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EH/JUN 2012/CGE674

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA


FINAL EXAMINATION

COURSE

FORMATION EVALUATION

COURSE CODE

CGE674

EXAMINATION

JUNE 2012

TIME

3 HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
1.

This question paper consists of five (5) questions.

2.

Answer ALL questions in the Answer Booklet. Start each answer on a new page.

3.

Do not bring any material into the examination room unless permission is given by the
invigilator.

4.

Please check to make sure that this examination pack consists of:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

the Question Paper


a five - page Appendix
an Answer Booklet - provided by the Faculty
a graph paper - provided by the Faculty

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO


This examination paper consists of 5 printed pages
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EH/JUN 2012/CGE674

QUESTION 1
(P02, C01.C2, C4, C4)
a) In formation evaluation, the response to measurements made with petrophysical logging
tools will depend on the formation being investigated. The interpretation of the
measurements made by logging tools can only be made reliably if the operating
principles of the tools and resulting measurements are understood. With the aid of
diagrams, briefly describe the operating principles of Borehole Compensated Sonic
(BHC) tool and the cause of "cycle skipping" to occur.
(6 marks)
b) A logging string consisting of resistivity logs and both neutron and density porosity
devices was run in a wellbore. Determine the physico-chemical properties of clay
minerals present in the sandstone formation of interest which may influence the
responses of each of the tool.
(4 marks)
c) Spontaneous Potential (SP) curve is a recording of the potential difference between a
movable electrode situated in the tool and a fixed surface electrode. However, there are
two types of potentials in which current flow is generated. With the aid of related
sketches, analyze the generation of spontaneous potential and current flow through each
type of potential, assuming the formation water is saltier than the mud filtrate.
(8 marks)

QUESTION 2
(P02,C01,C3, C3)
a) The invasion of the drilling fluid into the formation results in a fluid distribution profile
when a well is logged. Describe the formation of an annular zone. Assuming the salinity
of formation water is higher than the mud filtrate, illustrate the resultant resistivity profile
further out from the borehole in water-bearing zone and oil-bearing zone. Label the
sketches accordingly.
(8 marks)
b) In petrophysics, permeability could not be determined directly from logs, but is able to be
estimated by plotting porosity-permeability relationship from core analysis. It is a
measure of the ability of a porous material to transmit fluid. In a reservoir system
consisting of water and oil with irreducible water and residual oil saturation of 25% and
15%, respectively, construct relative permeability curve for both fluids with increasing
water saturation. Label and explain the curve accordingly.
(6 marks)

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EH/JUN 2012/CGE674

QUESTION 3

(P06, C02, C4, C6, C6)


a) Interpretation of well log data requires the combination of several logs to identify the
interest zone, where hydrocarbon presents. From a suite of logs comprising GR, SP,
Neutron, Density and Resistivity logs, analyze the logs which can be used to interpret the
following cases and justify for each selection:
i) Permeable and non-permeable zones.
ii) The fluid contacts (GOC and OWC) in the permeable zone.
(8 marks)
b) Appendix 5 shows a suite of logs comprising CALI (Caliper in inches), GAPI (Gamma
Ray), SONI (Sonic/acoustic), DENS (Bulk Density), CNL (Neutron Porosity), LL9S
(Laterolog Shallow), LL9D (Laterolog Deep), RXO (Flushed zone - shallow resistivity).
The zones of interest are from 11,800 - 12,190 feet.
i)

With an acoustic velocity of 5300 ft/sec in the fluid and assuming for older rocks,
estimate water saturation from Simandoux equation at 12,045 ft. Given Rsh = 2.7
ohm-m, Rw = 0.3 ohm-m, n = 1.62, m = 1.61, a = 1. Use neutron-density crossplot to
determine porosity (Attach Appendix 5 and all interpreted charts from appendices in
your answer booklet).
(10 marks)

ii) A pressure test was run in open hole employing Modular Dynamic Tester (MDT) to
measure the formation pressure at desired depths in the well. The pressure data
obtained from the test are given in Table 1:
Table 1 MDT data

Depth (ft)

Formation Pressure (psi)

11800
11840
11880
11920
11960
12000
12040
12080
12120
12160
12200

5391
5394
5397
5400
5412
5426
5440
5454
5469
5487
5505

From the pressure plot, evaluate the possible fluid contacts as well as the fluids present
in the reservoir. Verify the contacts with the log data and justify.
(10 marks)

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EH/JUN 2012/CGE674

QUESTION 4
(P02, P06, C02, C5, C4, C2, C5)
a) The Pickett Plot is one of the methods to determine formation water resistivity, Rw when
'm' and 'n' are provided from core analysis. The basis for this plot is to assume 'm' is
unknown and that Archie relationship can be applied as shown below:
S" =
)

R,

d)

F =-

(2)

Arrange Equation 1 and Equation 2 into a linear equation and list any assumption(s)
that you made.
(4 marks)

i) Assuming 'a' equals unity, analyze 'Rw' by plotting Picket Plot on a logarithmic scale
graph provided in Appendix 2 using the following data in clean water bearing
formation (Attach the plot in your answer booklet).
Table 2 Porosity and resistivity data of formation
Rt (ohm-m)
Porosity (fraction)
0.15
4.76
0.20
2.96
2.03
0.25
1.49
0.30
0.35
1.15
0.92
0.40
(6 marks)
b) Core analysis is important in evaluating reservoir rocks on the nature of the rocks
themselves and various properties, one in which capillary pressure is derived. Logs
should always be calibrated with core data to improve interpretations. The most common
method to measure capillary pressure in the laboratory is mercury injection.
i)

Discuss the concept and procedures used in mercury injection to determine capillary
pressure curve.
(6 marks)

ii) Predict the capillary pressure curve resulting from four core samples of different
quality as shown in Table 3. Label the curve accordingly.

Rock Type
A
B

Table 3 Core data from different core samples


Core sample 1
Core sample 2
Permeability (mD)
Permeability (mD)
Porosity (%)
Porosity (%)
0.2
10
5
2
40
15
20
10
(4 marks)

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EH/JUN 2012/CGE674

QUESTION 5
(P02, P06, C03, C2, C6, C3)
a) Saturation monitoring through casing is generally performed by two methods, which are
Pulse Neutron Capture (PNC) and Pulse Neutron Spectroscopy (PNS). Describe the
concept of PNC on how a neutron is captured after neutron burst from the neutron
source.
(5 marks)
b) PNC log response is very sensitive to the salinity of formation water. Prove that salinity
plays important role in PNC log response between water bearing zone and oil bearing
zone for the following cases:
i) High salinity with w = 120 c.u
ii) Low salinity with w = 40 c.u
Given ma, HC and porosity are 10 c.u, 20 c.u and 25%, respectively, assuming clean
sand with water saturation in oil zone of 20%. Conclude the results obtained from both
cases.
(10 marks)
c) "Magnetic Resonance Imaging Logging (MRIL) tool is an advanced logging tool, in which
the response characteristic makes an MRIL tool fundamentally different from
conventional logging tools". Interpret the statement and determine types of information
that make these tools unique among logging devices.
(5 marks)

END OF QUESTION PAPER

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APPENDIX 1

EH/JUN 2012/CGE674

Formula List

Older Rocks: Vsh = 0.33(2 (2x/GR) - l )


Tertiary Rocks: Vsh = 0.083 (2 (3 lxlGR) - l )
/

IMr^JttO-^)

Simandoux: SL =

RV

2i?,sh

\2

R0vsh(-vsh)
2R.sh

(
Indonesian: S, =

sh

i?i/l

/?,
# =

aR.

\e=[Kh-zSh]+[(i-0-Kh)-xma]+[0-sw-K]+y-Q-sj-xhc]

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APPENDIX 2

EH/JUN 2012/CGE674

Pickett Plot

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EH/JUN2012/CGE674

APPENDIX 3

Porosity and Lithology Determination from Formation Density Log and


SNP Sidewall Neutron Porosity Log

Saltwater, liquid-filled holes (p, = 1.1)

1.9

nfl

1&

2.0

;
^

TSJ : 2

2.1 .

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rv,
"f

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: -15
10

20

30

40

<t>SNPcor, neutron porosity index (p.u.) (apparent limestone porosity)

s> Schhimbetger

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APPENDIX 4

Porosity and Lithology Determination from Formation Density Log and


CNL* Compensated Neutron Log

Fresh water, liquid-filled holes (p, = 1.0)


1.9
U3"'

2.0
j_C3|

... <

cJ0

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1

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SdHumbergef

10

20

30

40

"ksNuor. neutron porosity index (p.u.) (apparent Itmestone porosity)

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DENS
BEEF

TSB

Caliper (OALI)
i (in)

-15

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0.1

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' "(ohmm)

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Flushed zone resistivity (RX0\


(ohmm)

0.2

SONI

140

TOE"

Compensated Neutron Loq (CNL)

Gamma Ray (GR)

EH/JUN 2012/CGE674

APPENDIX 5

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