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Philosophy of

Problem Based Learning


NUR AFRAININ SYAH

New-Innovative
Curricula

Traditional
Continuum Medical Curricula

S Student-centered
P Problem-based
I Integrated

C Community-based
E Elective
S Systematic

SPICES

Teacher-centered

Information gathering
Discipline-based
Hospital based
Standard
Apprenticeship-based

Constructivism & Situated


Learning

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

Constructivist Views of Learning


Emphasize the role of the learner

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

Problem Solving vs Problem Based Learning


Problem Solving: Arriving at decisions based on

prior knowledge and reasoning


Problem Based Learning: The process of acquiring

new knowledge based on recognition of a need to


learn.

The case serves as a stimulus


for learning

PROBLEM SOLVING

PROBLEM-BASED
LEARNING

Educational strategy

Traditional discipline-based

Integrated systems-based

Main characteristics

The
focus
is
on - The problem comes first
preparatory learning prior to without advance readings,
lectures, or preparation.
exposure to the problem.
- The staff set the problems
(case history problems in a
primarily lecture- based
format),
and students
attempt to resolve them
using
previously
taught
curricular content.

- The problem serves as a


stimulus for the need to know.
- Based on their own prior
knowledge and the identified
gaps in that knowledge,
students
determine
the
learning issues within their
own group. They then identify
and use a variety of learning
resources to study these
issues and return to the group
to discuss and share what
they have learned.

PROBLEM SOLVING

PROBLEM-BASED
LEARNING

Role of the teacher

Content expert

Tutor/Facilitator

Learning environment

Passive, teacher-centered

Learning becomes
dependent upon the selfdirected efforts of the small
group. This method creates
a more active, studentcentered learning
environment

Who is responsible for


directing the learning
activities

Teacher

The student decides what


he/she needs to learn

This traditional approach has been


criticised for a number of reasons:

Many existing curricula fail to meet the needs of


current and future doctors

It creates an artificial divide between the basic and


clinical sciences

Time is wasted in acquiring knowledge that is


subsequently forgotten or found to be irrelevant
(The acquisition and retention of information that
has no apparent relevance can be boring and even
demoralising for students)

Application of the acquired knowledge can be


difficult

The educational objectives of PBL address


many of the perceived problems in
traditional medical curricula

Its possible advantages over traditional


approaches include: its greater relevance to
the practice of medicine, its ability to
promote retention and application of
knowledge, and its encouragement of selfdirected life-long learning

Questions?

References
Duch,B., Gron,S., Allen,D. (eds) (2001) The Power of

Problem Based Learning. Stylus Publishing


Hmlo, C.E. (1998) Does Problem Based Learning Work
Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 10: 92-100
Wood, D.F. (2003) ABC of learning and teaching in
medicine: Problem based learning British Medical
Journal 326: 328-330
Recommended Reading
Burgess, H., Taylor, I (2001) 'From University Teacher to
Learning Coordinator: Faculty Roles in Problem-Based
Learning' Journal of Excellence in College Teaching,
special issue on Problem-Based Learning