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EE6504

ELECTRICAL MACHINES II
LTPC
3
104
OBJECTIVES:
To impart knowledge on Construction and performance of salient and non salient type
synchronous generators.
To impart knowledge on Principle of operation and performance of synchronous motor.
To impart knowledge on Construction, principle of operation and performance of induction
machines.
To impart knowledge on Starting and speed control of three-phase induction motors.
To impart knowledge on Construction, principle of operation and performance of single phase
induction motors and special machines.
UNIT I
SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR
9
Constructional details Types of rotors winding factors- emf equation Synchronous reactance
Armature reaction Phasor diagrams of non salient pole synchronous generator connected to infinite
bus--Synchronizing and parallel operation Synchronizing torque -Change of excitation and
mechanical input- Voltage regulation EMF, MMF, ZPF and A.S.A methods steady state powerangle characteristics Two reaction theory slip test -short circuit transients - Capability Curves
UNIT II
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
9
Principle of operation Torque equation Operation on infinite bus bars - V and Inverted V curves
Power input and power developed equations Starting methods Current loci for constant power
input, constant excitation and constant power developed-Hunting natural frequency of oscillations
damper windings- synchronous condenser.
UNIT III
THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
9
Constructional details Types of rotors - Principle of operation Slip cogging and crawlingEquivalent circuit Torque-Slip characteristics - Condition for maximum torque Losses and
efficiency Load test - No load and blocked rotor tests - Circle diagram Separation of losses
Double cage induction motors Induction generators Synchronous induction motor.
UNIT IV

STARTING AND SPEED CONTROL OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION


MOTOR
9
Need for starting Types of starters DOL, Rotor resistance, Autotransformer and Star-delta starters
Speed control Voltage control, Frequency control and pole changing Cascaded connection-V/f
control Slip power recovery scheme-Braking of three phase induction motor: Plugging, dynamic
braking and regenerative braking.
UNIT V
SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND SPECIAL MACHINES
9
Constructional details of single phase induction motor Double field revolving theory and operation
Equivalent circuit No load and blocked rotor test Performance analysis Starting methods of
single-phase induction motors Capacitor-start capacitor run Induction motor- Shaded pole induction
motor - Linear induction motor Repulsion motor - Hysteresis motor - AC series motor- Servo motorsStepper motors - introduction to magnetic levitation systems.
TOTAL (L:45+T:15): 60 PERIODS
OUTCOMES:
Ability to model and analyze electrical apparatus and their application to power system
TEXT BOOKS:
1. A.E. Fitzgerald, Charles Kingsley, Stephen. D.Umans, Electric Machinery, Tata
Mc Graw Hill publishing Company Ltd, 2003.
2. D.P. Kothari and I.J. Nagrath, Electric Machines, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing
Company Ltd, 2002.
3. P.S. Bhimbhra, Electrical Machinery, Khanna Publishers, 2003.
REFERENCES:
1. M.N.Bandyopadhyay, Electrical Machines Theory and Practice, PHI Learning PVT LTD.,
New Delhi, 2009.
2. Charless A. Gross, Electric /Machines, CRC Press, 2010.
3. K. Murugesh Kumar, Electric Machines, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd, 2002.
4. Syed A. Nasar, Electric Machines and Power Systems: Volume I, Mcgraw -Hill College;
International ed Edition, January 1995.
5. Alexander S. Langsdorf, Theory of Alternating-Current Machinery, Tata McGraw Hill
Publications, 2001.

EE 6504-ELECTRICAL MACHINES-IIUNIT-I-SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR.


1.1 Introduction.
Electrical Machines

Static MachinesTransformer-

Rotating Machines

DC machines

DC Generator

AC machines

DC motor

Synchronous machines

Synchronous generator

Synchronous motor

Asynchronous machines

Induction generator

Induction motor

A synchronous generator(Alternator or AC generator) is an electrical machine that converts


mechanical energy into electrical energy. They are constructed in large sizes, capable of generating
500MVA or even more. They are mainly used to generate alternating current in power plants.
Electrical supply to industries, commercial establishments and house is taken from these power
plants.
1.2 Principle of operation of alternator.

The Electrical Machine which are operated with


constant speed are called as Synchronous Machines(SM).
The SM which generates AC is called Synchronous
generator or AC generator or Alternator. For the operation
of alternator, excitation is required. The exciter supplies DC
either 210V or 110V.When DC supply is given to the field
system, the field magnet is energized and flux is set up,
which is steady flux.The field system is made in motion by
means of a prime mover. The flux produced from the field
system is cut alternatively by the field poles, so that steady
flux is converted into change in flux. The changed flux
passes through the airgap and links with the stationary conductor in the stator slots. Hence emf is
induced as per Faradays law.
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1.3 Differences between AC&DC generators.


AC generator
(i)Generates AC
(ii).No need for Commutator
(iii).Used for generation of very high voltage
(iv).Mainly used in Power generating stations
(v).Output is taken from stator

DC generator
(i).Generates DC
(ii).Commutator is required.
(iii).Generates low voltage
(iv).used for electroplating, battery charging.
(v).Output is taken from rotor.

1.4 Types of alternators.(based on rotor construction)(i).Salient pole/Projected pole/Non-Cylindrical/Rotating field alternator.


Here, the field magnets are kept in rotor. Stator is provided with 1/3
winding. When mechanical input is applied to rotator, the rotor magnetic
field cut the stator and hence emf is induced in the stator.The output is taken
from the stator. Driven by water wheel or diesel engines-Operate at low
speed-large No.of poles required to produce desired frequency-500MVAHYDEL PS.
(ii). Non-Salient pole/Non-projected pole/Cylindrical alternator.
Here, field magnets are kept in the stator. Rotor is provided with armature
winding. When mechanical input is applied, the rotor rotates, and hence it cuts the
field flux. Emf is induced in rotor and through slip rings, AC is taken
out.Applicable for small voltage generator(200MVA)-Driven by steam turbines
and gas turbines-operate at very high speed-THERMAL POWER STATION.
1.5 TYPES OF GENERATOR USED IN POWER STATIONS:
(i).Hydro Gr(100-1000 rpm,750MVA)(ii).Turbo Gr(3000rpm,1000MVA)
(iii).Engine driven (1500rpm, 20MVA)
1.6 Advantages of revolving field and stationary armature in alternator:
(i).It is easier to insulate stationary armature winding for very high voltage, because insulation of stationary
armature is not subjected to mechanical stresses.
(ii).The load circuit can be connected directly with the fixed terminals of the stator.
(iii).The armature winding (kept in the stator) is cooled more easily because the stator core can be made very
large.(iv).Only 2 slip rings are required for the supply of DC to the rotor.
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(v).Due to simple ,light construction of rotor, high speed of rotating DC field is possible.This results
in increased O/P from the machine for the given dimensions.
1.7 Differences between the salient pole and non salient pole type alternator.
Salient pole alternator
Non salient pole
Medium speed ( 1500rpm to 100 rpm )
High speed ( 3,000 rpm to 1500 rpm )
Used in hydel power generating stations
Used in thermal power generating stations.
Driven by water turbines
Driven by steam turbines
Projecting pole
Smooth cylindrical rotor

1.8 Constructional details of Alternators:


(i).Stator: It is an iron ring(cylindrical shape) having slots
on its periphery to accommodate stator winding. The stator
core is laminated to reduce eddy current loss. The stator
slots are of two types, namely ,open slot and semi closed
slot. The open slots are more commonly used ,as they
facilitate in removal and replacement of defective coils.But
they produce ripples in the wave form.Semi enclosed slot
types are preferred as they do not produce ripples in the
emf waves.
(ii).Rotor/Field magnet:The flux required for the generation of
alternating voltage is provided by field magnets. They are excited by
DC source(exciter).The shaft of the rotor is coupled to a prime mover
driving the alternator. The DC excitation is supplied to the rotor
through 2 slip rings/brushes. Rotors of alternators are of 2 types,
(i)Salient pole (ii).Non-salient pole.
(i).Salient pole alternator:
Used for slow and moderate speed alternators.Cheaper than cylindrical machines.
Provided with DAMPER winding to reduce oscillations.Damper winding consists of copper
bars kept in slots on the face of the pole and they are connected to each other.*The damper
winding also used to maintain balanced 3 voltage under load conditions.
Have large diameter and short axial length.Poles are laminated to reduce eddy current losses.
They are employed with hydraulic turbines or diesel engines.Speed is 100-375 rpm.

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(ii)Non-salient pole alternator.


Used in high speed alternators (turboalternators).It has small diameter and long axial length.
Robust construction and noise less operation, less windage loss.
Better in dynamic balancing and high operating speed(3000rpm).
Gives better emf waveform than salient pole alternator.
No need to provide damper winding.

1.9 Frequency of induced emf.


If the number of poles on rotor of an alternator is p, then p/2 cycles of emf are completed
in one revolution. The number of cycles per second, known as frequency, f, will be equal to the
product of number of revolution made per second by the rotor and p/2.
ie,f=p/2 x n=p/2 xN/60 , PN/120---Hz.;fPNpolesspeed; also, N=120f/p.---(1.1).
Hence the frequency of the induced emf or current induced in stator conductors depends on the
number of poles and speed of the rotor.
Example1.1.A six pole AC generator is running and producing the frequency of 60Hz.Calculate the
revolutions per minute of the generator. If the frequency is decreased to 20 Hz, how many number of
poles will be required, if the generator is to be run at the same speed.
Data(i)p=6,f=60Hz.find N.

Sol: N=120f/p=120 x60/6=1200rpm.

(ii).f=20Hz,N=1200rpm,find p

Sol:N=120f/p1200=120 x 20/p p=20poles.

Tutorial1.1.Calculate the number of poles required for generating frequency of 50Hz using a turbine
running at (a).3000 rpm (b).1000rpm (c).300 rpm and (d) 40 rpm.[Ans:2,6,20,150].
T.1.2.A 60Hz,1200 rpm, alternator is running at 1000.Calculate the frequency of the
induced EMF.[Ans:For 1200 rpm, p=6;for 1000 rpm ,f=50Hz]
1.10 Armature winding.
The armature windings may be either closed giving delta connections or open giving
star connections.
The span of each coil must be equal to pole pitch.ie two sides of any coil must be
under adjacent poles.
The winding may be single layer (one coil side per slot) or double layer(two coil
sides/slot)
Classifications of armature winding.
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(a).Single phase winding


(i).Concentrated winding:
If all conductors or coils belonging to a phase are placed in one slot per pole, it is called concentrated
winding.
In this type of winding, the emf generated per phase is equal to the arithmetic sum of the individual
coil emf in that phase.
Gives maximum emfs,but the waveform of induced emf is not exactly of sinusoidal form.
(ii).Distributed winding:
Mostly employed.- Conductors are placed in several slots under one poleDisadvantage: reduction in induced emf.
Advantages: *reduction in harmonic emfs and hence improved waveform.
*reduction in armature reaction and hence armature reactance.
*Even distribution of copper results in even distribution of Cu loss and hence efficient cooling.

Terms associated with armature winding of alternator:


(i).Balanced winding: Here the number of coils per coil group is a whole number. Each pole contains
different phases.
(ii).Unbalanced winding: No.of coils per coilgroup is not a whole number. Each pole containsunequal
number of coils of different phases.
(iii).Full pitched winding:Coil Span=one pole pitch; Coil span=180;
Pole pitch=Distance between adjacent poles.
(iv).Short pitched winding:Coil span.<180.
Advantages:(i).reduction in harmonics, improved voltage waveform.(ii).Less copper loss due toless
coil span.(iii).Due to reduction in harmonics, eddy current and hysteresis losses are reduced.
Disadvantages : reduction in induced emf.
1.11.Pitch factor(Kp)
Kp =emf induced in short pitched coil/emf induced in full pitched coil.
=phasor sum of induced emf/arithmetic sum of induced emf.Cos(/2)=(ER/2)/EA . ER=2EA Cos(/2);
Kp= phasor sum/arithmetic sum =2EA Cos(/2)/2EA. Kp=Cos(/2)-----1.2.
=short chorded angle;Kp=1 for full pitch winding; Kp=0.966 for short pitched winding.

1.12.Distribution factor:(Kd)
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Kd=emf induced in distributed coil/emf induced in concentrated coil.


Let = slot angle 180 n,
n= slots per pole
AB,BC,CD are three coils .
For ,AOX,sin(m/2)=AX/OA;
For , AOY,sin(/2)=AY/OA.
Kd=phasor sum/ arithmetic sum =AD/mAB.=2AX/m(2AY)=AX/mAY=OAxsin(m/2)/mxOA x sin(/2)
Kd=sin(m/2)/msin(/2) ------(1.3)
Kd=1 for concentrated winding =0.966 for distributed winding.
Note:m=slots per phase=slots/poleXphase.
Ex.1.2.Calculate distribution factor for 36 slot, 4 pole, single layer, 3 phase winding.
Data:slots=36,p=4,phase=3.To find kd.
Sol: Kd=sin(m/2)/msin(/2);=180/n; n=slots/pole=36/4=9;=180/9=20;
m=slots/(poleXphase)=36/(4X3)=3; Kd =0.9598.
Ex1.3.An alternator has 18 slots per pole and the first coil lies in the slots 1 and 16.Calculate the pitch

factor, for (i).fundamental (ii).3rd harmonic (iii).5th harmonic (iii)7thharmonic.


Data:The coil is placed between 1st and 16th slot. coil span=16-1=15slots; Total no. of slots per
pole=18. short chorded slots=18-15=3.Kp=cos(/2);=180 X short chorded
slots/(slot/pole)=180X3/18=30.
Kp1=cos(30/2)=cos15=0.966; Kp3=cos 3(30/2)=0.707; Kp5=0.259; Kp7=0.258.
T.1.3.Determine the pitch factors for the following windings.(i).36 stator slots, 4poles,coil span 1to
8;(ii).96 stator slots,6poles,coil span 1 to 12.[Ans:0.94,0.883].
1.13. E.M.F. Equation of an Alternator
Let Z = No. of conductors or coil sides in series per phase, = Flux per pole in webers
P = Number of rotor poles.N = Rotor speed in r.p.m.
In one revolution (i.e., 60/N second), each stator conductor is cut by P webers
i.e.,d =p ; dt=60/N; d /dt= P /60/N= p N/60 volts.
Since there are Z conductors in series per phase,Average e.m.f./phase = p N/60 x Z volts.

As,N=120f/p; Average e.m.f./phase = p /60 x Z x120f/p=2f Z volts.


Form factor=RMS value/Average value=1.11=Erms/Eav.
Erms=1.11 x Eav=2f Z x 1.11=2.22f Z volts.Erms/phase=2.22f Z volts.---(i)
If Kp and Kd are the pitch factor and distribution factor of the armature winding,then,
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Er.m.s. / phase = 2.22(f Z)Kp Kd volts (ii)


Sometimes the turns (T) per phase rather than conductors/ , are specified, in that case, Z=2T,
eq. (ii) becomes: Er.m.s. / phase = Eph= 4.44(f Tph )Kp Kd volts ---(1.4)
The line voltage will depend upon whether the winding is star or delta connected.
For,Y connection,IL=Iph; VL=3Vph.;for connection, VL=Vph IL= 3Iph;
Note: Eph = 4.44(f Tph )Kp Kd volts;Zph=3x2xTph=6Tph. N=120f/p.
Zph=No.of conductors in each slot x No.of slots.; Kp=Cos(/2); Kd=sin(m/2)/msin(/2).
Ex.1.4.A 3 phase 16 pole alternator has a star connected winding with 144 slots and 10 conductors
per slot.the flux per pole is 0.03 Wb, sinusoidally distributed and the speed is 375rpm.Find the
frequency, the phase and line value of induced emf.Assume full pitched coil.
Data: 3phase,p=16, star connected alternator, slots, S=144,conductors per slot Zss=10, =0.03Wb,
N=375rpm.For full pitched coil,Kp =1. Find,f,Eph,EL.
Sol: Eph= 4.44(f Tph )Kp Kd volts
(i).f: N=120f/pf=pN/120=16 x 375/120=50Hz.
(ii).Zph=6Tph;Zph=S x Zss=144x10=1440; Tph=1440/6=240.(iii) Kp=1.
(iv). Kd=sin(m/2)/msin(/2);m=Slots/polexphase=144/16x=3;=180/n;n=slots/pole =144/16 =9

=180/n=180/9=20. Kd = sin(m/2)/msin(/2)=sin(3x20/2)/3 sin(20/2)=0.9598.


(v). Eph = 4.44(f Tph )Kp Kd=4.44 (50 x0.03x240)x1x0.9598=1534Volts.(vi)EL=3Eph=2657Volts.
Ex.1.5.A 3 phase,8pole,750rpm,star connected alternator has 72 slots on armature. Each slot has 12
conductors and winding is short chorded by 2 slots. Find the induced emf between the lines, given the
flux per pole is 0.06Wb.
Data:3 phase,-Y- alternator, p=8,N=750rpm,S=72,Zss=12,Shortchorded slots=2. =0.06Wb.
To find :EL.
Sol: Eph= 4.44(f Tph )Kp Kd volts;EL=3Eph
(i).f: N=120f/pf=pN/120=8 x 750/120=50Hz.
(ii).Zph=6Tph;Zph=S x Zss=72x12=864; Tph=864/6=144.
(iii) Kp=Cos(/2) ;=180 X short chorded slots/n, n=slots/pole=72/8=9;=180X2/9=40;Kp=0.94.
(iv). Kd=sin(m/2)/msin(/2);m=Slots/pole x phase =72/8 x 3=3;=180/n;n=9,
=180/n=180/9=20. Kd = sin(m/2)/msin(/2)=sin(3x20/2)/3 sin(20/2)=0.9598.

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(v). Eph = 4.44(f Tph )Kp Kd=4.44 (50


x0.06x144)x0.94x0.9598=1741Volts.(vi)EL=3Eph=3,016Volts.
T.1.4.A 3 phase 16 pole alternator has the following data. Number of
slots=192,conductors/slot=8,coil span=160 electrical degrees, speed of the alternator=375 rpm;
flux/pole=55mWb.Calculate the phase and line voltages.[=180-160=20, Eph=2928V,EL=5106V.
T.1.5.A 4 pole,50Hz,star connected alternator has a flux per pole of 0.12Wb.It has 4 slots per pole per
phase,conductors per slot being 4.If the winding coil span is 150,find the phase and line emf.
[n=12,S=48,Zph=48,Tph=32,Eph=788V,EL=1366V.]
1.14.Harmonics in voltage waveform.
Waveforms which does not follow the fundamental frequency/non-sinusoidal
waveforms/ unwanted wave form is called harmonics.
Causes(i).Non-sinusoidal waveform of the field flux.(ii).Variation in the reluctance of
air-gap due to the slotting of the stator core.
Reduction of Harmonics.

(i) By skewing the poles


(ii).by chamfering the pole tips .
(iii).short chording the armature winding by making the coil span less than a full pole
pitch.
(iv).distributing the armature winding.
1.15.Rating of alternator.
Usually alternators are rated in KVA or MVA. Electrical machine is rated at the load, which
it can carry without overheating &damage to the insulation. The other name plate details include
voltage, current, frequency, speed, number of phases, field ampere and maximum temperature
rise.
Ex:1.6.1.A 3 water wheel generator is rated at 100MVA, unity power factor,11kV, star
connected 50Hz, 120 rpm.Determine (i)The number of poles (ii)The kW rating (iii)The current
rating (iv).The input at rated kW load if the efficiency is 97%(excluding the field loss) (v)Prime
mover torque applied to the generator shaft.
(i)p=120f/N=50. (ii).kW=KVA x cos =105 (iii).Il=KVA/3 x11=5,249A;T=Pin/2n=8.2 x
106Nm.
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1.16.Leakage reactance.
When current flows through the stator conductor, the flux is setup, a portion of this flux does not
cross the airgap, but complete its path in the stator .Such flux is known as leakage flux. The LF
sets up an emf (self induced).The reactance due to the LF is called leakage reactance(Xl)
1.17. Armature Reaction in Alternator
The effect of armature flux( coming from armature winding of the stator) on the flux
produced by field winding (coming from rotor) is called armature reaction.
The armature flux and the flux produced by rotor ampere-turns rotate at the same speed in the
same direction. The modification of flux in the air-gap due to armature flux depends on the
magnitude of stator current and on the power factor of the load. It is the load power factor which
determines whether the armature flux distorts, opposes or helps the flux produced by rotor winding.
Consider the following three cases
(i) When load p.f. is unity (ii) When load p.f. is zero lagging (iii) When load p.f. is zero leading
(i) When load p.f. is unity
Fig.(i) shows an alternator on no-load. Since the
armature is on open-circuit, there is no stator current
and the flux due to rotor current is distributed
symmetrically in the air-gap as shown in Fig(i). Since
the direction of the rotor is assumed clockwise, the
generated e.m.f. in phase R1R2 is at its maximum and
is towards the paper in the conductor R1 and outwards
in conductor R2. No armature flux is produced since no current flows in the armature winding.
Fig. (ii) shows the effect when a resistive load (unity p.f.) is connected across the terminals of the
alternator. According to right-hand rule, the current is in in the conductors under N-pole and out
in the conductors under S-pole.Therefore, the armature flux is clockwise due to currents in the top
conductors and anti-clockwise due to currents in the bottom conductors. The armature flux is at 90 to
the main flux (due to rotor current) and is behind the main flux.In this case, the flux in the air-gap is
distorted but not weakened. Therefore, at unity p.f., the effect of armature reaction is merely to distort
the main field; there is no weakening of the main field
and the average flux practically remains the same.
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Since the magnetic flux due to stator currents (i.e., armature flux) rotate; synchronously with the
rotor, the flux distortion remains the same for all positions of the rotor.

(ii) When load p.f. is zero lagging


When a pure inductive load (zero p.f. lagging) is connected across the terminals of the alternator,
current lags behind the voltage by 90. This means that current will be maximum at zero e.m.f. and
vice-versa.
Fig. (iii)) shows the condition when the alternator is supplying inductive load. Note that e.m.f. as well
as current in phase R1R2 is maximum in the position shown. When the alternator is supplying a pure
inductive load, the current in phase R1R2 will not reach its maximum value until N-pole advanced
90 electrical as shown in Fig. (iv). Now the armature flux is from right to left and field flux is from
left to right All the flux produced by armature current (i.e., armature flux) opposes be field flux and,
therefore, weakens it. In other words, armature reaction is directly demagnetizing. Hence at zero p.f.
lagging, the armature reaction weakens the main flux. This causes a reduction in the generated e.m.f.
(iii) When load p.f. is zero leading
When a pure capacitive load (zero p.f. leading) is
connected across the terminals of the alternator, the
current in armature windings will lead the induced
e.m.f. by 90. Obviously, the effect of armature
reaction will be the reverse that for pure inductive
load. Thus armature flux now aids the main flux and the
generated e.m.f. is increased.
Fig.( v) shows the condition when alternator is supplying
resistive load.Note that e.m.f. as well as current in phase
R1R2 is maximum in the position shown. When the
alternator is supplying a pure capacitive load, the
maximum current in R1R2 will occur 90 electrical
before the occurrence of maximum
induced e.m.f. Therefore, maximum current in phase
R1R2 will occur if the position of the rotor remains 90
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behind as compared to its position under resistive load. This is illustrated in Fig. (vi). It is clear that
armature flux is now in the same direction as the field flux and, therefore, strengthens it. Thiscauses
an increase in the generated voltage. Hence at zero p.f. leading, the armature reaction strengthens the
main flux.
For intermediate values of p.f, the effect of armature reaction is partly distorting and partly
weakening for inductive loads. For capacitive loads, the effect of armature reaction is partly distorting
and partly strengthening. Note that in practice, loads are generally inductive.

Summary of armature reaction.


When the alternator is loaded, the armature flux modifies the air-gap flux.Its angle (electrical) w.r.t.
main fluxdepends on the load p.t. This isillustrated in Fig.(a) When the load p.f. is unity, theeffect of
armature reaction iswholly distorting. As shown in Fig(i). the armature flux is 90 electrical behind
Ac main flux. The result is that flux is strengthened at the trailing pole tips and weakened at the
leadingpole tips. However, the average flux in the air-gap practically remains unaltered.
(b) When the load p.f. is zero lagging.
The effect of armature reaction is wholly demagnetizing. In other words, the flux in the air-gap is
weakened. As shown in Fig. (ii), the wave representing the main flux is moved backwards through
90 (elect) so that it is in direct opposition to the armature flux. This considerably, reduces the air-gap
flux and hence the generated e.m.f. To keep the value of the generated e.m.f. the same, the field
excitation will have to be increased to compensate for the weakening of the air-gap flux.
(c) When the load p.f. is zero leading, the effect of armature reaction is wholly magnetizing. In other
words, the flux in the air-gap is increased. As shown in Fig. (iii), the wave representing the main flux
is now moved forward through 90 (elect.) so that it aids the armature flux. This considerably
increases the air-gap flux and hence the generated e.m.f. To keep the value of the generated e.m.f. the
same, the field excitation will have to be reduced.
(d) For intermediate values of load p.f. the effect of armature reaction is partly distorting and partly
weakening for inductive loads. For capacitive loads, the effect is partly distorting and partly
strengthening. Fig. (10.13 (iv) shows the effect of armature reaction for an inductive load. In practice,
load on the alternator is generally inductive.
1.18.Alternator on Load
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Fig. (i) shows Y-connected alternator supplying inductive load (lagging p.f.). When the load on the
alternator is increased (i.e., armature current Ia is increased), the field excitation and speed being kept
constant, the terminalvoltage V (phase value) of the alternator decreases. This is due to
(i) Voltage drop IaRa where Ra is the armature resistance per phase.
(ii) Voltage drop IaXL where XL is the armature leakage
reactance per phase.
(iii) Voltage drop because of armature reaction.
(i) Armature Resistance (Ra):
Since the armature or stator winding has some resistance, there
will be an IaRa drop when current (Ia) flows through it.
(ii) Armature Leakage Reactance (XL)
When current flows through the armature winding, flux is set up and a part of it does not cross the airgap and links the coil sides. This leakage flux alternates with current and gives the winding selfinductance. This is called armature leakage
reactance. Therefore, there will be IaXL drop
which is also effective in reducing the
terminal voltage.
(iii) Armature reaction
The load is generally inductive and the effect
of armature reaction is to reduce the generated voltage. Therefore, armature reaction effect is
accounted for by assuming the presence of a fictitious reactance Xa in
the armature winding. The quantity Xa is called reactance of armature
reaction.The value of Xa is such that IaXa represents the voltage drop
due to armature reaction.
1.19.Equivalent Circuit of alternator.
Fig. shows the equivalent circuit
of the loaded alternator for one phase.
Here,Eo = No-load e.m.f.,E = Load induced e.m.f.
V = Terminal voltage.;
E = V + Ia (Ra + j XL );and Eo = E+ Ia ( jXa )
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1.20. Synchronous Reactance (Xs)


The sum of armature leakage reactance (XL) and
reactance of armature reaction (Xa) is called synchronous
reactance Xs . Xs = XL + Xa -----Ohms.
1.21.Synchronous impedance.
The synchronous impedance is the
fictitious impedance to account for the
voltage effects in the armature circuit
produced by the actual armature
resistance(Ra),the actual armature leakage reactance(XL) and the change in the air-gap flux produced
by armature reaction.
Zs = Ra + j Xs
Eo = V + IaZs = V + Ia (R + j Xs)
1.22. Phasor Diagram of a Loaded Alternator
Fig.(i) shows the equivalent circuit of the alternator per phase.
Fig.(ii) shows the phasor diagram of an alternator for an inductive load.The armature current Ia lags
the terminal voltage V by p.f. angle .The phasor sum of V and drops IaRaand IaXL gives the load
induced voltageE.It is the induced e.m.f. after allowing for armature reaction.
The phasor sum of E and IaXa gives the no-load e.m.f. Eo.
From the diagram,

Eo (OB)2 (BC)2; OB Vcos


IaRa; and BC Vsin
IaRa
2
2
Eo (Vcos
IaRa) +( Vsin
IaXs) .----Volts. (All values are in ph)
Note:Eo=Generated emf in phase;V=terminal voltage in phase;
cos

power factor of the load;Ia=armature current in Amp=IL=load

current;Q=3VLIL;IL=Q/3VL; Q in VA;Ra=resistance of armature winding


---ohms;Xs=synchronous reactance in ohms.
Cos=KW/KVA;KW=KVA Cos

KW

Ex.1.5.A 3phase, star connected alternator supplies a load of 10MW at 0.85

lagging and at 11KV.Its resistance is 0.1 per phase and synchronous reactance
is 0.06 per phase.Calculate the line value of emf generated.
Data:3phase Y connected Alternator.MW=10; cos
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(lagging);sin =0.527,VL=11KV,Ra=0.1;
Page 13

Xs=0.06.Find Eo.
Sol: Eo

(Vcos

IaRa)2+( Vsin

IaXs)2---Volts.

(i). IL=Q/3VL;KVA=KW/ Cos=10x106/0.85=11.76x106; IL=Q/3VL=11.76x106/11x103=617Amp.


(ii)V=VL/3=11x103/3=6360V.
(iii).Eo

(Vcos

IaRa)2+( Vsin

IaXs)2

=(6360x0.85+617x0.1)2+(6360x0.0.52+617x0.06)2=6423V
(iv).EL=3Eph=3x6423=11.125KV.
1.23. Voltage Regulation of alternator.
The voltage regulation of an alternator is defined as the change in
terminal voltage from no-load to full-load (the speed and field
excitation being constant) divided by full-load voltage.
% Voltage regulation =(No load voltage -Full load voltage) X100
Full load voltage
%VR= (Eo-V) x100.
Note:

(i)For leading load p.f., the no-load voltage is less than thefull-load voltage. Hence voltage regulation
is negative in this case. The effects of different load power factors on the change in the terminal
voltage with changes of load on the alternator are shown in Fig. .
(ii).The regulation of an alternator depends on the load and the load power factor.
T1.6.A 3 phase star connected synchronous generator is rated at 1.5MVA,11KV.The armature
effective resistance and synchronous reactance are 1.2 and 25 respectively per phase.Calculate the
percentage voltage regulation for a load of 1.4375MVA at 0.8pf lagging and (ii)0.8pf leading.Also
find out the pf at which the regulation becomes zero.
Data:3 phase-Y-alternator;Q=1.5x106VA,VL=11000V,Ra=1.2,Xs=25.Load
MVA=1.4375,cos=0.8.
Find%VR for 0.8 lagging &leading pf.Sol:21.6%,-13.1%.,0.981(lead)
1.24. Determination of Voltage Regulation of Alternator.
The kVA ratings of commercial alternators are very high (e.g. 500 MVA). It is neither convenient nor
practicable to determine the voltage regulation by direct loading. There are several indirect methods
of determining the voltage regulation of an alternator. These methods require only a small amount of
power as compared to the power required for direct loading method. Such methods are:
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1. Synchronous impedance or E.M.F. method. 2. Ampere-turn or M.M.F. method.


3.Potier triangle or zero power factor method. 4.ASA method.
For either method, the following data are required:
(i) Armature resistance.(ii) Open-circuit characteristic (O.C.C.).(iii) Short-Circuit characteristic
(S.C.C.)
(i) Armature resistance
The armature resistance Ra /phase is determined by using direct current and the voltmeter-ammeter
method. This is the d.c. value. The effective armature resistance (Rac) is greater than this value due to
skin effect. It is a usual practice to take the effective resistance 1.5 times the d.c. value (Ra = 1.5
Rdc).
(ii) Open-circuit characteristic (O.C.C)
Like the magnetization curve for a d.c. machine, the (Open-circuit characteristic of an alternator is the
curve between armature terminal voltage (phase value) on open circuit and the field current when the
alternator is running at rated speed.
Fig. (i) shows the circuit for determining the O.C.C. of an alternator. The alternator is run on no-load
at the rated speed. The field current If is gradually increased from zero (by adjusting field rheostat)
until open-circuit voltage Eo.(phase value) is about 50% greater than the rated phase voltage. The
graph is
drawn between open-circuit voltage values and the corresponding values of If as shown in Fig. (ii).
(iii) Short-circuit characteristic (S.C.C.)
In a short-circuit test, the alternator is run at rated speed and the armature terminals are short-circuited
through identical ammeters as shown in Fig. (iii). The field current If is gradually increased from
zero until the short-circuit armature current Isc is about twice the rated current. The graph between
short-circuit armature current and field current gives the short-circuit characteristic (S.C.C.) Fig.(iii).

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1.25.Synchronous Impedance Method


In this method of finding the voltage regulation of an alternator, we find the
synchronous impedance Zs (and hence synchronous reactance Xs) of the
alternator from the O.C.C. and S.S.C. For this reason, it is called
synchronous impedance method.
The method involves the following steps:
(i) Plot the O.C.C. and S.S.C. on the same field current base as shown in
Fig.(i).
(ii) Consider a field current If. The opencircuit voltage corresponding to this field
current is E1. The short-circuit armature
current corresponding to field current If is I1.
On short-circuit p.d. = 0 and voltage E1 is
being used to circulate the short-circuit
armature current I1 against the synchronous
impedance Zs. This is shown in Fig. (ii).E1=I1Zs;
Zs=E1(OC Voltage)/I1 (SC Current).
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(ii) The armature resistance can be found as explained earlier.


Zs = Ra + j Xs; Xs =(Zs2 Ra2) ---Ohms.
Once we know Ra and Xs, the phasor diagram can be drawn for any load and any p.f. From the
diagram,Eo

(OB)2

(BC)2;

Eo (Vcos
IaRa)2+( Vsin
IaXs)2.----Volts. (All values are in phase)
1.25.Drawback of synchronous impedance method-pessimistic method:
This method gives approximate results.ie higher than actual value. This method is suitable only for
non-salient pole machines.In this method, the synchronous impedance is assumed to remain constant,
while actually it is not. At low saturation, its value is larger because the effect of armature reaction is
greater than that saturation. Now, under short circuit conditions, saturation is very low and therefore ,
the value of Zs is measured higher than in actual condition.For this reason, it is called pessimistic
method.
1.26 Ampere-Turn Method
This method of finding voltage regulation considers the opposite view to the synchronous impedance
method. It assumes the armature leakage reactance to be additional armature reaction. Neglecting
armature resistance (always small),this method assumes that change in terminal p.d. on load is
entirely due to armature reaction. The same two tests (viz open-circuit and short-circuit test) are
required as for synchronous reactance determination; the interpretation of the results only is different.
Under short-circuit, the current lags by 90 (Ra considered zero) and the power factor is zero. Hence
the armature reaction is entirely demagnetizing. Since the terminal p.d. is zero, all the field AT
(ampere turns)
are neutralized by armature AT produced by the short circuit armature current.
1.27 Procedure for AT Method
Suppose the alternator is supplying full-load current Ia at operating voltage Vand p.f. cos lagging.
The procedure for finding voltage regulation for AT method is as under:
(i) From the O.C.C., field current OA required to produce the operating load voltage V (=V + Ia Ra
cos) is determined as in Fig. (i). The field current OA is laid off horizontally as shown in Fig. (ii).
(ii) From S.C.C., the field current OC required for producing full-load current Ia on short-circuit is
determined.The phasor AB (= OC) is drawn at an angle (90 + ),i.e. OAB = (90 + ) as shown in
Fig.
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(iii) The phasor sum of OA and AB gives the total field current OB required. The O.C. voltage Eo
corresponding to field current OB on O.C.C. is the noload e,m.f.

%VR= (Eo-V)/V x100.

This method gives a regulation lower than the actual performance of the machine. For this reason, it
is known as Optimistic Method.

Note(i).Synchronous impedance method:


Synchronous impedance.

Zs=Eo (OC Voltage in phase )/Isc (SC Current in phase).---ohms.

Synchronous reactance

Xs = (Zs2 Ra2) ---Ohms.

Emf generated

Eo

% Voltage Regulation

(Vcos

IaRa)2+( Vsin

%VR= [(Eo-V)/V ] x100.

IaXs)2.----Volts. (All values are in phase)


(All values are in phase)

(ii).Ampere turn method.


If1=field current required to get normal voltage or rated voltage of alternator-stator open circuited.
If2=field current required to circulate full load current.- stator short circuited.
If = If12 + If22 +2 If1 If2cos(180-/+); use - for lagging, + for leading pf. =90+/-,+for lag.
Knowing If, Eo is determined from the graph.
Ex.1.7.Find the synchronous impedance and reactance of alternator in which a given field current
produces an armature current of 200A on short circuit and generated emf of 50V, on open circuit. The
value of armature resistance is 0.1.To what induced voltage, must the alternator be excited, if it is to
deliver a load of 100A at pf of 0.8 lagging, with a terminal voltage of 200V.
Data: (i)Isc=200A,Eo=50V,Ra=0.1, find Zs,Xs. (ii).for Ia=100A,cos

V=200V, find Eo.

Sol:(i). Zs=E1 (OC Voltage in phase )/Isc (SC Current in phase) =50/200=0.25.[assume 1 Gr.]
Xs = (Zs2 Ra2)= Xs = (0.252 0.12)=0.229.
(ii). Eo

(Vcos

IaRa)2+( Vsin

IaXs)2= (200x0.8

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x0.1)2+( 200x0.6

x0.23)2=222V.

Page 18

Ex.1.8.From the following test results, determine the voltage regulation of a 2000V, 1,alternator
delivering a current of 100A at (i)UPF (ii)0.71 lagging (iii)0.8lead.Test results: Full load current of
100A is produced on short circuit by a field excitation of 2.5A.An emf of 500V is obtained on open
circuit by the same excitation. The armature resistance is 0.8.
Data: 1alternator,V=2000V,Ia=100A=Isc,E1=500V, Ra=0.8=.Find %VR for
cos

lag

lead).

Sol: %VR= [(Eo-V)/V ] x100; Eo

IaRa)2+( Vsin

(Vcos

IaXs)2 Xs = (Zs2 Ra2); Zs=E1/Isc.

(i).UPF: Zs=500/100=5, Xs = (52 0.82)=4.93,


x0.8)2+( 2000x0

Eo=(2,000x1

x4.9)2=2137V

%VR=[(2137-2000)/2000]x100=6.88%.
(ii). cos =0.71 (lag),sin =0.7;
x0.8)2+( 2000x0.7

Eo=(2000x0.71

x4.9)2=2415V, %VR=20.7%.

(iii).cos =0.8 (lead),sin =0.6;


x0.8)2+( 2000x0.6

Eo=(2000x0.8

x4.9)2=1822V, %VR=-8.6%.

Ex1.9.A 100kVA,3000V,50Hz, 3 star connected alternator has an effective armature resistance of


0.2.The field current of 40A produces a short circuit current of 200A and open circuit emf of
1040V(line).Calculate the full load voltage regulation at 0.8 pf lagging and 0.8pf leading. Draw the
phasor diagram.
Data: 3 star connected alternator, Q=100kVA,VL=3000V, f=50Hz,Ra=0.2,Isc=200A, Eoc=1040V(l)
Find %VR for cos

lag

lead).Draw phasor diagram.

Sol: %VR= [(Eo-V)/V ] x100; Eo


(i). cos

IaRa)2+( Vsin

(Vcos

IaXs)2 ,Xs = (Zs2 Ra2); Zs=E1/Isc.

V=VL/3=3000/3=1732V,( 3 star connected alternator)

lag sin

Q=3VLIL;IL=Q/3VL=100x103=19A;IL=Ia;
Zs=Eoc (phase)/Isc=(1040/3)/200=3;Xs=(32 0.22)=2.9.
Eo

(1732x0.8

(ii).For cos

)2+( 1732x0.6

lead sin

Eo

x2.9)2=1770V, %VR=[(1770-1732)/1732]x100=2.2%.

(Vcos

IaRa)2+( Vsin

IaXs)2=1701V, %VR=-1.78%.

Ex.1.10.A 3.5MVA,star connected alternator rated at 4160V at 50Hz, has the open circuit
characteristics given by the following data.
If(Amps)

50

100

150

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200

250

300

350

400

450
Page 19

Emf(Volts) 1620

3150

4160

4750

5130

5370

5550

5650

5750

A field current of 200A is found necessary to circulate full load current on short circuit of a;ternator.
Calculate by (i).Ampere turn method (ii).Synchronous impedance method ,the full load voltage
regulation at 0.8 pf lagging. Neglect resistance. Comment on result obtained.
Data:Q=3.5MVA,star connected alternator,VL=4160V,f=50Hz,If1=150A(from table corresponding to
VL=4160, the rated voltage),If2=200A.Isc=IL=Q/3VL=485A=Ia; cos=0.8,sin=0.6.,=36.Ra=0.
To find %VR by (i)AT method (ii).EMF method.
Sol.(i).AT method:
(i).%VR= [(Eo-V)/V ] x100.all values are in phase or in line..
(ii). If = If12 + If22 +2 If1 If2cos(180-)=313A.
From table,For If=300A,Eo=5370V, If=350A,Eo=5550V, (350-300)Amp(5550-5370)Volts.
50Amp180Volts. 1Amp3.6Volts. 14A=50.4V.;314A=5370+50.4=5420V(line).
E0=5420V
%VR= [(Eo-V)/V ] x100=[(5420-4160)/4160]x 100 =30%.
(ii).EMF method.
Eo

(Vcos

IaRa)2+( Vsin

IaXs)2 ,V=VL/3=2401V; Xs = (Zs2 Ra2); Zs=E1/Isc.

OC voltage corresponding to the field current of 200A is 4760V(line)=2742V(phase).


Zs=2742/485=5.6.; Xs = (Zs2 Ra2)=5.6; E0=4583V(phase); %VR=90.8%.
Comments(i).In mmf method, the VR is independent of Ra,Xs.
(ii)In mmf method the %VR is nearer to the actual value.
T.1.5.A 3 phase, star connected alternator is rated at 1600kVA,1350V has armature resistance and
synchronous reactance as 1.5,30 respectively per phase. Calculate voltage regulation for a load of
1280kW at 0.8 pf leading.[Ans:IL=68A,E0=6859V,%VR=-1.21%]
T.1.6.The following test results are obtained for a 6600v alternator.
If(Amps)

16

Emf(Volts) 3100

25

37.5

50

70

4900

6600

7500

8300

A field current of 20A is found necessary to circulate full load current on short circuit of armature.
Calculate by (i).mmf (ii).emf method, full load regulation at 0.8pf (lagging).Neglect armature
resistance.
Ans(i).mmf method:%R=14.8%.(ii).38.7%.
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Note: Eo

(Vcos

IaRa)2+( Vsin

IaXs)2 To findIXs:

Let the voltage of 6600V be taken as 100% and let the excitation of 37.5A required to get rated
voltage of 6600V on open circuit to be 100%.
Let 100% armature current is produced on short circuit by the field current of 20A.Then, when 37.5A
of field current is applied, the corresponding armature current will be (37.5/20)x 100.=187.5%.
Zs=OC voltage in %/SC current in % x100 =(100/187.5) x100
=53.5%=Xs.
IXs=53.3% of normal voltage=53.3 x6,600/3 x1/100 =2031V.
1.28.Potier triangle method-Zero pf method.
Results are more accurate than emf &mmf method.
The method is based on separation of armature leakage reactance drop
& armature reaction effect.
Data required:(i).OC characteristics (ii)Full load Zero pf curve.
Zero pf curve:It is a curve of terminal voltage against field current, when armature is delivering full
load current at Zero pf.ZPF is obtained with the help of connecting the output of alternator with
anyone of the following.
(i).synchronous motor as load (ii).inductive load (iii).Three phase line with wattmeter, voltmeter
&ammeters connections at load side.
Test procedure:
(i).The motor coupled to the alternator is made to run at rated speed.
(ii).Field current is adjusted to get rated voltage of alternator.
(iii).Connect the inductive load.
(iv).Adjust the field current to circulate full load armature current.
(v).Adjust inductive load in steps so as to get zero pf shown by pf meter or wattmeter.
(vi).When zero pf condition is reached, take the corresponding readings of field current and terminal
voltage.
Procedure for drawing Potier triangle and finding %VR of Alternator:
(i).By suitable tests plot OCC and SCC.(ii). Draw tangent to OCC (air gap line)
(iii).Mark the pointsA & B.A(Ifl,0);B(Ifz,Vz).; where

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Ifl=field current corresponding to full load current flowing in the armature. Ifz=field current
corresponding to ZPF;Vz=terminal voltage corresponding to ZPF load.
(iv). Draw the line BH =OA.(v). Draw HD parallel to the air gap line so as to touch the OCC.
(vi). Draw DE parallel to voltage axis. Now,DE represents voltage drop IXL and BE
represents the field current required to overcome the effect of armature reaction.
Triangle BDE is called Potier triangle and XL is the Potier reactance.
(vii). Find E01 using the expression (Vcos

IaRa)2+( Vsin

IaXL)2;IXL= length DE.

(viii) Find field current If1 corresponding to E01.;If2=length BE.


(ix).Find If using If12 + If22 +2 If1 If2cos(180-/+).Corresponding to If, find E0.
(x).Then find %VR of Alternator.

Ex.1.11.A 3 phase, 6000V alternator has the following open circuit characteristics at normal speed.
If(Amps)

14

Emf(Volts) 4000

18

23

30

43

5000

6000

7000

8000

With armature short circuited & full load current flowing, the field current is 17A. when the machine
is supplying full load of 2000kVA at ZPF, the field current is 42.5A and the terminal voltage is
6000V.Determine the voltage regulation of alternator at 0.8pf lagging using Potier triangle method.
Sol:Step-I-OCC is drawn with the help of the above table.(If-X axis,E-Y axis).
Step-II-.Tangent to OCC is also drawn.(airgap line).
Step-III-ZPF curve is drawn with the help of the points A(Ifl,0)=(17A,0V).;B(Ifz,Vz)=(42.5A,6000V).
From the point ,B, draw a horizontal line of length BH=OA. From H, draw a line parallel to
airgap line .This line intersect the OCC at D. Connect DB.
Step-IV-Potier triangle BDH is thus drawn. From the triangle,DE=Ia XL=700V(line)=404V(phase).
Step V-E01= (Vcos

IaRa)2+( Vsin

IaXL)2;V=6000/3;IRa=0;cos=0.8;sin=0.6;E01=3720V.

Step-VI-Corresponding to E01,If1=25.6A(from graph),If2=BE=15.2A,


If=If12 + If22 +2 If1 If2cos(180-/+);
=90+=90+cos-1(0.8)=126;If =36A.
Step-VII-Corresponding to If=36A,E0=7650V(line)=4416(phase).
%VR=27.5%.
1.29. Effect of Salient Poles- Two-Reactance Concept for Salient-Pole
Machines-Blondels two reaction theory
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In a salient-pole machine, the radial length of the air-gap varies so that reluctance of the magnetic circuit
along the polar axis (called direct axis or d-axis) is much less than the reluctance along the interpolar
axis (called quadrature axis or q-axis).

Because of the lower reluctance along the polar axis (i.e., d-axis), more flux is produced along d-axis
than along the q-axis. Therefore, reactance due to armature reaction will be different along d-axis and
q-axis. These are:
Xad = direct axis reactance due to armature reaction
Xaq = quadrature axis reactance due to armature reaction.
The effects of salient poles can be taken into account by resolving the armature current into two
components; Id perpendicular to
excitation voltage E0 and Ia along E0 as shown
in phasor diagram .If XL is the armature leakage reactance , then,
Xd = Xad + XL ; Xq = Xaq + XL
From Fig. Iq = Ia cos( + ) and Id = Ia sin( + )
1.30 Power Developed in Salient-Pole Synchronous Generator.
Fig. shows the phasor diagram of the salient-pole synchronous
generator.
The per phase power output of the alternator is ,
Pout = Pd = VIa cos;Now Ia cos = Iq cos+ Id sin ;
Also E0 = Vcos + Id Xd.
Id= (E0- Vcos)/Xd.; Vsin
Pd

V Iq cos

Id sin

IqXq;
Ia cos

Iq= Vsin
Iq cos

Xq
Id sin

Putting the values of Iq and Id, we have, Pd=V[Vsin

Xq x cos

Pd=E0V/Xd x sin

V2[sin cos

Pd= E0V/Xd x sin

V2(Xd-Xq)/2XdXq x sin2.---Watts.

Xq - sin cos

(E0- Vcos)/Xd x sin

Xd]= E0V/Xd x sin

V2(sin2/xq- sin2/xd)/2.

The total power developed would be three times the above power. The following points may be
noted:
(i).If there is no saliency, Xd = Xq; Pd= E0V/Xd x sin

power developed by cylindrical rotor

machine.
(ii) If E0 = 0, then, Pd= V2(Xd-Xq)/2XdXq x sin2.---Watts.
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[ power obtained with zero excitation is called reluctance power.]


The Power angle characteristic of alternator is also shown in
fig.
1.31.Slip test-for salient pole machines only.Tests to find Xd and Xq
(i). Energise the alternator with field unexcited and driven close to
synchronous speed by a prime mover.
(ii). Measure the line voltage and line current of the alternator.
(iii). Find Xd and Xq by the following expressions
Xd=max voltage/min current. Xq=min voltage/max current.
Note:d-axis-reluctance is low-flux is more-high value of Xd;q axis-reluctance is high,low flux,low Xq.
Xd>Xq
At d axis voltmeter shows maximum reading and at q axis it shows minimum reading.
Ex.1.12.A 3 phase star connected salient pole alternator is driven at a speed near synchronous with
field circuit open, and the stator is supplied from the balanced 3 phase supply.Voltmeter connected
across the line shows minimum and maximum reading of 2800V &2820V.The line current fluctuated
between 360A & 275A.Find the direct axis &quadrature axis reactance per phase.Neglect armature
resistance.
Data:3phase, star connected alternator.Max Voltage=2,820V(line),Min Voltage:2,800V(line).
Max current=360A,Min current=275A.To find Xd,Xq.
Sol:Xd=Max voltage(phase)/Min current=(2820/3)/275=5.92.
Xq= Min voltage(phase)/Max current=(2800/3)/375=4.49.
1.32.Parallel Operation of Alternators
In practice, a very large number of 3-phase alternators operate in parallel because the various power
stations are interconnected through the national grid. Therefore, the output of any single alternator
is small compared with the total interconnected capacity. For example, the total capacity of the
interconnected system may be over 40,000 MW while the capacity of the biggest single alternator
may be 500 MW. For this reason, the performance of a single alternator is unlikely to affect
appreciably the voltage and frequency of the whole system. An alternator connected to such a system
is said to be connected to infinite busbars. The outstanding electrical characteristics of such busbars
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are that they are constant-voltage, constant frequency busbars.Fig shows a typical infinite bus
system. Loads are tapped from the infinite bus at various load centres. The alternators may be
connected to or disconnected from the infinite bus, depending on the power demand on the system. If
an alternator is connected to infinite busbars, no matter what power is delivered by the incoming
alternator, the voltage and frequency of the system remain the same. The operation of connecting an
alternator to the infinite busbars is known as synchronization of alternators/parallel operation
of alternators..

1.33. Advantages of Parallel Operation of Alternators


(i) Continuity of service. Reliability.
If one alternator fails, the continuity of supply can be maintained through the other healthy units.
This will ensure uninterrupted supply to the consumers.
(ii) Efficiency.
The load on the power system varies during the whole day; being minimum during night hours.
Since alternators operate most efficiently when delivering full-load, units can be added or put off
depending upon the load requirement. This permits the efficient operation of the power system.
(iii) Maintenance and repair.
It is often desirable to carry out routine maintenance and repair of one or more units. For this
purpose, the desired unit/units can be shut down and the continuity of supply is maintained through
the other units.
(iv) Load growth.
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The load demand is increasing due to the increasing use of electrical energy. The load growth can be
met by adding more units without disturbing the original installation.
1.34. Conditions for Paralleling Alternator .
The proper method of connecting an alternator to the infinite busbars is called synchronizing. A
stationary alternator must not be connected to live busbars. It is because the induced e.m.f. is zero at
standstill and a short-circuit will result. In order to connect an alternator safely to the infinite busbars,
the following
conditions are met:
(i) The terminal voltage (r.m.s. value) of the incoming alternator must be the same as busbars voltage.
(ii) The frequency of the generated voltage of the incoming alternator must be equal to the busbars
frequency.
(iii) The phase of the incoming alternator voltage must be identical with the phase of the busbars
voltage. In other words, the two voltages must be in phase with each other.
(iv) The phase sequence of the voltage of the incoming alternator should be the same as that of the
busbars.
The magnitude of the voltage of the incoming alternator can be adjusted
by changing its field excitation. The frequency of the incoming alternator
can be changed by adjusting the speed of the prime mover driving the
alternator.
Condition (i) is indicated by a voltmeter, conditions (ii) and (iii) are
indicated by synchronizing lamps or a synchroscope. The condition (iv)
is indicated by a phase sequence indicator.
1.35. Methods of Synchronization of alternators.
The method of connecting an incoming alternator safely to the live
busbars is called synchronizing. The equality of voltage between the
incoming alternator and the busbars can be easily checked by a voltmeter.
The phase sequence of the alternator and the busbars can be checked by a phase sequence indicator.
Differences in frequency and phase of the voltages of the incoming alternator and busbars can be
checked by one of the following two methods:
(i) By Three Lamp (one dark, two bright) method.(ii) By synchroscope
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(i) Three lamp method

In this method of synchronizing, three lamps L1, L2 and L3 are connected as shown in Fig(i). The
lamp L1 is straight connected between the corresponding phases (R1 and R2) and the other two are
cross-connected between the other two phases. Thus lamp L2 is connected between Y1 and B2 and
lamp L3 between B1 and Y2. When the frequency and phase of the voltage of the incoming alternator
is the same as that of the busbars, the straight connected lamps L1
will be dark while cross-connected lamps L2 and L3 will be
equally bright. At this instant, the synchronization is perfect and
the switch of the
incoming alternator can be closed to connect it to the busbars.
In Fig. (ii), phasors R1, Y1 and B1 represent the busbars voltages
and phasors R2, Y2 and B2 represent the voltages of the incoming alternator. At the instant when R1
is in phase with R2, voltage across lamp L1 is zero and voltages across lamps L2 and L3 are equal.
Therefore, the lamp L1 is dark while lamps L2 and L3will be equally bright. At this instant, the
switch of the incoming alternator can be closed. Thus incoming alternator gets connected in parallel
with the busbars.
(ii) Synchroscope
A synchroscope is an instrument that indicates by means of a revolving pointer the phase difference
and frequency difference between the voltages of the incoming alternator and the busbars
It is essentially-a small motor, the field being supplied from the busbars through a potential
transformer and the rotor from the incoming alternator. A pointer is attached to the rotor. When the
incoming alternator is running fast (i.e., frequency of the incoming alternator is higher than that of the
busbars), the rotor and hence the pointer moves in the clockwise direction. When the incoming
alternator is running slow (i.e.,frequency of the incoming alternator is lower than that of the busbars),
the pointer moves in anti-clockwise direction. When the frequency of the incoming alternator is equal
to that of the busbars, no torque acts on the rotor and the pointer points vertically upwards (12 O
clock). It indicates the correct instant for connecting the incoming alternator to the busbars. The
synchroscope method is superior to the lamp method because it not only gives a positive indication of
the time to close the switch but also indicates the adjustment to be made should there be a difference
between the frequencies of the incoming alternator and the busbars.
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1.36. (i).Synchronizing current ,Power and torque.


When two alternators are operating in parallel, each machine has an inherent tendency to remain
synchronized. Consider two similar single-phase alternators 1 and 2 operating in parallel at no-load.
Suppose, due to any reason, the speed of machine 2
decreases.
This will cause E2 to fall back by a
phase angle of a electrical degrees as shown in Fig.
Within the local circuit formed by two alternators, the
resultant e.m.f. Er is the phasor difference E1 - E2.
This resultant e.m.f. results in the production of
synchronizing current Isy which sets up
synchronizing torque. The synchronizing torque
retards machine 1 and accelerates machine 2 so that synchronism is reestablished.The power
associated with synchronizing torque is called synchronizing power.In Fig. machine 1 is
generating and machine 2 is motoring. The power supplied by machine 1 is called synchronizing
power. Referring to Fig. we have,
Synchronizing power, Psy =E1Isy cos
E1 Isy ( ~ 90 ; sin

= E1Isy cos(90

) = E1Isy sin

= 1).

Synchronizing current,Isy =E/2Xs.; Psy= E1 Isy=E Isy=E (E/2Xs)=E2/2Xs.;=load angle.


Total synchronizing power for 3 phases, Psy=3Psy=3(E2/2Xs.).
Synchronising torque:Tsy: 3Psy=2 NsTsy/60. Tsy=3Psy x60/2 Ns.
1.37. Alternator on Infinite Busbars
In practice, generating stations do not operate as isolated units but are interconnected by the national
grid. The result is that a very large number of alternators operate in parallel. An alternator connected
to such a network is said to be operating on infinite busbars. The behaviour of alternators connected
to an infinite busbars is as under:
(i) Any change made in the operating conditions of one alternator will not change the terminal
voltage or frequency of the system. In other words, terminal voltage (busbars voltage) and frequency
are not affected by changing the operating conditions of one alternator.It is because of large size and
inertia of the system.
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(ii) The kW output supplied by an alternator depends on the mechanical power supplied to the prime
mover of the alternator. An increase in mechanical power to the prime mover increases the kW output
of the alternator and not the kVAR. A decrease in the mechanical power to the prime mover decreases
the kW output of the alternator and not the kVAR.
(iii) If the mechanical power to the prime mover of an alternator is kept constant, then change in
excitation will change the power factor at which the machine supplies changed current. In other
words, change of excitation controls the kVAR and not kW.
Note. An infinite busbars system has constant terminal voltage and constant busbars frequency
because of its large size and inertia. However, the busbars voltage can be raised or lowered by
increasing or decreasing simultaneously the field excitation of a large number of alternators.
Likewise, system frequency can be raised or lowered by increasing or decreasing the speed of prime
movers of a large number of alternators.
1.38. Effect of Change of Excitation and Mechanical Input.
(i). Effect of change of field excitation.
An overexcited alternator operates at lagging power factor and supplies lagging reactive power to
infinite busbars. On the other hand, an under excited alternator operates at leading power factor and
supplies leading reactive power to the infinite busbars.
(ii). Effect of change in mechanical input.
Increasing the mechanical input power to the prime mover will not change the speed ultimately but
will increase the power angle . As a result, the change of driving torque controls the output kW and
not the kVAR. When this change takes place, the power factor of the machine is practically not
affected.
1.40. Capability curve of Synchronous generator.
Capability Curve is a plot of reactive power (Q) versus real
power (P).The capability curve of the synchronous generator
defines the boundary (maximum limits ) within which it can operate
safely. Various bounds imposed on the ma chine are:
(i).MVA- loading cannot exceed the generator rating.
This limit is imposed by the stator heating.
(ii).MW-loading cannot exceed the turbine rating which is given by MVA.
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(iii).The generator must operate a safe margin away from the steady state stability limit.
(iv).The maximum field current cannot exceed a specified value imposed by rotor heating.

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K.L.N.College of Engineering.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.
EE6504-ELECTRICAL MACHINES-II-Sem:V
UNIT-I-SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR.
1.What is an Alternator? How it differs from the D.C.Generator?(2)
2.What are the different types of ac generators in use.? What is the essential differences in their
construction?(2)
3.Write the advantages of stationary armature and rotating field in an alternator.(2).
4.Describe , with neat sketches, the constructional details of a salient pole type alternator.(6)
5.Compare salient pole and non-salient pole synchronous machines.(2)
6.Deduce the relation between the number of poles,the frequency and the speed of the alternator.(2)
7.State the advantages and disadvantages of using short-pitched and distributed winding in an
alternator.(2).
8.Derive an expression for the pitch factor and distribution factor of an alternator.(8)
9.Derive from the first principle , emf equation of of an alternator.(6)
10.What are the causes of harmonics in the voltage waveform of of an alternator?
How can these be minimized?(2)
11.What is armature reaction? Explain the effect of armature reaction on the terminal voltage of an
alternator at (i).unity power factor load (ii).lagging and (iii) leading power .
Draw the relevant phasor diagram.(12)
12.What is synchronous impedance?. (2)
13.Sketch and explain the open circuit and short circuit characteristics of of an alternator.(6)
14.What is SCR?(2)
15.What is meant by regulation of an alternator? What is its effect on Unity,lagging and leading pf
load?(2)
16.Define the term leakage reactance and synchronous reactance.(2)
17.Explain the synchronous impedance method of determination of regulation of of an alternator.
Why it is called the pessimistic method (8)
18.Describe the mmf method for predetermining the voltage regulation of alternator.(8)
19.Compare synchronous impedance and ampere-turn method of predetermining regulation of an
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alternator(2)
20.Briefly explain the Potier method of finding the voltage regulation.(6)
21.Discuss Blondels two reaction theory applicable to salient pole synchronous machines. (8)
22.Describe a method of determining direct and quadrature axis synchronous axis reactance of
salient pole alternator.(8)
23.Explain the terms direct and quadrature axis reactance of salient pole alternator.(2)
24.Explain the reasons for resorting to Two reaction theory to predetermine the regulation of salient
pole alternators.Why it is applicable to salient pole machine only(8)
25.For a salient pole synchronous machine, neglecting the effect of armature resistance, derive an
expression for power developed as a function of load angle.**
26.What is the role of damper winding in an alternator.(2)
27.What are the losses that take place in an alternator? How the alternators are rated?(2)
28.What are the advantages of connecting the alternators in parallel?(2).
29.What conditions are required to be fulfilled for the successful parallel operation of alternators?(2)
30.What are the methods of synchronising of alternators?(2)
31.Discuss the use of synchroscope in the parallel operation of alternator.(4)
32.What is an infinite bus?(2)
33.Explain with diagrams any one method of synchronising two three-phase alternators.(8)
34.Derive an expression for synchronising power and synchronising torque when two alternators are
connected in parallel.(8)**
35.Two alternators are running in parallel sharing a load in desired proportion. Explain what will
happen if (i)the excitation of alternators are changed while their prime mover inputs are
fixed.(ii).the prime mover inputs are varied while the excitations are kept fixed.(4)
36.An alternator is connected to infinite bus and is running at no-load. Explain briefly how to
increase its eal and reactive power outputs?(2)
37.Explain the effect of varying the excitation of a alternator connected to an infinite bus bar on
power factor, armature current and load angle.(8)
38.What do you understand by power angle of alternator?(2)
39.What is meant by Hunting?What the causes ,its bad effects and methods of elimination of
hunting(6)
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40.Why bright lamp method is preferred over dark lamp method for synchronisation of alternator?(2)
41.How do synchronising lamps indicate the phase variation of the incoming machine and the
running machine?(2)
42.What is synchronizing current, synchronizing power, synchronizing torque?(6)
43.A 6 pole ac generator is running and producing the frequency of 60Hz.Calculate the revolution per
minute of the generator. If the frequency is decreased to 20 Hz, how many number of poles will
be required to be run at the same speed.?(1,200 rpm,2poles).(2).
44.Calculate the pitch factor for the under-given windings.(a).36 stator slots,4 poles,coil span,1to
8,(b).72 slots,6poles,coils span 1 to 10 and (c).96 stator slots,6poles,coil span 1 to
12.(.94,.924,.882,BLT1412).
45.An alternator has 18 slots/pole and the first coil lies in slots 1 and 16.Calculate the pitch factor for
(i).fundamental (ii)3rd harmonic,(iii).5th Harmonic and (iv). 7th harmonic.
(0.966,.707,.259,.259, BLT1416) (2)
46.Caculate the distribution factor for a 36 slots ,4pole,single layer 3 phase winding.(.966,JBG207).
47.A 3 phase ,16 pole alternator has a star connected winding with 144 slots and 10 conductors per
slot.The flux per pole is 0.03 Wb,sinusoidally distributed and the speed is 375 rpm.Find the
frequency and the phase and line emf. Assume full-pitched coil.(1544V,2658V,BLT 1416)(8)
48.A 3 phase,8pole,750 rpm star connected alternator has 72 slots on the armature.Each slots has 12
conductors and winding is short chorded by 2 slots.Find the induced emf between lines, given the
flux per pole is 0.06 Wb.(2,988V,210 JBG).(8)
49.Find the synchronous impedance and reactance of an alternator in which a given field current
produces an armature current of 200A on short-circuit and a generated emf of 50V on open
circuit.The armature resistance is 0.1 .To what induced voltage must the alternator be excited if it is
to deliver a load of 100A at a pf of 0.8 lagging,with a terminal voltage of
200V.(0.25,0.23,222V,BLT1432).(8)**
50.From the following test results, determine the voltage regulation of a2000V,1 phase alternator
delivering a current of 100A,at (i).unity pf.(ii).0.8 lead pf (iii).0.71 lead pf.Full load current of
100A is produced on short circuit by a field excitation of 2.5A.An emf of 500V is produced on open
circuit by the same excitation .The armature resistance is 0.82.(8) (7%,-9%,21.6%1433BLT).(8)
51.A 100kVA,3000V,50Hz,3 phase star connected alternator has effective armature resistance of
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0.2 . The field current of 40A produces short circuit current of 200A and an open circuit emf of
1040V(line ).Calculate the full-load voltage regulation at 0.8pf lagging and 0.8 pf leading.Draw
phasor diagrams.(2.25,-1.8%)
UNIT-I- SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR.
1.What is an alternator ? How it is differ from D.C.Generator ?
An alternator is an electrical machines which converts mechanical energy in to electrical
energy . It generates altering EMF(AC) , whereas a D.C.Generator , generates direct
EMF(DC),requires commutator, low capacity. The other names of alternator are A.C.Generator /
synchronous Generator . They are mainly used in electrical power generating stations .
2.What is the operating principle of Alternator ?
An alternator consists of a stator and rotor . Stator has slots to accommodate three phase
windings . These windings are displaced at 120 electrical . The rotor also has slots to
accommodate field winding. Mechanical input is applied to the rotor so as to run the machine at
rated speed . Then dc excitation is applied to the rotor . The flux from the rotor cuts the
stationary armature winding .Hence, according to Faradays law ,EMF is induced in stator
winding .The induced EMF is taken out and is connected to the electrical load .
3.What are the two types of alternator ?
Based on the constructions , alternators are classified into ( i ) rotating armature ( ii ) rotating
field type . In rotating armature type, field winding is stationary and kept in the stator. The EMF is
induced in rotor, and through the slip rings, the output is taken outside. In the rotating field type,
the field winding is kept in the rotor , and Emf is induced in the stator , where the induced
EMF is directly connected to the load .
4.What are the advantages of stationary armature and revolving field system of alternator ?
(i)It is easier to insulate stationary armature winding for very high voltage .(ii).There is no
mechanical stress on the stator.(iii). More space available on the stator for providing more
insulation.(iv).the load circuit can be connected directly with the fixed terminal of stator(v).
It is easier to cool the stator windings due to more space on stator side .
(vi).only two slip rings are required for supply of D.C. to rotor .
5. What are the classification of alternators , based on its rotor construction ?
Based on rotor constructions, alternators are classified into
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(i).Salient pole alternator ( projecting pole ) (ii)non salient pole alternator (smooth cylindrical
rotor )
6.What are the differences between the salient pole and non salient pole type alternator?.
Salient pole alternator
Medium speed ( 1500rpm to 100 rpm )
Used in hydel power generating stations
Driven by water turbines
Projecting pole

Non salient pole


High speed ( 3,000 rpm to 1500 rpm )
Used in thermal power generating stations.
Driven by steam turbines
Smooth cylindrical rotor

7.What is meant by (a) concentrated and (b) distributed winding ?


Concentrated winding :If slots equal to number of poles are employed, then concentrated winding is
obtained .Advantage :gives maximum emf. Disadvantage :induced emf is not exactly of sinusoidal .
Distributed winding : If the conductors are placed at several slots under one pole , the
winding is known as distributed winding .
Advantage :(i).Harmonic emf is reduced.(ii).Wave form is improved.(iii).Reduced armature
reactions and armature reactance .(iv).Better utilization of core.(v).Reduction in copper loss
and improvement in cooling .
8. What is meant by short pitch and full pitch coils/winding ?
Full pitch winding : when the coil span is 180 ,i.e. when the two coil sides forming a
complete coil of a winding are 180 electrical space degree apart , the winding is known as
full pitch winding . In such winding when one side of the coil under N pole the other side
is in corresponding position under S pole .The induced emf differ by 180 in phase , but the
coil is connected in such a way that emf add giving resultant emf E
Short pitch winding : when the coil span of the winding is less than 180 electrical
space degrees ,i.e. the coil sides forming a complete coil of the winding are less than 180
electrical space degree apart , the windings is known as fractional pitch or short pitch winding
. In such types , the induced emf is not in phase , so the resultant emf is the phasor sum of
induced emf in the coil sides , which is slightly less than arithmetic sum . Hence the induced
emf in short pitch winding is less than that induced in full pitch winding under same
conditions .
9.What are the advantages of short pitch winding ?

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(i).Waveform of the induced emf is improved .(ii).Effect of harmonics are reduced .(iii).Copper
is saved in the coil due to less span (iv).Inductance of the winding is reduced due to lesser
length of the coil(v)Mechanical strength of the coil is increased .
10. What is pitch factor ?
In a short pitch winding , the induced emf in the two sides of the coil are not in phase .
Hence , their resultant emf , given by the phasor sum is always less than their arithmetic sum
. The ratio of phasor sum of induced emf per coil to be arithmetic sum of induced emf per
coil is known as pitch factor(kp) .It is always less than unity.kp =cos(/2), =short chorded
angle.
11. What is distribution factor ?
The ratio of the phasor sum of the emf induced in all the coil distributed in a number of
slots under one pole to the arithmetic sum of the emfs induced is known as breadth factor or
distribution factor (kd).Kd =sin(m/2)/msin(/2).where m =slots/pole X phase , =180/n ,n
=slots/pole.
12 . What are the essential elements for generating emf in alternators ?
The essential elements for generating emf in alternators are prime mover ,stator , rotor ,
exciter.
13. Why it is possible to design alternator to generate much higher voltage than
d.c.generators ?
In case of alternator, field system is moving and armature is stationary. It is easier
to insulate stationary armature winding for very high voltage, because insulation of
stationary armature is not subjected to mechanical stresses due to centrifugal action and
more space is available on the armature for providing more insulation as the stator is
outside the rotor . In case of d.c. generator field is stationary and armature is moving .
14. What are the types of rotor is adopted for high speed alternators ?Non-salient pole.
Name the types of alternator depending on the type of prime-mover ?
(i).turbo-generators (ii).hydro generators ( or water wheel generators) (iii).diesel engine driven
generators .
15. What is maximum speed of 50 Hz alternator ?

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3,000 rpm .

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16.Why are the salient pole alternator more suitable for low speed and non salient pole for
high speed operation ?
The salient pole field structure is used almost entirely for low speed alternators , since
it is least expensive and provide ample space for field ampere-turns but it cannot be used
for high speed alternators on account of high peripheral speed and the difficulty of obtaining
sufficient mechanical strength . So non-salient pole field structure is used for high speed
operation .
17.What is role of damper winding in (a)synchronous generator and (b) synchronous motor
(a)

In a synchronous generator damper winding is provide to suppress the negative

sequence field and to damp the oscillation when the generator starts hunting .
(b)

In a synchronous motor damper winding is provide to develop the starting torque so

as to make the motor self starting and to develop and damping torque when the machine
start hunting 18.What is an exciter ?

An exciter is small dc generator to supply dc

power to the field magnet system or rotor the alternator .


19.Why are distributed winding preferred over concentrated winding ?
Distributed winding preferred over concentrated winding as (i)Improved wave form of induced
emf .(ii).Provide better utilization of core . (iii).Diminished armature reaction .(iv)Facilitate
cooling .
20.What is the necessity for chording in the armature winding of a synchronous machine ?
The armature winding is chorded in order to (i).Improve the wave form of induced emf .
(ii).Save copper in the coil ends due to less span .(iii).Reduced inductance of the winding .
21.What is meant by armature reaction of a synchronous machine ?
The effect of armature flux on the main field is known as armature reaction. Armature
reaction has distorting effect on unity power factor , wholly demagnetizing at zero power
factor lagging and wholly magnetizing at zero power factor leading
22.What are the effects of regulation of the alternator of power factor (a) at lagging power
factor and (b) leading power factor ?
The regulation of alternator is positive and increased with decreasing in lagging power factor
. The regulation of alternator improves first with decreasing in lagging power factor

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becomes unity and further decreasing in lagging power factor makes the regulation negative
and increasing.
23.Why voltage regulation of an alternator is negative for leading power factor ?
When power factor is leading the effect of armature flux is to assist the main flux hence
to generate more emf and so to increase the terminal voltage when the alternator is loaded.
Thus the terminal voltage of an alternator decreases when the loaded of leading is thrown
off the voltage regulation is negative .
24.Why does synchronous impedance method give a poorer voltage regulation ?
In the

synchronous impedance method of determination of voltage regulation synchronous

reactants is assumed to be constant while actually it varies with

the saturation. Now under

sort circuit condition saturation is very low and therefore the value of synchronous
impedance measured is higher than that in the actual operating conditions and the regulations
determined is higher the actual one .
25.Which quantity is usually determined using the zero power factor characteristics of a
synchronous machine ?
Leakage reactants drop , Voltage drop due to armature reaction and armature reaction AT.
26.Two reactions theory is applied only to

salient pole machine state reason ?

A multipolar machine with cylindrical rotor has a uniform air gap and therefore its
reactants remains the same , irrespective of the spatial position of rotor. But in case of
salient pole machine the air gap is not uniform and its reactants is varies with the rotor
positions. Because of non- uniformity of the reluctance of the magnetic paths the mmf of the
armature are divided into components viz.
(i).A direct acting component along the field pole axis called direct axis .(ii). Quadrature
component along the axis passing to the center of the inter-polar space called Quadrature axis
.
These facts form the basis of the two reactants theory is applied to the salient pole
machines.
27.State the use of slip test on an alternator .
The slip test is performed on an alternator to determine Direct axis reactance-xd and Quadrature
axis reactance. Xq.
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28.What are the losses that take place in an alternator


(i).Electrical losses including armature winding loss , brush contact loss ana field loss.
(ii).Core loss .(iii).Friction and winding loss .(iv).Stray power loss .
29.A 6 pole ac generator is running and producing the frequency of 60Hz.Calculate the revolutions
per minute of the generator. If the frequency is decreased to 20Hz,how many number of poles will be
required if the generator is to be run at the same speed.
Data:p =6,Alternator,f=60Hz.To find N. If f = 20Hz, p=?
Solution:Ns 120f/p =Ns =120 X60/6 =1,200rpm.Also,1,200 =120 X20/p : p =2
30.The coil span for the stator winding of an alternator is 120.Find the chording factor of the
winding.
Data:coil span =120.To find Kp
Kp =Cos(/2); =180 -coil span ==180 -120 =60 ;Kp =Cos(60/2) =0.866.
31.Calculate the distribution factor for a 36 slot,4-pole,single layer 3-phase winding.
Data:slots, s=36,pole,p=4,phase =3.To find Kd
Kd =sin(m/2)/msin(/2);m=slots/pole .phase==36/4 x 3 =3; =180/n;n=slots/pole =36/4 =9;
=180/9 =20
Kd =sin(3*20/2)/3sin(20/2) =0.96
32.Write the emf equation of Alternator.
Eph =4.44fTphKpKd Volts;EL=3Eph ;f=frequency in Hz,Tph =Turns per phase=Zph=6Tph,=flux
inWb.
33.Draw the sketches of Salient and Non-salient pole synchronous generators.

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Whenever a current carrying conductor comes under a magnetic field,


there will be a force acting on the conductor and on the other hand, if a conductor is forcefully
brought under a magnetic field there will be an induced current in that conductor. In both of the
phenomenon there is an relation between magnetic field, electric current and force. This relation
directionally determined by Fleming Left Hand rule and Fleming Right Hand rule respectively.
Directionally means these rules do not show the magnitude but show the direction of any of the
three parameters (magnetic field, electric current, force) if the direction of other two are known.
Fleming Left Hand rule is mainly applicable for electric motor and Fleming Right Hand rule is
mainly applicable for electric generator. In late 19th century, John Ambrose Fleming, introduced these
both rules and as per his name the rules are well known as Fleming left and right hand rule.
It is found that whenever a current carrying conductor is placed inside a magnetic field, a
force acts on the conductor, in a direction, perpendicular both to the direction of the electric current
and the magnetic field. In the figure it shown that a portion of a conductor of length L placed
vertically in a uniform horizontal magnetic field of strength H, produced by two magnetic pole N and
S. If i is the electric current flowing through this conductor , the magnitude of the force acts on the
conductor is, F = BiL
Hold out your left hand with forefinger, second finger and thumb at right angle to one another.
If the fore finger represents the direction of the field and the second finger that of the current, then
thumb gives the direction of the force.
While electric current flows through a conductor one magnetic field is induced around it. This can be
imagined by considering numbers of closed magnetic lines of force around the conductor. The
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direction of magnetic lines of force can be determiner by Maxwells corkscrew rule or right-hand grip
rule. As per these rules the direction of the magnetic lines of force (or flux lines) is clockwise if the
current is flowing away from the viewer that is if the direction of current through the conductor is
inward from the reference plane as shown in the figure.

Field Around a Current Carrying Conductor


Now if a horizontal magnetic field is applied externally to the conductor, these two magnetic
fields i.e. field around the conductor due to current through it and the externally applied field will
interact each other. We observe in the picture, the magnetic lines of force of external magnetic field
are form N to S pole that is from left to right. The magnetic lines of force of external magnetic field
and magnetic lines of force due to current in the conductor are in same direction, above the conductor
and they are in opposite direction below the conductor. Hence there will be larger numbers of codirectional magnetic lines of force above the conductor than that of below the conductor.
Consequently, there will be a larger concentration of magnetic lines of force in a small space above
the conductor. As magnetic lines of force are no longer straight lines, they are under tension like
stretched rubber bands. As a result there will be a force which tends to move the conductor from more
concentrated magnetic field to less concentrated magnetic field that is from present position to
downwards. Now if you observe the direction of current, force and magnetic field in the above
explanation, you will find that the directions are according to Fleming left hand rule.

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Fleming Right Hand Rule


As per Faradays law of electromagnetic induction, whenever a conductor moves inside a
magnetic field, there will be an induced current in it. If this conductor is forcefully moved inside the
magnetic field, there will be a relation between the direction of applied force, magnetic field and the
electric current. This relation among these three directions, is determined by by Fleming Right Hand
Rule.This rule states Hold out the right hand with the first finger, second finger and thumb at right
angles to each other. If forefinger represents the direction of the line of force, the thumb points in the
direction of motion or applied force, then second finger points in the direction of the induced current.

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EE6504-ELECTRICAL MACHINES-IIUnit-II-Synchronous motor.


2.1.Introduction.
An alternator may operate as a motor by connecting its armature winding to a 3-phase supply. It is
then called a synchronous motor. A synchronous motor runs at synchronous speed (Ns = 120f/P) i.e.,
in synchronism with the revolving field produced by the 3-phase supply. The speed of rotation is,
therefore, tied to the frequency of the source. Since the frequency is fixed, the motor speed stays
constant irrespective of the load or voltage of 3-phase supply. However, synchronous motors are not
used so much because they run at constant speed (i.e., synchronous speed) .
2.2. Construction
A synchronous motor is a machine that operates at synchronous speed and converts electrical energy
into mechanical energy. It is fundamentally an alternator operated as a motor. Like an alternator, a
synchronous motor has the following two parts:

(i) a stator which houses 3-phase armature winding in the slots of the stator core and receives power
from a 3-phase supply.
(ii) a rotor that has a set of salient poles excited by direct current to form alternate N and S poles. The
exciting coils are connected in series to two slip rings and direct current is fed into the winding from
an external exciter mounted on the rotor shaft. As in the case of an induction motor, the number of
poles determines the synchronous speed of the motor:
Synchronous speed, Ns=120f/p;where f = frequency of supply in Hz,p = number of poles
An important drawback of a synchronous motor is that it is not self-starting and
auxiliary means have to be used for starting it.
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2.3. Salient features of a synchronous motor .


(i) A synchronous motor runs at synchronous speed or not at all. Its speed is constant (synchronous
speed) at all loads. The only way to change its speed is to alter the supply frequency (Ns = 120 f/P).
(ii) The outstanding characteristic of a synchronous motor is that it can be made to operate over a
wide range of power factors (lagging, unity orleading) by adjustment of its field excitation. Therefore,
a synchronous motor can be made to carry the mechanical load at constant speed and at the same time
improve the power factor of the system.
(iii) Synchronous motors are generally of the salient pole type.
(iv) A synchronous motor is not self-starting and an auxiliary means has to be used for starting it. We
use either induction motor principle or a separate starting motor for this purpose. If the latter method
is used, the machine must be run up to synchronous speed and synchronized as an alternator.
2.4. Operating Principle-Why synchronous motor is not self starting?
(i) Consider a 3-phase synchronous motor having two rotor poles NR and SR. Then the stator will also
be wound for two poles NS and SS. The motor has direct voltage applied to the rotor winding and a 3phase voltage applied to the stator winding. The stator winding produces a rotating field which
revolves round the stator at synchronous speed Ns(= 120 f/P). The direct (or
zero frequency) current sets up a two-pole field which is stationary so long as the rotor is not turning.
Thus, we have a situation in which there exists a pair of revolving armature poles (i.e., NS - SS) and a
pair of stationary rotor poles (i.e., NR - SR).(ii) Suppose at
any instant, the stator poles are at positions A and B as
shown in Fig.(i). It is clear that poles NS and NR repel each
other and so do the poles SS and SR. Therefore, the rotor
tends to move in the anticlockwise direction. After a period
of half-cycle (or f = 1/100 second), the polarities of the stator poles are reversed but the polarities
of the rotor Poles remain the same as shown in Fig. (ii). Now SS and NR attract each other and so do
NS and SR. Therefore, the rotor tends to move in the clockwise direction. Since the stator poles
change their polarities rapidly, they tend to pull the rotor first in one direction and then after a period
of half-cycle in the other.

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Due to high inertia of the rotor, the motor fails to start. Hence, a synchronous motor has no selfstarting torque i.e., a synchronous motor cannot start by itself.
How to get continuous unidirectional torque? If the rotor poles are rotated by some external means
at such a speed that they interchange their positions along with the stator poles, then the rotor will
experience a continuous unidirectional torque. This can be understood from the following discussion:
(i) Suppose the stator field is rotating in the clockwise direction and the rotor is also rotated clockwise
by some external means at such a speed that
the rotor poles interchange their positions
along with the stator poles.
(ii) Suppose at any instant the stator and
rotor poles are in the position shown in Fig.
(iii). It is clear that torque on the rotor will be
clockwise. After a period of half-cycle, the
stator poles reverse their polarities and at the same time rotor poles also interchange their positions as
shown in Fig. (iv). The result is that again the torque on the rotor is clockwise. Hence a continuous
unidirectional torque acts on the rotor and moves it in the clockwise direction. Under this condition,
poles on the rotor always face poles of opposite polarity on the stator and a strong magnetic attraction
is set up between them. This mutual attraction locks the rotor and stator together and the rotor is
virtually pulled into step with the speed of revolving flux (i.e., synchronous speed).
(iii) If now the external prime mover driving the rotor is removed, the rotor will continue to rotate at
synchronous speed in the clockwise direction because the rotor poles are magnetically locked up with
the stator poles. It is due to this magnetic interlocking between stator and rotor poles that a
synchronous motor runs at the speed of revolving flux i.e., synchronous speed.
2.5. Making Synchronous Motor Self-Starting
A synchronous motor cannot start by itself. In order to make the motor selfstarting, a squirrel cage winding (also called damper winding) is provided
on the rotor. The damper winding consists of copper bars embedded in the
pole faces of the salient poles of the rotor as shown in Fig. The bars are
short-circuited at the ends to form in effect a partial squirrel cage winding.
The damper winding serves to start the motor.
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(i) To start with, 3-phase supply is given to the stator winding while the rotor field winding is left
unenergized. The rotating stator field induces currents in the damper or squirrel cage winding and the
motor starts as an induction motor.
(ii) As the motor approaches the synchronous speed, the rotor is excited with direct current. Now the
resulting poles on the rotor face poles of opposite polarity on the stator and a strong magnetic
attraction is set up between them. The rotor poles lock in with the poles of rotating flux.
Consequently, the rotor revolves at the same speed as the stator field i.e., at synchronous speed.
Note: It is important to excite the rotor with direct current at the right moment.For example, if the d.c.
excitation is applied when N-pole of the stator faces N pole of the rotor, the resulting magnetic
repulsion will produce a violent mechanical shock. The motor will immediately slow down and the
circuit breakers will trip. In practice, starters for synchronous motors are designed to detect the
precise moment when excitation should be applied.
2.6. Equivalent Circuit of synchronous motor.
Fig.(i). shows the schematic
diagram for one phase of a starconnected synchronous motor
while Fig. (ii) shows its
equivalent circuit. Referring to
the equivalent circuit in Fig. (ii).
Net voltage/phase in stator winding is Er = V Eb ;Ia =Er/Zs; Zs= (Ra2-Xs2)---Ohms.
Note:A synchronous motor is said to be normally excited if the field excitation is such
that Eb = V. If the field excitation is such that Eb < V, the motor is said to be under-excited. The
motor is said to be over-excited if the field excitation is such that Eb > V. For both normal and under
excitation, the motor has lagging power factor. However, for over-excitation, the motor has leading
power factor.
2.7. Synchronous Motor on Load
In d.c. motors and induction motors, an addition of load causes the motor speed to decrease. The
decrease in speed reduces the counter e.m.f. enough so that additional current is drawn from the
source to carry the increased load at a reduced speed. This action cannot take place in a synchronous
motor because it runs at a constant speed (i.e., synchronous speed) at all loads.
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What happens when we apply mechanical load to a synchronous motor? The rotor poles fall slightly
behind the stator poles while continuing to run at
synchronous speed. The angular displacement
between stator and rotor poles (called torque angle
a) causes the phase of back e.m.f. Eb to change w.r.t.
supply voltage V. This increases the net e.m.f. Er in
the stator winding. Thus,stator current Ia ( = Er/Zs)
increases to carry the load.
The following points may be noted in synchronous motor operation:
(i) A synchronous motor runs at synchronous speed at all loads. It meets the increased load not by a
decrease in speed but by the relative shift between stator and rotor poles i.e., by the adjustment of
torque angle .
(ii) If the load on the motor increases, the torque angle also increases (i.e.,rotor poles lag behind the
stator poles by a greater angle) but the motor continues to run at synchronous speed. The increase in
torque angle causes a greater phase shift of back e.m.f. Eb w.r.t. supply voltage V. This increases
the net voltage Er in the stator winding. Consequently, armature current
Ia (= Er/Zs) increases to meet the load demand.
(iii) If the load on the motor decreases, the torque angle also decreases. This causes a smaller phase
shift of Eb w.r.t. V. Consequently, the net voltage Er in the stator winding decreases and so does the
armature current Ia (= Er/Zs).
2.7. Pull-Out Torque.
There is a limit to the mechanical load that can be applied to a synchronous motor. As the load
increases, the torque angle also increases so that a stage is reached when the rotor is pulled out of
synchronism and the motor comes to a standstill. This load torque at which the motor pulls out of
synchronism is called pullout or breakdown torque. Its value varies from 1.5 to 3.5 times the full
load torque.
2.8. Motor Phasor Diagram.
Consider an under-excited star-connected synchronous motor (Eb < V) supplied with fixed excitation
i.e., back e.m.f. Eb is constantLet V = supply voltage/phase;Eb = back e.m.f./phase;Zs = synchronous impedance/phase
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(i) Motor on no load


When the motor is on no load, the torque angle is small as shown in Fig(i). Consequently, back
e.m.f. Eb lags behind the supply voltage V by a small angle as shown in the phasor diagram in
Fig.(ii). The net voltage/phase in the stator winding, is Er.Armature current/phase, Ia = Er/Zs
The armature current Ia lags behind Er by

= tan-1( Xs/Ra). Since Xs >> Ra, Ia lags

Er by nearly 90. The phase angle between V and Ia is

so that motor power factor is cos .

Input power/phase = V Ia cos


Thus at no load, the motor takes
a small power VIa cos

from

the supply to meet the no-load


losses while it continues to run at
synchronous speed.
(ii) Motor on load
When load is applied to the motor, the torque angle a increases as shown in Fig(iii). This causes Eb
(its magnitude is constant as excitation is fixed) to lag behind V by a greater angle as shown in the
phasor diagram in Fig. (iv).The net voltage/phase Er in the stator winding increases. Consequently,
the motor draws more armature current Ia (=Er/Zs) to meet the applied load.
Again Ia lags Er by about 90 since Xs
>> Ra. The p f of the motor is cos .
Input power, Pi = V Ia cos
Mechanical power developed by motor ,
Pm = Eb x Ia x cosine of angle between
Eb and Ia. = Eb Ia cos(

2.9. Effect of Changing Field


Excitation at Constant Load.
One of the most important features of a synchronous motor is that by changing the field excitation, it
can be made to operate from lagging to leading power factor. Consider a synchronous motor having a
fixed supply voltage and driving a constant mechanical load. Since the mechanical load as well as the
speed is constant, the power input to the motor (=3 VIa cos ) is also constant. This means that the inKLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

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phase component Ia cos drawn from the supply will remain constant. If the field excitation is
changed, back e.m.f Eb also changes. This results in the change of phase position of Ia w.r.t. V and
hence the power factor cos of the motor changes. Fig. shows the phasor diagram of the
synchronous motor for different values of field excitation.
(i) Under excitation
The motor is said to be under-excited if the field excitation is such that Eb < V. Under such
conditions, the current Ia lags behind V so that motor power factor is lagging as shown in Fig.(ii)).
This can be easily explained. Since Eb < V,the net voltage Er is decreased and turns clockwise. As
angle (= 90) between Er and Ia is constant, therefore, phasor Ia also turns clockwise i.e., current Ia
lags behind the supply voltage. Consequently, the motor has a lagging power factor.
(ii) Normal excitation
The motor is said to be normally excited if the field excitation is such that Eb = V. This is shown in
Fig. Note that the effect of increasing excitation (i.e., increasing Eb) is to turn the phasor Er and hence
Ia in the anti-clockwise direction i.e., Ia phasor has come closer to phasor V. Therefore, p.f. increases
though still lagging. Since input power (=3 V Ia cos ) is unchanged, the current Ia must decrease
with increase in p.f.

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Suppose the field excitation is increased until the current Ia is in phase with the applied voltage V,
making the p.f. of the synchronous motor unity [See Fig. (iii)]. For a given load, at unity p.f. the
resultant Er and, therefore, Ia are minimum.

(iii) Over excitation


The motor is said to be overexcited if the field excitation is such that Eb > V. Under-such conditions,
current Ia leads V and the motor power factor is leading as shown in Fig. (iv). Note that Er and hence
Ia further turn anti-clockwise from the normal excitation position.consequently Ia leads V.From the
above discussion, it is concluded that if the synchronous motor is under-excited, it has a lagging
power factor. As the excitation is increased, the power factor improves till it becomes unity at normal
excitation. Under such conditions, the current drawn from the supply is minimum. If the excitation is
further increased (i.e., over excitation), the motor power factor becomes leading.
Note. The armature current (Ia) is minimum at unity p.f and increases as the power factor becomes
poor, either leading or lagging.
2.10. Phasor Diagrams With Different ExcitationsFig. shows the phasor diagrams for different field excitations at constant load. Fig. (i) shows the
phasor diagram for normal excitation (Eb = V),
whereas Fig. (ii) shows the phasor diagram for under-excitation. In both cases, the motor has lagging
power factor. Fig. (iii) shows the phasor diagram when field excitation is adjusted for
unity p.f. operation. Under this condition, the resultant voltage Er and, therefore, the stator current Ia
are minimum. When the motor is overexcited, it has leading power factor as shown in Fig. (iv). The
following points may be remembered:
(i) For a given load, the power factor is governed by the field excitation; a weak field produces the
lagging armature current and a strong field produces a leading armature current.
(ii) The armature current (Ia) is minimum at unity p.f and increases as the p.f. becomes less either
leading or lagging.

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2.11. V curves and inverted V Curves of synchronous motor.-Experimental setup.


(i).It is the curve drawn between field current,
If and armature current Ia for constant supply
voltage ,V.
(ii).Upto 100% excitation, If and Ia both are
inversely proportional to each other, ie,If
1/Ia.
(iii).After 100% of excitation, If =Ia.
(iv).If ,If decreases, incrases, cos decreases.
(v). The curve between If and cos is known as inverted V curves.
Procedure:
The synchronous machine is started by DC shunt motor and brought to its rated speed.When
the synchronous motor reaches nearly the synchronous speed, its field winding is energized.
Synchronous machine is connected to 3 phase AC.DC supply to the DC motor is disconnected
by operating the switch S1.Now the synchronous machine is running on no load and it can
drive the DC shunt machine working as a DC shunt generator.
Keeping the synchronous motor on no load, take the reading of Ammeter,Voltmeter and
Wattmeter on AC side for different values of excitation.
Now the DC generator is loaded so that the motor is loaded to of its full load.Keeping this
load as constant, take the readings of A,V&W on AC side for different excitation.
Repeat the process for 1/2, 3/4 ,1 and 1 full load on synchronous motor.The corresponding
curves are shown in fig.

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With the help of V curves , pf for any value is determined from the relation,cos=Imin/I, where
Imin=minimum current drawn by motor at given load.
Observations:
With low value of If,Ia is large and lagging.
As If increases, pf increases and Ia decreases till it reaches a minimum value.
When Ia is minimum, pf is unity and corresponding If is as normal field current.The region in
which If is less than its normal value is known as region of under excitation or region of
lagging.
If the If is increased, pf becomes leading and begins to decrease, so Ia increases. The region in
which If is more than normal value is known as region of over excitation or region of leading.

2.12.Different types of Synchronous motor torques:


(i).Starting torque: It is the ability of the motor to accelerate the load. It is also known as breakaway
torque .It is 10% in case of centrifugal pumps and as high as 200% of full load torque ,as in case of
loaded reciprocating compressors.
(ii).Running torque: It is the torque developed by the motor under running condition.
(iii).Pull in torque: It refers to the ability of motor to pull into synchronism when changing from
induction to synchronous motor operation.

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(iv).Pullout torque: It refers to the ability of the motor to remain in synchronism under rated load
conditions. The maximum torque which the motor will develop without pulling out of step is called
pullout torque.
2.13.Phasor diagram of Synchronous motor for various pf.

Note:Er=IZs
AD2=OA2+OD2-2(OA)(OD)cos( +)
E=V2 +Er2 -2VEr cos( +)Volts(phase)
=pf angle; =tan-1(Xs/Ra);Pin=3VLILcos ;
=Po/Pin;Pin=Pm+I2R.

2.14.A.Power developed by synchronous motor.


Fig. shows the phasor diagram of an under-excited
synchronous motor driving a mechanical load. Since
armature resistance Ra is assumed zero.
tan = Xs/Ra =

and hence

= 90.

Input power/phase = V Ia cos


Since Ra is assumed zero, stator Cu loss (I2 Ra )will be zero. Hence input power is equal to the
mechanical power Pm developed by the motor.
Mech. power developed/ phase, Pm = V Ia cos
Referring to the phasor diagram in Fig. , AB
Also AB

Eb sin

Eb sin

Substituting the value of Ia cos


Pm = V Ia cos

V [Eb sin

(i)
Er cos

IaXs cos Ia cos

IaXs cos
Eb sin

Xs

in exp. (i) above;

Xs]=VEb/Xsfor 1 ;3VEb/Xsfor 3 .

2.14 .B.POWER DEVELOPED BY SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

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Let OA=V=supply voltage per phase; I=Ia=armature current in ampere;AB=Eb=back emf at load
angel ;OB=Er=resultant voltage (I Zs I Xs);I leads V by angle and lags behind Eb by .where
=tan -1(Xs/Ra).Line CD is drawn at an angle to the line AB.AC and ED are perpendicular to CD
and also to AE.
Mechanic power developed in the rotor,Pm=Eb.I cos ---- 1
In triangle OBD, cos =BD/OB =BD/IZs;
In triangle OAE, cos(- )= AE/OA

BD=IZs.cos ---2;

(since, OA=V),

Put AE in eqn(3), we get BD=V cos(- ) BC;


To find BC:In triangle, cos =BC/AB

BD=CD-BC =AE-BC ------3

AE=V cos(- ).

IZs cos = V cos(- )-BC----(a)

[since AB=Eb];BC=Eb cos

Equation (a) becomes, IZs cos =V cos(- )-Eb cos ---(b)


I cos = V cos(- )/Zs - Eb cos/Zs ------------- 4;substitute the eqn.4 in the eqn 1
Pm=Eb.I. cos =Pm= Eb.V cos(- )/Zs Eb2 cos/Zs
The above is the expression for the mechanical power interms of load angle and internal angle of
the synchronous motor for constant voltage.
To find maximum power developed:
To find Pmax,the above expression Pm is differentiated with respect to load angle .
Pm= Eb.V cos(- )/Zs Eb2 cos/Zs ;dPm/d = Eb.V/Zs[sin (- )] =0

sin (- )=0

- =0,= at Pmax.
substiture in Pm,Pm= Eb.V cos(- )/Zs Eb2 cos/Zs;Pm= EbV/Zs Eb2 cos/Zs
from the above ,the maximum power and torque depends on V and Eb.
also the max. value of =90.
If Ra is neglected, =90 Pm= Eb.V/Xs ;

[Xs=Zs].

Ex.2.1.A 50kW,400V,synchronous motor is operating at full load with efficiency of 92%.If the field
current is adjusted to make its pf 0.8 leading, estimate the armature current.
Data:Po=50kW,VL=400V,=92%,cos=0.8.Find:Ia.
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Sol:Pin=3VLILcos ;=Po/Pin;IL=Ia.: =Po/Pin0.92=50x103/ Pin;Pin=54.34 x103,


Pin=3VLILcos 54.34 x103=3x400x Ia Ia=IL=98A.

Ex.2.2.A 2.3kV,3 , synchronous motor has Zs=(0.2+j2.2) per phase.The motor is operating at 0.5pf
leading with the line current of 200A.Determine the generated emf per phase.
Data:VL=2.3x103V,3, synchronous motor,Ra=0.2,Xs=2.2, cos=0.8(lead).IL=Ia=200A.Find E.

Sol: E=V2 +Er2 -2VEr cos( +)Volts(phase)


V=Vph= VL/3=2.3x103/3=1327.9V;Er=IZs;Zs=Ra2+Xs2=(0.2)2+(2.2)2=2.2;Er=200x2.2=441.8A.
=tan-1(Xs/Ra)= tan-1(2.2/0.2)=85, =cos-1(0.8)=60.
E=V2 +Er2 -2VEr cos( +)= 13282 +4422 -2(1328)(442) cos(85 +60)=1708Volts.(phase).

Ex.2.3.A 75kW,400V,3,star connected synchronous motor has a resistance and synchronous


reactance per phase of 0.04 and 0.4 respectively. Compute for full load 0.8pf (lead), the open
circuit emf / phase and gross mechanical power developed. Assume full load efficiency of 92%.
Data:Po=75kW,VL=400V, 3 Y- synchronous motor, Ra=0.04,Xs=042, cos =0.8 (lead),=92%.

Find E,Pmech. Sol: E=V2 +Er2 -2VEr cos( +);


V=Vph= VL/3=400/3=230V, Er=IZs;Zs=Ra2+Xs2;I=IL=Ia; Pin=3VLILcos ; =Po/Pin
=Po/Pin0.92=75x103/ Pin;Pin=81 x103, Pin=3VLILcos 81 x103=3x400xILx0.8I=146.3A.
Zs=(0.04)2+(0.4)2=0.4. Er=146 x 0.4=58.66V; =tan-1(Xs/Ra)= tan-1(0.4/0.04)=84, =cos-1(0.8)=36.
E=V2 +Er2 -2VEr cos( +)= 2302 +582 -2(230)(58) cos(84 +36)=265Volts.(phase).
(ii).Pin=Pmech+I2RP mech=Pin-I2R=81 x103-1462x0.04=80.7kW.

Ex2.4.A 3, star connected synchronous motor has synchronous reactance of 4 per phase working
on 1100V busbar. Calculate the power factor of the machine when taking 90kW from the mains, the
excitation being adjusted to a value corresponding to induced emf of 1200V.Neglect armature
resistance.
Data:Star connected synchronous motor,Xs=4,Ra=0,V=VL=1100V,Po=90x103,E=1200V(line).
To find cos.
OBC,cos=BC/OB=BC/Er

BC=Er cos----(a).
ABC,AB2=AC2+BC2.
AC=AB2-BC2

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Er

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AC=E2-(Er cos)2 ---(b)

Er=IZs;Zs=Ra2+Xs2=Xs as Ra=0;Er=IXsI=Er/Xs.
Pin=3VLIL cos; IL cos=90x103/3x1100=47A. IL cos=47A.
BC=Er cos= IXs cos= IL cos xXs =47x4=189V BC=189V= Er cos
AC=E2-(Er cos)2 ;Eph=E/3=1200/3=692V.; AC=E2-(Er cos)2= 6922-(189)2=666V.(phase)
From the phasor diagram,AC=OC + OA OC=AC-OA=666-V/3=666-1100/3=32V(phase)
OC=32V;From OBC,OB2=OC2+BC2OB=OC2+BC2=322 +1882=191V.=Er
Now, Er cos=188V, cos=188/Er=188/191=0.986;Icos=47AmpI=47/0.986=47A.

Ex.2.5.A 2000V,3 phase ,star connected synchronous motor has an effective resistance and reactance
of 0.2 and 2.2 respectively. The input is 800kW at normal voltage and the emf(line) is
2500V.Calculate the line current and power factor of the load.
Data:Star connected synchronous motor,Xs=2.2,Ra=0.2,V=VL=2000V,Pin=800x103,E=2500V(line).
To find Ia& cos.
OBC,cos=BC/OB=BC/Er ; BC=Er cos----(a). ABC,AB2=AC2+BC2. AC=AB2-BC2
AC=E2-(Er cos)2 ---(b) Er=IZs;Zs=Ra2+Xs2=2.2Er=IZsI=Er/Zs.
Pin=3VLIL cos; IL cos=800x103/3x2000=47A. IL cos=230.9A.
BC=Er cos= IZs cos= IL cos xZs =230.9x2.2=508V BC=508V= Er cos
AC=E2-(Er cos)2 ;Eph=E/3=2500/3=1443V.; AC=E2-(Er cos)2= 14432-(508)2=1350V(phase)
From the phasor diagram,AC=OC + OA OC=AC-OA=666-V/3=666-2000/3=196V(phase)
OC=196V;From OBC,OB2=OC2+BC2OB=OC2+BC2=1962 +5082=544V.=Er
Now, Er cos=508V, cos=508/Er=508/544=0.933;Icos=230AmpI=230/0.933=247.5A.

Ex.2.6.A 2000V, 3 phase, 4 pole, star connected synchronous motor runs at 1500rpm.The excitation
is constant and related to OCC voltage of 2000V.The resistance is negligible as compared to
synchronous reactance of 3 per phase. Determine the input power, power factor and torque
developed for an armature current of 200A.
Data:V=VL=E=2000V,3phase,star connected synchronous motor,p=4,N=1500rpm,Ra=0,Xs=3.
Ia=200A.Find Pin,cos andT.Assume lagging pf.
Sol:(i). Pin: Pin=3VLILcos;To findcos:
E=V2 +Er2 -2VEr cos( +); E2=[V2 +Er2 -2VEr cos( -)];Er=IZs=IXs=200 x3 =600V.(phase).
E=Eph=Vph= E/3=2000/3=1154V;
E2=[V2 +Er2 -2VEr cos( -)]11542=[11542 +6002 -2x11542x600 cos( -)]
cos( -)= [11542 +6002 -11542]/ 2x11542x600 cos( -)=0.2598.
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=tan-1(Xs/Ra)= tan-1(3/0)=90; cos( -)=0.2598 cos(90 -)=0.26;sin =0.26; =sin-1(0.26)=15.

Cos=0.96.; Pin=3VLILcos= Pin=3x2000x200x0.96=669kW.


(iii).To find Torque:Pm=2NT/60;Pm=Pin-3I2R=669-0=669 x103.
T=Pmx60/2N=669 x103 x60/2x1500=4258Nm.
Ex.2.7.A 3phase 6600V,50Hz,star connected synchronous motor takes 50A current. The resistance and
reactance per phase are 1 and 20 respectively. Find the power supplied to the motor and induced emf for a
pf of (i)0.8pf lagging (ii)0.8 pf leading (iii).UPF. Draw the vector diagram for each case.
Data:3 phase star connected synchronous motor,f=50Hz,V=VL=6000V,Ia=50A,Ra=1,Xs=20.
Find Pin,E for cos =0.8lagging,0.8leading and UPF.
Sol:Pin=3VLILcos= 3x6600x50x0.8=457kW.
E=V2 +Er2 -2VEr cos( +);Er=IZs=1001.2V;=87, for leading pf ,E=4448.5V.
For lagging pf,Pin =457kW, E=3262V;for UPF,Pin=571kW,E=3891V.
Ex.2.8.A 3phase 6600V,50Hz, star connected synchronous motor takes 50A current. The resistance and
reactance per phase are 1 and 20 respectively. Find the power supplied to the motor and induced emf for a
pf of (i)0.8pf lagging (ii)0.8 pf leading (iii).UPF. Draw the vector diagram for each case.

Data:3 ,Y connected SM, IL =50A;VL =6,600V;Vph=3810.5V,Xs=20 ; Rs=1 f=50 Hz


To find: Pin ,E, for cos

0.8 leading and lagging and upf.

Sol:Pin=3.VLILcos ;for cos =0.8 leading and lagging


(i).Pin=3*6600*50*0.8=457.26 KW,for cos =UPF,Pin=3*6600*50*1=571.57KW
(ii). wkt Er=ILXs => 50*20 = 1000 V;* =tan -1(Xs/Rs) => tan -1(20/1)=87.137o
iii)for 0.8 lagging, E=(V2+Er2-2*V*Er*cos(- ))=
Eph=3810.52+10002-2(3810.5*1000*cos(87.13-36.86))=3263.369 V
*for 0.8 leading,Eph=3810.52+10002-2(3810.5*1000*cos(123.997))Eph=4447.61 V
*for UPF,Eph=3810.52+10002-2(3810.5*1000*cos(87.137))Eph=3890.81 V
RESULT:
PF
0.8 lagging
Pin in KW
457.26
Eph in volts
3263.369
2.15. Synchronous Condenser

0.8 leading
457.26
4447.61

UPF
571.57
3890.81

A synchronous motor takes a leading current when over-excited and, therefore,


behaves as a capacitor.An over-excited synchronous motor running on no-load in known as
synchronous condenser.
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When such a machine is connected in parallel with induction motors or other devices that operate at
low lagging power factor, the leading kVAR supplied by the synchronous condenser partly
neutralizes the lagging reactive kVAR of the loads. Consequently, the power factor of the system is
improved.
Fig. shows the power factor improvement by synchronous condenser method. The 3 - phase load
takes current IL at low lagging power factor cos L. The synchronous condenser takes a current Im
which leads the voltage by an angle fm. The resultant current I is the vector sum of Im and IL and lags
behind the voltage by an angle . It is clear that f is less than L so that cos is greater than cosL.
Thus the power factor is increased from cos L to cos . Synchronous
condensers are generally used at major
substations for pf improvement.
Advantages
(i) By varying the field excitation, the
magnitude of current drawn by the motor can
be changed by any amount. This helps in
achieving control of pf.
(ii) The motor windings have high thermal
stability to short circuit currents.
(iii) The faults can be removed easily.
Disadvantages
(i) There are considerable losses in the motor.
(ii) The maintenance cost is high.
(iii) It produces noise.
(iv) Except in sizes above 500 kVAr, the cost is greater than that of static capacitors of the same
rating.
(v) As a synchronous motor has no self-starting torque, there-fore, an auxiliary equipment has to be
provided for this purpose.
2.16. Applications of Synchronous Motors
(i) Synchronous motors are particularly attractive for low speeds (< 300 r.p.m.) because the power
factor can always be adjusted to unity and efficiency is high.
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(ii) Overexcited synchronous motors can be used to improve the power factor
of a plant while carrying their rated loads.
(iii) They are used to improve the voltage regulation of transmission lines.
(iv) High-power electronic converters generating very low frequencies enables to run synchronous
motors at ultra-low speeds. Thus huge motors in the
10 MW range drive crushers, rotary kilns and variable-speed ball mills.
2.17.Comparison of Synchronous and Induction Motors
S.No.

Particular

Synchronous Motor

3-phase Induction Motor

1.

Speed

Remains constant (i.e., Ns) from

Decreases with load.

no-load to full-load.
2.

Power factor

Can be made to operate from

Operates at lagging

lagging to leading power factor.

power factor.

3.

Excitation

Requires d.c. excitation at the rotor.

No excitation for the rotor.

4.

Economy

Economical for speeds below 300 rpm.

Economical for speeds above


600 r.p.m.

5.

Self-starting

No self-starting torque. Auxiliary

Self-starting

means have to be provided for starting.


6.

Construction

Complicated

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2.18.Relation between Synchronous motor and Induction motor interms of overall


improvement

in power factor:

KWL
L

KWS
S

KVARL

KVAL

KVARS

KVAL

cos L= KWL/ KVAL KWL= KVAL cos L

cos s= KWs/ KVAs

sin L= KVARL/ KVAL KVARL= KVAL sin L

sin L= KVARs/ KVAs

KWT
cos T= KWT/ KVAT

KWL

sin L= KVARs/ KVAs

KWS
T

KVART
L

KVAT

KVARL

KVAL
KVARL= KVART + KVARS KVARS= KVARL- KVART

tan T= KVART/ KWT T=tan-1(KVART/ KWT) ;L = T+S S= L- T;cosS=pf of SM.


Ex.2.9.A 3 sync motor absorbing 60 kW is connected in parallel; with a factory load of 240 kW
having pf 0.8 lag. If the combined load has p.f. 0.9 What is the value of leading kVAR supplied by
motor and at what p.f. it is working?
Data: 3 sync motor ,kWs = 60 kW; kWL = 240 kW; cos L = 0.8; cos T = 0.9;
To Find: kVARs, cos S = ?;
Solution: cos L = 0.8; sin L = 0.6;L = 36.86;
kVAL= kWL/ cos L =240*103/0.8 =300kVA;
kVARL= sin L. kVAL = .6*300k= 180 kVAR,kWT =kWs +kWL =(60 +240)k = 300kW
kVAT= kWT/ cos T = 300k/0.9 = 333.33kVAkVART= sin T.
kVAT = .436*333.33k= 145.3 kVAR
kVART = kVARL kVARS = (180 145.3)k =34.7 kVAR
T = L S; S = L T =11.03; cos 11.03=0.98; cos S = 0.98;
Result: ; cos S = 0.98; kVART=34.7 kVAR
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2.19.Synchronous Phase Modifiers:


Synchronous condensers are operated at pf ranging from lagging through unity leads to leading value
for voltage control. When operated in this manner, a synchronous condenser is called synchronous
phase modifier or reactor. (These are connected at the end of transmission line.
2.20.Hunting in SM:
When a synchronous motor is loaded, the rotor poles fallback by certain angle called the load angle or
Torque angle . If the load is suddenly removed, the rotor poles are pulled into exact position to the
poles of forward field, but due to inertia of rotor they travel too far. They are then pulled back again.
Thus an oscillation is set up above the equilibrium position corresponding to the new load. The
oscillation of the rotor about the equilibrium position is called HUNTING. It is caused by change in
load, change in excitation.
Hunting is reduced by providing a damper winding. The damper winding consists of short circuit bars
embedded in the phases of field poles of synchronous motor. When the motor is running at Ns there is
no relative motion between rotor and airgap flux and so no voltage is induced in the damper winding.
When the speed of the machine deviates from Ns, or hunting takes place, there is relative motion
between the rotor and airgap flux. Thus an emf is induced in the winding. The current flow in the
damper winding sets up a flux, which opposes oscillations and hence hunting is prevented.
2.21.Starting Methods of SM:
(i).From DC source:
If a DC supply and DC compound motor are available, the synchronous motor is coupled and started
by means of DC compound motor. The speed of DC motor is adjusted by means of speed regulator.
The sync. motor is then excited and synchronized with AC supply. At the moment of
synchronization, the Sync motor is switched ON with AC mains. The DC motor is then disconnected
from DC mains. Now synchronous machine operates as motor , from AC supply mains and DC motor
acts as load on it.
(ii).From AC motor:
A small direct coupled induction motor called Pony motor may be used for starting the SM. The
induction motor has two poles less than SM and so is capable of raising the later to sync. speed. Then
AC supply is given to SM. After normal operation is established, the pony motor is uncoupled from
the supply.
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(iii).By means of Damper Grids:


A SM is made self starting by providing a special winding on rotor poles called damper winding or
short circuit winding. The damper winding consists of SC copper bars embedded in the phase of field
poles. AC supply given to stator poles produces a rotating magnetic field, which causes the rotor to
rotate. Hence in the beginning SM provided with damper winding starts as squirrel cage induction
motor.
Advantages:
When motor is overloaded it does not stop. Continues to run as squirrel cage induction motor.
Disadvantages:
Since damper winding resistance is low, it takes larger current from supply to start.
2.22.Speed Contorl of SM:
The speed of SM is given by Ns=120f/P.
Thus by varying the no. of poles or supply frequency its speed can be varied. Voltage to Frequency
ratio control (V/f) is also used to control the speed of synchronous motor.
Questions in Synchronous motor.
1. What is the role of damper winding in an (i) alternator (ii).Synchronous Motor.
2. Does the change in excitation affect the speed or power factor of the synchronous motor?
3. What happens when (i)the excitation of a synchronous motor connected to an infinite bus is
varied, the load torque remaining constant?(ii).the excitation of a synchronous motor is
varied at constant load.
4. Write the expression for maximum power developed by Salient and non-salient pole
synchronous motor.
5.What is a synchronous capacitor?
6.Draw the phasor diagram of a synchronous motor for leading, lagging and unity pf load
7.How will you reverse the direction of rotation of synchronous motor?
8. What is meant by hunting in (i) Synchronous motor ? (ii)Alternator.
9. Describe with neat sketches, the construction, principle of operation a 3 phase SM.
10.What could be the reasons if a 3 phase synchronous motor fails to start?
11.Why a 3 phase synchronous motor will always run at synchronous speed?
12. List any two merits ,demerits and applications of Synchronous motor.
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13.Discuss the starting methods of Synchronous motor.


14. Describe briefly the effect of varying excitation upon the armature current and power factor
of a 3 phase synchronous motor when the input power to the motor is maintained constant.
15.Draw Vand inverted V curves of a synchronous motor. What happens when (i)the
excitation of a synchronous motor connected to an infinite bus is varied, the load torque
remaining constant?(ii).the excitation of a synchronous motor is varied at constant load.
16.Explain the experimental method of determining V and inverted V curves.
20.Draw the equivalent circuit of a synchronous motor.
21.Derive the expression for the power developed by a synchronous motor, interms of the load
angle. What is the condition for maximum power developed?
22.A 75kW,400V,3,star connected synchronous motor has resistance and synchronous
reactance per phase of 0.04 and 0.4 respectively. Compute for full load ,0.8power factor
leading, the open circuit emf per phase and gross mechanical power developed Assume
efficiency as 92.5%. [E=226.1V,Pm =78.2kW]
23.Explain how a synchronous motor can be operated as synchronous condenser? Explain how it
can be used for power factor improvement?
24.A 500V,50Hz,3 load takes 20A at 0.8pf lagging. A Synchronous motor is used to improve
the power factor to unity. Calculate the kVAR input to the motor and its power factor when
driving a mechanical load of 7.5kW.The motor has an efficiency of 85%. [kVARs=10.39.s=36.8
25.How is the speed of a synchronous motor varied?
26.Why a 3 phase synchronous motor will always run at synchronous speed?
27.In what operating condition, is a synchronous motor referred to as synchronous condenser.
28. A 2.3 KV, 3 Phase star connected synchronous motor has Zs = (0.2+j 2.2) ohms per phase.
The motor is operating at 0.5 power factor leading with a line current of 200 Ampere.
Determine the generated emf per phase.
29.. A 3 phase, star connected synchronous motor has a synchronous reactance of 4 ohms per
phase and is working on 1,100V bus bar. Calculate the power factor of this machine when
taking 90KW from the mains, the excitation being adjusted to a value corresponding to an
induced emf of 1,200V, Neglect armature resistance.

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K.L.N.College of Engineering.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.
EE6504-ELECTRICAL MACHINES-II-[C305]
Assignment-I-.[Issue: 06.07.2015,Submission: 17.8.2015

V Sem/A,B &C Sec/EEE.]

UNIT-I,II-SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR,SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR.


CO

Questions

CO305.1

1 to 12

CO305.2

13 to 17

1. The stator of a 3-phase,16 pole alternator has 144slots and there are 4conductors per slot
connected in two layers and the conductors of each phase are connected in series.If the speed
of the alternator is 375 rpm, calculate the emf induced per phase. Resultant flux in the air gap
is 5 X 10-2 webers per pole sinusoidally distributed.Assume the coil span as 150 electrical.
[ =30, k p =0.966, =20,kd =0.96,Eph =988V]
2. A 3 phase ,8 pole,750 rpm, star connected alternator has 72 slots on the armature. Each slot
has 12 conductors and winding is short chorded by 2 slots.Find the induced emf between lines
, given the flux per pole is 0.06Wb.
[=20,=20,EL=2,998V]
3. A 3 phase, star connected alternator is rated at 1,600kVA,13,500V.The armature resistance
and reactance are 1.5 and 30 respectively per phase. Calculate the percentage regulation
for a load of 1,280kW at 0.8 leading power factor.
[IL=68.4A,Eo =6,860V,%R=-11.98%]
4. A 3 phase ,star connected ,5kVA,400V,50Hz, 4 pole, alternator has the following test data at
rated speed.
If(A)

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

5.0

6.0

8.0

Eph(V)

75

140

173

202

224

240

250

257

260

263

266

Armature resistance per phase =2.0.


If(A)

1.0

2.0

3.0

RefJBG(229).Zs=38.88,IL=7.217A,Eo =463.88V,

SC line current

3.6

7.2

10.8

%R=100.81%,Eo =244.5V,%R=5.844%

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Draw OC and SC characteristics and then determine unsaturated value of synchronous reactance per
phase in ohms in per unit.Also determine percentage regulation at rated load at 0.8pf lag and lead by
synchronous impedance method under saturated condtion.Draw relevant phasor diagram.
5. A 3.5MVA,Star Connected Alternator, rated at 4160V,at 50Hz has open circuit characteristics
given by the following data.
Field current in Amp

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

EMF in Volts

1620

3150

4160

4750

5130

5370

5550

5650

5750

A field current of 200Amp,is found necessary to circulate full load current on short circuit of the
alternator.Calculate by (i).Synchronous impedance method (ii).Ampere Turn method, the Voltage
regulation at 0.8pf lagging. Neglect resistance.Comment on the result obtained.
[IL=486A,Zs =5.64/ph,Eo=4600V,%R=91%,If1=150A,If2 =200A,Eo=3140V,%R=30.7%]
6. A 3 phase star connected salient pole synchronous generator is driven at a speed near
synchronous with the field circuit open, and the stator is supplied from a balanced 3 phase
supply. Voltmeter connected across the line gave minimum and maximum readings of
2,800and 2,820volts.The line current fluctuated between 360 and 275 amperes. Find the
direct and quadrature axis synchronous reactances per phase. [xd= 5.9,xq=4.5]
7. Two synchronous generators operate in parallel on a load impedance of Z ohms.Their emfs
are E1 amd E2 and their synchronous impedances are Z1and Z2.Deduce the terminal voltage in
terms of these emfs and admittances.Y,Y1,Y2.Determine the terminal voltage and kW output
of each machine if,E1=100V, E2=110V, Z=(3+j4) and Z1=Z2=(0.2+j1).
[JBG336.V=(96-j3.87),I1=5.457A,I2=14.24A,kW1=442W,kW2=664.8W]
8. A 3MVA ,6pole,alternator runs at 1,000rpm,on 3.3kV,busbars.The synchronous reactance is
25%.Calculate the synchronising power and toque per mechanical degree of displacement
when the alternator is supplying full-load at 0.8 pf lag.
[JBG 336,IL=525A,IXs=476.25V,E=2,224V,Psy=502.6kW,Tsy=6,400Nm.]
9. A 10MVA,5kV,3phase,4pole,50Hz,alternator is connected to infinite bus bars.The short
circuit current is 3.5times the normal current full load current and the moment of inertia of the
rotating systems is 21,00kg-m2.Determine its normal period of oscillation.[JBG
352,T=1.365Seconds]

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10. From the following test results, determine the voltage regulation of a2000V,1 phase alternator
delivering a current of 100A,at (i).unity pf.(ii).0.8 lead pf (iii).0.71 lagging pf.
Test results: Full load current of 100A is produced on short-circuit by a field excitation of 2.5A.
An emf of 500V is produced on open circuit by the same excitation. The armature resistance is 0.8.
(7%,-9%,21.6%1433BLT).
11. Two AC generators running in parallel supply a lighting load of 2,000KW and a motor load of
4,000KW at 0.8 pf lagging. One machine is loaded to 2,400KW at 0.95 lagging. What is the
output power factor of the second machine?[Ref:JBG,pp340,Ex6.7]
[3,600KW,0.8521lag]
12. Two identical 2MVA alternators operate in parallel. The governor of first machine is such
that the frequency drops uniformly from 50Hz on no load to 47.5Hz on full load. The
corresponding uniform speed drop of the second machine is 50Hz to 48Hz.How will they
share a load of 3MW.
[P1=1.333MW,P2=1.667MW ,JBG:343,344]
13. A 75kW,400V,3,star connected synchronous motor has resistance and synchronous
reactance per phase of 0.04 and 0.4 respectively. Compute for full load ,0.8power factor
leading, the open circuit emf per phase and gross mechanical power developed Assume
efficiency as 92.5%.
[E=226.1V,Pm =78.512kW]
14.A 500V,50Hz,3 load takes 20A at 0.8pf lagging.A Synchronous motor is used to improve the
power factor to unity.Calculate the kVAR input to the motor and its power factor when driving a
mechanical load of 7.5kW.The motor has an efficiency of 85%.
[kVARs=10.39.s=36.8]
15.A 3,star connected synchronous motor has a synchronous reactanc of 4per phase and is
working on 1,100V,bus bar.Calculate the power factor of this machine when taking 90kW fom the
mains , the excitation being adjusted to a value corresponding to an induced emf of 1,200V.Neglect
armature resistance.
[Er =191.56V,IL=47.88A,Cos =0.98]
16.A 2,000V,3,4pole Y connected synchronous motor runs at 1,500rpm.The excitation is constant
and corresponds to an open circuit voltage of 2,000V.The resistance is negligible as compared to
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synchronous reactance of 3 per phase. Determine the power input, power factor and torque
developed for an armature current of 200A.
[cos=0.966,Pin=669kW,T=4,259Nm.]
17.A 3,150kW,2,300V,50Hz,1,000rpm,salient pole synchronous motor has Xd =32/phase and
Xq=20/phase.Neglecting losses, calculate the torque developed by the motor if field excitation is so
adjusted as to make the back emf twice the applied voltage and torque angle =16.
[BLT1505,Pm=1,17,425W,Tg=1120Nm]
[BOYS-Roll No.end with odd No&0:1,3,8,9,14], [BOYS-Roll No.end with Even No:2,4,7,12,15],
[GIRLS-Roll No.end with odd No&0:1,5,6,10,11], [GIRLS-Roll No.end with Even
No:2,4,7,,13,15]

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UNIT-III-THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR.


3.1.Introduction
The three-phase induction motors are the most widely used electric motors in industry. They run at
essentially constant speed from no-load to full-load. However, the speed is frequency dependent and these
motors are not easily adapted to speed control. We usually prefer d.c. motors when large speed variations
are required. The 3-phase induction motors are simple, rugged, low-priced, easy to maintain and can be
manufactured with characteristics to suit most industrial requirements.
3.2. Three-Phase Induction Motor
Like any electric motor, a 3-phase induction motor has a stator and a rotor. The stator carries a 3-phase
winding (called stator winding) while the rotor carries a short-circuited winding (called rotor winding). Only
the stator winding is fed from 3-phase supply. The rotor winding derives its voltage and power from the
externally energized stator winding through electromagnetic induction and hence the name. The induction
motor may be considered to be a transformer with a rotating secondary and it can, therefore, be described as a
transformertype a.c. machine in which electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy.
3.3.Advantages
(i) It has simple and rugged construction.(ii) It is relatively cheap.(iii)
It requires little maintenance.(iv) It has high efficiency and
reasonably good power factor.
(v) It has self starting torque.
Disadvantages
(i) It is essentially a constant speed motor and its speed cannot be
changed easily.
(ii) Its starting torque is inferior to d.c. shunt motor.

3.4. Construction
A 3-phase induction motor has two main parts (i) stator and (ii) rotor.
The rotor is separated from the stator by a small air-gap which
ranges from 0.4 mm to 4 mm, depending on the power of the motor.
1. Stator
It consists of a steel frame which encloses a
hollow, cylindrical core made up of thin
laminations of silicon steel to reduce hysteresis and eddy current
losses. A number of evenly spaced slots are provided on the inner
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periphery of the laminations . The insulated connected to form a balanced 3-phase star or delta connected
circuit. The 3-phase stator winding is wound for a definite number of poles as per requirement of speed.
Greater the number of poles, lesser is the speed of the motor and vice-versa.

When 3-phase supply is given to the stator winding, a rotating magnetic field of constant magnitude
is produced. This rotating field induces currents in the rotor by electromagnetic induction.
2. Rotor
The rotor, mounted on a shaft, is a hollow laminated core having slots on its outer periphery. The
winding placed in these slots (called rotor winding) may be one of the following two types:
(i) Squirrel cage type (ii) Wound type
(i) Squirrel cage rotor. It consists of a laminated cylindrical core having parallel slots on its outer
periphery. One copper or aluminum bar is placed in each slot. All these bars are joined at each end by
metal rings called end rings . This forms a permanently short-circuited winding which is
indestructible. The entire construction (bars and end rings) resembles a squirrel cage and hence the
name. The rotor is not connected electrically to the supply but has current induced in it by
transformer action from the stator.
Those induction motors which employ squirrel cage rotor are called squirrel cage induction motors.
Most of 3-phase induction motors use squirrel cage rotor as it has a remarkably simple and robust
construction enabling it to operate in the most adverse circumstances. However, it
suffers from the disadvantage of a low starting torque. It is because the rotor bars are permanently
short-circuited and it is not possible to add any external resistance to the rotor circuit to have a large
starting torque.
(ii) Wound rotor. It consists of a
laminated cylindrical core and carries
a 3- phase winding, similar to the one
on the stator . The rotor winding is
uniformly distributed in the slots and
is usually star-connected. The open
ends of the rotor winding are brought
out and joined to three

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insulated slip rings mounted on the rotor shaft with one brush resting on each slip ring. The three
brushes are connected to a 3-phase star-connected rheostat as shown in Fig. At starting, the external
resistances are included in the rotor circuit to give a large starting torque. These
resistances are gradually reduced to zero as the motor runs up to speed.
3.5. Rotating Magnetic Field Due to 3-Phase Currents
When a 3-phase winding is energized from a 3-phase supply, a rotating magnetic field is produced. This field
is such that its poles do no remain in a fixed position on the stator but go on shifting their positions around the
stator. For this reason, it is called a rotating field. It can be shown that magnitude of
this rotating field is constant and is equal to 1.5

where

is the maximum

flux due to any phase.


To see how rotating field is produced, consider a 2-pole,
3phase winding as shown in Fig.(i). The three phases X, Y and Z are
energized from a 3-phase source and currents in these phases are indicated as
Ix, Iy and Iz [See Fig. (ii). Referring to Fig. (ii), the fluxes
produced by these currents are given by:
x=

Here

mSint
m

y=

mSin(t-120)

z=

mSin(t-240)

is the maximum flux due to any phase. Fig. shows the phasor diagram of the three fluxes. We shall

now prove that this 3-phase supply produces a rotating field of constant magnitude equal to 1.5

m.

(i) At instant 1 [See Fig.(ii)and Fig. (iii), the current in phase X is


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zero and currents in phases Y and Z are equal and opposite. The
currents are flowing outward in the top conductors and inward in the
bottom conductors. This establishes a resultant flux towards right. The
magnitude of the resultant flux is constant and is equal to 1.5

as

proved under:
At instant 1, t = 0. Therefore, the three fluxes are given by;
x=

y=

mSin(-120)

and

Resultant flux, r=2 x 3/2

=-3/2;

z=

is the resultant flux

m cos(60/2)=

2 x 3/2

mSin(-240)=3/2

. It is clear that:
m

x 3/2=1.5

(ii) At instant 2, the current is maximum (negative) in phase Y and


0.5 maximum (positive) in phases X and Z. The
magnitude of resultant flux is 1.5

as proved under:

At instant 2, t = 30. Therefore, the three fluxes are given by;


x=

mSin30= m/2;

The phasor sum of


Phasor sum of

y=
x,

mSin(-90)

and

and z, r=2 x

Phasor sum of r and -

y,

=- m;

z=

mSin(-210)= m

is the resultant flux

m/2

Cos 120/2=

m/2

m=1.5

/2

m/2

m.

Note that resultant flux is displaced 30 clockwise from position 1.


(iii) At instant 3, current in phase Z is zero and the currents in phases
X and Y are equal and opposite (currents in phases X and Y arc 0.866
max. value). The magnitude of resultant flux is 1.5

as proved

under:
At instant 3, wt = 60. Therefore, the three fluxes are given by;
x=

mSin60= m 3/2;

z=

mSin(-180)=0.

The phasor sum of


r

=2x

x,

y=

mSin(-60)

3/2 cos 60/2=1.5

z=0)

=-

m 3/2;

is the resultant flux r ,

Note that resultant flux is displaced 60 clockwise from position 1.


(iv) At instant 4, the current in phase X is maximum (positive) and the currents in phases Y and Z are equal
and negative (currents in phases V and Z are 0.5 max. value). This establishes a resultant flux downward as
shown under:
At instant 4, wt = 90. Therefore, the threefluxes are given by;
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x=

mSin=90= m ;

The phasor sum of


Phasor sum of -

y=
x,

and -

Phasor sum of 'r and

mSin(-30)

and -

y,
x,

m /2;

z=

mSin(-150)=- m /2.

is the resultant flux

r =2
r= m /2

=-

m /2

x cos120/2=

m /2

m =1.5 m

Note that the resultant flux is downward i.e., it is displaced 90 clockwise from position 1
It follows from the above discussion that a 3-phase supply produces a rotating field of constant value (= 1.5

m,

where fm is the maximum flux due to any phase).

3.6. Speed of rotating magnetic field.


The speed at which the rotating magnetic field revolves is called the synchronous speed (Ns). It is
given by, Ns=120f/p; Ns=Synchronous speed in rpm,f=supply frequency in Hz, p=No.of poles.
3.7.Direction of rotating magnetic field
The phase sequence of the three-phase voltage applied to the stator winding is R-Y-B. If this
sequence is changed to R-B-Y, it is observed that direction of rotation of the field is reversed i.e., the
field rotates counterclockwise rather than clockwise. However, the number of poles and the
speed at which the magnetic field rotates remain unchanged. Thus it is necessary only to change the
phase sequence in order to change the direction of rotation of the magnetic field. For a three-phase
supply, this can be done by interchanging any two of the three lines. As we shall see, the rotor in a 3phase induction motor runs in the same direction as the rotating magnetic field. Therefore, the
direction of rotation of a 3-phase induction motor can be reversed by
interchanging any two of the three motor supply lines.
3.8. Principle of Operation
Consider a portion of 3-phase induction motor as shown in Fig. The
operation of the motor can be explained as under:
(i) When 3-phase stator winding is energized
from a 3-phase supply, a
rotating magnetic field is set up which rotates
round the stator at synchronous speed Ns (=
120 f/P).
(ii) The rotating field passes through the air
gap and cuts the rotor conductors, which as

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yet, are stationary. Due to the relative speed between the rotating flux and the stationary rotor, e.m.f.s
are induced in the rotor conductors. Since the rotor circuit is short-circuited, currents start flowing in
the rotor conductors.
(iii) The current-carrying rotor conductors are placed in the magnetic field produced by the stator.
Consequently, mechanical force acts on the rotor conductors. The sum of the mechanical forces on all
the rotor conductors produces a torque which tends to move the rotor in the same direction as the
rotating field.
(iv) The fact that rotor is urged to follow the stator field (i.e., rotor moves in the direction of stator
field) can be explained by Lenzs law. According to this law, the direction of rotor currents will be
such that they tend to oppose the cause producing them. Now, the cause producing the rotor currents
is the relative speed between the rotating field and the stationary rotor conductors. Hence to reduce
this relative speed, the rotor starts running in the same direction as that of stator field and tries to
catch it.
3.9. Slip
The difference between the synchronous speed Ns of the rotating stator field and the actual rotor
speed N is called slip. It is usually expressed as a percentage of synchronous speed i.e.,
%S=(Ns-N)/Ns x 100;Ns=120f/p;N=speed of the rotor or motor, in rpm. Also.N=Ns(1-s)
Note:(i) The quantity Ns - N is sometimes called slip speed.
(ii) When the rotor is stationary (i.e., N = 0), slip, s = 1 or 100 %.
(iii) In an induction motor, the change in slip from no-load to full-load is hardly 0.1% to 3% so that it
is essentially a constant-speed motor.
3.10. Rotor Current Frequency
When the rotor is stationary, the frequency of rotor current is the same as supply frequency. When the
rotor started revolving, then the frequency depends on the relative speed between stator and rotor flux
given by,
f=relative speed in rpm /(120/p)f=(Ns-N)/ (120/p); but S=(Ns-N)/Ns(Ns-N)=SNs
Also,SNs=S(120f/p)= (Ns-N);f=s(120f/p)/(120/p);f=sf---------(1).
T 3.1.A six pole induction motor is fed from 50Hz supply. If the frequency of the rotor emf at full
load is 2Hz,find the full load speed and slip.
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Data:p=6,3 IM,f=50Hz,f=2Hz.Find s.
Sol:f=sf2=s x50s=4%;N=Ns(1-s);Ns=120f/p=120 x 50/6=1000rpm;N=1000(1-0.04)=960.
T 3.2.A 3 IM,has 2 poles and is connected to 400V, 50Hz supply. Calculate the actual rotor speed
and rotor frequency when the slip is 4%.
Data: 3 IM,p=2,VL=400V,f=50Hz,s=4%=0.04.Find N,f.
Sol:N=Ns(1-s);Ns=120f/p=120x 50/2=3000rpm.;N=3000(1-.0.04)=2880rpm.f=sf=0.04x50=2Hz.
3.11.Rotor emf(E2).
When the rotor is at stand still,the motor is equivalent to a 3 transformer with short circuite
secondary,So, induced emf per phase in the rotor E2, when it is at stand still ie at the instant of
starting is given by,E2=(N2/N2)x E1.Where E1=Supply voltage per phase.,N1,N2= turns per phase in
stator and rotor.
3.12.Rotor current and Pf:
(a).At standstill:

(b).At running:E2 =sE2; X2=sX2;

I2=E2/Z2=E2/(R2

+X22).

I2=sE2/Z2=sE2/(R2 2 +(sX2) 2).(2c)

(2a)

cos 2=R2/Z2=R2/(R2 2 +X22) --(2b)

cos 2=R2/Z2=R2/(R2 2 +(sX2) 2) --(2d).

T.3.3.In a 6pole,3 ,50Hz motor with star connected rotor, the rotor resistance per phase is 0.3, the
reactance at standstill is 1.5 per phase and emf between the slip rings on open circuit is
175V.Calculate the slip at a speed of 950rpm and rotor emf per phase, rotor frequency and reactance
at a speed of 950rpm.
Data:3 IM,p=6,f=50Hz,R2=0.3,X2=1.5.E2=175V(line).N=950rpm.Find,s,E2,f.
Sol:S=(Ns-N)/Ns;Ns=120f/p=1000rpm,s=5%;E2=E2(line)/3=101V;f=sf=2.5Hz,X2=sX2=0.075.
3.13.Rotor torque.
It depends on (i).rotor current I2 (ii).Stator flux ( E2).(iii).Power factor of rotor circuit.
T E2I2cos

------(3a)

3.14.Rotor torque under running condition:


We have, T E2I2cos

(1).

Torque under running condtion:I2=sE2/(R22+(sX2 )2) ; cos 2=R2/Z2=R2/(R2 2 +(sX2) 2).


T E2I2cos

E2 x sE2/(R22+(sX2 )2) x R2/(R2 2 +(sX2) 2) =ksR2E22/[R2 2 +(sX2) 2]


Tr = ksR2E22/[R2 2 +(sX2) 2] ---(3b)

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3.15.Torque under starting condition:


At the start, the rotor is stationary,ie N=0; s=1.Tst is obtained by putting s =1 in (3b).
Tst = kR2E22/[R2 2 +(X2) 2] ---(3b).
3.16.Condition for maximum torque of induction motor under running.
We have, Tr = ksR2E22/[R2 2 +(sX2) 2] = Tr = ksR2E22/[R2 2 +s2 X2 2]
For Tmax(running),dTr/ds =0;d/ds[ksR2E22/[R2 2 +s2 X2 2] =0;
[R2 2 +s2 X2 2][ kR2E22] [[ksR2E22][2sX22]

=0 .

[R2 2 +s2 X2 2]2


[R2 2 +s2 X2 2][ kR2E22] [ksR2E22][2sX22] =0[R2 2 +s2 X2 2][ kR2E22]= [ksR2E22][2sX22]
R2 =sX2. ----(3c);Slip corresponding to maximum torque is s=R2/X2.---(3d)
Now, Tr = ksR2E22/[R2 2 +(sX2) 2]; for Tmax, R2 =sX2; Tmax(running)= ks(sX2)E22/[(sX2) 2 +(sX2) 2]
Tmax(running)= kE22/2X2.---(4a) Tmax(running)E22/X2.
It is evident from the above equations that:
(i) The value of rotor resistance does not alter the value of the maximum torque but only the
value of the slip at which it occurs.
(ii) The maximum torque varies inversely as the standstill reactance. Therefore, it should be kept
as small as possible.
(iii) The maximum torque varies directly with the square of the applied voltage.
(iv) To obtain maximum torque at starting (s = 1), the rotor resistance must be made equal to
rotor reactance at standstill.
3.17.Condition for maximum starting Torque .
We have, Tst =KR2E22/[R22+X22]=KR2/[R22+X22] [Differentiatew.r.t R2, and equate to zero, we get
R2=X2] or at start, s=1.Sub in (3c),
Condition for maximum starting torque,R2 =X2----(4b).
3.18.Effect of change in supply Voltage.
Tst =KR2E22/[R22+X22];At standstill ,E2 V; TV2.
Therefore, the starting torque is very sensitive to changes in the value of supply voltage. For example,
a drop of 10% in supply voltage will decrease the starting torque by about 20%. This could mean the
motor failing to start if it cannot produce a torque greater than the load torque plus friction torque.
3.19. Torque-Slip Characteristics
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The motor torque under running conditions is given by;


Tr = ksR2E22/[R2 2 +(sX2) 2] = Tr = K2sR2/[R2 2 +s2 X2 2]
If a curve is drawn between the torque and slip for a particular value of rotor resistance R2, the graph
thus obtained is called torque-slip characteristic. Fig. shows a family of torque-slip characteristics for
a slip-range from s = 0 to s = 1 for various values of rotor resistance.The following points may be
noted.
(i) At s = 0, T = 0 so that torque-slip curve starts from the origin.
(ii) At normal speed, slip is small so
that s X2 is negligible as compared to
R2. TsR2 s.
Hence torque slip curve is a straight line
from zero slip to a slip that corresponds
to full-load.
(iii) As slip increases beyond full-load
slip, the torque increases and becomes
maximum at s = R2/X2. This maximum torque in an induction motor is called pull-out torque or
break-down torque. Its value is at least twice the full-load value when the motor is operated at rated
voltage and frequency.
(iv)With further increase in slip or drop in speed due to increase in speed, due to increase in load,
beyond the point of Tmax, the torque decreases, and motor slows down.i.e ,T1/s.
Thus the torque is now inversely proportional to slip. Hence torque-slip curve is a rectangular
hyperbola.
(v) The maximum torque remains the same and is independent of the value of rotor resistance.
Therefore, the addition of resistance to the rotor circuit does not change the value of
maximum torque but it only changes the value of slip at which maximum torque occurs.
3.20.Effect of rotor resistance on Torque Slip characteristics.
Tr = KsR2/[R2 2 +s2 X2 2];For low value of R2,(sX2)2>>R22;& hence R22 is neglected.
TrsR22E22/(sX2)2;

TR2.

For low value of R2, torque is directly proportional to the rotor resistance R2.
For high value of R2,(sX2)2<<R22;& hence (sX2 )2 is neglected.
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TrsR22E22/R22;

T1/R2.

For high value of R2, torque developed in a motor decreases.


3.20.Relation between Maximum and Full load torque.(Tf/Tmax).
W. k.t, Tr = KsR2E22 /[R2 2 +s2 X2 2];Tf=full load torque;sf=full load slip.
Tf= Ksf R2E22/[R2 2 +s2 X2 2];Also,Tmax=KE22/2X2 ;Tf/Tmax=2sfR2X2/[R2 2 +s2 X2 2]
Divide both Dr &Nr by X22; Tf/Tmax=2sf (R2 /X2 )/[(R2 2/X2 2 )+sf 2].
Let,a=R2/X2;

Tf/Tmax=2asf /[a2+sf 2].

3.21. Relation between starting and Full load torque.(Tst/Tmax).


Tst R2/[R2 2 +X2 2];Tmax 1/2X2 ;

Tst/Tmax=2 R2 X2/[R2 2+X2 2].

Divide both Dr &Nr by X22; Tst/Tmax=2 (R2/ X2 )/[(R2 2 /X2 2 )+1]


Let,a=R2/X2;

Tf/Tmax=2a /[a2+1].

T.3.4.A 6 pole,50Hz,3 ,slip ring induction motor has a resistance and reactance of 0.5 and 5 per
phase respectively. Calculate (i).at what speed the torque is maximum?(ii).The ratio of maximum to
starting torque.(iii).What must be external resistance per to be added so that the starting torque is half
the maximum torque.
Data:3 ,Y connected IM,p=6,f=50Hz,R2=0.5,X2=5.To find(i).N for Tmax(running) .(ii)Tmax/Tst
(iii).r for Tst=0.5Tmax.
Sol:(i). For Tmax(running),R2=sX2s=R2/X2=0.5/5=0.1;N=Ns(1-s);Ns=120f/p=1000rpm;N=900rpm
(ii).Tst/Tmax=2a/1+a2;a= R2/X2=0.1; Tmax/Tst=5.05.
(iii). Tst =0.5Tmax.; Tst /Tmax=0.5=2a/1+a20.5a2-2a+0.5=0;a=3.72.
(R2 +r )/X2= 3.72

r=18.

T 3.5.A 746kW,3 ,50Hz,16 pole IM has a rotor impedance of (0.2+j1.5) at standstill.Full load
torque is obtained at 360rpm.Calculate (i).Ratio of maximum to full load torque.
(ii).speed for maximum torque.(iii).Rotor resistance to be added to get maximum starting torque.
Data: 3 ,IM,p=16,f=50Hz,R2=0.2,X2=0.15,Po=726kW,N=360rpm.
To find (i).Tmax/Tf (ii).N for Tmax (iii).r for Tmax(st)
Sol: (i).Tmax/Tf:Tf/Tmax=2asf /[a2+sf 2];sf=(Ns-N)/Ns ;Ns=120f/p=375rpm;sf=0.04;a=R2/X2=0.133.
Tf/Tmax=0.55; Tmax/Tf =1.82.
(ii). N for Tmax;For Tmax(run),R2=sX2;s=R2/X2=0.133;N=Ns(1-s)=331rpm.
(iii). r for Tmax(st): for Tmax(st),R2=X2(without external resistance);
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R2 +r=X2(with external resistance).r=0.13.


3.22. Power Stages in an Induction Motor
The input electric power fed to the stator of the motor is converted into mechanical power at the shaft
of the motor. The various losses during the energy conversion are:
1. Fixed losses:(i) Stator iron loss.(ii) Friction and windage loss
The rotor iron loss is negligible because the frequency of rotor currents under normal running
condition is small.
2. Variable losses:(i) Stator copper loss(ii) Rotor copper loss
Fig. shows how electric power fed to the stator of an induction motor suffers losses and finally
converted into mechanical power. The following points may be noted from the diagram:
(i) Stator input, Pi = Stator output + Stator losses = Stator o/p + Stator Iron loss + Stator Cu loss
(ii) Rotor input, P2= Stator output .It is because stator output is entirely transferred to the rotor
through airgap by electromagnetic induction.
(iii) Mechanical power available, Pmech = P2 -

This mechanical power available is the gross rotor output and will produce a gross torque Tg.
(iv) Mechanical power at shaft, Pout = Pm Mechanical power available at the shaft produces a shaft torque Tsh.
Clearly, Pm -

Stator input

Stator Cu Rotor input(P )


2
&
Iron loss

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Rotor
Cu loss

Rotor O/P
(Pmech)

F&W loss Gross rotor


O/P (Pg)

Page 78

Efficiency =Output Power/input Power= Output Power/Output Power +Losses


= Output Power/[Output Power +Stator cu loss+Stator iron loss +Rotor cu loss+FW loss].
=Pmech/[Pmech+ Stator cu loss+Rotor cu loss+constant loss].
(i).Rotor output of IM:
Input to rotor,P2=2NsT/60-Watts -(a).Mechanical power developed in rotor,Pmech=2NT/60-W.
Rotor Cu loss=P2-Pmech.= 2NsT/60 -2NT/60 =2T(Ns N)/60=2TSNs /60=SP2.
Rotor Cu loss= SP2.=slip X Rotor input.
Now,Pmech=Rotor input-Rotor cu loss.=P2-SP2=P2(1-S).
Now, Rotor Cu loss= SP2; Pmech= P2(1-S)

Pmech= P2(1-S).

Rotor Cu loss/Rotor o/p=SP2/P2(1-S).

Pmech/Rotor cu loss=(1-S)/S Rotor cu loss:Pmech:S:(1-S).


Also,Power input to rotor: Mechanical power developed: rotor cu loss=1:(1-s):s.
3.23.Synchronous Watts.
It is defined as the torque which develops a power of 1W at the synchronous speed of motor.
When we say that the motor is developing a torque of 100Watts, we mean that the rotor input is
100Watts and that torque is such that power developed would be 100Watts.the above is true, provided
the rotor is running synchronously and developing same torque.
Rotor input =2NsTsy/60Tsy=Rotor input/(2Ns/60).----Synchronous Watts.
T3.6.The power input to rotor of a 440V,50Hz,3 , 6pole IM is 60kW.It is observed that the rotor emf
make 90 complete cycles per minute. Calculate (i).slip (ii).The rotor speed (iii).rotor Cu loss.
(iv).mechanical power developed.
Data:3 IM,VL=440V,f=50Hz,p=6,P2=60kW,f=90cycles/minute=90cycles/60second=1.5Hz.
To find:(i).s.(ii).N.(iii).Pcu(rotor).(iv).Pmech.
Solution.(i).f=sf s=f/f=1.5/50=0.03.
(ii).N=Ns(1-s);Ns=120f/p=120x50/6=1000rpm. N=1000(1-0.03)=970rpm.
(iii).Rotor cu loss=sP2=0.03 x 60kW=1800Watts.
(iv).Pmech=P2(1-s)=60kW(1-0.03)=58.2kW.
EX.3.7.A 3 , 6 pole,50Hz,IM develops 3700W at 950rpm.What is the stator input if the stator loss is
300W.
Data:3 IM, p=6,f=50Hz,N=950rpm,Pmech=3700W, stator loss is 300W.To find Stator input.
Sol: Refer power stages in IM:
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Stator input stator cu loss &iron loss rotor input(P2)-rotor cu lossPmech.


WKT, Rotor cu loss/Pmech =s/(1-s).;s=(Ns N)/Ns;Ns=120f/p=120x50/6=1000rpm.
s=(1000-950)/1000=0.05; Rotor Cu loss=Pmech[s/(1-s)]=3700[0.05/(1-0.05)]=194Watts.
Rotor cu loss=sP2P2=Rotor cu loss/s=194/0.05=3894Watts.
Stator input=P2+stator loss=3894+300=4194W.
=Pmech/(Pmech+Pcu+Pconstant)=3700/(3700+194+300) x100 =88%.
Ex.3.8.The power input to a 500V, 50Hz,6 pole 3 , squirrel cage IM running at 975rpm is 40kW.The
stator losses are 1kW and the friction and windage losses are 2kW.Calculate (i).slip (ii).rotor cu loss
(iii).efficiency (iv).BHP.
Data:3 SCIM,VL=500V,f=50Hz,p=6,N=975rpm,stator input=40kW,Stator loss=1kW,
FW loss=2kW.Find (i).s (ii)rotor cu loss (iii). (iv).BHP.
(i)s=(Ns-N)/Ns;Ns=120f/p=1000rpm;s=0.025.
(ii).P2=stator input-stator loss=40kW-1kW=39kW.;Pcu=sP2=975W.;Pconstant=PFW+Pstator=3kW.
(iii).=Pmech/(Pmech+Pcu+Pconstant);Pmech=P2(1-s)=38.025kW. =38/(38+0.975+3)=90%.
(iv).BHP=Pmech/746=38,025/746=50HP.
3.23.Equivalent circuit of 3 Induction motor.[R2/s=R2 +R2/s R2=R2+R2(1/s-1)=R2 +RL]
In 3 IM, the energy is transferred from primary winding to secondary winding by induction
. Induction motor is essentially a transformer(Rotating transformer).
In the transformer the load on secondary is electrical and in induction motor the load is
mechanical which can be replaced by an equivalent electrical load of resistance RL, given by
RL =R2[(1/s)-1]; R2 =R2/K2;K=V2/V1.

[Note :RL= R2(1/s-1)]

Equivalent Circuit of the Rotor


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We shall now see how mechanical load of the motor is replaced by the equivalent electrical load. Fig.
(i) shows the equivalent circuit per phase of the rotor at slip s. The rotor phase current is given by;
I2=sE2/Z2= sE2/[R22 +(sX2)2]= E2/[(R2 /s)2 +X22].
As shown in Fig. (ii), we now have a rotor circuit that has a fixed reactance X2 connected in series
with a variable resistance R2/s and supplied with constant voltage E2. Note that Fig. (ii) transfers the
variable to the resistance without altering power or power factor conditions.

The
quantity R2/s is greater than R2 since s is a fraction. Therefore, R2/s can be
divided into a fixed part R2 and a variable part (R2/s R2) i.e.,
R2/s= R2 + R2 [(1/s)-1].
(i) The first part R2 is the rotor resistance/phase, and represents the rotor Cu loss.
(ii) The second part R2 [(1/s)-1] is a variable-resistance load. The power delivered to this load
represents the total mechanical power developed in the rotor. Thus mechanical load on the induction
motor can be replaced by a variable-resistance load of value
R2 [(1/s)-1]. RL = R2 [(1/s)-1].
The equivalent circuit, referred to primary is drawn as

The approximate equivalent circuit is drawn below.

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Note: Total power supplied to rotor,P2=3I22R2/s.

Rotor Cu loss =3I22R2

,Pmech =P2 - Rotor Cu loss=3I22R2/s-3I22R2 =3I22R2 [(1/s)-1]= 3I22RL; RL= R2 [(1/s)-1].


3.24.Maximum power output,Pg(max).
Referring to the equivalent circuit of IM, RL= R2 [(1/s)-1] ; R2 =R2/K2.
Gross mechanical power output,Pg =3I12RL;

But,I1 =V/[(R01+RL)2 +(X01)2].

Pg= 3V2 RL /[(R01+RL)2 +(X01)2].


The condition for maximum power output can be obtained by differentiating the above equation and
equating the first derivative to zero.
The result is RL=[(R01) 2+(X01)2=Z01.
Sub. RL =Z01, in Pg, we get, Pg(max) =3V2 Z01 /[(R01+ Z01)2 +(X01)2].
= 3V2 Z01/[(R01)2+(X01)2+(Z01)2+2 R01Z01]= 3V2 Z01/[(Z01)2+(Z01)2+2 R01Z01].
=3V2 Z01/[2(Z01)2+2 R01Z01]= 3V2 Z01/2(Z01)[ R01 + Z01]= 3V2/2[ R01 + Z01].
Pg(max)= 3V2/2[ R01 + Z01].
The slip corresponding to maximum gross mechanical power output will be
Z01= RL= R2 [(1/s)-1] ; R2 =R2/K2;

s= R2/[ R2+Z01].

Note:
I1=I0+I1;

I1 =I2.

I0=Vph/Z0;Z0=(R02+X02).
I1=Vph/(R01+RL)+jX01.
R01=R1+R2;RL=R2 [(1/s)-1]
X01=X1+X2;X2=X2/K2.
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3.9.Estimate the stator current ,pf and efficiency at slip of 5% for a motor having the following data.
Stator impedance =(1+j3). Rotor standstill impedance=(1+j2). No load shunt
impedance=(10+j50). Voltage per phase=250V.
Data:s=0.05,R1=1,X1=3,R2=1,X2=2,R0=10,X0=50.V1(ph)=250V.let, k=1,V1(ph)=250V.
To find:(i).I1.(ii)cos (iii)..
Sol:
I1=I0+I1;

I1 =I2.

I0=V1ph/Z0;Z0=(R0+jX0).
I0=V1ph/Z0=0.96-j4.8=4.9at( -78).
I1=V1/(R01+RL)+jX01.
R01=R1+R2;R2=R2/k2 =1,R01=2;RL=R2 [(1/s)-1]=19;X01=X1+X2 ; X2=X2/K2 ;X01= 5.
I1=11.26-j2.68=11.58 at (-13.4). I1= I0+I1=12.221-j7.488=14.33 at (-31.5).
(ii)Pf=cos =cos(-31.5)=0.853.
(iii)=Pmech/Pin;Pmech=3 (I1 )2RL=3 x 11.58 x 19 =7643W.;Pin=3VI1cos =9167W. =83%
3.10.A 25HP, 6 pole,50Hz induction motor has stator/rotor phase voltage ratio of 6/5.The stator
&rotor impedance per phase are (0.25+j0.75) and (0.173+j0.5) respectively. Find the starting
torque developed by the motor when external resistance of 1 inserted in each phase. The motor
being started directly on the 400V supply system. Assume Y-Y connection.
Data:Po=25HP,p=6,f=50Hz,3 Y-Y IM,E1/E2=5/6E2/E1 =k=5/6, R1=0.25, X1=0.75,
R2=0.173,X2=0.5.r=1,V1(line)=400V.To find:Tst.
Sol:P2=2NsTst/60;Pcu=sP2; for standstill condition,s=1, Pcu=P2; Pcu=3I22R2;I2=E2(ph)/Z02.
Z02=[(R02+r)2+X022];R02=R2+R1;R2=R1=k2 R1. X02=X2+X1;X2=X1=k2 X1.
Now, Pcu=3I22R2;I2=E2(ph)/Z02;E2/E1=k=5/6 E2(ph)=E1(5/6)=400/3 (5/6)=192V.
Z02=[(R02+r)2+X022];R02=R2+R1;R1=k2 R1

R02=0.35.X02=1.04,Z02=1.7.

I2=E2(ph)/Z02.=113.1A; Pcu=3I2 R2=6.6kW;Ns=120f/p=1000 rpm, P2=2NsTst/60Tst=63Nm.


3.25.Induction motor tests.
The tests which are performed
on a 3 IM for the determination of
its efficiency and other
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characteristics are (i).Stator resistance test (ii). No load test (iii). Blocked rotor test.
(i).Stator resistance test: The stator winding resistance is measured between any two terminals using
dc supply. This gives resistance of 2 phases in series, this must be divided by 2 to obtain stator
winding resistance per phase. Re=1.6Rdc.
(ii).No load test: It is performed with different values of voltages applied, below and above rated
voltage while the motor is running on no load.
This test is performed to determine Io,cos o, noload core loss ,R0,X0.The no load test readings
are V0,I0 and W0 measured from Voltmeter, Wattmeter and ammeter respectively.
W0=3V0I0cos cos

W0/3V0I0.Note:V0=Voltage per phase.

Also core loss component, Il=Iocos o;Magnetising component, Im=Iosin 0;I0=(Im2 +Il2).
I0=(Im2+Il2),R0=V0(ph)/Il;X0=V0(ph)/Im.
(iii).Blocked rotor test:
In this test the rotor is stopped from running and stator is connected across the supply.Rated
current is applied .The readings are Vsc,Isc,Wsc.
Wsc=3VscIsccos s cos

Wsc/3VscIsc;Wsc=3Isc2R01R01=Wsc/3Isc2;Z01=Vsc/Isc;X01=(Z012-R012).

Note:For finding pf alone ,all the values may be expressed as given.


3.11.A 400V,3 ,delta connected induction motor gave the following results on no load and short circuit (line
values).No load test:400V,3A,645W;Short circuit test :200V,12A,1660W.The friction and windage losses
amount to 183W.Determine energy and magnetizing components of no load current ,no load pf,no load
resistance and reactance per phase referred to primary, pf on short circuit and short circuit current with normal
voltage applied of 400V across the stator. Stator resistance may be assumed to be 5.

Data:3 , connected IM,VL=400V(line),V0=400V(line),I0=3A(line),W0=645W,Vsc=200V(line),


Isc=12A(line),Wsc=1660W,PFW=183W,VN=400V(line).To find:Il,Im,cos 0,R0,X0,cos s,Isc.
Sol:Note:For 3 , connection,VL=Vph,IL=3Iph. V0(ph)=400V, Vsc(ph)=200V,I 0(ph)=3/3,Isc(ph)=12/3.
From no load test,W0=Piron+Pcu(stator)+PFW Piron= W0 -Pcu(stator)-PFW.
Pcu(stator)=3I0(ph)2R1=45W; Piron=417W,PIron=3V0I0cos cos
Energy component,Il=I0(ph)cos

0 =0.346A;Magnetising

Piron/3V0I0 cos

component, Im=Iosin 0=1.7A.

R0=V0(ph)/Il =1156;X0=V0(ph)/Im=235.
Short circuit test:
Wsc=3VscIsccos s cos

Wsc/3VscIsc =0.4;Wsc=3Isc(ph)2R01R01=Wsc/3Isc(ph)2 =11.5.

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Z01=Vsc(ph)/Isc(ph)=28.8.;X01=(Z012-R012)=26.5.
short circuit current with normal voltage applied of 400V across the stator,

ISN=(VN/Vsc)Isc=(400/200) x12=24A.

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3.26.Circle diagram of 3 Induction motor.


For RLC series circuit,I=V/Z=V/(R2 +X2) =(V/X) [ (X/(R2 +X2)] ---(a).
WKT,cos =R/Z;sin =X/Z=(X/(R2 +X2)].---(b).

I=(V/X)sin ---(c).

It is equation of circle in polar co-ordinates with diameter =V/X. The equivalent circuit of induction
motor considered as a series circuit where R01=R1+R2 &X01=X1+X2.
Thus the operating characteristics of an induction motor can be computed by the use of a circle
diagram, easily and conveniently.
Construction of circle diagram:
Circle diagram of induction motor can be drawn by using data obtained from
(i).No load test [V0,Io,W0].(ii).Blocked rotor test[Vsc,Isc,Wsc] (iii).Stator resistance test[R1]. Note:
Before drawing the diagram ,select suitable scale corresponding to the current scale.
Step-1:No load test readings: Vo,Io,W0.Draw Io at an angle
where

0=cos

-1

0.[line

oo].

[Wo/3V0I0].Also draw OX. parallel to OX.

Step-2:Draw ISN (short circuit current with normal voltage) at an angle


sc=cos

-1

sc,

where ISN=(VN/Vsc)Isc

[Wsc/3VscIsc].VN=rated voltage of the machine. Thus the line ISN at an angle

drawn.ie line OA=ISN at

sc.

sc

was

Join O and A by a dotted line .Draw perpendicular bisector line for OA

line.This line will intersect OX at the point C(centre of the circle).With C as centre and OC as
radius, draw a semicircle. Line OA=Output line;OO=No load input[core loss,FW&stator Cu
loss].AG is drawn perpendicular to OX, where AG=input power .
Step-3:EF is the line which separates the stator and rotor Cu loss. When rotor is blocked, all the
power supplied to the motor to be core loss and cu loss in the stator and rotor winding.
From the diagram, AG=Power input;FG=Fixed loss;AF=sum of Stator and rotor Cu loss.
The point E is located such that AE/EF=Rotor Cu loss/Stator Cu loss.
Location of the pointE:
(i).Squirrel cage rotor:
Wsc=stator cu loss +rotor cu loss=3Isc2R1+Rotor cu loss. Rotor cu loss= Wsc -3Isc2R1.
AE/EF=Rotor Cu loss/Stator Cu loss= [Wsc -3Isc2R1]/ 3Isc2R1.
Where R1=stator resistance per phase.Note:Usually ststor cu loss=Rotor Cu loss/2.
(ii).Slip ring IM:
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r1=stator resistance per phase;r2=rotor resistance per phase.


AE/EF=Rotor Cu loss/Stator Cu loss=I22r2/ I12r1=(r2/r1)(I2/I1)2=(r2/r1)[1/k]2.
Where k is found out from SC test using 2 ammeters connected in the stator and rotor circuits.
Let us assume that the motor is running and taking a current I1 or OL. Then the perpendicular line
drawn from L is shown.
Motor input=LK;stator cu loss=NJ;rotor cu loss=MN;fixed loss=JK;total loss=MK;
rotor input =NL,;Mechanical output=ML;slip=Rotor cu loss/rotor input=MN/LN.
PF=LK/OL;=ML/NL.
3.12.A 3 ,400V,IM gave the following test readings. No load test:400V,1250W,9A.
SC test:150V,4KW,38A.Draw the circle diagram.If the normal rating is 14.9kW,find from the circle
diagram, the full load value of current, pf ,slip and efficiency.
Data:3 IM,VN=400V,V0=400V,I0=9A,W0=1250W,Vsc=150V,Isc=38A,Wsc=4000W,Po=14.9kW.
To find IL,pf,s,.
Sol:Fixing of current scale:ISN=(VN/Vsc)Isc=101A. Let us take 1cm=5A.
Step1:Draw Io at an angle cos o;cos o=Wo/3VoIo o=78. Io( o)=9A(78)=1.8cm(78)=line00.

Step2:Draw ISN at

s;

cos s;cos s=Wsc/3VscIsc s=66. ISN( s)=101A(66)=20.3cm(66)=line0A.

Join 0 and A by a dotted line .Draw perpendicular bisector line for 0A line.This line will intersect
0X at the point C(centre of the circle).With C as centre and 0C as radius, draw a
semicircle.Line 0A=Output line;.AG is drawn perpendicular to OX, where AG=input power .
Assume Stator cu loss=Rotor cu loss. Point E is located middle of the line AF.
To find power scale:Input power=PSN=3VoISNcos s=28554W.=AG=8.2cm1cm=3482Watts.
Corresponding to 14,9kW,the rated power output ,the length in cm is given by 14.9/3.48=4.3cm.
Line AG is extended at top such that AS=4.3cm.From the point S, draw a parallel line to OA, such
that it intersects the semi circle at the point L.Connect OL.Lentgh OL=Full laod current.
From the circle diagram,OL=4.8cm x5=24A;pf=angle OVL=LK/OL=0.866.
Slip,Rotor cu loss=sxrotor input.s=MN/NL=6%,=LM/LK=82.5%.

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3.13. Draw the circle diagram for a 5.6KW,400V,3phase,4pole,50Hz,slip ring IM from the following

data.No load readings-400V,6A,pf = 0.087.SC test- 100V,12A,720watts. The ratio of primary to


secondary turns is 2.62,stator resistance per phase is 0.67 ohm and of the rotor is 0.185ohm.calculate
(i)full load current (ii).full load slip (iii)full load pf,(iv).maximum torque (v) maximum power.
Data:3 SRIM,VL=400V,p=4,f=50Hz,V0=400V,I0=6A,cos0=0.087,Vsc=100V,Isc=12A,
Wsc=720W, 1/k=2.62,R1=0.67,R2=0.185 ohm.To find:I,S,cos ,Tmax, Pmax.
Soln:cos 0=0.087

o=85,cossc=Wsc/3.Vsc.Isc

= 720/3*100*12,cos sc=0.346, sc=69

To find current scale:


ISN=VN*Isc/Vsc =400*12/100=48A.let us take 1cm=3A.
1. Draw IO ,ISN at an angle of O and SNIO=6A85 = 2 cm85=OO
ISN = 48A69.73 = 16cm69.73=OA.
2. Draw a horizontal line parallel O parallel to X-axis.3. Join OA. This is output line.
4. Draw a perpendicular bisector of OA to meet horizontal of OX at point C.
5. Take C as center OC as radius Draw a semi circle.
6. Draw a vertical line from A which meets X-axis at G.
POWER SCALE
Psn = 3 Vsn * Isn * coss =3*400*48*0.346=11,506.36W;Length AG= 5.5 cm;
5.5cm = 11506.36W ; 1 cm = 2092W
To locate point E:
For slip ring Induction motor, (rotor cu loss/stator cu loss) = (r2/r1) * (1/k2)
But, (I2/I1) = (1/k),

AE/EF= (r2/r1) * k2 =(0.185/0.67)*2.622,AE/EF= 1.9,AE = 1.9 EF

From the graph, AF= 5.3 cm,

total cu loss= stator cu loss+ Rotor cu loss

Given stator cu loss= Rotor cu loss/1.9,Total cu loss = (Rotor cu loss/1.9)+Rotor cu loss


5.3 cm= Rotor cu loss*1.526,Rotor cu loss= 5.3 / 1.526 = 3.47 cm
*Draw a line of length 3.47cm from the point A to locate point E and connect OE (torque line)
AS=rating of motor/power scale 5.6*103/2092.1,AS=2.7cm
*Line AG is extended such that AS=2.7cm.Draw parallel line to output line from S,to meet
semicircle at L. Then Draw a vertical line from L.
(i) Line current=L(01) X current scale=4.6cmX3=13.8A
(ii) Slip=MN/NL =0.2/36.3 X100 = 6.06%
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(iii) = LM/LK=301/307X100 = 83.8%


(iv) cos = cos 37 =0.799
(v) Tmax =JS X Power scale =6.5cm x 2092.1 = 13598.65 synchronous watts
Draw a line parallel to torque line meet the circle at point J and draw a vertical
line from J to torque line at point S.
(vi)Pmax=5cmX2092.1 = 10460.5 watts

3.27.Double Squirrel-Cage Motors.


One of the advantages of the slip-ring motor is that resistance may be inserted in the rotor
circuit to obtain high starting torque (at low starting current) and then cut out to obtain optimum
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running conditions. However, such a procedure cannot be adopted for a squirrel cage motor because
its cage is permanently short-circuited. In order to provide high starting torque at low starting current,
double-cage construction is used.
Construction
As the name suggests, the rotor of this motor has two squirrel-cage windings located one above the
other as shown in Fig.
(i) The outer winding consists of bars of smaller cross-section short-circuited by end rings.
Therefore, the resistance of this winding is high. Since the outer winding has relatively open slots and
a poorer flux path around its bars , it has a low inductance. Thus the resistance of
the outer squirrel-cage winding is high and its inductance is low.
(ii) The inner winding consists of bars of greater cross-section short-circuited by end rings.
Therefore, the resistance of this winding is low. Since the bars of the inner winding are thoroughly
buried in iron, it has a high inductance . Thus the resistance of the inner squirrel cage
winding is low and its inductance is high.

Working
When a rotating magnetic field sweeps across the two windings, equal e.m.f.s are induced in each.
(i) At starting, the rotor frequency is the same as that of the line (i.e., 50 Hz), making the reactance of
the lower winding much higher than that of the upper winding. Because of the high reactance of the
lower winding, nearly all the rotor current flows in the high-resistance outer cage winding. This
provides the good starting characteristics of a high-resistance cage winding.
Thus the outer winding gives high starting torque at low starting current.
(ii) As the motor accelerates, the rotor frequency decreases, thereby lowering the reactance of the
inner winding, allowing it to carry a larger proportion of the total rotor current At the normal
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operating speed of the motor, the rotor frequency is so low (2 to 3 Hz) that nearly all the rotor current
flows in the low-resistance inner cage winding. This results in good operating efficiency and speed
regulation.
Fig. shows the operating characteristics of double squirrel-cage motor.
The starting torque of this motor ranges from 200 to 250 percent of full-load torque with a starting
current of 4 to 6 times the full-load value. It is classed as a high-torque, low starting current motor.
3.28. Equivalent Circuit of Double Squirrel-Cage Motor.
Fig. shows a section of the double squirrel cage motor.
Here Ro and Ri are the per phase resistances of the outer cage
winding and inner cage winding whereas Xo and Xi are the
corresponding per phase standstill reactances. For the outer
cage, the resistance is made intentionally high, giving a high
starting torque. For the inner cage winding, the resistance is
low and the leakage reactance is high, giving a low starting
torque but high efficiency on load. Note that in a double squirrel cage motor, the outer winding
produces the high starting and accelerating torque while the inner winding provides the running
torque at good efficiency.
Fig. shows the equivalent circuit for one phase of double cage motor referred to stator. The two cage
impedances are effectively in parallel. The resistances and reactances of the outer and inner rotors are
referred to the stator. The exciting circuit is accounted for as in a single cage motor. If the
magnetizing current (I0) is neglected, then the circuit is simplified to that shown in Fig. .

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From the equivalent circuit, the performance of the motor can be predicted.
Total impedance as referred to stator is
Zeq=Z1 +Zo Zi/( Zo+ Zi);Z1=R1+jX1;Z0=(Ro/s)+jXo; Zi=(Ri/s)+jXi.
3.13.In a double cage IM, the outer cage has impedance of (2+j1.2), determine the slip at which the
2 cages develops equal torques,if the inner cage has an impedance of (0.5+j3.5) at standstill
Data:Ro=2,Xo=1.2, Ri=0.5,Xi=3.5.,To=Ti.To find s.
Sol:PoTo; PiTi;Po/Pi=To/Ti;Po=Io2(Ro/s);Pi= Ii2(Ri/s);Io=E2/Zo; Ii=E2/Zi.;Zo=[( Ro/s)2+Xo2]
Zi=[( Ri/s)2+Xi2] (Po/Pi)= (To/Ti)To=Tis=0.25.
3.14.If the standstill impedance of outer cage of a double cage machine is (0.3+j0.4) and of the
inner cage is (0.1+j1.5), compare the relative currents and torques of the outer and inner cages at
(a).standstill (b).at a slip of 5%.
Data: Ro=0.3,Xo=0.4, Ri=0.1,Xi=1.5., Compare I1/I2&T1&T2.for(a)s=1(b)s=0.05.

Sol: (a)s=1,Z0=[(Ro/s)+Xo]=0.5;Io=E2/Zo=2E2;Po= Io2(Ro/s)=1.2E22 Watts;Pi=0.044E22Watts.


Given ,Po/Pi=To/Ti.To=27.13Ti.
(b).for s=0.05, Z0=[(Ro/s)+Xo]=6;Io=E2/Zo=0.166E2;Po= Io2(Ro/s)=0.166E22 Watts;
Similarly,Pi=0.32.E22Watts. Po/Pi=To/TiTo=0.5187.
3.29.HARMONIC INDUCTION TORQUE:
Unwanted waveform present in the motor or generator
is called harmonics. Harmonics are developed in the
winding due to irregularity in the slots, magnetic,
saturation, airgap length ,etc. A 3phase winding
carrying sinusoidal current produces harmonics in the
order of n=6m +-1 where m is an integer .The
movement of harmonics is with or against the
direction of rotation for +ve and -ve sign respectively.
Such a harmonics will affect the torque developed by the induction motor .It also affect the torque slip characteristics of IM as shown in fig.
3.30.MERITS AND DEMERITS OF 3 PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
MERITS (SQUIRREL CAGE)
DEMERITS
Cheaper than SRIM
1)low starting torque ,low power factor
simple and rugged construction
2) speed control not possible
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less conductor than SRIM ,low cu loss ,high


3) sensitive to change in supply voltage(torque
efficiency
directly proportional to the V2)
no slip rings ,brushes , no maintenance
4)more energy loss during starting
no risk of sparking
constant speed , high overload capacity ,simple
starting methods
3.31.MERITS AND DEMERITS OF SLIP RING IM
MERITS
DEMERITS
1)high starting torque Tmax can be varied by
1)high maintenance cost.(slip rings ,brushes)
adjusting the resistance
2)low efficiency
2)better speed control
3)sensitive to change in supply voltage
3)high overload capacity .
4)low pf at light loads
4)nearly constant speed
3.32.APPLICATIONS OF 3 IM.
SCIM: 1)printing machinery 2) flour mill
SRIM: 1)lifts, pumps,cranes,hoists,winding machines,compressors
3.33.COMPARISION BETWEEN SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR AND IM
SM

IM

1)_no self starting torque

1)self starting motor

2)speed is constant

2)speed falls slightly with increase in load

3)can be operated under lagging ,leading ,

3)can be operated at lagging p.f only

unity power factor

4)speed control is possible

4)no speed control is possible

5)dc excitation is not required

5)requires DC excitation

6)used for supplying mechanical load only

6)used for supplying mechanical load as well

7)more sensitive to change in supply voltage

as power factor improvement


7)less sensitive to change in supply .

3.34.INDUCTION GENERATOR:
Principle of operation.
Induction generators and motors produce electrical power when their rotor is rotated faster than the
''synchronous frequency''. For a typical four-pole motor (two pairs of poles on stator) operating on a
60 Hz electrical grid, synchronous speed is 1800 rotations per minute. Similar four-pole motor
operating on a 50 Hz grid will have synchronous speed equal to 1500 rpm.
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In normal motor operation, stator flux rotation is faster than the rotor rotation. This is causing stator
flux to induce rotor currents, which create rotor flux with magnetic polarity opposite to stator. In this
way, rotor is dragged along behind stator flux, by value equal to slip.
In generator operation, a [[prime mover]] (turbine, engine) is driving the rotor above the synchronous
speed. Stator flux still induces currents in the rotor, but since the opposing rotor flux is now cutting
the stator coils, active current is produced in stator coils, and motor is now operating as a generator,
and sending power back to the electrical grid.

When running faster than its synchronus speed an IM runs as a generator called induction generator.
Note.(i)IM coupled to petrol engine (prime mover).(ii)it will operate at ve slip.(iii)the machine
delivers electrical energy to the supply.(iv)it receivers
reactive currents from the supply. for this purpose capacitor
banks are used .
Application:Wind turbines.
3.34.SYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION MOTOR:
A machine which is capable of running both as IM and SM is
called synchronous induction motor,the machine will run at IM
during starting and it will run SM during normal running.,
For the operation of synchronous motor dc excitation will be supplied and for the operation of IM
,dc supply will be disconnected.
APPLICATION(i)connected along with 3 phase IM. to improve overall p.f of the system

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PART-A1.What are the two types of Induction Motor? Which type is generally preferred?
2.Why the slots of induction motor rotor are usually skewed?
3.Which type of induction motor develops high starting torque?
4.How can the direction of rotation of the 3- IM be reversed?
5.What is the slip of induction motor
6.What is the condition for maximum torque developed in an IM (i)at starting (ii)at running
7.What are the losses in a 3- IM?
8.What is meant by cogging & crawling? How to avoid it?
9.How will you improve the starting torque of a 3 IM?
10.What are the main advantages of cage IM?
11.What are the main disadvantages of cage IM?
12.What is meant by single phasing?
13.Compare 3 IM with synchronous motor.
14.Compare 3 Squirrel cage IM and Slip ring IM.
15.Draw the equivalent circuit of double cage IM.
16.Draw the Torque slip characteristics of Double cage IM.
17.Draw the performance characteristics of 3 IM.
18.What is meant by harmonic induction Torque? Draw the torque-Speed characteristics due to such
effects.
19.What is a circle-diagram?
20. How will you measure the slip of IM using stroboscopic method?
21. Write the expression for power input to output in terms of slip.
22.Write the expression for (i)starting torque to maximum torque (ii)Full load torque to maximum
torque
23. What is the effect of change in supply voltage on torque and slip of IM?
24.Draw the torque slip & torque speed characteristics of a 3 IM.
25. Distinguish between SCIM & SPIM.

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26. Explain the construction and working of 3 IM.


27.Explain with the help of suitable diagrams how rotating magnetic field is produced.
28. Explain the terms slip, slip frequency, wound rotor, cage rotor.
29. Derive an expression for toque developed in a 3 IM and find the condition for maximum
torque (i)starting (ii)running
30.Derive an expression for rotor frequency in terms of main supply frequency and slip.
31.Draw the torque speed characteristics of poly phase IM and clearly indicate the effect of
change in rotor resistance.
32. For an IM derive a relationship between (i)starting torque and maximum torque (ii) Full load
torque and maximum torque
33.Prove that the ratio of actual speed of rotor of an IM to its synchronous speed is given by
rotor i/p to rotor o/p.
34.Show that the Pg: rotor ohmic loss: Pm =1: s: (1-s)
35.Derive the equivalent circuit of a 3 IM. From the approximate equivalent circuit ,find the (i)
rotor i/p (ii) o/p power (iii) o/p torque. Also find slip @ maximum torque.
36.Describe double cage IM.
37. Describe the No-load test and Blocked rotor test of an IM
38. Explain how the parameters of 3 IM can be obtained from the test results.
39.What is the effect of variation of supply frequency and supply voltage on starting torque,
synchronous speed, % slip and load current?
40. Explain the procedure for drawing Circle Diagram.
41. A 6 pole induction motor is fed from 50 Hz supply. If the frequency of rotor emf at full load
is 2Hz,

Find the full load speed and slip. (ans: s=0.04,N=960 rpm).

42. A 3 phase induction motor has 2poles is connected to 400v, 50 Hz supply. Calculate the
actual rotor speed, rotor frequency when slip is 4 %( ans: f=2Hz, N=2880 rpm)
43. In a 6pole, 3phase, 50Hz induction motor with star connected rotor, the rotor resistance per
phase is 0.3, the reactance at stand still is 1.5/ph & emf between the slip rings on open
circuit is 175v. Calculate slip at the speed of 950 rpm, rotor emf /ph, rotor frequency &
reactance at this speed. (ans: s=5%, f=2.5Hz, x2=.075)
44. In a 6pole, 3phase, 50Hz slip ring induction motor has a resistance & reactance of .5 &
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5 /ph.Calculate a. At what speed torque is maximum. B. the ratio of Tmax to Tst. c. What
must be the external resistance per phase to be added so that the starting torque is half of the
maximum torque? (ans: N=900 rpm,r=18.16, ratio of Tmax to Tst =5.05)
45. In a 16pole, 3phase, 50Hz, 746 kw induction motor has a rotor impedance of 0.02+j .15 at
stand still. Full load torque is obtained at 360 rpm. Calculate a) ratio of maxi to full load
torque b). Speed for maxi torque c). Rotor resistance to be added to get maxi starting
torque.(ans: ratio of Tmax to Tf =1.81,N=325.125 rpm,r=.13)
46.The power input to a rotor of 440v,50Hz,3ph,6pole induction motor is 60 kw. It is observed
that the rotor emf makes 90 complete cycle per minute. Calculate slip, rotor speed, rotor cu
loss, Pmech .(ans: s=3%, N=970 rpm,

p2=1800 w, Pmech=58.2kw).

47. In a 6pole, 3phase, 50Hz induction motor develops 3700 watts at 950 rpm. What is the stator
input, if the stator loss is 300 watts. (ans: stator input=4194.7 watts).
48. The power input to 500v, 6pole, 3phase, 50Hz squirrel cage induction motor running at 975
rpm is 40 KW. The stator losses are 1kw & friction- windage losses are 2kw. Calculate slip,
rotor cu loss,efficiency (ans: s=2.5%, p2=0.975 watts, n=90%)
49. Estimate the stator current, power factor, efficiency at the slip of 5% for a motor having
statorimpedance 1+3j, rotor stand still impedance=1+2j, No load shunt
impedance=10+j50,voltage/ph=250v. (ans: pf=.85, =83.6%, I1=14.33A)
50. A 25 hp, 6 pole, 3phase, 50Hz induction motor has stator/rotor ph voltage ratio of 6/5. The
stator and rotor impedance/ph are (.25+j.075) & (.173+j.52 ) respectively. Find the
starting torque developed by the motor when external resistance of 1 is inserted in each
phase, the motor being started directly on the 400v supply system. Assume star-star
connection. (Ans: Tst=63.5 Nm)
51. A 400V ,3ph delta connected I.M gave the following results on no load and short circuit
(line ) values No load test- 400v,3A,645W Short circuit test-200v, 12A,1660 w. The friction
& windage losses among two 183 W. Determine energy magnetizing components, no load
current, no load power factor , no load resistance &reactance, equivalent resistance
&reactance/ph referred to primary, power factor on S.C and S.C with normal applied voltage
of 400v across the stator. Stator resistance may be assumed to be 5 . (ans: pcu=45W,
pi=417W, cos=0.2, R01=11.11 ,x01=26.63 )
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52. A 400V ,3ph I.M gave the following results on no load and short circuit (line ) values No
load test- 400v, 9A, 1250W Short circuit test-150v, 38 A, 4000 w. Draw the circle diagram if
the normal rating is 14.9kW. Find from the circle diagram the full load value of current,
power factor, slip &efficiency. (ans:n=82%, =30, S=5.12%,Il=26A).
53.Draw the circle diagram of a 3ph, 14.92kW, 400v, 6 pole I.M from the following test results
No load test- 400v, 11A, pf=0.2 Short circuit test-100v, 25 A, pf=0.4 Rotor cu loss at stand
still=half the total cu loss. Find line current, slip, efficiency, power factor at full load & Tmax
(ans: Tmax=26.04syn w, S=6.12%,pf=0.84, n=79%, Il=33.5 A)
54. Draw the circle diagram of a 3ph, 5.6kW, 400v, 4 pole , 50 Hz slip ring I.M from the
following test results No load test- 400v, 6 A, pf=0.087 Short circuit test-100v, 12 A, 720W.
The ratio of primary to secondary turns=2.620, stator resistance/ph=.67/ph. Rotor resistance
per phase=0.185 /ph. Calculate full load current, full load slip, power factor, maxi torque &
max power.
55. In a double cage I.M if the outer cage has impedance at stand still of (2+j1.2 )/ph.
Determine the slip at which the two cages develop equal torques if the inner cage has an
impedance of (0.5+j3.5) at stand still. (ans: S=25%)
56. If the standstill impedance of outer cage of double cage machine is 0.3+j0.4 & of the inner
(0.1+j1.5 ). Compare the relative current torque of the outer & inner cages at standstill & at
a slip of 5%.
57.Write short notes on (i).Synchronous induction motor.(ii)Induction generator.

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Unit-IV-Starting and speed control of induction motor.


4.1. Starting of 3-Phase Induction Motors.
The induction motor is fundamentally a transformer in which the stator is the primary and
the rotor is short-circuited secondary. At starting, the voltage induced in the induction motor rotor is
maximum (s = 1). Since the rotor impedance is low, the rotor current is excessively large. This large
rotor current is reflected in the stator because of transformer action. This results in high starting
current (4 to 10 times the full-load current) in the stator at low power factor and consequently the
value of starting torque is low. Because of the short duration, this value of large current does not
harm the motor if the motor accelerates normally. However, this large starting current will produce
large line-voltage drop. This will adversely affect the operation of other electrical equipment
connected to the same lines. Therefore, it is desirable and necessary
to reduce the magnitude of stator current at starting and several methods are available for this
purpose.
4.2. Need for Starters in IM .
The main problem in starting induction motors having
large or medium size lies mainly in the requirement of
high starting current, when started direct-on-line (DOL).
Assume that the distribution line is starting from a
substation , where the supply voltage is constant. The
line feeds a no. of consumers, of which one consumer
has an induction motor with a DOL starter, drawing a high current from the line, which is higher than
the current for which this line is designed. This will cause a drop (dip) in the voltage, all along the
line, both for the consumers between the substation and this consumer, and those, who are in the line
after this consumer. This drop in the voltage is more than the drop permitted, i.e. higher than the limit
as per ISS, because the current drawn is more than the current for which the line is designed. Only for
the current lower than the current for which the line is designed, the drop in voltage is lower the limit.
So, the supply authorities set a limit on the rating or size of IM, which can be started DOL. Any
motor exceeding the specified rating, is not permitted to be started DOL, for which a starter is to be
used to reduce the current drawn at starting.
Note: Starting current of 3 IM=5to7 times full load current.
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4.3. Methods of Starting 3-Phase Induction Motors


The method to be employed in starting a given induction motor depends upon the size of
the motor and the type of the motor. The common methods used to start induction motors are:
(i) Direct-on-line starting (ii) Stator resistance starting (iii) Autotransformer starting
(iv) Star- delta starting.(v) Rotor resistance starting
Methods (i) to (iv) are applicable to both squirrel-cage and slip ring motors.
However, method (v) is applicable only to slip ring motors. In practice, any one of the first four
methods is used for starting squirrel cage motors, depending upon ,the size of the motor. But slip ring
motors are invariably started by rotor resistance starting.
4.4. Methods of Starting Squirrel-Cage Motors
Except direct-on-line starting, all other methods of starting squirrel-cage motors
employ reduced voltage across motor terminals at starting.
(i) Direct-on-line starting(upto 1.5KW)
This method of starting in just what the name impliesthe motor is started by connecting it
directly to 3-phase supply. The impedance of the motor at standstill is relatively low and when it is
directly connected to the supply system, the starting current will
be high (4 to 10 times the full-load current) and at a low power
factor. Consequently, this method of starting is suitable for
relatively small (up to 1.5 kW) machines.
The start button is a contact switch that is held normally open by
a spring. The stop button is normally closed switch.When the
start button is pressed the operating coil(Main contactor) gets
energized through Over Load(OL) relaycontacts. This closes the
three main contacts(MC) that connects the motor to the
supply.At the same time the auxiliary maintaining contact MC
are closed.When the stop button is is pressed, the operating coil
gets de-energized, thereby opening all main contacts .
If the supply fails or line voltage drops below a certain value, the main contacts and the maintaining
contacts are both opened. Upon return of the supply, the contactor cannot close until start button is
again closed. This is said to be under voltage protection.Over load protection is employed for
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protecting the motor from excessive heating due to over load on the motor. Thermal overload relays
are used for motor over load protection.
Relation between starting and F.L. torques.
We know that: Rotor input = 2NsT/60 = kT ;
But Rotor Cu loss = s x Rotor input.3I22R2=s xkT
T I2 2/s.; as I2 I1; T I12/s. ---(a) .At start, s=1;T=Tst;I1=Ist.
At full load,T =Tf;s=sf,I1=If.

Tst Ist2 ---(b).

Eq,(a) becomes, Tf If2/sf ---(c). Tst/Tf =(Ist/If)2 x sf ----(d).

When the motor is started direct-on-line, the starting current is the short-circuit (blockedrotor) current Isc.ie Ist=Isc, Tst/Tf =(Isc/If)2 x sf ----(e).
Let us illustrate the above relation with a numerical example. Suppose Isc = 5If
and full-load slip sf =0.04. Then, Tst/Tf =(Isc/If)2 x sf Tst/Tf=(5If/If)2 x0.04 =1.
Tst=Tf. Note that starting current is as large as five times the full-load current but
starting torque is just equal to the full-load torque. Therefore, starting current is very high and the
starting torque is comparatively low. If this large starting current flows for a long time, it may
overheat the motor and damage the insulation.
(ii) Stator resistance starting-Primary resistor starter.
In this method, external resistances are connected in series with
each phase of stator winding during starting. This causes voltage
drop across the resistances so that voltage available across motor
terminals is reduced and hence the starting current. The starting
resistances are gradually cut out in steps (two or more steps)
from the stator circuit as the motor picks up speed. When the
motor attains rated speed, the resistances are completely cut out
and full line voltage isapplied to the rotor.
This method suffers from two drawbacks. First, the
reduced voltage applied to the motor during the starting period
lowers the starting torque and hence increases the accelerating
time. Secondly, a lot of power is wasted in the starting resistances.

Relation between starting and F.L. torques.


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Let V be the rated voltage/phase.


If the voltage is reduced by a fraction x by the insertion of resistors in the line,then voltage applied to
the motor per phase will be xV.;
Ist = x Isc.WKT, Tst/Tf =(Ist/If)2 x sf. (Tst/Tf)=x2(Isc/If)2 x sf.
Thus while the starting current reduces by a fraction x of the rated-voltage starting current (Isc), the
starting torque is reduced by a fraction x 2 of that obtained by direct switching. The reduced voltage
applied to the motor during the starting period lowers the starting current but at the same time
increases the accelerating time because of the reduced value of the starting torque. Therefore, this
method is used for starting small motors only.
Advantages: smooth acceleration, high pf during starting, less expensive than auto-transformer
starter, closed transition starting, Availabe with 7 accelerating points.
Disadvantages: Resistors gives off heat, low torque, efficiency, starting duration exceeds 5seconds so
needs expensive resistors.
T.4.1.A small 3 IM has short circuit current 5 times of full load and full load slip is 5%. Determine
starting current, if the starting resistance starter is used to reduce the impressed voltage to 60% of
normal.
Data:3 IM,Isc=5If, Isc /If=5; Sf=5%.
To find Ist,V=60% of VN.
Sol: Tst/Tf =(Isc/If)2 x sf
Tst/Tf=(5)2 x 0.05=1.25.
Tst =1.25Tf ---(a).
Also,Tst=kIst2;Tf=kIf2/sf (b).Sub
(b)in(a), kIst2=1.25 x kIf2/sf Ist =5If.
Also,Ist=0.6 xIsc;Isc=5If

Ist=0.6 x 5If

Ist/If=3.
We have (Tst/Tf)=(Ist/If)2 x sf =(3)2x 0.05Tst=0.45Tf.
(iii) Autotransformer starting[>25HP]
This method also aims at connecting the induction motor to a reduced supply at starting and
then connecting it to the full voltage as the motor picks up sufficient speed. Fig. shows the circuit

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arrangement for autotransformer starting. The tapping on the autotransformer is so set that when it is
in the circuit, 65% to 80% of line voltage is applied to the motor.
At the instant of starting, the change-over switch is thrown to start position. This puts the
autotransformer in the circuit and thus reduced voltage is applied to the circuit. Consequently, starting
current is limited to safe value. When the motor attains about 80% of normal speed, the changeover
switch is thrown to run position. This takes out the autotransformer from the circuit and puts the
motor to full line voltage. Autotransformer starting has several advantages viz low power loss, low
starting current and less radiated heat. For large machines (over 25 H.P) this method of starting is
often used. This method can be used for both star and delta connected motors.
Relation between starting and F.L. torques.
Consider a star-connected
squirrel-cage induction motor. If V is the line voltage, then
voltage across motor phase on direct switching is V/3 and
starting current is Ist = Isc. In case of autotransformer, if a
tapping of transformation ratio K (a fraction) is used, then
phase voltage across motor is KV/3 and Ist = K Isc, Now,
Tst/Tf=(Ist/If)2sf.= (kIsc/If)2sf Tst/Tf=k2(Isc/If)2sf.
Tst/Tf=k2 x (Torque obtained by direct switching)
The current taken from the supply or by autotransformer
is I1 = KI2 ;(I2= Ist , Ist = K Isc)=K2Isc. Note that the motor current is K
times, the supply line current is K2 times and the starting
torque is K2 times the value it would have been on direct-on-line starting.
Merits:(i).Voltage is reduced by transformation and not by dropping
voltage in resistor.
(ii).High starting torque.(iii).Adjustment of starting voltage by selection of proper tap from
Auto.tr.(iv).Suitability for long starting period.
Demerits: Low pf, high cost. Applications: Used where the rating of machine is >20kW.
T 4.2.Determine the suitable auto transformation ratio for starting 3 IM with line current not
exceeding 3 times the full load current .The short circuit current is 5 times the full load current and
the full load slip is 5%.Estimate, also, the starting torque interms of the full load torque.
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Data: 3 IM,Il=3If,Isc=5If,sf =5%.Find K,Tst/Tf.


Sol: For Auto-transformer starter, supply line current, Il=k2Isc. 3If=k2(5If)k=0.77.
For Auto-transformer starter, Tst/Tf=k2(Isc/If)2sf =0.772[5If/If]2 0.05 Tst/Tf=0.75.
(iv). Star-delta starting
The stator winding of the motor is designed for delta operation and is connected in star during the
starting period. When the machine is up to speed, the connections are changed to delta. The circuit
arrangement for star-delta starting is shown in Fig.The six leads of the stator windings are connected
to the changeover switch as shown. At the instant of starting, the changeover switch is thrown to
Startposition which connects the stator windings in star. Therefore, each stator phase gets V /3
volts where V is the line voltage. This reduces the starting current.When the motor picks up speed,
the changeover switch is thrown to Runposition which
connects the stator windings in delta. Now each stator
phase getsfull line voltage V.
Advantages: simple, cheap, effective and efficient as no
power is lost in auxiliary components.
The disadvantages of this method are:
(a) With star-connection during starting, stator phase
voltage is 1/ 3 times the line voltage. Consequently,
starting torque is (1/3 )2 or 1/3 times the value it would
have with Delta-connection. This is rather a large
reduction in starting torque.
(b) The reduction in voltage is fixed.
This method of starting is used for medium-size machines (upto about 25 H.P.).
Relation between starting and F.L. torques.
In direct delta starting, Starting current/phase, Isc = V/Zsc where V = line voltage
Starting line current = 3 Isc ; In star starting, we have,Starting current/phase, Ist=(V/3)/Zsc=Isc/3.
Now,(Tst/Tf)=(Ist/If)2 x sf =[ (Isc/If3)2xsf] (Tst/Tf)=1/3(Isc/If)2 x sf.
where Isc = starting phase current (delta) ;
If = F.L. phase current (delta).

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Application:1.Effective and cheaper where starting torque is not greater than 1.5times full load
torque.Also, they are used in m/c tools, pumps, and motor-generator set.
4.3.A 12kW,3 ,6pole,50Hz,400V,delta connected IM runs at 960rpm,on full load. If it takes 85A,on
direct switching (starting),find the ratio of Tst/Tf with star-delta starter. Full load efficiency and pf of
88% and 0.85 respectively.
Data:3 ,delta connected IM,Po=12kW,p=6,f=50Hz,Vl=400V,N=960rpm, Is t=85A(line),
=88%,cos =0.85. To find (Tst/Tf).Sol:For Y- starter, (Tst/Tf)=1/3(Ist/If)2 x sf.
To find sf :sf =(Ns-N)/Ns;Ns=120f/p=1000 rpm,N=960rpm,

sf=0.04.

Given,Ist=85A(line)=85/3=49A.To find If:If =IL; Pin=3VLILcos ; =Po/Pin.


Pin=12x103/0.88=13,636W;Pin=3VLILcos

L=40A(line)=23.15A(phase).=If.;Isc=49A=Ist

(Tst/Tf)=1/3(Ist/If)2 x sf Tst=0.18Tf.
4.4.Determine approximately, the starting torque of a 3 IM interms of full load torque, when started
by(i). star delta starter (ii).Auto-transformer starter with 50% tapping. The SC current of motor is 5
times the full load current and the full load slip is 5%.
Data: 3 IM,Ist= Isc=5If,sf=0.05,k=0.5(i)Y- starter: Tst/Tf =1/3(Ist/If)2 x sf.Tst=0.416Tf.
(ii).For Auto-Transformer starter, Tst/Tf =k2 (Ist/If)2 x sf .Tst=0.3125Tf.
4.5. Starting of Slip-Ring Induction Motors
Slip-ring motors are invariably started by rotor resistance starting. In this method, a variable starconnected rheostat is connected in the rotor circuit through slip rings and full voltage is applied to the
stator winding as shown in Fig.
(i) At starting, the handle of rheostat is set in the
OFF position so that maximum resistance is placed
in each phase of the rotor circuit. This reduces the
starting current and at the same time starting
torque is increased.
(ii) As the motor picks up speed, the handle of rheostat is gradually moved in clockwise direction and
cuts out the external resistance in each phase of the rotor circuit. When the motor attains normal
speed, the change-over switch is in the ON position and the whole external resistance is cut out from
the rotor circuit.
Calculation of resistance steps for 3-pahse Slip Ring Induction motor:
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Let,R2=rotor resistance per phase;X2=rotor standstill reactance per phase,


R1, R2, R3.. Rn-1 and Rn=Total resistance per phase in the rotor circuit on the 1st ,2nd ,3rd,
--(n-1)th and nth stud respectively.
Assume that rotor current fluctuates between two fixed values of I2max and I2min respectively.
At the commencement of each step, the current is I2max and the resistance in the rotor circuit is R1 for
slip s1=1, R2 for slip s2 and so on.
W. k. that, I2=sE2/Z2=sE2/(R12 +(sX2)2 = E2/((R1/s) 2 +(X2)2
I2(max)=

E2

= E2

(R1/s1)2 +(X2)2 (R2/s2)2 +(X2)2

E2

----

(R3/s3)2 +(X2)2

E2=emf induced per phase in the rotor at standstill.


Cancelling all the common terms,
R1/s1= R2/s2= R3/s3= -------= R(n-1)/s (n-1) = R2/smax.-(a)
R1/s1= R2/smax. R1=s1 X R2/smax; at start,s1=1,

R1= R2/smax ----(A)

Where,s2max=slip under normal operating condition.


From (a), R1/s1= R2/s2= R3/s3= -------= R(n-1)/s (n-1) = R2/smax.-(a)
By cross multiplication and rearranging,
R2/ R1= R3/ R2=R4/ R3=----- R2/R(n-1)=K (say) (b);
From (b),R2=kR1; R3=KR2=K2R1-----(C)

R2/R(n-1)=K

R2=K R(n-1)(B)

Rn=Kn-1R1; Rn-1= Kn-2R1.---(D)

From (B), R2=KRn-1 ; Sub.(D in B), R2=KKn-2 R1= Kn-1 (R2/smax)


Kn-1 =smaxK=(smax)1/(n-1).
Where (n-1) is the number of sections in the starter.
The resistances of various sections are,r1=R1-R2=R1(1-K); r2=R2-R3=R1(K-K2)=Kr1

r3= R3-R4=R1(K2-K3)=Kr2=K2r1 etc


4.4.Design the five sections of a 6-stud rotor starter for a 3-phase wound rotor induction motor. The slip at full
load is 2% and the starting current is 1.5times the full load current. The resistance of the rotor is 0.02 per
phase.
Data:3-phaseSRIM, No. of studs, n=6,s=0.02,Ist=1.5If.R2=0.02.To design r1,r2--.
Sol: Slip varies with rotor current. smax=1.5 X 0.02=0.03.
On first stud, the total resistance is R1=R2/smax=0.02/0.03=0.6667.;K=(Smax)1/n-1=(0.03)1/5=0.496.
The resistance of the various sections of the starter are,
r1=(1-K)R1=(1-0.496)X0.6667=0.336.; r2=Kr1=0.496X0.336=0.0826;r3=K2r1(0.496)20.336=0.08
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r4=K3r1=(0.496)3X0.336=0.041 and r5=K4r1=(0.496)40.336=0.0203.


4.5.Calculate the steps in 5 step rotor resistance starter, for a 3 IM, the slip at the maximum starting current is
2% with slip ring short circuited and the resistance per rotor phase is 0.02.
Data: 3 SRIM,smax=0.02,n=5,R2=0.02.To find ,r1,r2,r3,r4 &r5.

r1=R1(1-k);k=(smax)[1/(n-1)]=0.38,R1=R2/smax=1;r1=0.62,r2=kr1=0.24, r3=k2 r1=0.09,


r4= k3 r1=0.034,r5= k4 r1=0.13.
4.7. Cogging and crawling of 3-phase IM:
(a).Cogging (or) magnetic locking:
The rotor of a SCIM ,sometimes refuse to start , particularly when the voltage is low. This
happens when the number of stator slots,SS= Number of rotor slots or teeth (ie) Sr.This is due
to the magnetic locking between the stator and rotor teeth. This phenomenon is known as cogging
(or) magnetic locking (or) teeth locking.
This can be easily overcome by making certain combination of stator and rotor teeth (or) ie
No. of stator slots=No. of rotor slots.
(b).Crawling:
In SCIM ,sometimes have a tendency to run stability at speeds as slow as 1/7th of the synchronous
speed(Ns). This phenomenon is known as crawling of IM.
This action is due to the fact that the AC winding of the stator produces a flux wave which is
not pure a sine wave. It is a complex wave consisting of a fundamental wave ,which revolves
synchronously and odd harmonics like 3rd,5th & 7th etc. which rotate either in the forward or backward
direction at Ns/3,Ns/5 & Ns/7 speeds respectively. As a result , in addition to the fundamental torque,
harmonic torque can also be produced.

4.8. Speed Control of 3-Phase Induction Motors


WKT,N=Ns(1-s)=120f/p x(1-s).-------(i).
An inspection of eq. (i) reveals that the speed N of an induction motor can be varied by changing (i)
supply frequency f (ii) number of poles P on the stator and (iii) slip s. The change of frequency is
generally not possible because the commercial supplies have constant frequency. Therefore, the
practical methods of speed control are either to change the number of stator poles or the motor slip.
1. Squirrel cage motors
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The speed of a squirrel cage motor is changed by changing the number of stator poles. Only two or
four speeds are possible by this method. Two-speed motor has one stator winding that may be
switched through suitable control equipment to provide two speeds, one of which is half of the other.
For instance, the winding may be connected for either 4 or 8 poles, giving synchronous speeds of
1500 and 750 r.p.m. Four-speed motors are equipped with two separate stator
windings each of which provides two speeds. The disadvantages of this method are:
(i) It is not possible to obtain gradual continuous speed control.
(ii) Because of the complications in the design and switching of the interconnections of the stator
winding, this method can provide a maximum of four different synchronous speeds for any one
motor.
2. Wound rotor motors
The speed of wound rotor motors is changed by changing the motor slip. This
can be achieved by;
(i) varying the stator line voltage(ii) varying the resistance of the rotor circuit
(iii) inserting and varying a foreign voltage in the rotor circuit
4.8.Speed control of 3-phase IM:
A 3-phase IM is practically a constant speed machine. Its speed can be controlled with help of the
following methods.Control from stator side: By changing (i). applied voltage.(ii). applied
frequency.(iii). no.of polesControl from rotor side :(i).Rotor rheostat control.(ii).By operating 2
motors in cascade (iii). By injecting an emf in the rotor circuit .
A brief description of these methods are given below.
(a).By changing applied voltage:
This method the cheapest & easiest, is rarely used because a large change in voltage is
required for a relatively small charge in speed. This large change in voltage will result in a large
change in flux density, thereby seriously disturbing the magnetic conditions of motor.
Supply voltage can be changed by using (i). auto transformer.(ii). tape changing transformer
(b) supply frequency:

Wkt

Ns=120f/p

Clearly ,the synchronous speed of IM can be changed by changing the supply frequency(f).
Application:Electrically driven ships
Supply frequency can be changed by with help of frequency changer circuit like cyclo converter.
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(c)changing the no. of stator poles:


In this method ,separate stator windings are used which are wound for 2 different pole number.Also
we can use a single stator winding which can be
divided into two-coil groups.
No.of poles can be changed by changing these coil
groups.This is by dividing the winding into no.of coil
groups and bringing out terminals of all these groups.
A no. of poles can be obtained by rearranging these
groups.
Fig(a) shows a phase winding consisting of 6coils(1-6) these coils are divided into 2 groups (AB and CD).coil group AB consists of odd numbered
coils(1,3,5) connected in series. Coil group CD consists of even numbered coils(2,4,6)connected in
series. The coils can be made to carry current in the given direction by connecting the coil group
either in series or in parallel manner. In this
connection , current flows from AtoB and D to C.
the machine has 6 poles.
If the current through the coil AB is reversed then all
the coils will produce N-pole. Fluxes coming out of
these N-poles will now find paths through the inner
pole spaces for going out, hence producing spoles. Inner- pole spaces as shown in fig .
Here the coil groups AB&CD are connected either in parallel or in series . Thus each phase winding
of the machine has 2 coil groups AB & CD which can be connected either in series or in parallel for
both pole numbers 6&12.
(d).Rotor rheostat control:
It is applicable to SRIM. The motor speed is reduced by introducing an external resistance in the
rotor circuit. For this purpose , rotor starter may be used.
Wkt, torque, TE2I2cos 2.
I2=sE2/Z2,cos 2=R2/Z2.

T E2 x sE2/Z2 x R2/Z2; TsE22R2/Z22; TsR2/Z22; TsR2/[R22+(sX2)2].

As slip is very small, R2>>(sX2)2 and is neglected.


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T s/R2.
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T1s1/R2---without external resistance; T2s2/(R2+r)---with external resistance. Where,


s1=(Ns-N1)/Ns; s2=(Ns-N2)/Ns;where N1=speed of the motor without r;N2=speed withr.
For a given torque ,slip can be increased by (ie) speed can be decreased by inserting rotor resistance
R2 .
Disadvantage:With increase in R2, I2R2 losses increases hence efficiency decreases.
Ex4.6.The rotor of a 4 pole 50Hz SRIM has a resistance of 0.3per phase and runs at 1440rpm at full load.
Calculate the external resistance/phase which must be added to lower the speed to 1320rpm, the torque being
the same.
Data:3 SRIM,R2=0.3,p=4,f=50Hz,N1=1440rpm,N2=1320rpm, T1=T2 .To find r.
Nsb=NSol: T1s1/R2; T2s2/(R2+r);T1=T2

s1/R2= s2/(R2+r) s1=(Ns-N1)/Ns; s2=(Ns-N2)/Ns.

Ns=120f/p. solving,r=0.6.
(E).Speed control by cascade connection:
In this method, two motors are used are mounted on the
same shaft, so that both run at the same speed.
The stator winding of the main motor A is connected to
the mains in the usual way while that of the auxiliary motor
B is fed from the rotor circuit of motorA.
For satisfactory operation,the motor A should be slip
ring type.Also,in addition to the cascade, each motor may
be run from the supply mains separately.
Note:MotorA=SRIM; Motor B=SCIM or DC shunt motor.
There are atleast 3 ways in which the combination may run .
(i).Main motor A may be run separately from the supply. In that case, the synchronous speed is 120f/Pa.
Nsa =120f/Pa : Pa=No.of stator poles of Motor A.
(ii).The auxiliary motor B may run separately from the mains, with main motor A being disconnected. In
that case, the synchronous speed is
Nsb =120f/Pb : Pb=No.of stator poles of Motor B.
(iii).The combination may be connected in cumulative cascade , ie in such a way that the phase rotation of the
stator fields of the both motor is in the same direction. The synchronous speed of the set is given by
Nsc =120f/(Pa + Pb).
Proof:Let,N=Speed of the set; Nsa=Synchronous speed of the motor, A.f=supply frequency,f=rotor frequency
of motor A.
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Sa=(Nsa-N)/Nsa; f=sa x f.= (Nsa-N)/Nsa xf.


This is also the frequency of the emf applied to stator of motor B.Hence , the synchronous speed,Nsb of
motor B with this input frequency ,f is ,
Nsb=120f/Pb Nsb=120/Pb[(Nsa-N)/Nsa ] xf. ------------I.
On no load, the speed of rotor B is almost equal to the synchronous speed, sothat, the frequency of the
induced emf is zero. ie Nsb=N.
Put Nsb=N, in equation I, we get, Nsb=120/Pb[(Nsa-N)/Nsa ] xfN=120/Pb[(Nsa-N)/Nsa ] xf.
N=120f(Nsa-N)/Pb xNsa.;Nsa=120f/p ;

N=120f/(pa +pb).

4.7.Two,50Hz,3 IM having 6&4Poles respectively are cumulatively cascaded. The 6 pole motor being
connected to the main supply. Determine the frequency of the rotor current and slip referred to each stator
field, if the set has a slip of 2%.
Data:3 IM,f=50Hz,pa=6,pb=4.sc=0.02.To find ,f,f,sa,sb.
Sol:N=Nsc(1-sc). ; Nsc=120f/(pa+pb)=600rpm;

N=588rpm. ; sa=(Nsa-N)/pa ;Nsa=120f/pa=1000rpm.

sa=(1000-588)/1000=0.412.;f=saf=0.412 x 50 =20.6Hz.
f'=sb xf ;sb=(Nsb-N)/Nsb ;Nsb =120f/pb=618rpm. sb=0.048 ; f =sb x f=1Hz.
(F).Injecting emf into the rotor circuit: Kramer system-slip power recovery scheme.

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In this method, the speed of an IM is controlled by injecting a voltage in the rotor


circuit .When we insert a voltage,which is in phase opposition ,to the induced rotor emf, it amounts to
increasing the rotor resistance, where as inserting a voltage which is in phase with the rotor emf is
equivalent to decrease its resistance. Hence, by changing the phase of injected emf and hence the
rotor resistance , the speed can be controlled.
One such practical method of speed control is Kramer system. It is used in case of large
motors of 4000KW(or) above. It consists of a rotary converter c, which converts low slip frequency
AC power into DC power, which is used to drive the dc shunt motor D. This DC shunt motor D and
the main motor M, are mechanically coupled.
The slip rings of M are connected to rotary converter c.The DC output of C is used to drive
D.Both C & D are excited from the DC busbar (or) from an exciter. There is a field regulator which
controls the back emf Eb developed in the DC motor D.Hence the DC potential of the rotary converter
is varied and there by AC output from the converter c is varied. The AC voltage from the converter
is applied to the slip ring of the IM. Now there are two emfs applied to the IM, one from the stator
side and another from the rotor side. These two emfs will be in phase opposition (or) in phase with
each other , there by varying the resistance of the rotor circuit and hence the speed control is
achieved.
Advantages:
(i).Speed variation is from minimum to maximum instead of 1(or)2 possible speed control.
(ii).If the rotary converter is overexcited , it will take a leading current, which compensate for the
lagging current, drawn by the main motor M. and hence improves the cos of the system.
Ex.4.8. A 4 pole IM and a six pole IM are connected in cumulative cascade. The frequency in
the secondary circuit of the 6 pole motor is observed to be 1 Hz. Determine the slip in each
machine & the combined speed of the set. Take supply frequency as 50 Hz.
Data:Pa= 4,Pb= 6,f = 1 Hz,f = 50Hz,To find:(i).Sa (ii)Sb(iii)Nsc.
Soln: Here f= sx f, s= f/f,s=1/50

=0.02;

s=0.02. Nsc= 120f/(Pa+Pb) = 600rpm

N=Nsc(1-s)=588 rpm. Nsa = 120 f/ pa =1500 rpm. Nsb=120f/Pb= 1000rpm.


Sa= (Nsa-N)/Nsa =1500-600/1500=0.6.

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Sb=(Nsb-N)/Nsb =(1000-600)/1000= 0.4

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4.9. A 4 pole, 3 phase, 50 Hz SRIM, when fully loaded runs with a slip of 3% . Determine the value
of resistance to be inserted per phase in the rotor circuit by reduce the speed by 10% and the new
slip. The rotor resistance per phase is 0.2. The load torque remaining the same.
Data:3-phase, SRIM ,p=4, f= 50 Hz, s1= 3% =0.03 , R2=0.2.To find: r=?
Soln: Ns=120f/p =120*50/4=1500rpm.

N1=Ns(1-s1) = 1500(1-0.03)=1455rpm.

N2= 1455-{(1455*10)/100}=1309.5rpm. s2=(Ns-N2)/Ns= 0.127.


Wkt:T1 s1/R2 and T2 s2/(R2+r) ;Here T1=T2.

s1/R2 =s2/(R2+r)

(R2+r)= s2/s1*R2. =0.127/0.03*0.2 =0.8467.

r= 0.8467-0.2 = 0.647.

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Electrical braking of polyphase induction motor.


Stopping the motor precisely and smoothly without heavy vibrations/oscillations is called
Electrical braking. This type of braking mainly employed in Electric traction and in industries.
Methods of Electrical braking:
(i).Plugging (ii).Dynamic (rheostatic braking) (iii).Regenerative braking.
(i).Plugging
Plugging involves interchanging the supply to two of the stator phase windings. This method
is used in applications which require immediate stop applications. When the phase supply is
reversed, torque is produced in the opposite direction. This leads to braking of the electric motor.
Motors which are operated this way have a plugging switch. This switch operates when the stop
command is given to the motor circuit. The operation of this switch applies reverses the supply to
two of the windings. When the motor comes to a complete halt, this reversed supply is disconnected.
Note : The method can be applied to both squirrel cage as well as wound rotor induction motors.
One important aspect about plugging is production of very high heat in the rotor. While plugging,
the load keeps on revolving and rotor absorbs kinetic energy from the revolving load, causing speed
to reduce. The corresponding gross mechanical power is entirely dissipated as heat in the rotor.
Similarly as stator is connected to supply, rotor continues to receive power from stator which also
gets dissipated as heat in the rotor. This is shown in the Fig. 1.

(ii).Dynamic (rheostatic braking)


In this method of braking, the motor which is at a running condition is disconnected from the
source and connected across a resistance. When the motor is disconnected from the source, the rotor

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keeps rotating due to inertia and it works as a self excited generator. When the motor works as a
generator the flow of the current and torque reverses.

In rheostatic braking, one supply line out of R, Y or B is disconnected from the supply.
Depending upon the condition of this disconnected line, two types of rheostatic braking can be
achieved.
1. Two lead connections : In this method, the disconnected line is kept open. This is shown in the Fig.
1(a) and is called two lead connections.
2. Three lead connections : In this method, the disconnected line is connected directly to the other line
of the machine. This is shown in the Fig. 1(b).
In both cases, a high resistance is inserted in the rotor circuit, with the help of rheostat.
Note : Thus this method is effective only for slip ring or wound rotor induction motors.
As one of the motor terminals is not connected to the supply, the motor continues to run as single
phase motor. In this case the breakdown torque i.e. maximum toque decreases to 40% of its original
value and motor develops no starting torque at all. And due to high rotor resistance, the net torque
produced becomes negative and the braking operation is obtained.
In two lead connections, the braking torque is small while in three lead connections, The
braking torque is high at high speeds. But in three lead connections there is possibility of inequality
between the contact resistances in connections of two paralleled lines. This might reduce the braking
torque and even may produce the motoring torque again. Hence inspite of low braking torque, two
lead connections is preferred over three lead connections.
The torque-slip characteristics for motoring and braking operation is shown in the Fig. 2.

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(iii).Regenerative braking.
Regenerative braking takes place whenever the speed of the motor exceeds the synchronous speed.
This braking method is called regenerative braking because here the motor works as generator. The main
criteria for regenerative braking is that the rotor has to rotate at a speed higher than synchronous speed,
only then the motor will act as a generator and the direction of current flow through the circuit and direction
of the torque reverses and braking takes place. The only disadvantage of this type of braking is that the
motor has to run at super synchronous speed which may damage the motor mechanically and electrically,
but regenerative braking can be done at sub synchronous speed if the variable frequency source is available.

Note:
Conventional braking systems convert kinetic energy into heat, usually via friction.
This wastes a great deal of energy
Regenerative braking systems reclaim and storing the kinetic energy in a reusable manner
Many modern electric drive vehicles including electric locomotives and HEVs have regenerative
braking systems.

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Short Q&A.
1.State two advantage of speed control of IM by injecting an e.m.f in the rotor circuit .
(i).The main advantage of this method is that any speed , within the working range can be
obtained. (ii).If the rotary converter is over excited , it will take a leading current which compensates
for the lagging current drawn by SRIM and hence improve the cos of the system .
2. Point out the disadvantages of rotor rheostat control to obtain variable speed of the IM.
(i). Reduced efficiency because the slip energy is wasted in the rotor circuit resistance

(ii).

Speed changes vary widely with load variation . (iii). Unbalance in voltage and current if rotor
circuit resistance are not equal.
3. Give the functions performed by induction motor starter.
(i). To limit the starting current .(ii). To start the motor.(iii). To protect from over load condition and
low voltage condition.
4. List out four methods of speed control in 3 phase induction motor .
(i).Stator voltage control .(ii). Rotor resistance control.(iii). Slip power recovery scheme.
(iv).Stator frequency control.(v). Pole changing method.
5. Why the starter is necessary to start a 3 phase induction motor?
When a 3 induction motor is switched on at a normal supply voltage , heavy current will flow
through the motor because at the time of starting ,there is no back emf in induction motor.When
directly switched on, it takes 5 to 7 times its full load current and it is developed only 1.5 to 2.5 times
full load torque . This initial inrush of excessive current is objectionable because it will produced
large line voltage drop. This will affect the operation of other electrical equipments connected to the
same line . Due to this , starters are used for starting 3 IM.
6. What are the types of starters used for 3 phase induction motor?
(i). DOL starter (ii). Autotransformer starter. (iii). Rotor resistance starter.
(iv). Primary resistance starter.(v). Star delta starter
7. What is voltage / frequency method ?
The voltage / frequency control is one method of speed control of 3 phase induction motor.
From the emf. equation , the air gap flux is given by = 1/2T1Kw (V/f)
From this expression , by varying the supply frequency , the air gap flux changes. This will
lead to saturation of the motor. To avoid this , the air gap flux should be maintained constant
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To maintain the air gap flux constant, the parameters V and f must be changed so as to
maintain (V/f) ratio constant. This is known as V/f control.
8. What are the advantage and disadvantage of rotor resistance control ?
Advantages :(i).Smooth and wide range of speed control.(ii).Absence of in rush starting
current.(iii). Availability of full rated torque at starting.(iv).High line power factor.
(v). Absence of current harmonics.(vi).Starting torque can be improved.
Disadvantages:(i).Reduced efficiency because the slip energy is wasted in the rotor circuit
resistance.(ii).Speed changes very widely with load variation.(iii).Unbalance in voltage and current if
rotor circuit resistance are not equal.
9. What is meant by slip power recovery scheme?
The slip power can be returned to the supply source and can be used to supply an additional
motor which is mechanically coupled to the main motor. This type of drive is known as the slip
power recovery system and improvers the overall efficiency of the system.
10 . Why is speed control by pole changing technique suitable only to SCIM?
Cage rotor is not wound for any specific number of poles as stator winding has . Therefore ,in
a squirrel cage induction motor, an arrangement is required only for changing the number of the poles
in stator. In slip ring induction motor arrangement for changing the number of poles in rotor is also
required , which complicates the machine . Therefore, this method of speed control is used with
squirrel cage induction motors only.
11. Indicate the method of starting 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor (any two)
(i). Autotransformer starter.(ii). Star/delta starter
12. What are the various method of speed control of 3 phase induction motor from stator side?
(i).Stator voltage control (ii). Stator frequency control (iii). 3. V/f method .
(iv). Pole changing method
13. What are the speed control of 3 phase induction motor from rotor side ?
(i).Rotor resistance control.(ii). Slip power recovery scheme (iii). Cascaded control
14. What are the types of slip power recovery scheme?
. (i).Kramer system

(ii). Scherbius system


Answer ALL Questions.

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1.Why do you require starters for starting of 3-phase induction motor?


2.What are the various types of starters used for starting (i)squirrel cage induction motor(ii).Slip
ring induction motor? Which is the cheapest method of starting a 3 phase induction motor?
3.What is cogging of induction motor? How to avoid it?
4.What is crawling of an induction motor?
4.What is meant by single phasing?
5.What are the possible reasons of failure of a 3-phase induction motor?
6.What are the various methods of speed control of (i).Squirrel cage induction motor (ii).SRIM?
8.On what factors does the speed of an induction motor depend?
9.What will be the effect on the torque developed by an induction motor when the applied
voltage is reduced to half ,supply frequency remaining unchanged?
10.What will be the effect on the torque developed by an induction motor when both the applied
voltage and supply frequency are reduced to half?
11.Explain with the help of diagram the working of an automatic direct on- line starter.
12.Derive the expression for the torque developed on starting of induction motor by Direct
switching.
13.A small 3 phase induction motor has a short circuit current equal to 4 times the full load
current.Determine the starting torque as a %of full-load torque if full load slip is 2.5%
14..Explain ,with the help of a neat diagram the working of a star-delta starter.what is its
limitation?
15.Explain auto transformer starter in detail.Compare DOL,Star-Delta and auto transformer
starters.
16.Explain ,with the help of a neat diagram the working of a starter used for starting slip-ring
induction motor. Derive the expression for the resistance steps for 3-phase slip ring
induction motor.
17.Design the five sections of a 6-stud rotor starter for a 3-phase wound rotor induction
motor.The slip at full-load is 2% and the starting current is 1.5 times the full-load current.The
resistance of rotor is 0.02 per phase.
18.Discuss the method of speed control of squirrel cage induction motor by (i). changing the
number of poles (ii).cascade operation. Derive the expression for the speed of the cascaded
set.

1 : A 3 phase , 6 poles , 50Hz induced motor runs at 950 rpm . Find the slip.
Data :p = 6, f =50 Hz,N = 950 rpm.To find :s
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Solution : Ns= 120f/p = 1000 rpm, s = (Ns-N)/Ns * 100 =0.05 or 5 %.


2 : A 3 phase , 6poles ,50 Hz induction motor in the slip of 1% at no load 3% at full load. Find
(1)synchronous speed (2) no load speed (3) full load speed (4) frequency of rotor current at
stand still (5) frequency of rotor current at full load .
Data :p = 6, f = 50 Hz,Slip at no load snl = 0.01,Slip at full loadsfl = 0.03
To find (i) Ns (ii) Nnl (iii) Nfl (iv) frs (v)frfl
Solution :(i) Synchronous speed,Ns = 120f/P = 120 * 50 /6 = 1000 rpm.

Ns = 1000 rpm

(ii) No load speed ( Nnl):Nnl = Ns(1-snl) = 1000(1-0.01) = 990 rpm.


(iii) Full load speed (Ns),Nfl=M(1-sfl)= 1000(1-0.03) = 970 rpm.
(iv).Frequency of rotor current at standstill(frs)Frs= sf.At standstill, slips s =1,Frs=sf=50Hz
(v) Frequency of rotor current at full load (frfl).Frfl = sflf = 0.03 * 50 = 1.5 Hz.
3: The induced emf between the slip ring terminals of a three phase induction motor , when the
rotor is standstill is 100V. The rotor winding is star connected and has resistance and standstill
reactance of 0.05 and 0.1 per phase respectively. Calculate the voltage and rotor current at
(1) 4% slip and (2) 100% slip.
Data :The induced emf between the slip ring terminals E2l = 100V,
Phase voltage, E2 = 100 /3 = 57.7 V,R2 = 0.05,X2 = 0.1.
To find :The voltage and rotor current at (1) 4% slip and (2) 100% slip.
Solution :(i). At slip s = 0.04.;Voltage E2r = s E2 = 0.04 * 57.7

E2r = 2.308 V

Rotor impedance / phase Z2r = (R2^2+(sX2)^2) = ((0.05^2) + (0.04*0.1)^2) = 0.05


Rotor current I2r = E2r / Z2r = 2.308/0.05 = 46.16 A
(ii).

At slip s = 100% or 1 ( standstill condition ),Voltage E2r = s E2 = 1* 57.7


E2 = 57.7 V,Z2= (R2^2+(sX2^2)) = ((0.05)^2+(0.1)^2) = 0.111
Rotor current at standstill,I2 = E2/Z2 = 57.7/0.111 = 519.8 A

4.: A 4 pole,50 Hz , 3phase induction motor has a rotor resisrance of 0.024 per phase and
standstill reactance of 0.6 per phase. Determining the speed at which the maximum torque is
developed.
Data : p = 4,f = 50 Hz,R2 = 0.024, X2 = 0.6.To find :Nfor Tmax.
Solution :The slip at which the maximum torque occur is, Sm = R2 / X2 = 0.024/0.6 = 0.04
Ns = 120 f/P = 120*50/4 = 1500rpm, Speed, N = Ns(1-sm) = 1500(1-0.04) = 1440rpm
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5 : The power input to the rotor of a 415 V,50 Hz , 6ploes ,3 phase induction motor is 75kW.
The rotor emf is observed to make 120 complete cycles per minute. Determine (1) the rotor
speed (2)air gap power per phase (3) mechanical power developed .
Data :V = 415 V,f = 50 Hz,p = 6, P2 = 75kW,Number of cycles complete per minute = 120 Hz
To find :(i) the rotor speed .(N).(ii)air gap power per phase .(iii) Pm
Solution :(i). frequency of rotor emf fr = 120/60 = 2 Hz;

fr = sf ; s = fr / f = 2/50 = 0.04

Ns = 120 f/P = 120*50/6 = 1000rpm.N = Ns(1-s) = 1000(1-0.04) = 960rpm


(ii) Air gap power phase

P2/phase = 75kW/3 = 25kW

(iii) Mechanical power developed (Pm):Pm = P2(1-s) = 75 * 10^3(1-0.04) = 72 kW


6. : The active power input to a 415 V,50Hz , 6 poles ,3 phase induction motor running at 970
rpm is 41 kW. The input power factor is 0.9. The stator lossess amount to 1.1kW and the
mechanical lossess 1.2 kW. Calculate line current,slip,rotor copper loss,mechanical power
output and efficiency .
Data :Vl = 415V,f =50Hz,p =6,N=970rpm,Pin =41kW, cos =0.9,PSL =1.1kW,PML = 1.2 kW
To find :line current,slip,rotor copper loss,mechanical power output and efficiency
Solution :Line current (IL),Input power Pin = 3VLIL cos,
IL = Pin/3VL cos = (41*10^3)/3*415*0.9 = 63.37 A
Slip (s),Ns = 120f/P = 120*50/6 = 1000rpm, Slip s = Ns-N/Ns = 1000-970/1000 = 0.03
Rotor input power,P2 = input power stator lossess= Pin - PSL = 41-1.1 = 39.9kW,
Rotor copper loss

Pcu = s P2 = 0.03*39.9 = 1.197kW

Mechanical power developed Pm = P2 Pcu = 39.9-1.197 = 38.703kW


Output power

Pout = Pm PmL = 38.703-1.2 = 37.503kW


Efficiency()

= Pout /Pin *100 = 337.503/41*100 = 91.47%

7 : A three phase induction motor develops a full load torque of 10 Nm. It has a starting torque
of 10 Nm and maximum torque of 20 Nm. Calculate the value of slip at maximum torque .
Data : Tf = 10 N -m , Tst = 10 N -m , Tmax = 20 N-m ,To find : value of slip at maximum torque
Solution :Tf/Tmax=2aSf/a^2+Sf^2,Tst/Tmax=2a/1+a^2,Tst/Tf=10/10 =1,Tmax/Tf=20/10 = 2
Tf/Tmax =10/20 = 0.5,ButTst/ Tmax=2a/1+a^2 0.5=2a/1+a^2,
(1+a^2)0.5=2a;0.5a+0.5a^2 =2a;0.5a^2-2a+0.5=0; a^2-4a+1=0;a=416-4/2 = 0.268
a=R2/X2 = 0.268,R2=0.268 X2 ,Maximum torque occurs at a slip given by, Sm = R2/X2 = 0.268
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8. A 4-pole,415 V,50 Hz,star connected,3 induction motor has stator impedance of (0.8 +
j2.4)ohm/phase and equivalent standstill rotor impedance of (1.0 + j2.2)ohm per phase. Find the
maximum torque that the motor can develop and the slip at which it occurs.
Data:P = 4,V = 415 V,f = 50 Hz,Z1 = 0.8+j 204 = 0.8^2+2.4^2 = 2.53, Z2=1+j2.2 =

2.42

To find :i)slip at which the maximum torque occurs,(ii) maximum torque (Tmax)
Solution :slip at which the maximum torque occurs (sm): sm = R2/X2 = .2 = 0.4545
Tmax:E2/E1 = Z2/Z1,E1=V/3= 415/3 = 239.6V,E2 = E1 * Z2/Z1 = 239.6 * 2.42/2.53 = 229.18 V
Tmax = KE2^2/2X2;K=3/2ns,ns = Ns/60,Ns=120f/P = 120*50/4 = 1500 rpm,ns = 1500/60 = 25 rps
Tmax = 3/2*25 * ((229.18)^2/2*2.2) = 227.98 N-m
Example 18 : A 1100 V,50 Hz delta connected induction motor has a star connected slip ring
rotor with a phase transformation ratio of 3.8. The rotor resistance and stand still leakage
reactance are 0.012 and 0.25 per phase respectively. Neglecting stator impedance and
magnesting current , determining :
(i).Rotor current at start with slip ring shorted (ii).The rotor P.F at start with slip ring
shorted(iii).The rotor current at 4% slip with slip ring shorted(iv).The rotor power factor at
4% slip with slip ring shorted(v).The external rotor resistance per phase required to obtain a
starting current of 100A in the stator supply lines.
Data : V,=1100V, f=50Hz, K =1/3.8 =0.263,R2=0.012, X2=0.25
Solution :Here , stator is delta connected and rotor is star connected. The stator phase voltage is the
same as the line voltage . The rotor phase voltage is found out from by using phase transformation
ratio K.
E2ph=1100 * 0.263 = 289.3 V,I2 = E2ph / Z2 = 289.3/(0.012)^2+(0.25)^2) = 1157.2 A
cos = R2/Z2 = 0.012/(0.012)^2+(0.25)^2 = 0.048 lagging
I2r = sE2/Z2r = sE2/R2^2+(sX2)^2 = 0.04*289.3/(0.012)^2+(0.04*0.25)^2 = 742A
cos = R2/Z2r = 0.012/(0.012)^2+(0.04*0.25)^2 = 0.77(lagging)
The external rotor resistance per phase:I2 = I1/K = 100/0.263 = 380.2A,E2 = 289.3V,
Z2 = E2/I2 = 289.3/380.2 = 0.761,R2 = Z2^2 X2^2 = (0.761)^2+(0.25)^2 = 0.719
therefore ., External resistance required / phase r = 0.719 0.012 = 0.707

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UNIT-V-SPECIAL MACHINES AND SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR.


Instructional Objectives
Why there is no starting torque in a single-phase induction motor with one (main) winding in the
stator?
Various starting methods used in the single-phase induction motors, with the introduction of
additional features, like the addition of another winding in the stator, and/or capacitor in series with it.
5.1. Introduction.
As the name suggests, these motors are used on single-phase supply. Single phase motors are
the most familiar of all electric motors because they are extensively used in home appliances, shops,
offices, small toys, hairdryers, small fans etc. It is true that single phase motors are less efficient
substitute for 3-phase motors but 3-phase power is normally not available except in large commercial
and industrial establishments. Since electric power was originally generated and distributed for
lighting only, millions of homes were given single-phase supply. This led to the development of
single-phase motors. Even where 3-phase mains are present, the single-phase supply may be obtained
by using one of the three lines and the neutral. In this chapter, we shall focus our attention on the
construction, working and characteristics of commonly used single-phase motors.
5.2.Single-PhaseInductionMotorsConstruction-Principle of operation.
A single phase induction motor is very
similar to a 3-phase squirrel cage induction motor.
It has (i) a squirrel-cage rotor identical to a 3phase motor and (ii) a single-phase winding on the stator. Unlike a
3-phase induction motor, a single-phase induction motor is not self
starting but requires some starting means. The single-phase stator
winding produces a magnetic field that pulsates in strength in a
sinusoidal manner. The field polarity reverses after each half cycle
but the field does not rotate. Consequently, the alternating flux
cannot produce rotation in a stationary squirrel-cage rotor. However, if the rotor of a single-phase
motor is rotated in one direction by some mechanical means, it will continue to run in the direction of
rotation. The rotor quickly accelerates until it reaches a speed slightly below the synchronous speed.
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Once the motor is running at this speed, it will continue to rotate even though single-phase current is
flowing through the stator winding. This method of starting is generally not convenient for large
motors. Nor can it be employed for a motor located at some inaccessible spot.
Fig. (5.1) shows single-phase induction motor having a squirrel cage rotor and a single phase
distributed stator winding. Such a motor inherently does not develop any starting torque and,
therefore, will not start to rotate if the stator winding is connected to single-phase a.c. supply.
However, if the rotor is started by auxiliary means, the motor will quickly attain the
final speed. This strange behavior of single-phase induction motor can be explained on the basis of
(i)double-field revolving theory (ii)Cross field theory.
5.3. Double-Field Revolving Theory-Why 1 IM is not self starting.
The double-field revolving theory is proposed to explain why no torque at start and yet torque once
rotated. This theory is based on the fact that an alternating sinusoidal flux ( =

cos t) can be

represented by two revolving fluxes, each equal to one-half of the maximum value of alternating flux
(i.e.,

m/2)

and each rotating at synchronous speed (Ns = 120 f/p,

= 2f) in opposite directions. The

above statement will now be proved. The instantaneous value of flux due to the stator current of a
single-phase induction motor is given by; =
Consider two rotating magnetic fluxes

and

cos t.

2.

each of magnitude

m/2

and rotating in opposite

directions with angular velocity w [See Fig. (5.2)].


Let the two fluxes start rotating from OX axis at t = 0. After time t seconds,
the angle through which the flux vectors have rotated
is t. Resolving the flux vectors along-X-axis and Y-axis, we have,
Total X-component=

m/2

cos t +

Total Y-component=

m/2

sin t -

Resultant flux, =[(

m/2
m/2

cos t)2 +0=

Thus the resultant flux vector is

cos t =

cos t.[clock &anti clockwise +ve]

sin t = 0.[clockwise+,anticlockwise-ve]

cos t.

cos t along X-axis. Therefore, an alternating field can be

replaced by two relating fields of half its amplitude rotating in opposite directions at synchronous
speed. Note that the resultant vector of two revolving flux vectors is a stationary vector that oscillates
in length with time along X-axis.

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When the rotating flux vectors are in phase [See Fig.(5.3 (i))], the resultant vector is =

m;

when out

of phase by 180 [See Fig. (9.3(ii))], the resultant vector = 0.


Alternative explanation:
Let us explain the operation of single-phase induction motor by
double-field revolving theory.
(i) Rotor at standstill.
Consider the case that the rotor is stationary and the stator winding is connected to a single-phase
supply. The alternating flux produced by the stator winding can be presented as the sum of two
rotating fluxes

and

2,

each equal to one half of the maximum value of alternating flux and each

rotating at synchronous speed (Ns = 120 f/P) in opposite directions as shown in Fig. (5.4 (i)). Let the
flux

rotate in anti clockwise direction and flux

in clockwise direction. The flux

the production of torque T1 in the anti clockwise direction and flux


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will result in

will result in the production of


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torque T2 In the clockwise direction. At standstill, these two torques are equal and opposite and the
net torque developed is zero. Therefore, single-phase induction motor is not self-starting. This fact is
illustrated in Fig. (5.4 (ii)). Note that each rotating field tends to drive the rotor in the direction in
which the field rotates. Thus the point of zero slip for one field corresponds to 200% slip for the other
as explained later. The value of 100% slip (standstill condition) is the same for both the fields.

(ii) Rotor running.


Now assume that the rotor is started by spinning the rotor or by using auxiliary circuit, in say
clockwise direction. The flux rotating in the clockwise direction is the forward rotating flux ( f) and
that in the other direction is the backward rotating flux ( b). The slip w.r.t. the forward flux will be,
sf=(Ns-N)/Ns=s. where Ns = synchronous speed, N = speed of rotor in the direction of forward
flux.The rotor rotates opposite to the rotation of the backward flux. Therefore, the
slip w.r.t. the backward flux will be,
sb=[Ns-(-N)]/Ns =(Ns+N)/Ns=(2Ns Ns+N)/Ns =2Ns/Ns-(Ns-N)/Ns =2-s; sb=2-s.
Thus the forward rotating flux, slip is s (less than unity) and for backward rotating flux, the slip is 2 s (greater than unity). Since for usual rotor resistance/reactance ratios, the torques at slips of less than
unity are greater than those at slips of more than unity, the resultant torque will be in the direction of
the rotation of the forward flux. Thus if the motor is once started, it will develop
net torque in the direction in which it has been started and will function as a motor.
(ii).Cross-field theory.
Consider a single phase induction motor with standstill rotor as shown in the Fig. 1. The stator
winding is excited by the single phase a.c. supply. This supply produces an alternating flux s which
acts along the axis of the stator winding. Due to this flux, e.m.f., gets induced in the rotor conductors
due to transformer action. As rotor is closed one, this e.m.f. circulates current through the rotor
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conductors. The direction of the rotor current is as shown in the Fig. 1. The direction of rotor current
is so as to oppose the cause producing it, which is stator flux s.
Now Fleming's left hand rule can be used to find the direction of the force experienced by the rotor
conductors. It can be seen that when s acts in upward direction and increasing positively, the
conductors on left experience force from left to right while conductors on right experience force from
right to left. Thus overall, the force experienced by the rotor is zero. Hence no torque exists on the
rotor and rotor ca not start rotating.

We have seen that there must exist two fluxes separated by some angle so as to produce rotating
magnetic field. According to cross field theory, the stator flux can be resolved into two components
which are mutually perpendicular. One acts along axis of the stator winding and other acts
perpendicular to it.
Assume now that an initial push is given to the rotor anticlockwise direction. Due to the rotation,
rotor physically cuts the stator flux and dynamically e.m.f. gets induced in the rotor. This is called
speed e.m.f. or rotational e.m.f. The direction of such e.m.f. can be obtained by Fleming's right hand
rule and this e.m.f. in phase with the stator flux s. The direction of e.m.f. is shown in the Fig. 2. This
e.m.f. us denoted as E2N. This e.m.f. circulates current through rotor which is I2N. This current
produces its own flux called rotor flux r. This axis of r is at 90o to the axis of stator flux hence this
rotor flux is called cross-field.Due to very high rotor reactance, the rotor current I2N and r lags the
rotational e.m.f. by almost 90o .
Thus r is in quadrature with s in space and lags s by 90o in time phase. Such two fluxes
produce the rotating magnetic field.

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The direction of this rotating magnetic field will be same as the direction of the initial push
given. Thus rotor experiences a torque in the same direction as that of rotating magnetic field i.e. the
direction of initial push. So rotor accelerates in the anticlockwise direction under the case considered
and attains a sub synchronous speed in the steady state.
5.5. Making Single-Phase Induction Motor Self-Starting.
The single-phase induction motor is not self starting. To make a single-phase induction motor selfstarting, we should somehow produce a revolving stator
magnetic field. This may be achieved by converting a singlephase supply into two-phase supply through the use of an
additional winding.
When the motor attains sufficient speed, the starting means
(i.e., additional winding) may be removed depending upon the
type of the motor. Single-phase induction motors are classified
and named according to the method employed to make them
self-starting.
(i). Split-phase motors-started by two phase motor action through the use of an auxiliary or starting
winding.
(ii) Capacitor motors-started by two-phase motor action through the use of an auxiliary
winding and a capacitor.
(iii) Shaded-pole motors-started by the motion of the magnetic field produced by means of a
shading coil around a portion of the pole structure.
5.2 Types of Single-Phase Motors
Single-phase motors are generally built in the fractional-horsepower range and may be
classified into the following four basic types:
1. Single-phase induction motors
(i) split-phase type (ii) capacitor type (iii) shaded-pole type .
2. A.C. series motor or universal motor.3. Repulsion motors
(i) Repulsion-start induction-run motor.(ii) Repulsion-induction motor
4. Synchronous motors:(i) Reluctance motor (ii) Hysteresis motor
5.6. Resistance-Split-Phase Induction Motor.
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The stator of a split-phase induction motor is provided with an auxiliary or starting winding S in
addition to the main or running winding M. The starting winding is located 90 electrical from the
main winding [See Fig. (i)] and operates only during the brief period when the motor starts up. The
two windings are so
designed that the starting
winding S has a high
resistance and
relatively small reactance
while the main winding M
has relatively low resistance
and large reactance as shown
in the schematic connections in
Fig. (ii). Consequently, the
currents flowing in the two
windings have reasonable phase
difference c (25 to 30) as
shown in the phasor diagram in
Fig. (iii).
Operation
(i) When the two stator windings are energized from a single-phase supply, the main winding carries
current Im while the starting winding carries current Is.
(ii) Since main winding is made highly inductive while the starting winding highly resistive, the
currents Im and Is have a reasonable phase angle (25 to 30) between them as shown in Fig. (iii).
Consequently, a weak revolving field approximating to that of a 2-phase machine is produced which
starts the motor. The starting torque is given by;
Ts = kIm Is sin.
where k is a constant whose magnitude depends upon the design of the motor.
(iii) When the motor reaches about 75% of synchronous speed, the centrifugal switch opens the
circuit of the starting winding. The motor then operates as a single-phase induction motor and

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continues to accelerate till it reaches the normal speed. The normal speed of the motor is below the
synchronous speed and depends upon the load on the motor.
Characteristics.
(i).The starting torque is 1.5 to 2 times the full-load torque ie starting current is 6 to 8 times the fullload current.
(ii). Due to their low cost, split-phase induction motors are most popular single phase motors in the
market.
(iii). Since the starting winding is made of fine wire, the current density is high and the winding
heats up quickly. If the starting period exceeds 5 seconds, the winding may burn out unless the motor
is protected by built-in-thermal relay. This motor is, therefore, suitable where starting periods are not
frequent.
(iv) An important characteristic of these motors is that they are essentially constant-speed motors.
The speed variation is 2-5% from no-load to fullload.
(v) These motors are suitable where a moderate starting torque is required and where starting periods
are infrequent e.g., to drive: (a) fans (b) washing machines (c) oil burners (d) small machine tools etc.
The power rating of such motors generally lies between 60 W and 250 W.
Note: The direction of rotation is reversed by reversing the terminals of any one of two windings, but
not both, before connecting the motor to the supply terminals. This motor is used in applications, such
as fan, saw, small lathe, centrifugal pump, blower, office equipment, washing machine, etc.
5.7.Capacitor Split-phase Motor .
The resistance split IM, is a simple one, requiring only second (auxiliary) winding placed at a space
angle from the main winding. It does not need any other thing, except for centrifugal switch, as the
auxiliary winding is used as a starting winding. But the main problem is
low starting torque in the motor. To get high starting torque, the phase difference required is 90.
This can be can be achieved by having a capacitor in series with the
auxiliary winding, which results in additional cost, with the increase
in starting torque, The two types of such motors are described here.
(i).Capacitor-start motor.
The circuit diagram of this
motor is given in Fig. A
capacitor along with a
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centrifugal switch is connected in series with the auxiliary winding, which is being used here as a
starting winding. The capacitor may be rated only for intermittent duty, the cost of which decreases,
as it is used only at the time of starting. The function of the centrifugal switch is to disconnect the
auxiliary winding after the motor attains 75%of normal speed. The phasor diagram of two currents
and the torque-speed characteristics of the motor with/without auxiliary winding, are shown in Fig.
This motor is used in applications, such as compressor, conveyor, machine tool drive, refrigeration
and air-conditioning equipment, etc.
The power rating of such motors lies between 120 W and 7-5 kW.
(ii).Capacitor-start and Capacitor-run Motor
In this motor two capacitors Cs for starting, and Cr for running,
are used. The first capacitor is rated for intermittent duty, being
used only for starting. A centrifugal switch is also needed here.
The second one is to be rated for continuous duty, as it is used for running. The phasor diagram of
two currents in both cases, and the torque-speed characteristics with two windings having different
values of capacitors, are shown in Fig. The phase difference between the two currents is (

+ s>90) in the first case (starting), while it is 90 for


second case (running). In the second case, the motor is a
balanced two phase one, the two windings having same
number of turns and other conditions as given earlier, are
also satisfied. So, only the forward rotating field is present,
and the no backward rotating field exists. The efficiency of
the motor under this condition is higher. Hence, using two
capacitors, the performance of the motor improves both at the time of starting and then running. This
motor is used in applications, such as compressor, refrigerator, etc.
Beside the above two types of motors, a Permanent Capacitor Motor with the same capacitor being
utilised for both starting and running, is also used. The power factor of this motor, when it is
operating (running), is high. The operation is also quiet and smooth. This motor is used in
applications, such as ceiling fans, air circulator, blower, etc.
5.8.Shaded-Pole Motor.
The shaded-pole motor is very popular for ratings below 0.05
H.P. (~ 40 W) because of its extremely simple construction. It
has salient poles on the stator excited by single-phase supply
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and a squirrelcage rotor as shown in Fig. A portion of each pole is surrounded by a short-circuited
turn of copper strip called shading coil.
Operation
The operation of the motor can be understood by referring to Fig.(i).which shows one pole of the
motor with a shading coil.
(i) During the portion OA of the alternating-current cycle , the flux begins to increase and an e.m.f. is
induced in the shading coil. The resulting current in the shading coil will be in such a direction
(Lenzs law) so as to oppose the change in flux. Thus the flux in the shaded portion of the pole is
weakened while that in the unshaded portion is strengthened as shown in Fig. (ii).
(ii) During the portion AB of the alternating-current cycle, the flux has reached
almost maximum value and is not changing. Consequently, the flux distribution across the pole is
uniform [See Fig. (iii)] since no current is flowing in the shading coil. As the flux decreases (portion
BC of the alternating current cycle), current is induced in the shading coil so as to oppose the
decrease in current. Thus the flux in the shaded portion of the pole is strengthened while that in the
unshaded portion is weakened as
shown in Fig. (iv).
(iii) The effect of the shading coil is
to cause the field flux to shift across
the pole face from the unshaded to
the shaded portion. This shifting flux
is like a rotating weak field moving
in the direction from unshaded
portion to the shaded portion of the
pole.
(iv) The rotor is of the squirrel-cage type and is under the influence of this moving field.
Consequently, a small starting torque is developed. As soon as this torque starts to revolve the rotor,
additional torque is produced by single-phase induction-motor action. The motor accelerates to a
speed slightly below the synchronous speed and runs as a single-phase induction motor.
Characteristics.

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(i) The salient features of this motor are extremely simple construction and absence of centrifugal
switch.
(ii) Since starting torque, efficiency and power factor are very low, these motors are only suitable for
low power applications e.g., to drive:
(a) small fans (6) toys (c) hair driers (d) desk fans etc.
The power rating of such motors is upto about 30 W.
Note:The reversal of the direction of rotation, where desired, can be achieved by providing two
shading coils, one on each end of every pole, and by open-circuiting one set of shading coils and by
short-circuiting the other set.
The fact that the shaded-pole motor is single-winding (no auxiliary winding) self-starting one, makes
it less costly and results in rugged construction. The motor has low efficiency and is usually available
in a range of 1/300 to 1/20 kW. It is used for domestic fans, record players and tape recorders,
humidifiers, slide projectors, small business machines, etc. The shaded-pole principle is used in
starting electric clocks and other single-phase synchronous timing motors.
5.9. Equivalent Circuit of Single-Phase Induction Motor.
When the stator of a single-phase induction motor is connected to single-phase supply, the stator
current produces a pulsating flux that is equivalent to two-constant-amplitude fluxes revolving in
opposite directions at the synchronous speed (double-field revolving theory). Each of these fluxes
induces currents in the rotor circuit and produces induction motor action similar to that in a 3-phase
induction motor. Therefore, a single-phase induction motor imagined to be consisting of two motors,
having a common stator winding but with their respective rotors revolving in opposite directions.
Each rotor has resistance and reactance half the actual rotor values.
Let R1 = resistance of stator winding;X1 = leakage reactance of stator winding
Xm = total magnetizing reactance ;R'2 = resistance of the rotor referred to the stator
X'2 = leakage reactance of the rotor referred to the stator revolving theory.
(i) At standstill. At standstill, the motor is simply a transformer with its secondary short-circuited.
Therefore, the equivalent circuit of single-phase motor at standstill will be as shown in Fig. The
double-field revolving theory suggests that characteristics associated with each
revolving field will be just one-half of the characteristics associated with the actual total flux.
Therefore, each rotor has resistance and reactance equal to R'2/2 and X'2/2 respectively.
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Each rotor is associated with half the total magnetizing reactance. Note that in the equivalent circuit,
the core loss has been neglected. However, core loss can be represented by an
equivalent resistance in parallel with the
magnetizing reactance.
Now,Ef =4.44fN f ;
Ef =4.44fN

b.

At stand still, f=

Ef =Eb.
V1 =Ef + Eb = I1Zf + I1Zb.
where Zf = impedance of forward parallel
branch.
Zb = impedance of backward parallel branch.
(ii) Rotor running. Now consider that the motor is running at some speed in the direction of the
forward revolving field, the slip being s. The rotor current produced by the forward field will have a
frequency sf where f is the stator frequency. Also, the rotor current produced by the backward field
will have a frequency of (2 - s)f. Fig. shows the equivalent circuit of a single-phase induction motor
when the rotor is rotating at slip s.
Note:Here the single phase IM has been assumed to be made of (i).one stator winding (ii).Two
imaginary rotor.
Let,Z1=R1+jX1;R1=stator resistance,X1 =stator reactance.
Zf =jxm[r2/s +jx2]/[(r2/s)+j(xm+x2)] =forward impedance and runs with a slip s.
Zb= jxm[r2/(2-s) +jx2]/[(r2/(2-s)+j(xm+x2)] =backward impedance and runs with a slip (2-s).
Here r2=R2/2;x2=X2/2;Xm=xm/2.
Under stand still condition,Vf=Vb;under running condition,Vf=(92 to 95% )of V.
Total circuit impedance,Z01=Z1+Zf+Zb;Motor current,I1=V/Z01;
Vf=I1Zf ; ;Vb=I1Zb ;Let I3=Vf/Z3 ;Z3=[(r2/s)2+x22];I5=Vb/Z5 ;where Z5=[{(r2/(2-s)}2+x22].
Tf=I32(r2/s); Tb=I52[r2/(2-s)];Net torque,T=Tf Tb.
Output in synchronous watts,Ps=T(1-s).
Note:If core,friction and windage loss is given,Po =T(1-s) {PI +PFW}

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5.1.Find the mechanical power output at a slip of 0.05 of the 185Watts, 4 pole,110V,60Hz,1 IM
whose constants are given below,
Resistance of stator main winding =1.86, Reactance of stator main winding =2.56,
Magnetizing reactance of stator main winding =53.5, Rotor resistance at standstill =3.56,
Rotor reactance at standstill =2.56.
Data: s=0.05,Po=185Watts,p=4,V=110V,f=60Hz,1 IM,R1=1.86,X1=2.56,
Xm=53.5,

xm=Xm/2;R2=3.56,

r2 =R2/2; X2=2.56.

x2 = X2/2;To find Ps.

Sol: Ps=T(1-s).;T=Tf Tb.; Tf=I32(r2/s); Z3=[(r2/s)2+x22]; I5=Vb/Z5 ; Z5=[{(r2/(2-s)}2+x22]


Vf=I1Zf ; ;Vb=I1Zb; Z01=Z1+Zf+Zb;I1=V/Z01;
Zf =jxm[r2/s +jx2]/[(r2/s)+j(xm+x2)]=21[53.8] =(12.4 +j16.98).
Zb= jxm[r2/(2-s) +jx2]/[(r2/(2-s)+j(xm+x2)]=1.5[56.3]=(0.83+j1.25).;Z1=(1.86+j20.8)
Z01= Z01=Z1+Zf+Zb=(15.1+j20.8) =25.7[54]. I1=V/Z01=4.3[-54]A= (2.51-j3.46)A;
Vf=I1Zf=90[-0.18].V ;Vb= I1Zb=6.4[2.34].
Z3=[(r2/s)2+x22]=35.6 ; Z5=[{(r2/(2-s)}2+x22] =1.59.
I3=Vf/Z3 =2.5[-0.18]A; I5=Vb/Z5 =4[2.34]A;
Tf=I32(r2/s)=227N-m.; Tb=I52[r2/(2-s)]=14.8N-m;Net torque,
T=Tf Tb =212N-m.Ps=T(1-s)=201Watts.
5.10.A.C. Series Motor or Universal Motor.
A d.c. series motor will rotate in the same direction regardless of the
polarity of the supply. A d.c. series motor would also operate on a singlephase supply. It is then called an a.c. series motor. However, some changes must be made in a d.c.
motor that is to operate satisfactorily on a.c. supply. The changes effected are:
(i) The entire magnetic circuit is laminated in order to reduce the eddy current loss. Hence an a.c.
series motor requires a more expensive construction than a d.c. series motor.
(ii) The series field winding has few turns to reduce the reactance of the field winding to a minimum.
This reduces the voltage drop across the field winding.
(iii) A high field flux is obtained by using a low- reluctance magnetic circuit.
(iv) There is considerable sparking between the brushes and the
Commutator when the motor is used on a.c. supply. It is because the
alternating flux establishes high currents in the coils short-circuited by
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the brushes. When the short-circuited coils break contact from the commutator, excessive sparking is
produced. This can be eliminated by using high-resistance leads to connect the coils to the
commutator segments.
Construction.
The construction of en a.c. series motor is very similar to a d.c. series motor except that above
modifications are incorporated. Such a motor can be operated either on a.c. or d.c.
supply and the resulting torque-speed curve is about the same in each case. For this
reason, it is sometimes called a universal motor.
Operation.
When the motor is connected to an a.c. supply, the same alternating current flows through the field
and armature windings.The field winding produces an alternating flux that reacts with the current
flowing inthe armature to produce a torque. Since both armature current and flux reverse
simultaneously, the torque always acts in the same direction. It may be noted that no rotating flux is
produced in this type of machines; the principle of operation is the same as that of a d.c. series motor.
Characteristics.
The operating characteristics of an a.c. series motor are similar to those of a d.c.series motor.
(i) The speed increases to a high value with a decrease in load. In very small series motors, the losses
are usually large enough at no load that limit the speed to a definite value (1500 - 15,000 r.p.m.).
(ii) The motor torque is high for large armature currents, thus giving a high starting torque.
(iii) At full-load, the power factor is about 90%. However, at starting or when carrying an overload,
the power factor is lower.
Applications.
The fractional horsepower a.c. series motors have high-speed (and corresponding small size) and
large starting torque. They can, therefore, be used to drive:
(a) high-speed vacuum cleaners (b) sewing machines (c) electric shavers (d) drills
(e) machine tools etc.
5.11. Repulsion Motor.
A repulsion motor is similar to an a.c. series motor except that:
(i) brushes are not connected to supply, but are short-circuited . Consequently, currents are induced in
the armature conductors by transformer action.
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(ii) the field structure has non-salient pole construction. By adjusting the position of short-circuited
brushes on the commutator, the starting torque can be developed in the motor.
Construction.
The field of stator winding is wound like the main winding of a split-phase motor and is connected
directly to a single-phase source. The armature or rotor is similar to a d.c. motor armature with drum
type winding connected to a commutator. However, the brushes are not connected to supply but are
connected to each other or short-circuited. Short-circuiting the
brushes effectively makes the rotor into a type of squirrel cage. The major difficulty with an ordinary
single-phase induction motor is the low starting torque. By using a commutator motor with brushes
short-circuited, it is possible to vary the starting torque by changing the brush axis. It has also better
power factor than the conventional single-phase motor.
Principle of operation.
The principle of operation is illustrated in Fig. which shows a two-pole repulsion motor with its two
short-circuited brushes. The two drawings of Fig. represent a time at which the field current is
increasing in the direction shown so that the left-hand pole is N-pole and the right-hand pole is S-pole
at the instant shown.

(i) In Fig.(i), the brush axis is parallel to the stator field. When the stator winding is energized from
single-phase supply, e.m.f. is induced in the armature conductors (rotor) by induction. By Lenzs law,
the direction of the e.m.f. is such that the magnetic effect of the resulting armature
currents will oppose the increase in flux. The direction of current in armature conductors will be as
shown in Fig.(i). With the brush axis in the position shown in Fig.(i),current will flow from brush B
to brush A where it enters the armature and flows back to brush B through the two paths ACB and
ADB. With brushes set in this position, half of the armature conductors under the N-pole carry
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current inward and half carry current outward. The same is true under S-pole. Therefore, as much
torque is developed in one direction as in the other and the armature remains
stationary. The armature will also remain stationary if the brush axis is perpendicular to the stator
field axis.
(ii) If the brush axis is at some angle other than 0 or 90 to the axis of the stator field, a net torque is
developed on the rotor and the rotor accelerates to its final speed. Fig. (ii) represents the motor at the
same instant as that in Fig.(i) but the brushes have been shifted clockwise through
some angle from the stator field axis. Now e.m.f. is still induced in the direction indicated in Fig. (i)
and current flows through the two paths of the armature winding from brush A to brush B. However,
because of the new brush positions, the greater part of the conductors under the Npole
carry current in one direction while the greater part of conductors under S-pole carry current in the
opposite direction. With brushes in the position shown in Fig. (ii), torque is developed in the
clockwise direction and the rotor quickly attains the final speed.
(iii) The direction of rotation of the rotor
depends upon the direction in which
the brushes are shifted. If the brushes
are shifted in clockwise direction
from the stator field axis, the net
torque acts in the clockwise direction and the rotor
accelerates in the clockwise direction. If the brushes are shifted in anti-clockwise direction as in
Fig.(iii). the armature current under the pole faces is reversed and the net torque is developed in the
anti-clockwise direction.Thus a repulsion motor may be made to rotate in either direction depending
upon the direction in which the brushes are shifted.
(iv) The total armature torque in a repulsion motor can be shown to be ,Ta sin 2.
where = angle between brush axis and stator field axis.
For maximum torque, 2 = 90 or = 45.
Thus adjusting a to 45 at starting, maximum torque can be obtained during the starting period.
However, a has to be adjusted to give a suitable running speed.
Characteristics

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(i) The repulsion motor has characteristics very similar to those of an a.c. series motor i.e., it has a
high starting torque and a high speed at no load.
(ii) The speed which the repulsion motor develops for any given load will depend upon the position
of the brushes.
(iii) In comparison with other single-phase motors, the repulsion motor has a high starring torque and
relatively low starting current.
5.12.Reluctance Motor.
It is a single-phase synchronous motor which does not
require d.c. excitation to the rotor. Its operation is based
upon the following principle:
Whenever a piece of ferromagnetic material is located in
a magnetic field; a force is exerted on the material,
tending to align the material so that reluctance of the magnetic path that passes through the material is
minimum.
Construction.
A reluctance motor (also called synchronous reluctance motor) consists of:
(i) a stator carrying a single-phase winding along with an auxiliary winding to produce a
synchronous-revolving magnetic field.
(ii) a squirrel-cage rotor having unsymmetrical magnetic construction. This is achieved by
symmetrically removing some of the teeth from the squirrel cage rotor to produce salient poles on the
rotor. As shown in Fig. (i),4 salient poles have been produced on me stator. The salient poles created
on the rotor must be equal to the poles on the stator.
Note that rotor salient poles offer low reluctance to the stator flux and, therefore, become strongly
magnetized.
Operation.
(i) When single-phase stator having an auxiliary winding is energized, a synchronously-revolving
field is produced. The motor starts as a standard squirrel-cage induction motor and will accelerate to
near its synchronous speed.

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(ii) As the rotor approaches synchronous speed, the rotating stator flux will exert reluctance torque on
the rotor poles tending to align the salient-pole axis with the axis of the rotating field. The rotor
assumes a position where its salient poles lock with the poles of the revolving field .
Consequently, the motor will continue to run at the speed of revolving flux i.e., at the synchronous
speed.
(iii) When we apply a mechanical load, the rotor poles fall slightly behind the stator poles, while
continuing to turn at synchronous speed. As the load on the motor is increased, the mechanical angle
between the poles increases progressively. Nevertheless, magnetic attraction keeps the rotor locked to
the rotating flux. If the load is increased beyond the amount under which
the reluctance torque can maintain synchronous speed, the rotor drops out of step with the revolving
field. The speed, then, drops to some value at which the slip is sufficient to develop the necessary
torque to drive the load by induction-motor action.
Characteristics.
(i) These motors have poor torque, power factor and efficiency.
(ii) These motors cannot accelerate high-inertia loads to synchronous speed.
(iii) The pull-in and pull-out torques of such motors are weak.
Despite the above drawbacks, the reluctance motor is cheaper than any other
type of synchronous motor. They are widely used for constant-speed
applications such as timing devices, signaling devices etc.
5.13.Hysteresis Motor.
It is a single-phase motor whose operation depends upon the hysteresis effect i.e., magnetization
produced in a ferromagnetic material lags behind the magnetizing force.
Construction :
It consists of:(i) a stator designed to produce a synchronously-revolving field from a single-phase
supply. This is accomplished by using permanent-split capacitor type construction. Consequently,
both the windings (i.e., starting as well as main winding) remain connected in the circuit during
running operation as well as at starting. The value of capacitance is so adjusted as to result in a flux
revolving at synchronous speed.

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(ii) a rotor consisting of a smooth cylinder of


magnetically hard steel, without winding or
teeth.
Operation.
(i) When the stator is energized from a
single-phase supply, a synchronously
revolving field (assumed in anti-clockwise
direction) is produced due to split-phase
operation.
(ii) The revolving stator flux magnetizes the
rotor. Due to hysteresis effect, the axis of
magnetization of rotor will lag behind the
axis of stator field by hysteresis lag angle a as shown in Fig. Thus the rotor and stator
poles are locked. If the rotor is stationary, the starting torque produced is given by:
Ts

sin where

= stator flux.

= rotor flux.

From now onwards, the rotor accelerates to synchronous speed with a uniform torque.
(iii) After reaching synchronism, the motor continues to run at synchronous speed and adjusts its
torque angle so as to develop the torque required by the load.
Characteristics
(i) A hysteresis motor can synchronize any load which it can accelerate, no matter how great the
inertia. It is because the torque is uniform from standstill to synchronous speed.
(ii) Since the rotor has no teeth or salient poles or winding, a hysteresis motor is inherently quiet and
produces smooth rotation of the load.
(iii) The rotor takes on the same number of poles as the stator field. Thus by changing the number of
stator poles through pole-changing connections,we can get a set of synchronous speeds for the motor.
Applications:Due to their quiet operation and ability to
drive high-inertia loads, hysteresis motors are particularly
well suited for driving (i) electric clocks (ii) timing devices
(iii) tape-decks (iv)from-tables and other precision audioequipment.
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5.14. Stepper Motor.


A stepper motor is an electromechanical device which converts electrical pulses into discrete
mechanical movements. The shaft or spindle of a stepper motor rotates in discrete step increments
when electrical command pulses are applied to it in the proper sequence. The motors rotation has
several direct relationships to these applied input pulses. The sequence of the applied
pulses is directly related to the direction of motor shafts rotation. The speed of the motor shafts
rotation is directly related to the frequency of the input pulses
and the length of rotation is directly related to the number of
input pulses applied.
Switch A is closed, so this creates a north pole to attract the
south pole of the rotor. There are 2 options, either de-energize
the A switch and energize the B switch, or de-energize the A
switch and energize the C switch.
When a stepper motor increments, each increment is referred to
as a step.
Depending on the number of poles in the stator, a stepper motor has the ability to either full step, or
half step.Full stepping with a 4 pole stator is where 2 coils are energized at a time, so that the center
of the two poles is the center point of the step.
Stepper Motor Types

There are three basic stepper motor types. They are :


Variable-reluctance Permanent-magnet Hybrid.
VARIABLE RELUCTANCE
VR stepper motors have no permanent magnet, so the rotor spins freely without detent torque.
Torque output for a given frame size is restricted, although the torque-to-inertia ratio is good, and this
type of motor is used frequently in small sizes for applications such as micro- positioning tables. VR
motors are seldom used in industrial applications (having
no permanent magnet). They are not sensitive to current
polarity and require a different driving arrangement than
the other motor types.
PERMANENT MAGNET
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PM motors have a permanent magnet in the rotor, giving it a detent torque, so it retains its
position when de-energized.
Also known as the tin can or canstack motor, it is the most widely used type in nonindustrial applications.
Low cost, low torque, and low speed, are suited to applications in fields such as computer
peripherals.
The motor construction results in relatively large step angles, but their simplicity lends itself
to economic high-volume production at a low cost.
The axial-air gap or disc motor is a variant of the permanent magnet design which achieves
higher performance, largely because of its very low rotor inertia.
This restricts the applications of the motor to those involving little inertia. (e.g., positioning
the print wheel in a daisy-wheel printer).
It is difficult to build small PM motors with many poles therefore the step sizes for PM motors
are usually large.
PM rotors are also bulkier and therefore these motors have higher inertia, and consequently,
they accelerate slower.
The maximum pulse rate is around 300 Hz.
HYBRID STEPPER MOTORS
Combination of VR and PM type motors.
Have a permanent magnet sandwiched between two soft iron armatures, so that all of one
armature is N biased and all of the other armature is S biased.
These two armatures are staggered in their construction, so that the incremental size the motor
is capable is very small.
One major benefit of a hybrid motor is the detent torque, like the PM steppers.
Ability to retain its position. (for precision movement)
Power can be saved by de-energizing the motor and re-energizing it when it needs to be used
again.

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Stepper Motor Advantages and Disadvantages


Advantages
1. The rotation angle of the motor is proportional to the input pulse.
2. The motor has full torque at standstill (if the windings are energized)
3. Precise positioning and repeatability of movement since good stepper motors have an accuracy of 3
5% of a step and this error is non cumulative from one step to the next.
4. Excellent response to starting/ stopping/reversing.
5. Very reliable since there are no contact brushes in the motor. Therefore the life of the motor is
simply dependant on the life of the bearing.
6. The motors response to digital input pulses provides open-loop control, making the motor simpler
and less costly to control.
7. It is possible to achieve very low speed synchronous rotation with a load that is directly coupled to
the shaft.
8. A wide range of rotational speeds can be realized as the speed is proportional to the frequency of
the input pulses.
Size and Power
Size 11 stepper motor has a body diameter of approximately 1.1 inches.Likewise a size 23 stepper
motor has a body diameter of 2.3 inches (58 mm),etc.Power levels for IC-driven stepper motors
typically range from below a watt for very small motors up to 10 20 watts for larger motors.
Phases, Poles and Stepping Angles

It is the relationship between the number of rotor poles and the equivalent stator poles, and the
number the number of phases that determines the full-step angle of a stepper motor.
Step angle=360/N ;N=NPh x Ph ;NPh = number of rotor poles;Ph = Number of phases
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N = Total number of poles for all phases together.


Applications:(i).Paper feed motors in type writers and teleprinters(ii).positioning of print heads
(iii).pens in X-Y graphical plotters (iv).recording heads in computer disk drives (v).positioning of
work tables and tools in numerically controlled machining equipment.
5.15.No load & Blocked rotor test on 1 IM.
To determine the equivalent circuit parameters of 1 IM.ie,R1,X1,xm,r2,x2.
R1=Resistance of main winding. It can be measured using ammeter &Voltmeter method.
I.Blocked rotor test:
Rotor should be blocked from running.
Apply reduced voltage to the motor so that rated current flows through the main winding.
Auxiliary winding is kept opened during the test.
From the test,Wsc=Isc2RscRsc=Wsc/Isc2 ;Zsc=Vsc/Isc ;Rsc=Wsc/Isc2 ;Xsc=(Zsc2 Rsc2)
Also,Rsc =R1 + R2 ; R2 = Rsc -R1 ;Xsc =X1 +X2
Assuming that both reactances are equal ,ie,X1=X2 ; Xsc =2X1=2 X2.

X1=X2 = Xsc/2.

No load test:
The 1 IM is made to run at rated speed &rated voltage is applied. Readings are noted.
Zo=Vo/Io ;Ro=Wo/Io2 ; Xo=(Zo2 Ro2).
Also,Xo=X1+Xm/2 +X2/2 ;X1=X2=Xsc/2.
Sub. for X1&X2 in Xo ;Xo= X1+Xm/2 +X2/2=3Xsc/2 +Xm/2. ;Xm/2=Xo-3Xsc/2Xm=2Xo-3Xsc/2.
5.2 A 250V ,50Hz,single phase capacitor start Induction motor has the following constants for the
main winding and auxiliary windings.Main winding,Zm=(4.5+j3.7).,auxiliary winding
Za=(9.5+j3.5).Determine the value of the capacitor that will place the main and auxiliary winding
currents in quadrature at starting.
Let Xc=reactance of the capacitor connected in the auxiliary winding.
Za=(9.5+j3.5) ---without capacitor;= (9.5+j3.5-jXc)---with capacitor;
Zm=(4.5+j3.7)=5.8258 at an angle39.42.
Thus Im lags behind V by 39.42.Since , time phase angle between Im and Ia has to be 90,Ia must lead
V by an angle given by,a=90-39.42=50.58.
For auxiliary winding, tana=X/Rtan50.58=X/9.5X=11.55
We have,Xc-3.5=X Xc-3.5=11.55 Xc=15.05.
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Capacitive reactance,Xc=1/2fCC=211.4F.

Part-A1.Is single phase induction motor self starting? Why?


2.What is the use of shading coil in the shaded pole motor?
3.Name the motors used in ceiling fan and in lathes.
4.Which type of single phase IM is to be selected for driving fans and blowers and why?
5.Draw the equivalent circuit of single phase induction motor.
6.Why centrifugal switches provided on many single phase induction motor?
7.Explain how the single phase induction motor is made self starting?
8.What is stepper motor?
9.What type of motor is used in computer drivers?
10.Determine the step angle of a single stack,4phase,6 pole stepper motor.
11.What are the classification of stepper motor?
12.Name the two theories regarding single phase induction motor.
13.What is the effect of increasing rotor resistance in a single phase induction motor?
14.What is split phase motor?
15.How is the direction of rotation of single phase induction motor reversed?
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16.How does a capacitor start motor differ from a resistance start motor?
17.What happens to a capacitor start induction motor, if the auxiliary winding is left in the circuit
after it has been used to start the motor?
18.In a 2-phase capacitor motor, which capacitor is of fairly high value and to what order?
19.State the advantages of capacitor-run over capacitor start motor.
20.Name the motor being used in ceiling fan.
21.What is a shaded pole motor?In what direction do shaded pole motor turn?
22.State the applications of shaded pole single phase induction motor.
23.How can the a shaded pole motor be reversed in direction of rotation?
24.Whta is a Universal motor?How can the direction of rotation be reversed?
25.Why compensating winding is provided in a universal motor for ac operation?
26.What happens when the brush axis of a repulsion motor is aligned with its stator poleaxis?
27.A ceiling fan when switched on to a single phase supply does not start rotating.What may be the
reason?
28.Discuss the characteristics of single phase series motor.
29.What are the drawbacks of the presence of the backward rotating field in a SPIM?
30.What are the applications of reluctance motor.
Part-BGive,
constructional details,

1.SPLIT PHASE INDUCTION


MOTOR.

principle of operation,

2.CAPACITOR START .

draw the circuit diagram,

3. CAPACITOR START CAPACITOR


RUN.

phasor diagram,
characteristics,
Torque-Speed characteristics,
advantages and disadvantages,
power rating,
Specific application and
method of reversal of rotation of

4.SHADED POLE
5.REPULSION MOTOR.
6.A.C.SERIES MOTOR.
7.UNIVERSAL MOTOR.
8.STEPPER MOTOR
9.HYSTERESIS MOTOR
10.RELUCTANCE MOTOR.

the following single phase induction motor

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31.Prove that a single phase motor winding when excited by a single phase supply produce two equal
and opposite revolving fields.
32.Explain why a single phase induction motor does not self start. Discuss its operation based on
double revolving field theory. Sketch and explain its torque slip characteristics.
33.Explain the constructional details and principle of operation of single phase induction motor.
34.Explain cross-field theory as applied to a single phase induction motor.
35.Find the mechanical power output at a slip of 0.05 of the 185 W,4 pole ,110V,60HZ,single phase
induction motor whose constants are given below.
Resistance of stator main winding=1.86,Reactance of stator main winding=2.56,Magnetising
reactance of the stator main winding=53.5,Rotor resistance at standstill =3.56,Rotor reactance at
standstill =2.56.[Ans201.5W].

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K.L.N.College of Engineering.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.
EE6504-ELECTRICAL MACHINES-II-[C305]
Assignment-I-.[Issue:06.07.2015,Submission:

07.09.2015 V Sem/A,B &C Sec/EEE.]

CO

Questions

CO305.3

1 to 5

CO305.4

6 ,7

CO305.5

8 to 12

1. In a 6pole, 3phase, 50Hz induction motor with star connected rotor, the rotor resistance per
phase is 0.3, the reactance at stand still is 1.5/ph & emf between the slip rings on open
circuit is 175V. Calculate slip at the speed of 950 rpm, rotor emf /ph, rotor frequency &
reactance at this speed. (Ans: s=5%, f=2.5Hz, x2=.075)
2. An alternator of 8-pole runs at 750rpm and supplies power to a 6-pole induction motor which
has full-load slip of 3%.Find the full-load speed of induction motor and the frequency of its
rotor emf.(Ans:970rpm,1.5Hz)
3. A 3-phse star connected, 220V(line to line),50Hz,4-pole induction motor has the following
constants in ohm per phase referred to stator.
r1=0.29,r2=0.14,x1=0.5,x2=0.21 and magnetizing reactance xm
assumed to be constant at 400Watts.For a slip of 2%,compute(i).speed(ii).output torque (iii).stator
current of the motor .Neglect frictional and windage losses. (Ans:1,470rpm, 40Nm,21.5A)
4. A 3-phase, 400V induction motor gave the following test readings.
No-load:400V,1250W,9A;short circuit:150V,4kW,38A.Draw the circle diagram. If the normal rating
is 20.27hp,find from the circle diagram, the full load values of current, power factor and
slip.[Ans:15A,0.83,180%]
5. An induction motor has a double cage rotor with equivalent impedances at standstill of

(b)at slip of 5%.[Ans:4


6. Determine the starting torque of an induction motor interms of its full-load torque when
started by means of (i).star-delta starter and (ii) by an auto-transformer starter with 50% taps.
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The motor draws 5 times full load current when switched directly on line and has a full load
slip of 4%[1/3rd and 1/4th of Tf]
7. Calculate the steps in 5-section rotor for a 3-phase induction motor. The maximum starting
current =full load current. Full load slip=1.8% with rings shortcircuited. Rotor resistance per
1

3=0.0923,r4=0.0413,r5=0.0185]

8. Calculate the stepping angle for a 3phase ,24 pole permanent magnet type step motor(5)
9. A 4-pole,415 V,50 Hz, star connected , 3-phase induction motor has stator impedance of
(0.8 + j2.4) ohm per phase and equivalent standstill rotor impedance of (1.0 + j2.2)ohm per
phase. Find the maximum torque that the motor can develop and the slip at which it
occurs.[227.78rpm]
10. Find the mechanical power output at a slip of 0.05 of the 185 W,4 pole ,110V, 60HZ,single
phase induction motor whose constants are given below.
Resistance of stator main winding=1.86,Reactance of stator main
winding=2.56,Magnetising reactance of the stator main winding=53.5,Rotor resistance at
standstill =3.56,Rotor reactance at standstill =2.56.[Ans201.5W]
11. The equivalent impedances of the main and auxiliary windings in a capacitor motor are
(15+j22.5)

and (50+j120)

respectively, while the capacitance of the capacitor is

12F.Determine the line current at starting on a 230V, 50Hz supply.


12. A 250 Watts, 230V,50Hz, single phase induction motor has the following constants for the
main and auxiliary windings. Main winding Zm
Zo

that will place the main and

auxiliary winding currents in Quadrature at starting.[211.5F]

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K.L.N. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.


Degree/Program: B.E./EEE .course code&Name:EE 6504-Electrical Machines-IIDuration: July-October 2015.Semester:V

Section:A,B,C, Staff handling: S.M.Kannan.

TUTORIAL PROBLEMS
Unit-I-Synchronous Generator.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3
1.4.

1.5.

1.6.

Calculate the number of poles required for generating frequency of 50Hz using a turbine
running at (a).3000 rpm (b).1000rpm (c).300 rpm and (d) 40 rpm.[Ans:2,6,20,150].
A 60Hz,1200 rpm, alternator is running at 1000.Calculate the frequency of the induced EMF.
[Ans:For 1200 rpm, p=6;for 1000 rpm ,f=50Hz]
Determine the pitch factors for the following windings.(i).36 stator slots, 4poles,coil span 1to
8;(ii).96 stator slots,6poles,coil span 1 to 12.[Ans:0.94,0.883].
A 3 phase 16 pole alternator has the following data. Number of slots=192,conductors/ slot=8,
coil span=160 electrical degrees, speed of the alternator=375 rpm; flux/pole=55mWb.Calculate
the phase and line voltages.[=180-160=20, Eph=2928V, EL=5106V.]
A 4 pole,50Hz,star connected alternator has a flux per pole of 0.12Wb.It has 4 slots per pole
per phase,conductors per slot being 4.If the winding coil span is 150,find the phase and line
emf.[n=12,S=48,Zph=48,Tph=32,Eph=788V,EL=1366V.]
A 3 phase star connected synchronous generator is rated at 1.5MVA,11KV.The armature
effective resistance and synchronous reactance are 1.2 and 25 respectively per
phase.Calculate the percentage voltage regulation for a load of 1.4375MVA at 0.8pf lagging
and (ii)0.8pf leading.Also find out the pf at which the regulation becomes zero.[ 21.6%,13.1%.,0.981(lead)]

1.7.

A 3 phase, star connected alternator is rated at 1600kVA,1350V has armature resistance and
synchronous reactance as 1.5,30 respectively per phase. Calculate voltage regulation for a
load of 1280kW at 0.8 pf leading.[Ans:IL=68A,E0=6859V,%VR=-1.21%]
T.1.8.The following test results are obtained for a 6600v alternator.
If(Amps)
16
25
37.5
50
70
Emf(Volts) 3100 4900 6600 7500 8300
A field current of 20A is found necessary to circulate full load current on short circuit of
armature. Calculate by (i).mmf (ii).emf method, full load regulation at 0.8pf (lagging).Neglect
armature resistance.Ans(i).mmf method:%R=14.8%.(ii).38.7%.
Unit-II-Synchronous Motor.

2.1

A 75kW,400V,3,star connected synchronous motor has a resistance and synchronous


reactance per phase of 0.04 and 0.4 respectively. Compute for full load 0.8pf (lead), the
open circuit emf / phase and gross mechanical power developed. Assume full load efficiency
of 92%.[265Volts.(phase), 80.7kW.]

2.2.

A 2000V,3 phase ,star connected synchronous motor has an effective resistance and reactance
of 0.2 and 2.2 respectively. The input is 800kW at normal voltage and the emf(line) is

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2500V.Calculate the line current and power factor of the load.[ 247.5A, 0.933]
2.3.

A 3phase 6600V,50Hz,star connected synchronous motor takes 50A current. The resistance
and reactance per phase are 1 and 20 respectively. Find the power supplied to the motor
and induced emf for a pf of (i)0.8pf lagging (ii)0.8 pf leading (iii).UPF. Draw the vector
diagram for each case.[ 457kW, 571kW, 4448.5V, 3891V]

2.4.

A 3 sync motor absorbing 60 kW is connected in parallel; with a factory load of 240 kW


having pf 0.8 lag. If the combined load has p.f. 0.9 What is the value of leading kVAR
supplied by motor and at what p.f. it is working?[ 34.7 kVAR, cos S = 0.98]
Unit-III- Three phase induction Motor.

3.1.

T 3.1.A six pole induction motor is fed from 50Hz supply. If the frequency of the rotor emf at
full load is 2Hz,find the full load speed and slip.(960rpm,4%)

3.2.

A 3 IM,has 2 poles and is connected to 400V, 50Hz supply. Calculate the actual rotor speed
and rotor frequency when the slip is 4%.[2880rpm,2Hz]

3.3.
reactance at standstill is 1.5 per phase and emf between the slip rings on open circuit is
175V.Calculate the slip at a speed of 950rpm and rotor emf per phase, rotor frequency and
reactance at a speed of 950rpm.[5%,101V,0.075 ].
3.4.

3.5.

3.6.

3.7.

3.8.

A 6 pole,50Hz,3phase,slip ring induction motor has a resistance and reactance of 0.5 and 5
per phase respectively. Calculate (i).at what speed the torque is maximum?(ii).The ratio of
maximum to starting torque.(iii).What must be external resistance per to be added so that the
starting torque is half the maximum torque.[900rpm,5.05,18 ]
impedance of (0.2+j1.5) at standstill. Full load
torque is obtained at 360rpm.Calculate (i).Ratio of maximum to full load torque.(ii).speed for
maximum torque.(iii).Rotor resistance to be added to get Tmax.[1.82,331rpm, 0.13.]
The power input to r
emf make 90 complete cycles per minute. Calculate (i).slip (ii).The rotor speed (iii).rotor Cu
loss. (iv).mechanical power developed.[0.03,970rpm,1800W,58.2W]
A 25HP, 6 pole,50Hz induction motor has stator/rotor phase voltage ratio of 6/5.The stator
&rotor impedance per phase are (0.25+j0.75) and (0.173+j0.5) respectively. Find the
starting torque developed by the motor when external resistance of 1 inserted in each phase.
The motor being started directly on the 400V supply system. Assume Y-Y connection.[63Nm]
Draw the circle diagram for a 5.6KW,400V,3phase,4pole,50Hz,slip ring IM from the following
data.No load readings-400V,6A,pf = 0.087.SC test- 100V,12A,720watts. The ratio of primary
to secondary turns is 2.62,stator resistance per phase is 0.67 ohm and of the rotor is
0.185ohm.calculate (i)full load current (ii).full load slip (iii)full load pf,(iv).maximum torque

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(v) maximum power.[13.8A,6.06%,83.8%,0.8,10460W]


Unit-IV-Starting and Speed control of three phase induction motor
4.1.
starting current, if the starting resistance starter is used to reduce the impressed voltage to 60%
of normal. [Tst=0.45Tf]
4.2.
exceeding 3 times the full load current .The short circuit current is 5 times the full load current
and the full load slip is 5%.Estimate, also, the starting torque interms of the full load torque.
l=3If,Isc=5If,sf =5%.Find K,Tst/Tf.[0.77,0.75]
4.3.
85A,on direct switching (starting),find the ratio of Tst/Tf with star-delta starter. Full load
efficiency and pf of 88% and 0.85 respectively.[0.18]
4.4.
started by(i). star delta starter (ii).Auto-transformer starter with 50% tapping. The SC current
of motor is 5 times the full load current and the full load slip is 5%.[0.3125]
4.5.

4.6.

4.7.

5.1.

starting current is 2% with slip ring short circuited and the resistance per rotor phase is 0.02.
max=0.02,n=5,R2=0.02.To find ,r1,r2,r3,r4 &r5.[k=0.38, r1=0.62,r2=kr1=0.24,
r3=k2 r1=0.09, r4= k3 r1=0.034,r5= k4 r1=0.13.]
The rotor of a 4 pole 50Hz SRIM has a resistance of 0.3per phase and runs at 1440rpm at full
load. Calculate the external resistance/phase which must be added to lower the speed to
1320rpm, the torque being the same.[ 0.6.]
cascaded. The 6 pole motor
being connected to the main supply. Determine the frequency of the rotor current and slip
referred to each stator field, if the set has a slip of 2%.[20.6Hz,1Hz]
Unit-V-single phase induction motor and special machines
Fi
whose constants are given below,Resistance of stator main winding =1.86, Reactance of
stator main winding =2.56,Magnetizing reactance of stator main winding =53.5, Rotor
resistance at standstill =3.56, Rotor reactance at standstill =2.56.

5.2.

5.2 A 250V ,50Hz,single phase capacitor start Induction motor has the following constants for
the main winding and auxiliary windings.Main winding,Zm=(4.5+j3.7).,auxiliary winding
Za=(9.5+j3.5).Determine the value of the capacitor that will place the main and auxiliary
winding currents in quadrature at starting.[ C=211.4F.]

5.3.

5.3. Determine the step angle of a single stack,4phase,6 pole stepper motor.

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