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Society of Petroleum Engineers

SPE 39872
Evaluating and Monitoring Reservoirs Behind Casing With a Modern Pulsed Neutron
Tool
G. Simpson, SPE and L. Jacobson, SPE, Halliburton Energy Services, F. Salazar, SPE, Halliburton de Mexico, S.A.

Copyright 1998, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Inc.


This paper was prepared for presentation at the 1998 SPE International Petroleum Conference
held in Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico, 35 March 1998.
This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of
information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of this paper, as
presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to
correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any
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Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435.

Abstract
Pulsed neutron capture logs have long provided a means of
determining water saturation and estimating porosity of formations behind casing. Recent technological advances in pulsed
neutron logging have resulted not only in improvements in
saturation and porosity data, but also in the capability to provide
information regarding water entry and flow, lithology, and improved differentiation of gas-filled zones from tight formations.
These advances provide greater accuracy in reservoir evaluation
and monitoring as well as improved completion and production
diagnostics.
Inelastic, capture, borehole, and background spectra are now
utilized to enhance porosity estimates, identify water flow, and
help determine lithology. Modular tool design allows the pulsed
neutron tool to be combined with production logging tools for
more reliable production diagnostics. Simple tool modifications
permit quantitative measurements of water velocity and borehole oil holdup. The modular design also allows additional detectors to be placed in the toolstring for lithology identification
and gravel pack evaluation.
This paper discusses this new pulsed neutron capture technology and gives an overview of the expanded range of pulsed
neutron applications. Field examples of waterflow detection,
gravel pack evaluation, oil/gas discrimination, and conventional
analysis are presented from offshore wells in the Gulf of Mexico
and from onshore wells in Mexico and the U.S.

Introduction
The Thermal Multigate Decay-Lithology (TMD-L *) tool represents the latest generation of Halliburtons pulsed neutron capture
(PNC) tools. This tool provides all of the capabilities of its
predecessor, plus new measurements and enhanced capabilities
for high-quality water-flow logging, improved gas and porosity
measurement, and lithology evaluation, as well as conventional
cased hole formation evaluation.
Technical advancements include: larger diameter detectors
for higher count rates, increased time gates to record the entire
burst cycle from buildup through decay, improved background
measurements for better environmental corrections, gamma ray
spectra recorded over the entire span of the neutron pulse and
decay cycle, and an improved telemetry package.
The following sections describe the tools capabilities and
their application to reservoir evaluation and monitoring.
Tool Capabilities
The new tool is shorter and more modular in construction than its
predecessor, and has higher count rates, finer decay time gating,
and spectral lithology measurements from the far-spaced detector. The tool is 25.2 ft long (including its telemetry and gamma ray
sections), with a diameter of 1.69-in. It is rated to 15,000 psi and
350 F. The modular construction allows easy reconfiguration
for water-flow measurements. The tool may also be run in
combination with other production-logging sensors placed beneath it. New processing software complements the higher count
rates to improve statistical precision in the determination of
formation capture cross section.
These features enable the tool to be used for standard casedhole formation evaluation, qualitative and quantitative water-flow
evaluation, gravel-pack evaluation, and lithology evaluation. It
also has the capability to discriminate between gas, oil, and water; as well as discriminate between tight formations and gas.

* A mark of Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.

EVALUATING AND MONITORING RESERVOIRS BEHIND CASING WITH A MODERN PULSED NEUTRON TOOL

Time Gates
The new tool distinguishes itself from its predecessors through
greatly expanded measurement, processing, and telemetry capabilities. Improvements include a 10-fold increase in gates to
measure gamma ray counts, dynamic gating to optimize the decay
measurements, and spectral processing of the neutron burst and
the ensuing decay. A detailed description of these features is
provided in Jacobson, et al.1
Spectral Data. A key feature of the new tool is the spectral
recording of the gamma ray interactions in the long-spaced
detector. Fig. 1 shows the timing sequence for the new tool. Fig.
2 displays the decay spectra for capture measurement. Four 256channel spectra are recorded during each burst cycle, as seen in
Fig. 3:
1. The first spectral gate begins 20 microseconds after the start
of the neutron burst and is 60 microseconds wide. It accumulates primarily inelastic data.
2. The second spectral gate begins 130 microseconds after the
start of the burst and is 60 microseconds wide. It accumulates
data associated with the borehole decay.
3. The third spectral gate begins 250 microseconds after time
zero and is 1000 microseconds wide. It accumulates data
from the formation component of the decay process.
4. The fourth spectral gate begins at the start of the background
period and is 5 milliseconds wide. It measures activation
gamma rays as well as background gamma ray activity.
Logging speeds of 5 to 10 ft/min are required to obtain optimal spectral measurements, rather than the 20 to 30 ft/min required for sigma data.
Lithology Indicator
The formation spectrum is corrected for the presence of background activation and is used to estimate the silicon and calcium
present in the formation. These estimates provide a mechanism
for distinguishing gas sands from tight calcareous zones, and
eliminate errors caused by activation and radioactive scale.
Lab and field data show that the silicon yield is especially
useful in distinguishing sandstone from limestone. It is output to
the log as a lithology indicator. However, when a sand reservoir
is saturated with saltwater, a reduction in the silicon response
can be expected (as compared to the freshwater- or oil-saturated
case) due to increased neutron absorption by the chlorine in the
saltwater.
The combinations of silicon and calcium curves with the
standard ratio of the near and far capture counts (RTMD) provide the necessary information to distinguish gas from low-porosity formations. Fig. 4 shows the difference between sandstone
and limestone detected by the capture spectra.
The log in Fig. 5 demonstrates this capability. This log was
run in a well in Oklahoma. The tool was run in brine-filled 5 in. casing, set in a 7 7/8-in. borehole. This particular example highlights the capability of the tool to distinguish between sand and

SPE 39872

lime intervals. The silicon-index curve (SI) serves as the lithology indicator, and clearly distinguishes the sand zones A, B, and
E from the lime zones C and D. Note also the shale laminations
within zone A. Zone F is seen to be a limy-sand.
Distinguishing gas from low porosity
Gas sands and tight calcareous zones generally contain very little
saltwater, making differentiation of these zones possible.
A low silicon value will indicate either a porous saltwatersaturated sand or a calcareous zone. A high silicon value indicates an oil- or gas-saturated sand.
The FM curve will distinguish a saltwater sand from a calcareous zone. The RTMD will distinguish oil from gas. Collectively, these log curves differentiate tight zones from gas sands.
The example in Fig. 6 is from a well in South Texas. The
operator encountered drilling problems due to extreme over pressures, and was not able to obtain openhole logs below Z350 ft.
The well was drilled to a total depth of Z650 ft, and 2 7/8-in.
casing was set in a 6 1/8-in. hole. The area was known to be gas
productive, but it was known to have tight intervals as well. Because openhole logs were not obtained, it was decided to run the
new tool one week after drilling, in order to distinguish possible
gas zones from tight zones.
The log was run over the section of the well that had not
been previously logged. The log was continued over a section of
the well that had been logged by open-hole tools, so that the data
gathered with the new tool could be compared with the previous
openhole data. The log was run at 5 ft/min, to obtain a combination of inelastic data and capture data for analysis. The analysis
used the inelastic counts recorded during the neutron burst in
gates 3 through 9 from the near and far detectors.
The ratio of the near to far inelastic counts is denoted RIN.
Gamma rays produced during the neutron burst associated with
inelastic scattering resemble the Compton scattering effect related to gamma-gamma logging for openhole density logs. The
RIN measurement can therefore be plotted with RTMD to distinguish gas from tight- or low-porosity zones in a qualitative
interpretation.
In Fig. 6, the openhole Density and Neutron porosities are
plotted in Track 2, and are shaded red when the two curves cross
over each other to indicate gas. Track 3 shows the RTMD curve
plotted in blue, with the RIN curve plotted in red. When the
curves cross over, the area between the curves is shaded red.
The intrinsic formation sigma (SGIN) is plotted in black across
Tracks 2 and 3.
In this well, the mud filtrate was expected to affect the sigma
readings, because only one week had passed since drilling; therefore, no quantitative water saturation figures were calculated.
Notice that the SGIN curve reads almost the same in each of the
sands having similar gamma ray response, except in the zone
from Y840 to Y980 ft, which shows slightly lower SGIN. Over
this interval, both the openhole Density/Neutron and the RTMD/
RIN indicate gas, as seen by the red shading. Notice that the

SPE 39872

G. SIMPSON, L. JACOBSON, AND F. SALAZAR

amount of crossover deflection on the RTMD/RIN is greater than


that of the Density/Neutron crossover.
It was determined that the excessive overpressure caused
the gas to be flushed away from the near- wellbore region during
the openhole logging operation. It was also determined that this
zone was a higher permeability zone. At Z240 ft, both the Density/Neutron and the RTMD/RIN show a tight zone. Below the
open-hole data, the log showed two tight zones at Z420 and Z520
ft; however, there were no noticeable gas zones identified by the
RTMD/RIN crossover. Looking at the curves closely, notice that
the curves move toward each other as a density/neutron log would.
After considering the mud weights used to drill this section, it
was determined that these zones were of lower permeability than
the zones at Y840 ft, and most likely contained gas.
Two zones were tested. The first zone from Z608 to Z628 ft
tested gas at 350 Mcf/D, and was not considered to be commercial. The second zone from Z510 to Z560 ft tested gas at 7.8
MMcf/D.
Oil/Gas Discrimination
This example shows a log from an offshore well from the Gulf of
Mexico. The well was drilled in January 1997, and logged with
LWD tools. In July 1997, the operator elected to run a pulsed
neutron tool to obtain a log for reservoir monitoring. The primary
purpose of the log was to monitor production from a deeper
perforated interval.
Fig. 7 shows a gas zone from X120 to X247 ft, as indicated
by the LWD Density/Neutron log in Track 1 of the example. The
operator was later surprised to discover that the pulsed neutron
log now indicated a fluid contact in a zone previously thought to
contain only gas. The fluid contact is shown in Track 2 of Fig. 7
at a depth of X180 ft. This zone was currently being produced in
an offset well at a rate of 30 MMcf/D.
Geological maps indicated that, if anything, an oil leg should
have moved up into this interval. The response of the formation
sigma on the pulsed neutron log over the liquid interval could be
attributed to either oil or a mixture of gas and water.
The operator was facing a multi-million dollar dilemma. If
the interval contained oil, a workover would be needed to produce it. If the zone actually contained water, the operator would
leave things as they were, and continue to produce the zone from
the offset well.
The original log was run at 15 ft/min, which was too fast to
obtain suitable spectral data for a detailed analysis of the zone.
However, the zone showed two distinct intervals: one containing
gas from X120 to X180 ft, and another containing liquid from
X180 to X247 ft. Since these intervals appeared homogeneous,
the inelastic and capture spectra were summed across each interval to yield spectra showing energy peaks that could be identified for interpretation purposes.
If the liquid interval contained oil, the inelastic spectra should
show an increase in carbon over the carbon peak in the gas interval around channel 100. If the zone actually contained salt water

and gas, then the capture spectra would indicate an increase in


the chlorine peaks caused by the high salinity water.
The spectra shown in Fig. 7 show increases of chlorine on
the capture spectra, while the inelastic spectra show no hint of
increased carbon response. The spectral information confirmed
that the liquid interval contained a mixture of gas and water. The
water-saturation analysis in Track 3 of the figure indicates that
about 40% gas was left in the liquid interval, as compared to the
water saturation provided by openhole LWD data.
Activation Logging
Though the TMD-L tool typically measures gamma rays emitted
during the neutron burst and subsequent decay, it can also
measure activation gamma rays. These activation gamma rays are
emitted by long-lived isotopes created by neutron interaction
with the elements during or following the generators neutron
burst. In activation decay, both the energy distribution and the
decay rate serve as distinct characteristics of the particular
activated element.
Oxygen Activation. Oxygen activation is used to detect water
flow. Oxygen activation occurs when oxygen is irradiated by
neutrons having energies in excess of 10 MeV. The following
reaction occurs:
16O

+ n 16N* + p ............................................................ (1)

The nitrogen is left in an excited state, and beta-decays back


to oxygen with a 7.35-second half-life. The oxygen emits 6.13MeV gamma rays, which are counted by the tools detector.
Silicon Activation. Silicon activation is used in lithology
and gravel-pack evaluation. Silicon in sand may be activated by
fast neutrons through the following reaction:
28Si

+ n 28Al* + p ........................................................... (2)

The 28Al* activity dies away with a half-life of 2.24 minutes, with a 1.78-MeV gamma ray emitted by each decay.
Activation via fast neutrons (such as oxygen and silicon activation) is fairly shallow, because the neutrons quickly lose energy as they penetrate the surrounding formation. This characteristic can be usefully exploited for gravel pack logging, because changes in the relatively distant formation lithology will
not significantly affect the measurement of gravel-pack efficiency.
Thermal Neutron Capture. Likewise, the thermal neutron
capture by aluminum in aluminum oxide (Al2O3) involves a reaction that yields the same end product:
nTh + 27Al 28Al* + p ...................................................... (3)
Thus, gravel packs composed of either SiO2 or Al2O3 can
be evaluated through this technique.
Optimal Velocity. At very slow logging speeds, the source
will activate a region completely, but this activity may decay
away before it can be sensed by the detector. At the other ex-

EVALUATING AND MONITORING RESERVOIRS BEHIND CASING WITH A MODERN PULSED NEUTRON TOOL

treme, at very fast logging speeds, a region may be sensed by the


detector before significant decay can occur; however, that region may not have been in the source field long enough to become sufficiently activated. Fig. 8 shows a chart of this relationship. In this figure, Vopt is the velocity at which optimum response occurs, and is a function of activation half-life and detector spacing. At Vopt, the response will only be weakly affected by
small velocity variations. However, significant velocity changes
(either fast or slow) will result in lower measured activity. Optimal velocity is discussed fully in reference 2.
The following subsections discuss applications for activation logging.
Water-Flow Detection. Movement of water behind casing or in
the cement annulus can often be detected by oxygen activation
logging. Oxygen-activation from flowing water is commonly
observed in the background spectrum of TMD-L logs. A strong
oxygen-activation gamma ray peak usually indicates that water is
flowing past the neutron generator, toward the detector.
The ratio of counts in a spectral window spanning the gamma
ray peak to counts in a spectral window spanning just below the
peak can be used to indicate the distance between the tool and
the water flow, thereby discriminating between inside and outside flow. Water flowing near the tool will generate spectra with
less downscattering, compared to spectra of water flowing outside of casing.
Oxygen-activation measurements obtained from multiple
passes can often be used to estimate flow velocity. In addition,
an accurate identification of the fluid entry point can be made by
using the logging speed to calculate the oxygen-activation delay.2
TMD-L Waterflow. The example in Fig. 9 comes from an
offshore well in the Gulf of Mexico. In this application, the new
tool was run to monitor production from two producing intervals.
The bottom zone was perforated from X722 to X778 ft, and was
completed with a gravel pack using a 3 -in. screen. The upper
zone was perforated from X520 to X525 ft, and completed with
a gravel pack using a 4 -in. screen. Production was assisted with
gas lift valves.
During the monitor log operation, the oxygen activation
curve (OAI) indicated water entry into the bottom zone. In Track
1 of this example, the Gamma Ray curve (shown in green) deflects to the right. On logs from older tools, this deflection might
have been considered an indicator of a water entry point. However, the OAI curve (plotted in blue and shaded in Track 2) shows
that the actual water entry point is 6 ft higher than the gamma ray
deflection. The high gamma activity in the bottom 6 ft is caused
by radioactive salt deposits on the casing or in the perforations.
The BH curve (shown in red in Track 1) decreases at X750 ft to
indicate Gas production, and corresponds with a reduction of
Sigma Formation (SGFM) in Track 3 to indicate a Gas/Water
contact.

SPE 39872

The changes in shape of the OAI curve are due to changes


in flow rate of the produced fluids. In this case, these changes
were attributed to water speeding up, and then possibly falling
back due to the gas production.
At X530 ft, the OAI values decrease because of slower water velocity caused by larger diameter tubing. OAI values also
show a small reduction just above the upper set of perforations,
possibly resulting from additional water flow from the upper
perforations. The OAI values increase again when the fluid from
the upper perforations exits the top of the screen at X430 ft. The
OAI values decline once more, as a result of a significant velocity increase, when the tool enters a restriction coming into the
production tubing at X392 ft. The OAI values further decline at
X317 ft, where gas entering at a gas lift valve further speeds up
the flow relative to the tool. In this instance, an understanding of
optimal velocity is needed to reconcile the fact that both faster
and slower velocities lead to a reduction in recorded activity (refer to Fig.8). The initial flow was measured near the optimal
velocity, and was then followed by a significant velocity variation (either faster or slower), which resulted in reduced measured activity.
Track 4 shows a plot of the summed background spectra
over 30-ft intervals. The displayed spectra clearly show the 6.13MeV gamma ray peaks from oxygen activation. The bottom spectra plotted in the track shows no oxygen-activation peaks, and
thus provides a zero reading on the OAI curve.
Quantitative Water Flow Logging. The modular design of the
new tool allows it to be easily reconfigured at the wellsite. When
water flow is detected, the tool can be modified to provide
quantitative measurements of the flow velocity. This new service
is known as Spectra Flow Logging (SpFL*). The Spectra Flow
configuration uses a detector package that increases the spacing
between the source and the detector by 2 ft, and provides spectral
recording capabilities for both detectors. This configuration
simplifies calibration and reduces the effects of stationary oxygen
activation at the detectors. A unique neutron generator pulsing
sequence is also employed to optimize the oxygen activation
measurement.
The water-flow log can be run in different modes, depending upon well conditions:
Stationary for very low flow velocities in either
direction
Continuous for upward water flow
Continuous for downward water flow
Continuous against the flow for low velocity flow
A forthcoming paper will discuss Spectra Flow logging in
more detail.
The example shown in Fig. 10 is taken from an early field
test of the new water-flow logging tool. Fig. 10 shows a simplified wellbore schematic, three of the spectral measurements made
with the water-flow logging tool, and a table of results.
The operator had previously conducted pressure tests that
indicated the presence of either a hole in the casing or a leak in

SPE 39872

G. SIMPSON, L. JACOBSON, AND F. SALAZAR

the packer. Because the well was located offshore, in the Gulf of
Mexico, environmental concerns prohibited the use of radioactive tracers to locate the problem. It was therefore decided to try
the new water-flow tool, and to use oxygen activation to locate
the problem. The problem was solved by pumping water down
the annulus between the casing and tubing at a rate of bbl/min,
while making stationary measurements with the water-flow tool
in the tubing.
The first measurement is at X500 ft, and indicates flow, as
seen from the oxygen activation gamma rays at 6.13 MeV on the
gamma ray energy spectra in Fig. 10. The next measurement was
at Z500 ft, and indicates no flow, as shown by the absence of
oxygen activation gamma rays on the spectra. These measurements showed that the flow was located between the two measure points. By making a series of stationary measures between
these points, a hole was finally located at Z396 ft. Measurements
taken just 4 ft lower indicated no flow.

determined later that these voids were associated with blank sections in the tubing-conveyed perforating guns. Minor voids were
also detected in the interval above the top of the screen to near
the top of the pack. In the absence of a gravel pack, the silicon
activation technique can also be used to measure silicon content
for lithology determination. Carbonate zones exhibit lower silicon-activated gamma ray counts relative to sandstone formations.

Lithology and Gravel-Pack Evaluation. Sand, which is typically composed of SiO2, can be activated by the TMD-L tool to
aid in the determination of lithology or evaluation of gravel packs.
A gamma ray detector below the neutron generator in the
tool measures the silicon activation when the tool logs upward
through a sand or gravel pack. Because fast neutron reactions
occur in close proximity to the tool, this process is sensitive to
the SiO2 density near the tool, and provides good sensitivity to
gravel-pack efficiency.
The thermal-neutron capture by aluminum oxide provides
information used in the assessment of Al 2O3 gravel packs.
Gravel packs are used in wells to control the production of
formation sand. A high-quality gravel pack is essential to sustaining production in wells that would normally tend to produce
formation sand.
Conventional gravel-pack evaluations use logging tools that
employ radioactive sources to measure the density of the pack.
These density measurements can become quite inaccurate when
high-density completion fluids are used with light gravel pack
material.
Silicon activation has been used successfully to determine
gravel-pack quality without the problems associated with conventional density-type tools. The modular design of the TMD-L
tool allows a second gamma ray detector to be placed 9 ft below
the neutron generator. At a logging speed of 5 to 10 ft/min, the
silicon-activation gamma rays can be measured to provide an
accurate evaluation of gravel pack quality.
The example in Fig. 11 is taken from a deep-water field in
the Gulf of Mexico. The silicon activation log was run to detect
major voids in the gravel pack. Track 3 of the log shows a plot
of the silicon-activation gamma rays, minus a background pass
to subtract gamma ray counts from iron activation in the casing.
The top of the screen is shown at Y180 ft, and the top of the pack
is clearly shown at Y025 ft. The Depth Track shows a plot of the
computed gravel pack percent, scaled 0 to 100%. Three major
voids were detected at Y280 ft, Y300 ft, and Y325 ft. It was

Personal Acknowledgments
The authors wish to thank Charles R. Conley for graphics
work and Matt Varhaug for editorial assistance. The authors gratefully acknowledge the management of Halliburton Energy Services for allowing this paper to be published, as well as the operating companies that granted permission to publish their log examples.

Conclusions
This paper has shown how a modern pulsed neutron tool
can use spectral data and activation analysis to provide improvements in lithology determination, tight-vs-gas evaluation, gravelpack evaluation, and formation fluid analysis. This enhanced
capability greatly expands the range of applications available
for cased-hole reservoir monitoring and evaluation, and extends
the utility of pulsed neutron tools beyond that of earlier pulsed
neutron tools.

Nomenclature
Al = aluminium
FSIN = far spaced inelastic count rates
FTMD = far spaced formation count rates
GI = gas index
GR = gamma ray
NPHI = formation neutron porosity
NTMD = near spaced capture count rates
nTh = thermal neutron
OAI = oxygen activation indicator
p = proton
RHOB = formation bulk density (gm/cc)
RTMD = ratio of near to far detector capture count rates
RIN = ratio of near to far detector inelastic count rates
SGIN = intrinsic formation sigma
SGFM = formation sigma
Si = silicon
Sw = water saturation
BH = borehole sigma
FM = formation sigma
References

1. Jacobson, L.A., Ethridge, R., and Wyatt, D.F.: A New Thermal


Multigate Decay Lithology Tool, paper M presented at the 1994
Annual SPWLA Symposium, Tulsa, OK, U.S.A.
2. Jacobson, L.A., Smith, H.D., and Wyatt, D.F.: Water Flow Detection using Modern PNC and PNS Logs, paper presented at the
September, 1996 SPWLA meeting in Beijing, China.

EVALUATING AND MONITORING RESERVOIRS BEHIND CASING WITH A MODERN PULSED NEUTRON TOOL

IN

SPE 39872

Formation Spectrum

BH

Decay Gates
Gates 1-32
each 10 s wide

Gates 33-48
each 20 s wide

Gates 49-60
each 50 s wide

Gate 61
10 s wide

1250 s

NB

0.0

NB

0.2

0.4

0.6
0.8
time (ms)

1.0

1.2

1.4

Background Spectrum

CCH00010

Background Gates

20

25
time (ms)

Fig. 1TMD-L Timing Gates: 61 decay-curve time gates, spanning 1250 ms, are shown in the upper half of the figure.
The lower half shows the arrangement of the tools three background gates. These background gates are 1-ms, 1-ms,
and 3-ms wide, respectively, spanning a total of 5-ms. The time spans for the spectral windows are shown above the
time gates: IN = inelastic spectrum, BH = borehole spectrum, and the formation spectrum are all shown at the upper
half of the figure, while the background spectrum is shown over the lower half of the figure. NB indicates the time frame
of the neutron burst.

SS DECAY SPECTRUM
SIGB
ABT
SIGF
AFT

FS DECAY SPECTRUM

=
94.3
= 34,493.0
=
15.6
= 12,875.9

SIGB
ABT
SIGF
AFT

1000

=
=
=
=

86.5
7,051.6
12.2
5,652.3

Counts

Start Depth = 7,710.0


Stop Depth = 7,670.0

Counts

1000

100

100

CCH00062

10

10

200

400 600 800 1000 1200


Time (s)

200

400 600 800 1000 1200


Time (s)

Fig. 2Composite Decay Curve for a high-porosity, oil-saturated sand

SPE 39872

G. SIMPSON, L. JACOBSON, AND F. SALAZAR

Inelastic Spectrum
Energy (MeV)
3

0.04

0.04

0.03

0.03

Normalized Count

0.02

0.01

0.02

0.01

0.00
0

20

40

60

80

Borehole Spectrum
Energy (MeV)
5
3
4

0.00

100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240


Channel

8
0.04

0.03

0.03

0.02

20

40

0.04

Normalized Count

Normalized Count

60

80

100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240


Channel

Background Spectrum
Energy (MeV)
5
3
4

0.02

0.01

0.01

CCH00065

Normalized Count

Formation Spectrum
Energy (MeV)

0.00

0.00
0

20

40

60

80

100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240


Channel

20

40

60

80

100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240


Channel

Fig. 3Typical spectra obtained with the new water-flow tool in a 12% limestone test formation. Three measurements
of 300 seconds each are shown in each diagram. The upper curve is magnified by a factor of 5 to emphasize the
spectral structure at high energy levels.
0.04

Formation Spectrum Energy (MeV)


4
3
7
5
6

Limestone
Sandstone

0.03

0.02

0.01

0.00

X5

20

40

60

CCH00063

Normalized Count

80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260


Channel

Fig. 4Formation spectra for sandstone and limestone formations

EVALUATING AND MONITORING RESERVOIRS BEHIND CASING WITH A MODERN PULSED NEUTRON TOOL

Fig. 5Lithology identification using silicon-yield curve

SPE 39872

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G. SIMPSON, L. JACOBSON, AND F. SALAZAR

Fig. 6South Texas tight versus gas example

10

EVALUATING AND MONITORING RESERVOIRS BEHIND CASING WITH A MODERN PULSED NEUTRON TOOL

SPE 39872

Capture Spectra
0.012
Liquid Zone
Gas Zone

0.008
Increase due to
Chlorine

0.006
0.004

CCH00071

Normalized Counts

0.010

0.002
0
70

80

100

120

140
160
Channel

180

200

220

240

220

240

Gas
Interval

Liquid
Interval

Inelastic Spectra
0.014
Liquid Zone
Gas Zone

Normalized Counts

0.012
0.010

No Difference in
Carbon Peak

0.008
0.006

CCH00072

0.004
0.002
0
60

Fig. 7Oil and gas discrimination example

80

100

120

140
160
Channel

180

200

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G. SIMPSON, L. JACOBSON, AND F. SALAZAR

11

Silicon Activation
Velocity/Spacing (1/min)
0.2

Vopt

c
b
0.1
d
a

CCH00069

Normalized Activity

Velocity = Velocity/Spacing*Spacing

0.0
0

10

20
30
Velocity/Spacing (1/min)
Oxygen Activation

Fig. 8This graph shows the relationship between


measured activity and logging velocity. The variable
Vopt represents the tool, or flow, velocity at which the
maximum activity will be measured. A direct relationship between the measured activity and velocity cannot be expressed because the curve is double-valued,
as shown by the two dashed curves. To determine v,
multiply the upper scale (for silicon activation) or the
bottom scale (for oxygen activation) by the sourcedetector spacing, measured in feet.

40

Fig. 9Qualitative water-flow identification using the new tool

12

EVALUATING AND MONITORING RESERVOIRS BEHIND CASING WITH A MODERN PULSED NEUTRON TOOL

SPE 39872

NEAR OAI
FAR OAI

NORMALIZED COUNTS

1/4 bbl/min injection rate

X,500

OBI

OAI

X,500
2

0
0

20

40

60

100

80

120
140
CHANNEL

160

200

180

220

240

260

Z,396
(hole)

NEAR OAI
FAR OAI

NORMALIZED COUNTS

OBI

OAI

Z,396
2

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120
140
CHANNEL

160

180

200

220

240

260

Z,500

NEAR OAI
FAR OAI

NORMALIZED COUNTS

OBI

OAI

Z,500
2

CCH00066

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

140
120
CHANNEL

160

180

200

220

240

Spectra Flow Test Results

CCH00078

Fig. 10Quantitative water-flow example using


a Spectra Flow Log

Depth

Result

Depth

Result

W500
X500
Z500
Y500
Z000
Z250
Z375

Downflow
Downflow
No flow
Downflow
Downflow
Downflow
Downflow

Z520
Z440
Z410
Z392
Z401
Z396

No flow
No flow
No flow
Downflow
No flow
Downflow

260

SPE 39872

G. SIMPSON, L. JACOBSON, AND F. SALAZAR

Fig. 11Gravel-pack evaluation via silicon-activation logging

13