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Radio Planning Capacity

LTE RPESS
Radio Planning Capacity

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Radio Planning Capacity

Nokia Siemens Networks Academy


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Radio Planning Capacity

Module Objectives
After completing this module, the participant should be able to:

Understand basic traffic modelling


Evaluate the cell capacity
Understand the main factors impacting the cell capacity
Review the baseband dimensioning

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Radio Planning Capacity

Radio Planning Capacity


Capacity Dimensioning
Cell Capacity (Throughput)
Baseband Dimensioning

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Radio Planning Capacity

Capacity Dimensioning Process Overview


Site Area

Area Size

Subscribers

Subscribers
Density

Traffic Model

Site Capacity

Subscriber Data
Volume in BH

Total Offered
Traffic

# Coverage
Sites

# Capacity
Sites
Max
BH = Busy Hour
# Sites

Outputs:
Site count for capacity and coverage
The final number of sites is the bigger number from capacity and coverage point of view
The calculation could be done for each clutter type and for different phases (for example
years)
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Radio Planning Capacity

The Number of Sites due to Coverage


Site Area

Area Size

Subscribers

Subscribers
Density

Traffic Model

Site Capacity

Subscriber
Data Volume
in BH

Total Offered
Traffic

# Coverage
Sites

# Capacity
Sites
Max

BH = Busy Hour
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# Sites
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Radio Planning Capacity

The Number of Sites due to Coverage


Area Size (Km)
this is the planned area
typically defined for each clutter type
the customer may provide this value

Site Area (Km)


this is the site area calculated from the link budget and using the propagation model
depends on the number of cells per site (typical 3 cells per site)

Number of sites due to coverage:


# Sites due to Coverage = Roundup (Area Size / Site Area)
Example:
Planned area is 100 Km
Site Area is 10 Km
The number of sites due to coverage is 100 Km/ 10 Km = 10

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The Number of Sites due to Capacity


Site Area

Area Size

Subscribers

Subscribers
Density

Traffic Model

Site Capacity

Subscriber
Data Volume
in BH

Total Offered
Traffic

# Coverage
Sites

# Capacity
Sites
Max

BH = Busy Hour
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# Sites
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Radio Planning Capacity

The Number of Sites due to Capacity


Operator subscriber density depends on:
Population density
Mobile phone penetration
Operator market share

The subscriber density & subscriber traffic profile are the main
requirements for capacity dimensioning
Traffic forecast should be done by analysing the offered Busy Hour traffic
per subscriber for different services in each rollout phase
Traffic data:
Voice:
Erlang per subscriber during busy hour of the network
Codec bit rate, Voice activity

Video call :
Erlang per subscriber during busy hour of the network
Service bit rates

NRT data :
Average throughput (kbps) per subscriber during busy hour of the network
Target bit rates

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Traffic Model
Typical Subscribers Profile:

session length
or
session size

Subscriber traffic profile from


traffic model
The main purpose of traffic model is
to describe the average subscriber
behaviour during the most loaded
day period (the Busy Hour)

One example is the NSN LTE


traffic model
The traffic model defines an
application mix consisting of 5
services (VoIP, Video,
Streaming, Web browsing & FTP)
There are 3 subscriber profiles
each one mapped onto an
application mix:
Voice Dominant
Data Dominant
Voice/Data
FTP = File Transfer Protocol
BHCA = Busy Hour Call Attempts

NSN Traffic Model (TM)


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Data Dominant: If customer is mainly interested in a data oriented deployment (data


hotspot, wireless xDSL)

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Radio Planning Capacity

Total Offered Traffic Example


Number of Subcribers = 10,000
Average Data Volume per Subscriber per Busy Hour (BH) from the NSN Traffic
Model assuming the data dominant scenario: 10.24 MByte

The Average Data Rate per Subcriber could be calculated as:


= Average Data Volume per Subscriber per BH [bit] / 3600 s
= 22.75 Kbps

The Total Offered Traffic could be calculated as:


= Number of Subscribers * Average Data Rate per Subscriber
= 10,000 * 22.75 Kbps = 227.5 Mbps

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Radio Planning Capacity

Capacity Dimensioning Process Overview


Site Area

Area Size

Subscribers

Subscribers
Density

Traffic Model

Site Capacity

Subscriber
Data Volume
in BH

Total Offered
Traffic

# Coverage
Sites

# Capacity
Sites

Max
# Sites
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Radio Planning Capacity

The Number of Sites due to Capacity

Site Capacity
The site capacity could be derived from the cell capacity:
Site capacity = Cell Capacity * Number of Cells per Site

The cell capacity is defined as the overall cell throughput (average cell capacity)
Calculation of an average cell throughput in LTE is based on system level
simulations

Details are provided on the next section of this chapter

The number of sites due to capacity:


# Sites due to Capacity = Roundup (Total Offered Traffic / Site Capacity)
Example:
Site Capacity is 10 Mbps
Total Offered Traffic is 100 Mbps
The number of sites due to capacity is 100 Mbps/ 10Mbps = 10

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Radio Planning Capacity

Radio Planning Capacity


Capacity Dimensioning
Cell Capacity (Throughput)
Baseband Dimensioning

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Radio Planning Capacity

Cell Throughput Calculation Methodology


DL & UL Capacity are calculated based on system level simulations
Algorithm calculates the Average Cell Throughput (capacity) for a single cell
During the system level simulations effects like UE mobility, slow/ fast fading, scheduling,
power control, admission control, handovers have been considered

The basic principle of these simulations is that for a given cell area a certain (evenly
distributed) subscriber density is assumed and for each subscriber particular SINR
conditions apply which depend on the location of the subscriber in the cell
Capacity Simulations Results:
Calculation of an average cell throughput is based on a method which calculates
the spectral efficiency
4 representative site grids (defined by the Inter-Site Distance (ISD): 500m, 1732m,
3000m, 9000m) have been simulated in dynamic system level environment
UL & DL spectral efficiency figures have been gathered for all available channel
bandwidth configurations (1.4MHz, 3MHz, 5 MHz, 10MHz, 15MHz & 20 MHz)

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Radio Planning Capacity

Simulation Assumptions
Parameter/Feature

UL

DL

Operating Band

2100 MHz

2100 MHz

Transmission power per PRB

Open loop power control; max UE


power 23dBm

0.8 W (for every bandwidth


configuration)

Antenna Scheme

Number of TX antenna = 1
Number of RX antenna = 2

Number of TX antenna = 1
Number of RX antenna = 2

Hexagonal layout

3 sector layout, 7 sites, 21 cells

3 sector layout, 7 sites, 21 cells

Scheduling

Channel unaware with Round Robin


strategy

Channel aware with Proportional


Fairness

Mean number of users per sector

10 UEs (ISD = 500m)


30 UEs (ISD = 1732m)
60 UEs (ISD = 3000m)
164 UEs (ISD = 9000m)

10 UEs per sector


210 UEs per area

Number of users per TTI

1 (1.4 MHz)
3 (3 MHz)
7 (5 MHz)
10 (10 MHz)
20 (15 & 20 MHz)

1 (1.4 MHz)
3 (3 MHz)
7 (5 MHz)
10 (10 MHz)
20 (15 & 20 MHz)

UE speed

3Km/h

3Km/h

Traffic model

Full buffer *

Full buffer *

Propagation model

3GPP TR 25.814 (macro cell)

3GPP TR 25.814 (macro cell)

*Full Buffer indicates the cell load is always 100% independent on the number of subscribers in the cell or
their position in the cell

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Full Buffer Traffic Model assumes that for all subscribers there are full transmission
buffers (UL & DL) at any point in time. Therefore there is always data waiting for the
transmission. Thus, the situation that the cell resources (the physical resource blocks)
remain unused in a certain TTI does not exist. Therefore the cell load is 100%
independent on the number of subscribers in the cell or their position in the cell

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Radio Planning Capacity

UL/DL Spectral Efficiency

Spectral Efficiency (Kbps/KHz)

ISD: Inter-Site Distance

UL Spectral Efficiency

DL Spectral Efficiency

Note: The simulation setup refers to SIMO mode, and focuses on realistic assumptions
rather than on an idealized configuration.
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Uplink spectral efficiency simulation based on conditions of: 2.3 GHz, 3-sector
hexagonal layout, Open Loop Power Control with adjusted P0/alpha settings, 1TX at
UE, 2RX at eNB (MRC), EPA05, NSN RRM specific scheduler, 10% BLER target, full
buffer (100% load), RF parameters according to [3GPP TR25.814]
Downlink spectral efficiency simulation based on conditions of: 2.3 GHz, 3-sector
hexagonal layout, 0.8W per PRB, 1TX at eNB, 2RX at UE (MRC), EPA05, NSN RRM
specific scheduler, 10% BLER target, 10 UEs per sector (full buffer; 100% load), RF
parameters according to [3GPP TR25.814]

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Radio Planning Capacity

UL/DL Cell Capacity

UL Average Cell Throughput (C100%)

DL Average Cell Throughput (C100%)

ISD: Inter-Site Distance


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Radio Planning Capacity

Cell Throughput Interpolation


In real planning scenarios the Inter Site Distance (ISD) obtained from the Link Budget
Calculation is not equal to the ISDs that have been simulated
Therefore, additional interpolation is required to adapt to the results from the Link Budget
One interpolation example could be seen below:

Purple bars obtained from simulations. Yellow bars have been


interpolated based on simulation results.

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Radio Planning Capacity

Factors Affecting the Cell Capacity

The LTE Cell Capacity (Throughput) depends on:

Cell Range (Pathloss)


Considered as a variation of the Inter Site Distance (ISD)
The effect of larger ISD has been presented in the previous slides
The SINR distribution is bad in larger cells which becomes more & more noise limited
Channel Bandwidth (1.4 MHz ... 20 MHz)
The best capacity performance can be achieved with wide channel bandwidth due to
the maximum frequency diversity gain

Small Bandwidth configuration are characterized by high system overhead

Cell Load
The values presented so far are for 100% cell load
The impact of cell load is based on simulation results
LTE Features:
MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output)
Scheduling: Proportional Fair or Round Robin
See next slides for details

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Radio Planning Capacity

DL

Impact of Cell Range on Cell Capacity

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Radio Planning Capacity

Impact of Channel Bandwidth on Cell Capacity


LTE maintains high efficiency with bandwidth down to 5 MHz
The differences between bandwidths come from frequency scheduling gain and
different overheads

Spectral Efficiency Relative to 10 MHz


120 %

-40%

-13%

Downlink
Uplink

Reference

100 %
80 %
60 %
40 %
20 %
0%
1.4 MHz
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3 MHz

5 MHz

10 MHz

20 MHz

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Radio Planning Capacity

Impact of Cell Load on Cell Capacity (1/3)


Simulated spectral efficiency (SE) figures are calculated for 100% load in all cells:
Best case from the resource utilization point of view (all resources -PRBs- are utilized)
Worse case from the interference point of view

Additional simulations are available to investigate the impact of the cell load
The simulation scenario is shown in the figure below
The centre cell which is fully loaded all the time is the victim for which the overall cell
throughput is measured
Surrounding cells impact the victim by inter-cell interference which depends on the
neighbor cell load

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Radio Planning Capacity

Impact of Cell Load on Cell Capacity (2/3)


The figure below shows the relation between the victim cell throughput & the neighbour cell
load
The victim cell throughput has been normalised to 1 in the figure, the value of 1 meaning
100% neighbor cell load
It has to be noticed that when the neighbour cell load is decreasing the cell throughput is
increasing as expected
The most sensitive to interference is the case ISD = 500m

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Radio Planning Capacity

Impact of Cell Load on Cell Capacity (3/3)


The impact of the cell load on the cell throughput can be summarized by applying scaling
factor for different ISDs and different cell load:

The Capacity C considering the


Scaling factor is:
C = C100% x load x scaling_factor(load)
Example:
ISD = 500m
Cell Load is 50%
the Capacity C is:
C = C100% * 0,5 * 1.36 = 0.68 C100%

C100%: Capacity, when all cells are loaded to 100%

ISD: Inter-Site Distance


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Radio Planning Capacity

Impact of MIMO on Cell Capacity (1/3)


RL 20 supports 2 transmit antennas at the eNodeB
Transmit diversity (Tx diversity)
results in coverage improvement
therefore, it is more suitable to be used at the cell edge
Open / Closed Loop Spatial Multiplexing
Spatial multiplexing on the other hand doubles the user data rate
The mechanism of Adaptive MIMO Mode Control assures CQI dependent switching
between Transmit Diversity and Spatial Multiplexing (see next slide)
The average cell capacity is then determined by:
the ratio of the dual-stream transmissions (how much Tx diversity & how much spatial
multiplexing) for one connection in average
The number of users out of total cell users which are using either Tx diversity or spatial
multiplexing

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Radio Planning Capacity

Impact of MIMO on Cell Capacity (2/3)

Simulation Results (Source 4GMAX)


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Tx Div: Transmit Diversity


SM or SpMux: Spatial Multiplexing
OL MIMO: Open Loop MIMO
SNIR: Signal to Noise + Interference Ratio

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Impact of MIMO on Cell Capacity (3/3)


The highest gain could be seen for smaller ISD (higher SINR values over the cell so higher
probability to be dominated by spatial multiplexing)

The lowest gain is for bigger ISD (lower SINR values more likely so the cell is dominated by
transmit diversity)

Recommended Adaptive MIMO Mode Control Capacity Gain


The gain values in % are relative to the original spectral efficiency (without MIMO)
4 ISDs (Inter Site Distances) = 500m, 1732m, 3000m, 9000m
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Radio Planning Capacity

Impact of Scheduling on Cell Capacity (1/3)


In RL 20 two scheduling strategies for DL FDPS* are supported:
Round Robin RR (default)
Proportional Fair PF (license)
From the average cell throughput point of view there is some gain when
Proportional Fair (PF) is used versus Round Robin (RR)

The main reason for the gain is coming from the fact that the SINR distribution in
the cell is improved when Proportional Fair is used

The gain is dependent on the number of users that are scheduled together in the
same TTI (1ms): the higher the number of scheduled users per TTI the higher the
average cell throughput gain when Proportional Fair is in use

2 examples coming from simulations are shown in the next slides:


3 scheduled users per TTI
10 scheduled users per TTI
* FDPS: frequency domain packetscheduling
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Radio Planning Capacity

Impact of Scheduling on Cell Capacity (2/3)


Case 1: 3 simultaneous Users per TTI

RR
PF
RR
PF

CDF (Cumulative Distribution Function)


of SINR

Average Sector Throughput [Mbps]

*Assumptions: Operating Band 2GHz, Channel Bandwidth 10MHz, Total Power of the eNodeB shared among
the PRBs, Antenna Scheme is 1Tx 2RX, Full Buffer traffic model, random uniform distribution of users
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Radio Planning Capacity

Impact of Scheduling on Cell Capacity (3/3)


Case 2: 10 simultaneous Users per TTI

PF
RR

RR
PF

CDF (Cumulative Distribution Function)


of SINR

Average Sector Throughput [Mbps]

*Assumptions: Operating Band 2GHz, Channel Bandwidth 10MHz, Total Power of the eNodeB shared among
the PRBs, Antenna Scheme is 1Tx 2RX, Full Buffer traffic model, random uniform distribution of users
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Radio Planning Capacity

Cell Capacity Calculation Example


Step 1: To obtain the Spectral Efficiency (SE) figures for specific ISD (Inter-site
distance) and channel bandwidth interpolation is needed:
SE = interpolate_SE (ISD, channel_bandwidth)
Step 2: Calculate the cell throughput (C) from the spectral efficiency (SE) taking into
account the cell bandwidth:
C = SE x channel_bandwidth
Step 3: MIMO gain is applied in case of 2 TX antennas at eNB
C = C x (1 + MIMO_gain(ISD))
Step 4: Spectral efficiency figures have been simulated for 100% load case. It is needed
to scale them according to the resource utilization and inter-cell interference level
C = C x load x scaling_factor(load)
Example for ISD=500m, 10MHz, 2x2 MIMO, 50% load

Step 1: interpolate_SE(500m, 10MHz) = 1.19bps/Hz


Step 2: C = 1.19bps/Hz x 10MHz = 11.9Mbps
Step 3: C = 11.9Mbps x (1+20%) = 14.28Mbps
Step 4: C = 14.28Mbps x 50% x 1.37 = 9.8Mbps
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Radio Planning Capacity

LTE Capacity: RL20 & RL30 features


Voice over LTE

Single Radio Voice Call


Continuity (SR-VCC)

LTE VoIP

LTE VoIP

3G CS voice

3G CS voice

3G CS voice

3G CS voice

Options for voice call continuity when running out


of LTE coverage (RL30):

1) Handover from LTE VoIP to 3G CS voice


Voice handover from LTE VoIP to
WCDMA CS voice is called SR-VCC
No VoIP needed in 3G

2) Handover from LTE VoIP to 3G VoIP


VoIP support implemented in 3G
LTE VoIP available in RL20

15 x more users per MHz with 3GPP LTE


than with GSM EFR!
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Radio Planning Capacity

Radio Planning Capacity


Capacity Dimensioning
Cell Capacity (Throughput)
Baseband Dimensioning

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Radio Planning Capacity

Baseband Dimensioning
Target of Baseband Dimensioning:
Target of Baseband Dimensioning: Allow to estimate HOW many sites are required taking
into account the HW (System Module) Limitations

The approach presented so far in this chapter to calculate the number of sites from the
capacity point of view (site throughput) only takes into account Physical Layer and/or RRM
features into account (e.g. Channel bandwidth, transmit power, scheduler type, etc...)

System Module options:


FSME: high capacity system module
Note: FSME is the only one supported by RL10 and by RL20.

Input of the dimensioning:


Total Number of subscribers
Number of active subscribers (per Site)
Share of active subscribers

Output of the dimensioning:


Number of sites from baseband point of view
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Radio Planning Capacity

Baseband Dimensioning
Input for the Dimensioning
Active Subscribers
Flexi SM processing power has a strict limitation for the
number of active UEs which can be handled*

UE in E-UTRAN RRC_Connected and with DRB (Data


Radio Bearer) established but with or without data to be
transmitted in the buffer i.e. smartphones with always on
applications like IM and mail

Share of active Subscribers


Percentage of active subscribers which should be
handled by the eNB

Share of Active Subscriber values have been calculated


for each of NSN Traffic Models:
Voice Dominant: 11%
Data Dominant: 40%
Voice & Data Mix: 30%
Typical assumption is 30% Share of Active
Subscribers for RL20 dimensioning
*Note that in LTE the System Module capabilities depend strictly on the number of the included
DSP modules. The 3G specific notation of system module capacity by means of Channel Elements
(CEs) is not anymore valid
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The term refers to the terminals actively using applications as well as


those which do not need to be considered for scheduling; Smartphones
with always on applications like internet messaging (IM) or email

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Baseband Dimensioning
Output of the dimensioning
Number of Sites (Baseband)
Number of Sites required based on the number of
active users:
#Sites =

Subscribers x ShareOfActiveSubscribers
#MaxActiveSubscribers x NoOfCellsPerSite

Example:
Assume 10000 subscribers in the area
System bandwidth is 10MHz
There are 480 active users per cell with FSME in
RL20
3 sectors per site
Share of active subscribers is 30%

Active
UEs per
cell

Active
UEs per
Site

# FSME

Site type

1 FSME

Omni

1 FSME

3-sector
site

Up to 400

1200

1 FSME

6-sector
site

N/A w 1
FSME

N/A w 1
FSME

Up to 400 Up to 400

2
6-sector
FSME(*)
site (3
2400 ( 2 x
Up to 400
(2 BTS sectors x
1200)
per site) FSME)

#Sites (Baseband) = (10000*0,3)/(480*3) 2


*Note that system module extension is not supported in RL20
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