 ) ( y y 2 ) ( y y 3 ) .( y yn)

## 132x= ( y 0 y 1 ) ( y 0 y 2 ) ( y 0 y 3 ) . ( y 0 yn) x0+

( y y 0 ) ( y y 2 )( y y 3 ) .( y yn)
( y y 0 )( y y 1 ) ( y y 3 ) .( y yn)
( y y 0 )( y y
x 1+
x 2+
( y 1 y 0 ) ( y 1 y 2 )( y 1 y 3 ) .( y 1 yn)
( y 2 y 0 )( y 2 y 1 ) ( y 2 y 3 ) .( y 2 yn)
( yn y 0 ) ( yn y
This is known as _____________formula.
Ans:-langrages interpolation

## Unit 12 Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations I

133.A _______equation is an equation which involves independent and
dependent variables and the derivatives of the dependent variables.
Ans:- differential
134.The order of a differential equation is the order of _______derivative
appearing in it.
Ans:- highest
135. The ________of a differential equation is the degree of the highest derivative occurring in
it, after the equation has been expressed in a form free from radicals and fractions so far as the
derivatives are concerned.
Ans:- degree
136.A solution of a differential equation is a relation between the ________which
satisfies the given differential equation.
Ans:- variables
137. The general solution of a differential equation is that in which the number of _______is
equal to the order of the differential equation.
Ans:-arbitrary constants
138.A particular solution is that which can be obtained from the _______solution by giving
particular values to the arbitrary constants.
Ans:-general
139. A differential equation together with the initial condition is called _________problem.
Ans:-initial-value
140.Picards method of Successive Approximation
x

## Ans:-first approximation is y1=y0+

f ( x , y 0 ) dx
x0

141.second approximation is
x

Ans:-y2=y1+

f ( x , y 1 ) dx
x0

142.third approximation is
x

Ans:- y3=y0+

f ( x , y 2 ) dx
x0

143.(n+1)thapproximation will be
x

Ans:- yn+1=y0+

f ( x , yn ) dx
x0

h2
h3
h4
5
144.y1=y0+hy0+ 2 ! y(0)+ 3 ! y(0)+ 4 ! y(0)+o( h ) is known as
__________of order four.
Ans:-taylor series method
145.y1= y0+ hf(x0, y0)
y2 = y1+ h f (x1, y1)
yi + 1 = yi+ hf(xi, yi)This is known as ____________method.
Ans:-Eulers

formula

146.

Y 11 = y 0+

h
[ f ( x 0, y 0 ) + f ( x 1, y 1 ) ] this is known as
2

## Unit 8 Interpolation with Equal intervals.

147.___________ is the art of reading between the lines of a table.
Ans:-Interpolation

p
148.y(x) = y0 + py0 +

1 2
p ( p1)( p2) 3
y 0+

p( p1)( p2)(p3) 4
2!
3!
y0
y0+
4!
p

where x=x0+ph
Which is known as ___________.

## Ans:-Newtons forward difference interpolation formula.

p( p+1)
149.yn(x) = yn(xn+ ph) = yn+ pyn+

( p+2) 3
p ( p+1 ) ( p+2)( p+n1) n
yn+ ..+
yn
3!
n!
p (p+ 1) 2
yn+
2!

is known as___________.
Ans:-Newtons Backward Difference Interpolation Formula
150.y(p) = y0 + py0 +

p( p1) 2
p ( p1)( p2) 3
p( p1)( p2)(p3) 4
y1+
y-1+

2!
3!
4!

y-2 where
P=

xx 0
h

is known as _______.

## Ans:-Gauss Forward Formula

151.y(p) = y0 + py-1 +

p( p+ 1) 2
p( p1)( p+ 1) 3
p( p1)( p+ 1)( p+2) 4
y 1+
y-2+
y2!
3!
4!

2
Is known as _________
Ans:-Gauss Backward Formula
152. .y(p) = y0 + p(y0+ y-1)/2+

3 ( y1 ) + 3( y2)
p( p 21) 3
p2 2
y 1+
y-2
+
2
2!
3!

p 2( p 21) 4
y-2 where
4!
P=

xx 0
h

is known as _______.

Ans:-StirlingsFormula

p ( p1 ) 2 y 1+ 2 y 0
153.yp= y 0+ y 1 + p 1 y 0+
(
)
2
2
2!
2

( )

xx 0
h

is

Known AS______

1
( p ) p ( p1 )
2
3 y-1 where P=
3!

## Unit 10 Numerical Differentiation

154.Derivatives using Newtons forward difference formula
Ans:-Y=Y0+p y 0+

p ( p1) 2
p ( p1)( p2) 3
p( p1)( p2)(p3) 4
y 0+
y0+
y0+
2!
3!
4!

..where x=xo+ph
155. Derivatives using Newtons backward difference formula
Ans:-y=yn+p yn+

p( p+1) 2
p( p+ 1)( p+2) 3
p( p+1)( p+2)( p+3) 4
yn+
yn+
yn+
2!
3!
3!

Where x=xn+ph
156.Derivatives using Sterling formula

y 0+ y 1
p2 2

Ans:-Yp=Y0+p(
+ 2!

21

( 3 y1+ 3 y-2)/2+
y-1+
3!
p

## 157.Derivatives using Newtons General Interpolation (or divided

difference) Formula
Ans:-f(x)=f(x0,x1)+[(X-X0)+(X-X1)]f(x0,x1,x2)+[(X-X0)(X-X1)+(X-x1)(X-X2)]+[(x-x2)
(X-X0)f(X0,X1,X2,X3)]+.
F(x)=2f(x0,x1,x2)+2[(x-x0)+(x-x1)+(x-x2)]*f(x0,x1,x2)
F(x)=2[3f(x0,x1,x2,x3)]
158.maxima and minima of f(x) can be obtained by equating the first derivative to______
Ans:-zero.
159.A________equation is an equation which involves the relationship between
independent variables.
Ans:-difference

## 160.Order of a difference equation is the difference between the _______and the

________arguments occurring in the difference equation divided by the unit of increment.
Ans:-largest, smallest

## largest argumentsmallest argument

unit of increment

162.The _________of a difference equation is that in which the number of arbitrary constants is
equal to the order of the differenceequation
Ans:-general solution
163. A _________is that solution which is obtained from the general solution by giving particular
values to the constants.
Ans:-particular solution
164.A _________equation is that in which yn+1, yn+2 etc. occur to the first
degree only and are not multiplied together.
Ans:linear difference

2

n(2 n3)
n( n2) 3 y 0
n
y 0+ y 0+
2 y 0+

2
12
24
ydx=nh
Ans:- I=
x 0+nh

x0

xn

166.

ydx = h2
x0

## [(y0+yn)+2(y1+y2+y3+.+yn-1) this is known as ________ rule.

Ans:-Trapezoidal
167.Error in Trapezoidal rule:
x1

Ans:-Error=

ydx h2 [ y 0+ y 1]
x0

=y1-y0- 2 [y0+y1]

xn

168.

ydx = h3
x0

[y0+yn)+2(y2+y4+y6+.+yn-2)+4(y1+y3+y5+.+yn-1)

Is known as ____________.
Ans:-simpsons one third rule.

ydx=
169. .

3h
[ y 3+3 y 4+3 y 5+ y 6 ]
8

x3

x0

is known as ___________.

## Ans:-simpsons three eightth rule.

170.Simpsons rule is very useful to _________for calculating the amount of earth that must be
moved to fill a depression or make a dam.
Ans:-civil engineers

## Unit 13 Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations II

171Runge-Kutta second order method

1
Ans:- yi+1= yi+ 2 [k1+k2]
wherek1 =hf(xi,yi)

## k2=hf(xi+h, yi+k1) where i=0,1,2,3,4.

172.Runge - Kutta fourth order method

## Ans:-yi+1=yi+ 6 [k1+2k2+2k3+k4] where i=0,1,2,3,4

And k1=hf(xi,yi)

k1
2 )

k2
2 )

K2=hf(xi+ 2 , yi+
K3=hf(xi+ 2 , yi+
K4=hf(xi+h, yi+k3)

4h
3 (2yn-2-yn+2y)

Ans:-yn+1=yn-3+

## 174.yn+1=yn-1+ 3 [fn-1+4fn+fn+1] is known as ________.

Ans:-milnes corrector formula.

## Unit:-14Boundary Value Problems

d2u
d2u
177. dx2 + dy 2 =0 is called ________.
Ans:-Two dimensional Laplace equation

d2u
d2u
178.. dx2 + dy 2 =f(x,y) is called_________.
Ans:-Two dimensional Poissons equation.

du

179. dt

= c d

## Ans:-one dimensional heat equation

2
2d u
d2u
c
180.. dt 2 =
dx2

is known as _______.