0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

571 Aufrufe157 SeitenggngdGHdnhdfHfh'

May 24, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

ggngdGHdnhdfHfh'

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

571 Aufrufe

ggngdGHdnhdfHfh'

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Induction Machines
- Role of Cooling on MV Motor Design
- GATE EE Solved Paper by RK Kanodia
- IES OBJ Electrical Engineering 2001 Paper II
- power system analysis-ii
- MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF THE THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR USING SIMULINK
- Electrical Machines-III Question Bank
- Obj Electrical 2001Paper II
- Machines EPM405A Presentation 06
- Induction Motor
- Synchronous Motor
- Engineering Cookbook
- Www Brighthubengineering Com Hvac 74957 Starting Methods for Induction Motors
- EE 6352 ELECTRICAL ENGG. & INSTRUMNTATION (ECE III SEMESTER) UNIT III – INDUCTION MACHINES AND SPECIAL MACHINES
- Induction Machines
- Ece3414synchronous Machines
- Ac Generator
- Generator Aux
- Siemens AC Motors
- 06__ISSN_1392-1215_The Air Gap and Angle Optimization in the Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Motor

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 157

ELECTRICAL MACHINES II

LTPC

3

104

OBJECTIVES:

To impart knowledge on Construction and performance of salient and non salient type

synchronous generators.

To impart knowledge on Principle of operation and performance of synchronous motor.

To impart knowledge on Construction, principle of operation and performance of induction

machines.

To impart knowledge on Starting and speed control of three-phase induction motors.

To impart knowledge on Construction, principle of operation and performance of single phase

induction motors and special machines.

UNIT I

SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR

9

Constructional details Types of rotors winding factors- emf equation Synchronous reactance

Armature reaction Phasor diagrams of non salient pole synchronous generator connected to infinite

bus--Synchronizing and parallel operation Synchronizing torque -Change of excitation and

mechanical input- Voltage regulation EMF, MMF, ZPF and A.S.A methods steady state powerangle characteristics Two reaction theory slip test -short circuit transients - Capability Curves

UNIT II

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

9

Principle of operation Torque equation Operation on infinite bus bars - V and Inverted V curves

Power input and power developed equations Starting methods Current loci for constant power

input, constant excitation and constant power developed-Hunting natural frequency of oscillations

damper windings- synchronous condenser.

UNIT III

THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

9

Constructional details Types of rotors - Principle of operation Slip cogging and crawlingEquivalent circuit Torque-Slip characteristics - Condition for maximum torque Losses and

efficiency Load test - No load and blocked rotor tests - Circle diagram Separation of losses

Double cage induction motors Induction generators Synchronous induction motor.

UNIT IV

MOTOR

9

Need for starting Types of starters DOL, Rotor resistance, Autotransformer and Star-delta starters

Speed control Voltage control, Frequency control and pole changing Cascaded connection-V/f

control Slip power recovery scheme-Braking of three phase induction motor: Plugging, dynamic

braking and regenerative braking.

UNIT V

SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND SPECIAL MACHINES

9

Constructional details of single phase induction motor Double field revolving theory and operation

Equivalent circuit No load and blocked rotor test Performance analysis Starting methods of

single-phase induction motors Capacitor-start capacitor run Induction motor- Shaded pole induction

motor - Linear induction motor Repulsion motor - Hysteresis motor - AC series motor- Servo motorsStepper motors - introduction to magnetic levitation systems.

TOTAL (L:45+T:15): 60 PERIODS

OUTCOMES:

Ability to model and analyze electrical apparatus and their application to power system

TEXT BOOKS:

1. A.E. Fitzgerald, Charles Kingsley, Stephen. D.Umans, Electric Machinery, Tata

Mc Graw Hill publishing Company Ltd, 2003.

2. D.P. Kothari and I.J. Nagrath, Electric Machines, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing

Company Ltd, 2002.

3. P.S. Bhimbhra, Electrical Machinery, Khanna Publishers, 2003.

REFERENCES:

1. M.N.Bandyopadhyay, Electrical Machines Theory and Practice, PHI Learning PVT LTD.,

New Delhi, 2009.

2. Charless A. Gross, Electric /Machines, CRC Press, 2010.

3. K. Murugesh Kumar, Electric Machines, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd, 2002.

4. Syed A. Nasar, Electric Machines and Power Systems: Volume I, Mcgraw -Hill College;

International ed Edition, January 1995.

5. Alexander S. Langsdorf, Theory of Alternating-Current Machinery, Tata McGraw Hill

Publications, 2001.

1.1 Introduction.

Electrical Machines

Static MachinesTransformer-

Rotating Machines

DC machines

DC Generator

AC machines

DC motor

Synchronous machines

Synchronous generator

Synchronous motor

Asynchronous machines

Induction generator

Induction motor

mechanical energy into electrical energy. They are constructed in large sizes, capable of generating

500MVA or even more. They are mainly used to generate alternating current in power plants.

Electrical supply to industries, commercial establishments and house is taken from these power

plants.

1.2 Principle of operation of alternator.

constant speed are called as Synchronous Machines(SM).

The SM which generates AC is called Synchronous

generator or AC generator or Alternator. For the operation

of alternator, excitation is required. The exciter supplies DC

either 210V or 110V.When DC supply is given to the field

system, the field magnet is energized and flux is set up,

which is steady flux.The field system is made in motion by

means of a prime mover. The flux produced from the field

system is cut alternatively by the field poles, so that steady

flux is converted into change in flux. The changed flux

passes through the airgap and links with the stationary conductor in the stator slots. Hence emf is

induced as per Faradays law.

Page 1

AC generator

(i)Generates AC

(ii).No need for Commutator

(iii).Used for generation of very high voltage

(iv).Mainly used in Power generating stations

(v).Output is taken from stator

DC generator

(i).Generates DC

(ii).Commutator is required.

(iii).Generates low voltage

(iv).used for electroplating, battery charging.

(v).Output is taken from rotor.

Here, the field magnets are kept in rotor. Stator is provided with 1/3

winding. When mechanical input is applied to rotator, the rotor magnetic

field cut the stator and hence emf is induced in the stator.The output is taken

from the stator. Driven by water wheel or diesel engines-Operate at low

speed-large No.of poles required to produce desired frequency-500MVAHYDEL PS.

(ii). Non-Salient pole/Non-projected pole/Cylindrical alternator.

Here, field magnets are kept in the stator. Rotor is provided with armature

winding. When mechanical input is applied, the rotor rotates, and hence it cuts the

field flux. Emf is induced in rotor and through slip rings, AC is taken

out.Applicable for small voltage generator(200MVA)-Driven by steam turbines

and gas turbines-operate at very high speed-THERMAL POWER STATION.

1.5 TYPES OF GENERATOR USED IN POWER STATIONS:

(i).Hydro Gr(100-1000 rpm,750MVA)(ii).Turbo Gr(3000rpm,1000MVA)

(iii).Engine driven (1500rpm, 20MVA)

1.6 Advantages of revolving field and stationary armature in alternator:

(i).It is easier to insulate stationary armature winding for very high voltage, because insulation of stationary

armature is not subjected to mechanical stresses.

(ii).The load circuit can be connected directly with the fixed terminals of the stator.

(iii).The armature winding (kept in the stator) is cooled more easily because the stator core can be made very

large.(iv).Only 2 slip rings are required for the supply of DC to the rotor.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 1

Page 2

(v).Due to simple ,light construction of rotor, high speed of rotating DC field is possible.This results

in increased O/P from the machine for the given dimensions.

1.7 Differences between the salient pole and non salient pole type alternator.

Salient pole alternator

Non salient pole

Medium speed ( 1500rpm to 100 rpm )

High speed ( 3,000 rpm to 1500 rpm )

Used in hydel power generating stations

Used in thermal power generating stations.

Driven by water turbines

Driven by steam turbines

Projecting pole

Smooth cylindrical rotor

(i).Stator: It is an iron ring(cylindrical shape) having slots

on its periphery to accommodate stator winding. The stator

core is laminated to reduce eddy current loss. The stator

slots are of two types, namely ,open slot and semi closed

slot. The open slots are more commonly used ,as they

facilitate in removal and replacement of defective coils.But

they produce ripples in the wave form.Semi enclosed slot

types are preferred as they do not produce ripples in the

emf waves.

(ii).Rotor/Field magnet:The flux required for the generation of

alternating voltage is provided by field magnets. They are excited by

DC source(exciter).The shaft of the rotor is coupled to a prime mover

driving the alternator. The DC excitation is supplied to the rotor

through 2 slip rings/brushes. Rotors of alternators are of 2 types,

(i)Salient pole (ii).Non-salient pole.

(i).Salient pole alternator:

Used for slow and moderate speed alternators.Cheaper than cylindrical machines.

Provided with DAMPER winding to reduce oscillations.Damper winding consists of copper

bars kept in slots on the face of the pole and they are connected to each other.*The damper

winding also used to maintain balanced 3 voltage under load conditions.

Have large diameter and short axial length.Poles are laminated to reduce eddy current losses.

They are employed with hydraulic turbines or diesel engines.Speed is 100-375 rpm.

Page 3

Used in high speed alternators (turboalternators).It has small diameter and long axial length.

Robust construction and noise less operation, less windage loss.

Better in dynamic balancing and high operating speed(3000rpm).

Gives better emf waveform than salient pole alternator.

No need to provide damper winding.

If the number of poles on rotor of an alternator is p, then p/2 cycles of emf are completed

in one revolution. The number of cycles per second, known as frequency, f, will be equal to the

product of number of revolution made per second by the rotor and p/2.

ie,f=p/2 x n=p/2 xN/60 , PN/120---Hz.;fPNpolesspeed; also, N=120f/p.---(1.1).

Hence the frequency of the induced emf or current induced in stator conductors depends on the

number of poles and speed of the rotor.

Example1.1.A six pole AC generator is running and producing the frequency of 60Hz.Calculate the

revolutions per minute of the generator. If the frequency is decreased to 20 Hz, how many number of

poles will be required, if the generator is to be run at the same speed.

Data(i)p=6,f=60Hz.find N.

(ii).f=20Hz,N=1200rpm,find p

Tutorial1.1.Calculate the number of poles required for generating frequency of 50Hz using a turbine

running at (a).3000 rpm (b).1000rpm (c).300 rpm and (d) 40 rpm.[Ans:2,6,20,150].

T.1.2.A 60Hz,1200 rpm, alternator is running at 1000.Calculate the frequency of the

induced EMF.[Ans:For 1200 rpm, p=6;for 1000 rpm ,f=50Hz]

1.10 Armature winding.

The armature windings may be either closed giving delta connections or open giving

star connections.

The span of each coil must be equal to pole pitch.ie two sides of any coil must be

under adjacent poles.

The winding may be single layer (one coil side per slot) or double layer(two coil

sides/slot)

Classifications of armature winding.

Page 4

(i).Concentrated winding:

If all conductors or coils belonging to a phase are placed in one slot per pole, it is called concentrated

winding.

In this type of winding, the emf generated per phase is equal to the arithmetic sum of the individual

coil emf in that phase.

Gives maximum emfs,but the waveform of induced emf is not exactly of sinusoidal form.

(ii).Distributed winding:

Mostly employed.- Conductors are placed in several slots under one poleDisadvantage: reduction in induced emf.

Advantages: *reduction in harmonic emfs and hence improved waveform.

*reduction in armature reaction and hence armature reactance.

*Even distribution of copper results in even distribution of Cu loss and hence efficient cooling.

(i).Balanced winding: Here the number of coils per coil group is a whole number. Each pole contains

different phases.

(ii).Unbalanced winding: No.of coils per coilgroup is not a whole number. Each pole containsunequal

number of coils of different phases.

(iii).Full pitched winding:Coil Span=one pole pitch; Coil span=180;

Pole pitch=Distance between adjacent poles.

(iv).Short pitched winding:Coil span.<180.

Advantages:(i).reduction in harmonics, improved voltage waveform.(ii).Less copper loss due toless

coil span.(iii).Due to reduction in harmonics, eddy current and hysteresis losses are reduced.

Disadvantages : reduction in induced emf.

1.11.Pitch factor(Kp)

Kp =emf induced in short pitched coil/emf induced in full pitched coil.

=phasor sum of induced emf/arithmetic sum of induced emf.Cos(/2)=(ER/2)/EA . ER=2EA Cos(/2);

Kp= phasor sum/arithmetic sum =2EA Cos(/2)/2EA. Kp=Cos(/2)-----1.2.

=short chorded angle;Kp=1 for full pitch winding; Kp=0.966 for short pitched winding.

1.12.Distribution factor:(Kd)

Page 5

Let = slot angle 180 n,

n= slots per pole

AB,BC,CD are three coils .

For ,AOX,sin(m/2)=AX/OA;

For , AOY,sin(/2)=AY/OA.

Kd=phasor sum/ arithmetic sum =AD/mAB.=2AX/m(2AY)=AX/mAY=OAxsin(m/2)/mxOA x sin(/2)

Kd=sin(m/2)/msin(/2) ------(1.3)

Kd=1 for concentrated winding =0.966 for distributed winding.

Note:m=slots per phase=slots/poleXphase.

Ex.1.2.Calculate distribution factor for 36 slot, 4 pole, single layer, 3 phase winding.

Data:slots=36,p=4,phase=3.To find kd.

Sol: Kd=sin(m/2)/msin(/2);=180/n; n=slots/pole=36/4=9;=180/9=20;

m=slots/(poleXphase)=36/(4X3)=3; Kd =0.9598.

Ex1.3.An alternator has 18 slots per pole and the first coil lies in the slots 1 and 16.Calculate the pitch

Data:The coil is placed between 1st and 16th slot. coil span=16-1=15slots; Total no. of slots per

pole=18. short chorded slots=18-15=3.Kp=cos(/2);=180 X short chorded

slots/(slot/pole)=180X3/18=30.

Kp1=cos(30/2)=cos15=0.966; Kp3=cos 3(30/2)=0.707; Kp5=0.259; Kp7=0.258.

T.1.3.Determine the pitch factors for the following windings.(i).36 stator slots, 4poles,coil span 1to

8;(ii).96 stator slots,6poles,coil span 1 to 12.[Ans:0.94,0.883].

1.13. E.M.F. Equation of an Alternator

Let Z = No. of conductors or coil sides in series per phase, = Flux per pole in webers

P = Number of rotor poles.N = Rotor speed in r.p.m.

In one revolution (i.e., 60/N second), each stator conductor is cut by P webers

i.e.,d =p ; dt=60/N; d /dt= P /60/N= p N/60 volts.

Since there are Z conductors in series per phase,Average e.m.f./phase = p N/60 x Z volts.

Form factor=RMS value/Average value=1.11=Erms/Eav.

Erms=1.11 x Eav=2f Z x 1.11=2.22f Z volts.Erms/phase=2.22f Z volts.---(i)

If Kp and Kd are the pitch factor and distribution factor of the armature winding,then,

Page 6

Sometimes the turns (T) per phase rather than conductors/ , are specified, in that case, Z=2T,

eq. (ii) becomes: Er.m.s. / phase = Eph= 4.44(f Tph )Kp Kd volts ---(1.4)

The line voltage will depend upon whether the winding is star or delta connected.

For,Y connection,IL=Iph; VL=3Vph.;for connection, VL=Vph IL= 3Iph;

Note: Eph = 4.44(f Tph )Kp Kd volts;Zph=3x2xTph=6Tph. N=120f/p.

Zph=No.of conductors in each slot x No.of slots.; Kp=Cos(/2); Kd=sin(m/2)/msin(/2).

Ex.1.4.A 3 phase 16 pole alternator has a star connected winding with 144 slots and 10 conductors

per slot.the flux per pole is 0.03 Wb, sinusoidally distributed and the speed is 375rpm.Find the

frequency, the phase and line value of induced emf.Assume full pitched coil.

Data: 3phase,p=16, star connected alternator, slots, S=144,conductors per slot Zss=10, =0.03Wb,

N=375rpm.For full pitched coil,Kp =1. Find,f,Eph,EL.

Sol: Eph= 4.44(f Tph )Kp Kd volts

(i).f: N=120f/pf=pN/120=16 x 375/120=50Hz.

(ii).Zph=6Tph;Zph=S x Zss=144x10=1440; Tph=1440/6=240.(iii) Kp=1.

(iv). Kd=sin(m/2)/msin(/2);m=Slots/polexphase=144/16x=3;=180/n;n=slots/pole =144/16 =9

(v). Eph = 4.44(f Tph )Kp Kd=4.44 (50 x0.03x240)x1x0.9598=1534Volts.(vi)EL=3Eph=2657Volts.

Ex.1.5.A 3 phase,8pole,750rpm,star connected alternator has 72 slots on armature. Each slot has 12

conductors and winding is short chorded by 2 slots. Find the induced emf between the lines, given the

flux per pole is 0.06Wb.

Data:3 phase,-Y- alternator, p=8,N=750rpm,S=72,Zss=12,Shortchorded slots=2. =0.06Wb.

To find :EL.

Sol: Eph= 4.44(f Tph )Kp Kd volts;EL=3Eph

(i).f: N=120f/pf=pN/120=8 x 750/120=50Hz.

(ii).Zph=6Tph;Zph=S x Zss=72x12=864; Tph=864/6=144.

(iii) Kp=Cos(/2) ;=180 X short chorded slots/n, n=slots/pole=72/8=9;=180X2/9=40;Kp=0.94.

(iv). Kd=sin(m/2)/msin(/2);m=Slots/pole x phase =72/8 x 3=3;=180/n;n=9,

=180/n=180/9=20. Kd = sin(m/2)/msin(/2)=sin(3x20/2)/3 sin(20/2)=0.9598.

Page 7

x0.06x144)x0.94x0.9598=1741Volts.(vi)EL=3Eph=3,016Volts.

T.1.4.A 3 phase 16 pole alternator has the following data. Number of

slots=192,conductors/slot=8,coil span=160 electrical degrees, speed of the alternator=375 rpm;

flux/pole=55mWb.Calculate the phase and line voltages.[=180-160=20, Eph=2928V,EL=5106V.

T.1.5.A 4 pole,50Hz,star connected alternator has a flux per pole of 0.12Wb.It has 4 slots per pole per

phase,conductors per slot being 4.If the winding coil span is 150,find the phase and line emf.

[n=12,S=48,Zph=48,Tph=32,Eph=788V,EL=1366V.]

1.14.Harmonics in voltage waveform.

Waveforms which does not follow the fundamental frequency/non-sinusoidal

waveforms/ unwanted wave form is called harmonics.

Causes(i).Non-sinusoidal waveform of the field flux.(ii).Variation in the reluctance of

air-gap due to the slotting of the stator core.

Reduction of Harmonics.

(ii).by chamfering the pole tips .

(iii).short chording the armature winding by making the coil span less than a full pole

pitch.

(iv).distributing the armature winding.

1.15.Rating of alternator.

Usually alternators are rated in KVA or MVA. Electrical machine is rated at the load, which

it can carry without overheating &damage to the insulation. The other name plate details include

voltage, current, frequency, speed, number of phases, field ampere and maximum temperature

rise.

Ex:1.6.1.A 3 water wheel generator is rated at 100MVA, unity power factor,11kV, star

connected 50Hz, 120 rpm.Determine (i)The number of poles (ii)The kW rating (iii)The current

rating (iv).The input at rated kW load if the efficiency is 97%(excluding the field loss) (v)Prime

mover torque applied to the generator shaft.

(i)p=120f/N=50. (ii).kW=KVA x cos =105 (iii).Il=KVA/3 x11=5,249A;T=Pin/2n=8.2 x

106Nm.

Page 8

1.16.Leakage reactance.

When current flows through the stator conductor, the flux is setup, a portion of this flux does not

cross the airgap, but complete its path in the stator .Such flux is known as leakage flux. The LF

sets up an emf (self induced).The reactance due to the LF is called leakage reactance(Xl)

1.17. Armature Reaction in Alternator

The effect of armature flux( coming from armature winding of the stator) on the flux

produced by field winding (coming from rotor) is called armature reaction.

The armature flux and the flux produced by rotor ampere-turns rotate at the same speed in the

same direction. The modification of flux in the air-gap due to armature flux depends on the

magnitude of stator current and on the power factor of the load. It is the load power factor which

determines whether the armature flux distorts, opposes or helps the flux produced by rotor winding.

Consider the following three cases

(i) When load p.f. is unity (ii) When load p.f. is zero lagging (iii) When load p.f. is zero leading

(i) When load p.f. is unity

Fig.(i) shows an alternator on no-load. Since the

armature is on open-circuit, there is no stator current

and the flux due to rotor current is distributed

symmetrically in the air-gap as shown in Fig(i). Since

the direction of the rotor is assumed clockwise, the

generated e.m.f. in phase R1R2 is at its maximum and

is towards the paper in the conductor R1 and outwards

in conductor R2. No armature flux is produced since no current flows in the armature winding.

Fig. (ii) shows the effect when a resistive load (unity p.f.) is connected across the terminals of the

alternator. According to right-hand rule, the current is in in the conductors under N-pole and out

in the conductors under S-pole.Therefore, the armature flux is clockwise due to currents in the top

conductors and anti-clockwise due to currents in the bottom conductors. The armature flux is at 90 to

the main flux (due to rotor current) and is behind the main flux.In this case, the flux in the air-gap is

distorted but not weakened. Therefore, at unity p.f., the effect of armature reaction is merely to distort

the main field; there is no weakening of the main field

and the average flux practically remains the same.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 9

Since the magnetic flux due to stator currents (i.e., armature flux) rotate; synchronously with the

rotor, the flux distortion remains the same for all positions of the rotor.

When a pure inductive load (zero p.f. lagging) is connected across the terminals of the alternator,

current lags behind the voltage by 90. This means that current will be maximum at zero e.m.f. and

vice-versa.

Fig. (iii)) shows the condition when the alternator is supplying inductive load. Note that e.m.f. as well

as current in phase R1R2 is maximum in the position shown. When the alternator is supplying a pure

inductive load, the current in phase R1R2 will not reach its maximum value until N-pole advanced

90 electrical as shown in Fig. (iv). Now the armature flux is from right to left and field flux is from

left to right All the flux produced by armature current (i.e., armature flux) opposes be field flux and,

therefore, weakens it. In other words, armature reaction is directly demagnetizing. Hence at zero p.f.

lagging, the armature reaction weakens the main flux. This causes a reduction in the generated e.m.f.

(iii) When load p.f. is zero leading

When a pure capacitive load (zero p.f. leading) is

connected across the terminals of the alternator, the

current in armature windings will lead the induced

e.m.f. by 90. Obviously, the effect of armature

reaction will be the reverse that for pure inductive

load. Thus armature flux now aids the main flux and the

generated e.m.f. is increased.

Fig.( v) shows the condition when alternator is supplying

resistive load.Note that e.m.f. as well as current in phase

R1R2 is maximum in the position shown. When the

alternator is supplying a pure capacitive load, the

maximum current in R1R2 will occur 90 electrical

before the occurrence of maximum

induced e.m.f. Therefore, maximum current in phase

R1R2 will occur if the position of the rotor remains 90

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 10

behind as compared to its position under resistive load. This is illustrated in Fig. (vi). It is clear that

armature flux is now in the same direction as the field flux and, therefore, strengthens it. Thiscauses

an increase in the generated voltage. Hence at zero p.f. leading, the armature reaction strengthens the

main flux.

For intermediate values of p.f, the effect of armature reaction is partly distorting and partly

weakening for inductive loads. For capacitive loads, the effect of armature reaction is partly distorting

and partly strengthening. Note that in practice, loads are generally inductive.

When the alternator is loaded, the armature flux modifies the air-gap flux.Its angle (electrical) w.r.t.

main fluxdepends on the load p.t. This isillustrated in Fig.(a) When the load p.f. is unity, theeffect of

armature reaction iswholly distorting. As shown in Fig(i). the armature flux is 90 electrical behind

Ac main flux. The result is that flux is strengthened at the trailing pole tips and weakened at the

leadingpole tips. However, the average flux in the air-gap practically remains unaltered.

(b) When the load p.f. is zero lagging.

The effect of armature reaction is wholly demagnetizing. In other words, the flux in the air-gap is

weakened. As shown in Fig. (ii), the wave representing the main flux is moved backwards through

90 (elect) so that it is in direct opposition to the armature flux. This considerably, reduces the air-gap

flux and hence the generated e.m.f. To keep the value of the generated e.m.f. the same, the field

excitation will have to be increased to compensate for the weakening of the air-gap flux.

(c) When the load p.f. is zero leading, the effect of armature reaction is wholly magnetizing. In other

words, the flux in the air-gap is increased. As shown in Fig. (iii), the wave representing the main flux

is now moved forward through 90 (elect.) so that it aids the armature flux. This considerably

increases the air-gap flux and hence the generated e.m.f. To keep the value of the generated e.m.f. the

same, the field excitation will have to be reduced.

(d) For intermediate values of load p.f. the effect of armature reaction is partly distorting and partly

weakening for inductive loads. For capacitive loads, the effect is partly distorting and partly

strengthening. Fig. (10.13 (iv) shows the effect of armature reaction for an inductive load. In practice,

load on the alternator is generally inductive.

1.18.Alternator on Load

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 11

Fig. (i) shows Y-connected alternator supplying inductive load (lagging p.f.). When the load on the

alternator is increased (i.e., armature current Ia is increased), the field excitation and speed being kept

constant, the terminalvoltage V (phase value) of the alternator decreases. This is due to

(i) Voltage drop IaRa where Ra is the armature resistance per phase.

(ii) Voltage drop IaXL where XL is the armature leakage

reactance per phase.

(iii) Voltage drop because of armature reaction.

(i) Armature Resistance (Ra):

Since the armature or stator winding has some resistance, there

will be an IaRa drop when current (Ia) flows through it.

(ii) Armature Leakage Reactance (XL)

When current flows through the armature winding, flux is set up and a part of it does not cross the airgap and links the coil sides. This leakage flux alternates with current and gives the winding selfinductance. This is called armature leakage

reactance. Therefore, there will be IaXL drop

which is also effective in reducing the

terminal voltage.

(iii) Armature reaction

The load is generally inductive and the effect

of armature reaction is to reduce the generated voltage. Therefore, armature reaction effect is

accounted for by assuming the presence of a fictitious reactance Xa in

the armature winding. The quantity Xa is called reactance of armature

reaction.The value of Xa is such that IaXa represents the voltage drop

due to armature reaction.

1.19.Equivalent Circuit of alternator.

Fig. shows the equivalent circuit

of the loaded alternator for one phase.

Here,Eo = No-load e.m.f.,E = Load induced e.m.f.

V = Terminal voltage.;

E = V + Ia (Ra + j XL );and Eo = E+ Ia ( jXa )

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 12

The sum of armature leakage reactance (XL) and

reactance of armature reaction (Xa) is called synchronous

reactance Xs . Xs = XL + Xa -----Ohms.

1.21.Synchronous impedance.

The synchronous impedance is the

fictitious impedance to account for the

voltage effects in the armature circuit

produced by the actual armature

resistance(Ra),the actual armature leakage reactance(XL) and the change in the air-gap flux produced

by armature reaction.

Zs = Ra + j Xs

Eo = V + IaZs = V + Ia (R + j Xs)

1.22. Phasor Diagram of a Loaded Alternator

Fig.(i) shows the equivalent circuit of the alternator per phase.

Fig.(ii) shows the phasor diagram of an alternator for an inductive load.The armature current Ia lags

the terminal voltage V by p.f. angle .The phasor sum of V and drops IaRaand IaXL gives the load

induced voltageE.It is the induced e.m.f. after allowing for armature reaction.

The phasor sum of E and IaXa gives the no-load e.m.f. Eo.

From the diagram,

IaRa; and BC Vsin

IaRa

2

2

Eo (Vcos

IaRa) +( Vsin

IaXs) .----Volts. (All values are in ph)

Note:Eo=Generated emf in phase;V=terminal voltage in phase;

cos

---ohms;Xs=synchronous reactance in ohms.

Cos=KW/KVA;KW=KVA Cos

KW

lagging and at 11KV.Its resistance is 0.1 per phase and synchronous reactance

is 0.06 per phase.Calculate the line value of emf generated.

Data:3phase Y connected Alternator.MW=10; cos

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

(lagging);sin =0.527,VL=11KV,Ra=0.1;

Page 13

Xs=0.06.Find Eo.

Sol: Eo

(Vcos

IaRa)2+( Vsin

IaXs)2---Volts.

(ii)V=VL/3=11x103/3=6360V.

(iii).Eo

(Vcos

IaRa)2+( Vsin

IaXs)2

=(6360x0.85+617x0.1)2+(6360x0.0.52+617x0.06)2=6423V

(iv).EL=3Eph=3x6423=11.125KV.

1.23. Voltage Regulation of alternator.

The voltage regulation of an alternator is defined as the change in

terminal voltage from no-load to full-load (the speed and field

excitation being constant) divided by full-load voltage.

% Voltage regulation =(No load voltage -Full load voltage) X100

Full load voltage

%VR= (Eo-V) x100.

Note:

(i)For leading load p.f., the no-load voltage is less than thefull-load voltage. Hence voltage regulation

is negative in this case. The effects of different load power factors on the change in the terminal

voltage with changes of load on the alternator are shown in Fig. .

(ii).The regulation of an alternator depends on the load and the load power factor.

T1.6.A 3 phase star connected synchronous generator is rated at 1.5MVA,11KV.The armature

effective resistance and synchronous reactance are 1.2 and 25 respectively per phase.Calculate the

percentage voltage regulation for a load of 1.4375MVA at 0.8pf lagging and (ii)0.8pf leading.Also

find out the pf at which the regulation becomes zero.

Data:3 phase-Y-alternator;Q=1.5x106VA,VL=11000V,Ra=1.2,Xs=25.Load

MVA=1.4375,cos=0.8.

Find%VR for 0.8 lagging &leading pf.Sol:21.6%,-13.1%.,0.981(lead)

1.24. Determination of Voltage Regulation of Alternator.

The kVA ratings of commercial alternators are very high (e.g. 500 MVA). It is neither convenient nor

practicable to determine the voltage regulation by direct loading. There are several indirect methods

of determining the voltage regulation of an alternator. These methods require only a small amount of

power as compared to the power required for direct loading method. Such methods are:

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 14

3.Potier triangle or zero power factor method. 4.ASA method.

For either method, the following data are required:

(i) Armature resistance.(ii) Open-circuit characteristic (O.C.C.).(iii) Short-Circuit characteristic

(S.C.C.)

(i) Armature resistance

The armature resistance Ra /phase is determined by using direct current and the voltmeter-ammeter

method. This is the d.c. value. The effective armature resistance (Rac) is greater than this value due to

skin effect. It is a usual practice to take the effective resistance 1.5 times the d.c. value (Ra = 1.5

Rdc).

(ii) Open-circuit characteristic (O.C.C)

Like the magnetization curve for a d.c. machine, the (Open-circuit characteristic of an alternator is the

curve between armature terminal voltage (phase value) on open circuit and the field current when the

alternator is running at rated speed.

Fig. (i) shows the circuit for determining the O.C.C. of an alternator. The alternator is run on no-load

at the rated speed. The field current If is gradually increased from zero (by adjusting field rheostat)

until open-circuit voltage Eo.(phase value) is about 50% greater than the rated phase voltage. The

graph is

drawn between open-circuit voltage values and the corresponding values of If as shown in Fig. (ii).

(iii) Short-circuit characteristic (S.C.C.)

In a short-circuit test, the alternator is run at rated speed and the armature terminals are short-circuited

through identical ammeters as shown in Fig. (iii). The field current If is gradually increased from

zero until the short-circuit armature current Isc is about twice the rated current. The graph between

short-circuit armature current and field current gives the short-circuit characteristic (S.C.C.) Fig.(iii).

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 15

In this method of finding the voltage regulation of an alternator, we find the

synchronous impedance Zs (and hence synchronous reactance Xs) of the

alternator from the O.C.C. and S.S.C. For this reason, it is called

synchronous impedance method.

The method involves the following steps:

(i) Plot the O.C.C. and S.S.C. on the same field current base as shown in

Fig.(i).

(ii) Consider a field current If. The opencircuit voltage corresponding to this field

current is E1. The short-circuit armature

current corresponding to field current If is I1.

On short-circuit p.d. = 0 and voltage E1 is

being used to circulate the short-circuit

armature current I1 against the synchronous

impedance Zs. This is shown in Fig. (ii).E1=I1Zs;

Zs=E1(OC Voltage)/I1 (SC Current).

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 16

Zs = Ra + j Xs; Xs =(Zs2 Ra2) ---Ohms.

Once we know Ra and Xs, the phasor diagram can be drawn for any load and any p.f. From the

diagram,Eo

(OB)2

(BC)2;

Eo (Vcos

IaRa)2+( Vsin

IaXs)2.----Volts. (All values are in phase)

1.25.Drawback of synchronous impedance method-pessimistic method:

This method gives approximate results.ie higher than actual value. This method is suitable only for

non-salient pole machines.In this method, the synchronous impedance is assumed to remain constant,

while actually it is not. At low saturation, its value is larger because the effect of armature reaction is

greater than that saturation. Now, under short circuit conditions, saturation is very low and therefore ,

the value of Zs is measured higher than in actual condition.For this reason, it is called pessimistic

method.

1.26 Ampere-Turn Method

This method of finding voltage regulation considers the opposite view to the synchronous impedance

method. It assumes the armature leakage reactance to be additional armature reaction. Neglecting

armature resistance (always small),this method assumes that change in terminal p.d. on load is

entirely due to armature reaction. The same two tests (viz open-circuit and short-circuit test) are

required as for synchronous reactance determination; the interpretation of the results only is different.

Under short-circuit, the current lags by 90 (Ra considered zero) and the power factor is zero. Hence

the armature reaction is entirely demagnetizing. Since the terminal p.d. is zero, all the field AT

(ampere turns)

are neutralized by armature AT produced by the short circuit armature current.

1.27 Procedure for AT Method

Suppose the alternator is supplying full-load current Ia at operating voltage Vand p.f. cos lagging.

The procedure for finding voltage regulation for AT method is as under:

(i) From the O.C.C., field current OA required to produce the operating load voltage V (=V + Ia Ra

cos) is determined as in Fig. (i). The field current OA is laid off horizontally as shown in Fig. (ii).

(ii) From S.C.C., the field current OC required for producing full-load current Ia on short-circuit is

determined.The phasor AB (= OC) is drawn at an angle (90 + ),i.e. OAB = (90 + ) as shown in

Fig.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 17

(iii) The phasor sum of OA and AB gives the total field current OB required. The O.C. voltage Eo

corresponding to field current OB on O.C.C. is the noload e,m.f.

This method gives a regulation lower than the actual performance of the machine. For this reason, it

is known as Optimistic Method.

Synchronous impedance.

Synchronous reactance

Emf generated

Eo

% Voltage Regulation

(Vcos

IaRa)2+( Vsin

(All values are in phase)

If1=field current required to get normal voltage or rated voltage of alternator-stator open circuited.

If2=field current required to circulate full load current.- stator short circuited.

If = If12 + If22 +2 If1 If2cos(180-/+); use - for lagging, + for leading pf. =90+/-,+for lag.

Knowing If, Eo is determined from the graph.

Ex.1.7.Find the synchronous impedance and reactance of alternator in which a given field current

produces an armature current of 200A on short circuit and generated emf of 50V, on open circuit. The

value of armature resistance is 0.1.To what induced voltage, must the alternator be excited, if it is to

deliver a load of 100A at pf of 0.8 lagging, with a terminal voltage of 200V.

Data: (i)Isc=200A,Eo=50V,Ra=0.1, find Zs,Xs. (ii).for Ia=100A,cos

Sol:(i). Zs=E1 (OC Voltage in phase )/Isc (SC Current in phase) =50/200=0.25.[assume 1 Gr.]

Xs = (Zs2 Ra2)= Xs = (0.252 0.12)=0.229.

(ii). Eo

(Vcos

IaRa)2+( Vsin

IaXs)2= (200x0.8

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

x0.1)2+( 200x0.6

x0.23)2=222V.

Page 18

Ex.1.8.From the following test results, determine the voltage regulation of a 2000V, 1,alternator

delivering a current of 100A at (i)UPF (ii)0.71 lagging (iii)0.8lead.Test results: Full load current of

100A is produced on short circuit by a field excitation of 2.5A.An emf of 500V is obtained on open

circuit by the same excitation. The armature resistance is 0.8.

Data: 1alternator,V=2000V,Ia=100A=Isc,E1=500V, Ra=0.8=.Find %VR for

cos

lag

lead).

IaRa)2+( Vsin

(Vcos

x0.8)2+( 2000x0

Eo=(2,000x1

x4.9)2=2137V

%VR=[(2137-2000)/2000]x100=6.88%.

(ii). cos =0.71 (lag),sin =0.7;

x0.8)2+( 2000x0.7

Eo=(2000x0.71

x4.9)2=2415V, %VR=20.7%.

x0.8)2+( 2000x0.6

Eo=(2000x0.8

x4.9)2=1822V, %VR=-8.6%.

0.2.The field current of 40A produces a short circuit current of 200A and open circuit emf of

1040V(line).Calculate the full load voltage regulation at 0.8 pf lagging and 0.8pf leading. Draw the

phasor diagram.

Data: 3 star connected alternator, Q=100kVA,VL=3000V, f=50Hz,Ra=0.2,Isc=200A, Eoc=1040V(l)

Find %VR for cos

lag

(i). cos

IaRa)2+( Vsin

(Vcos

lag sin

Q=3VLIL;IL=Q/3VL=100x103=19A;IL=Ia;

Zs=Eoc (phase)/Isc=(1040/3)/200=3;Xs=(32 0.22)=2.9.

Eo

(1732x0.8

(ii).For cos

)2+( 1732x0.6

lead sin

Eo

x2.9)2=1770V, %VR=[(1770-1732)/1732]x100=2.2%.

(Vcos

IaRa)2+( Vsin

IaXs)2=1701V, %VR=-1.78%.

Ex.1.10.A 3.5MVA,star connected alternator rated at 4160V at 50Hz, has the open circuit

characteristics given by the following data.

If(Amps)

50

100

150

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

200

250

300

350

400

450

Page 19

Emf(Volts) 1620

3150

4160

4750

5130

5370

5550

5650

5750

A field current of 200A is found necessary to circulate full load current on short circuit of a;ternator.

Calculate by (i).Ampere turn method (ii).Synchronous impedance method ,the full load voltage

regulation at 0.8 pf lagging. Neglect resistance. Comment on result obtained.

Data:Q=3.5MVA,star connected alternator,VL=4160V,f=50Hz,If1=150A(from table corresponding to

VL=4160, the rated voltage),If2=200A.Isc=IL=Q/3VL=485A=Ia; cos=0.8,sin=0.6.,=36.Ra=0.

To find %VR by (i)AT method (ii).EMF method.

Sol.(i).AT method:

(i).%VR= [(Eo-V)/V ] x100.all values are in phase or in line..

(ii). If = If12 + If22 +2 If1 If2cos(180-)=313A.

From table,For If=300A,Eo=5370V, If=350A,Eo=5550V, (350-300)Amp(5550-5370)Volts.

50Amp180Volts. 1Amp3.6Volts. 14A=50.4V.;314A=5370+50.4=5420V(line).

E0=5420V

%VR= [(Eo-V)/V ] x100=[(5420-4160)/4160]x 100 =30%.

(ii).EMF method.

Eo

(Vcos

IaRa)2+( Vsin

Zs=2742/485=5.6.; Xs = (Zs2 Ra2)=5.6; E0=4583V(phase); %VR=90.8%.

Comments(i).In mmf method, the VR is independent of Ra,Xs.

(ii)In mmf method the %VR is nearer to the actual value.

T.1.5.A 3 phase, star connected alternator is rated at 1600kVA,1350V has armature resistance and

synchronous reactance as 1.5,30 respectively per phase. Calculate voltage regulation for a load of

1280kW at 0.8 pf leading.[Ans:IL=68A,E0=6859V,%VR=-1.21%]

T.1.6.The following test results are obtained for a 6600v alternator.

If(Amps)

16

Emf(Volts) 3100

25

37.5

50

70

4900

6600

7500

8300

A field current of 20A is found necessary to circulate full load current on short circuit of armature.

Calculate by (i).mmf (ii).emf method, full load regulation at 0.8pf (lagging).Neglect armature

resistance.

Ans(i).mmf method:%R=14.8%.(ii).38.7%.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 20

Note: Eo

(Vcos

IaRa)2+( Vsin

IaXs)2 To findIXs:

Let the voltage of 6600V be taken as 100% and let the excitation of 37.5A required to get rated

voltage of 6600V on open circuit to be 100%.

Let 100% armature current is produced on short circuit by the field current of 20A.Then, when 37.5A

of field current is applied, the corresponding armature current will be (37.5/20)x 100.=187.5%.

Zs=OC voltage in %/SC current in % x100 =(100/187.5) x100

=53.5%=Xs.

IXs=53.3% of normal voltage=53.3 x6,600/3 x1/100 =2031V.

1.28.Potier triangle method-Zero pf method.

Results are more accurate than emf &mmf method.

The method is based on separation of armature leakage reactance drop

& armature reaction effect.

Data required:(i).OC characteristics (ii)Full load Zero pf curve.

Zero pf curve:It is a curve of terminal voltage against field current, when armature is delivering full

load current at Zero pf.ZPF is obtained with the help of connecting the output of alternator with

anyone of the following.

(i).synchronous motor as load (ii).inductive load (iii).Three phase line with wattmeter, voltmeter

&ammeters connections at load side.

Test procedure:

(i).The motor coupled to the alternator is made to run at rated speed.

(ii).Field current is adjusted to get rated voltage of alternator.

(iii).Connect the inductive load.

(iv).Adjust the field current to circulate full load armature current.

(v).Adjust inductive load in steps so as to get zero pf shown by pf meter or wattmeter.

(vi).When zero pf condition is reached, take the corresponding readings of field current and terminal

voltage.

Procedure for drawing Potier triangle and finding %VR of Alternator:

(i).By suitable tests plot OCC and SCC.(ii). Draw tangent to OCC (air gap line)

(iii).Mark the pointsA & B.A(Ifl,0);B(Ifz,Vz).; where

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 21

Ifl=field current corresponding to full load current flowing in the armature. Ifz=field current

corresponding to ZPF;Vz=terminal voltage corresponding to ZPF load.

(iv). Draw the line BH =OA.(v). Draw HD parallel to the air gap line so as to touch the OCC.

(vi). Draw DE parallel to voltage axis. Now,DE represents voltage drop IXL and BE

represents the field current required to overcome the effect of armature reaction.

Triangle BDE is called Potier triangle and XL is the Potier reactance.

(vii). Find E01 using the expression (Vcos

IaRa)2+( Vsin

(ix).Find If using If12 + If22 +2 If1 If2cos(180-/+).Corresponding to If, find E0.

(x).Then find %VR of Alternator.

Ex.1.11.A 3 phase, 6000V alternator has the following open circuit characteristics at normal speed.

If(Amps)

14

Emf(Volts) 4000

18

23

30

43

5000

6000

7000

8000

With armature short circuited & full load current flowing, the field current is 17A. when the machine

is supplying full load of 2000kVA at ZPF, the field current is 42.5A and the terminal voltage is

6000V.Determine the voltage regulation of alternator at 0.8pf lagging using Potier triangle method.

Sol:Step-I-OCC is drawn with the help of the above table.(If-X axis,E-Y axis).

Step-II-.Tangent to OCC is also drawn.(airgap line).

Step-III-ZPF curve is drawn with the help of the points A(Ifl,0)=(17A,0V).;B(Ifz,Vz)=(42.5A,6000V).

From the point ,B, draw a horizontal line of length BH=OA. From H, draw a line parallel to

airgap line .This line intersect the OCC at D. Connect DB.

Step-IV-Potier triangle BDH is thus drawn. From the triangle,DE=Ia XL=700V(line)=404V(phase).

Step V-E01= (Vcos

IaRa)2+( Vsin

IaXL)2;V=6000/3;IRa=0;cos=0.8;sin=0.6;E01=3720V.

If=If12 + If22 +2 If1 If2cos(180-/+);

=90+=90+cos-1(0.8)=126;If =36A.

Step-VII-Corresponding to If=36A,E0=7650V(line)=4416(phase).

%VR=27.5%.

1.29. Effect of Salient Poles- Two-Reactance Concept for Salient-Pole

Machines-Blondels two reaction theory

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 22

In a salient-pole machine, the radial length of the air-gap varies so that reluctance of the magnetic circuit

along the polar axis (called direct axis or d-axis) is much less than the reluctance along the interpolar

axis (called quadrature axis or q-axis).

Because of the lower reluctance along the polar axis (i.e., d-axis), more flux is produced along d-axis

than along the q-axis. Therefore, reactance due to armature reaction will be different along d-axis and

q-axis. These are:

Xad = direct axis reactance due to armature reaction

Xaq = quadrature axis reactance due to armature reaction.

The effects of salient poles can be taken into account by resolving the armature current into two

components; Id perpendicular to

excitation voltage E0 and Ia along E0 as shown

in phasor diagram .If XL is the armature leakage reactance , then,

Xd = Xad + XL ; Xq = Xaq + XL

From Fig. Iq = Ia cos( + ) and Id = Ia sin( + )

1.30 Power Developed in Salient-Pole Synchronous Generator.

Fig. shows the phasor diagram of the salient-pole synchronous

generator.

The per phase power output of the alternator is ,

Pout = Pd = VIa cos;Now Ia cos = Iq cos+ Id sin ;

Also E0 = Vcos + Id Xd.

Id= (E0- Vcos)/Xd.; Vsin

Pd

V Iq cos

Id sin

IqXq;

Ia cos

Iq= Vsin

Iq cos

Xq

Id sin

Xq x cos

Pd=E0V/Xd x sin

V2[sin cos

V2(Xd-Xq)/2XdXq x sin2.---Watts.

Xq - sin cos

V2(sin2/xq- sin2/xd)/2.

The total power developed would be three times the above power. The following points may be

noted:

(i).If there is no saliency, Xd = Xq; Pd= E0V/Xd x sin

machine.

(ii) If E0 = 0, then, Pd= V2(Xd-Xq)/2XdXq x sin2.---Watts.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 23

The Power angle characteristic of alternator is also shown in

fig.

1.31.Slip test-for salient pole machines only.Tests to find Xd and Xq

(i). Energise the alternator with field unexcited and driven close to

synchronous speed by a prime mover.

(ii). Measure the line voltage and line current of the alternator.

(iii). Find Xd and Xq by the following expressions

Xd=max voltage/min current. Xq=min voltage/max current.

Note:d-axis-reluctance is low-flux is more-high value of Xd;q axis-reluctance is high,low flux,low Xq.

Xd>Xq

At d axis voltmeter shows maximum reading and at q axis it shows minimum reading.

Ex.1.12.A 3 phase star connected salient pole alternator is driven at a speed near synchronous with

field circuit open, and the stator is supplied from the balanced 3 phase supply.Voltmeter connected

across the line shows minimum and maximum reading of 2800V &2820V.The line current fluctuated

between 360A & 275A.Find the direct axis &quadrature axis reactance per phase.Neglect armature

resistance.

Data:3phase, star connected alternator.Max Voltage=2,820V(line),Min Voltage:2,800V(line).

Max current=360A,Min current=275A.To find Xd,Xq.

Sol:Xd=Max voltage(phase)/Min current=(2820/3)/275=5.92.

Xq= Min voltage(phase)/Max current=(2800/3)/375=4.49.

1.32.Parallel Operation of Alternators

In practice, a very large number of 3-phase alternators operate in parallel because the various power

stations are interconnected through the national grid. Therefore, the output of any single alternator

is small compared with the total interconnected capacity. For example, the total capacity of the

interconnected system may be over 40,000 MW while the capacity of the biggest single alternator

may be 500 MW. For this reason, the performance of a single alternator is unlikely to affect

appreciably the voltage and frequency of the whole system. An alternator connected to such a system

is said to be connected to infinite busbars. The outstanding electrical characteristics of such busbars

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 24

are that they are constant-voltage, constant frequency busbars.Fig shows a typical infinite bus

system. Loads are tapped from the infinite bus at various load centres. The alternators may be

connected to or disconnected from the infinite bus, depending on the power demand on the system. If

an alternator is connected to infinite busbars, no matter what power is delivered by the incoming

alternator, the voltage and frequency of the system remain the same. The operation of connecting an

alternator to the infinite busbars is known as synchronization of alternators/parallel operation

of alternators..

(i) Continuity of service. Reliability.

If one alternator fails, the continuity of supply can be maintained through the other healthy units.

This will ensure uninterrupted supply to the consumers.

(ii) Efficiency.

The load on the power system varies during the whole day; being minimum during night hours.

Since alternators operate most efficiently when delivering full-load, units can be added or put off

depending upon the load requirement. This permits the efficient operation of the power system.

(iii) Maintenance and repair.

It is often desirable to carry out routine maintenance and repair of one or more units. For this

purpose, the desired unit/units can be shut down and the continuity of supply is maintained through

the other units.

(iv) Load growth.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 25

The load demand is increasing due to the increasing use of electrical energy. The load growth can be

met by adding more units without disturbing the original installation.

1.34. Conditions for Paralleling Alternator .

The proper method of connecting an alternator to the infinite busbars is called synchronizing. A

stationary alternator must not be connected to live busbars. It is because the induced e.m.f. is zero at

standstill and a short-circuit will result. In order to connect an alternator safely to the infinite busbars,

the following

conditions are met:

(i) The terminal voltage (r.m.s. value) of the incoming alternator must be the same as busbars voltage.

(ii) The frequency of the generated voltage of the incoming alternator must be equal to the busbars

frequency.

(iii) The phase of the incoming alternator voltage must be identical with the phase of the busbars

voltage. In other words, the two voltages must be in phase with each other.

(iv) The phase sequence of the voltage of the incoming alternator should be the same as that of the

busbars.

The magnitude of the voltage of the incoming alternator can be adjusted

by changing its field excitation. The frequency of the incoming alternator

can be changed by adjusting the speed of the prime mover driving the

alternator.

Condition (i) is indicated by a voltmeter, conditions (ii) and (iii) are

indicated by synchronizing lamps or a synchroscope. The condition (iv)

is indicated by a phase sequence indicator.

1.35. Methods of Synchronization of alternators.

The method of connecting an incoming alternator safely to the live

busbars is called synchronizing. The equality of voltage between the

incoming alternator and the busbars can be easily checked by a voltmeter.

The phase sequence of the alternator and the busbars can be checked by a phase sequence indicator.

Differences in frequency and phase of the voltages of the incoming alternator and busbars can be

checked by one of the following two methods:

(i) By Three Lamp (one dark, two bright) method.(ii) By synchroscope

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 26

In this method of synchronizing, three lamps L1, L2 and L3 are connected as shown in Fig(i). The

lamp L1 is straight connected between the corresponding phases (R1 and R2) and the other two are

cross-connected between the other two phases. Thus lamp L2 is connected between Y1 and B2 and

lamp L3 between B1 and Y2. When the frequency and phase of the voltage of the incoming alternator

is the same as that of the busbars, the straight connected lamps L1

will be dark while cross-connected lamps L2 and L3 will be

equally bright. At this instant, the synchronization is perfect and

the switch of the

incoming alternator can be closed to connect it to the busbars.

In Fig. (ii), phasors R1, Y1 and B1 represent the busbars voltages

and phasors R2, Y2 and B2 represent the voltages of the incoming alternator. At the instant when R1

is in phase with R2, voltage across lamp L1 is zero and voltages across lamps L2 and L3 are equal.

Therefore, the lamp L1 is dark while lamps L2 and L3will be equally bright. At this instant, the

switch of the incoming alternator can be closed. Thus incoming alternator gets connected in parallel

with the busbars.

(ii) Synchroscope

A synchroscope is an instrument that indicates by means of a revolving pointer the phase difference

and frequency difference between the voltages of the incoming alternator and the busbars

It is essentially-a small motor, the field being supplied from the busbars through a potential

transformer and the rotor from the incoming alternator. A pointer is attached to the rotor. When the

incoming alternator is running fast (i.e., frequency of the incoming alternator is higher than that of the

busbars), the rotor and hence the pointer moves in the clockwise direction. When the incoming

alternator is running slow (i.e.,frequency of the incoming alternator is lower than that of the busbars),

the pointer moves in anti-clockwise direction. When the frequency of the incoming alternator is equal

to that of the busbars, no torque acts on the rotor and the pointer points vertically upwards (12 O

clock). It indicates the correct instant for connecting the incoming alternator to the busbars. The

synchroscope method is superior to the lamp method because it not only gives a positive indication of

the time to close the switch but also indicates the adjustment to be made should there be a difference

between the frequencies of the incoming alternator and the busbars.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 27

When two alternators are operating in parallel, each machine has an inherent tendency to remain

synchronized. Consider two similar single-phase alternators 1 and 2 operating in parallel at no-load.

Suppose, due to any reason, the speed of machine 2

decreases.

This will cause E2 to fall back by a

phase angle of a electrical degrees as shown in Fig.

Within the local circuit formed by two alternators, the

resultant e.m.f. Er is the phasor difference E1 - E2.

This resultant e.m.f. results in the production of

synchronizing current Isy which sets up

synchronizing torque. The synchronizing torque

retards machine 1 and accelerates machine 2 so that synchronism is reestablished.The power

associated with synchronizing torque is called synchronizing power.In Fig. machine 1 is

generating and machine 2 is motoring. The power supplied by machine 1 is called synchronizing

power. Referring to Fig. we have,

Synchronizing power, Psy =E1Isy cos

E1 Isy ( ~ 90 ; sin

= E1Isy cos(90

) = E1Isy sin

= 1).

Total synchronizing power for 3 phases, Psy=3Psy=3(E2/2Xs.).

Synchronising torque:Tsy: 3Psy=2 NsTsy/60. Tsy=3Psy x60/2 Ns.

1.37. Alternator on Infinite Busbars

In practice, generating stations do not operate as isolated units but are interconnected by the national

grid. The result is that a very large number of alternators operate in parallel. An alternator connected

to such a network is said to be operating on infinite busbars. The behaviour of alternators connected

to an infinite busbars is as under:

(i) Any change made in the operating conditions of one alternator will not change the terminal

voltage or frequency of the system. In other words, terminal voltage (busbars voltage) and frequency

are not affected by changing the operating conditions of one alternator.It is because of large size and

inertia of the system.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 28

(ii) The kW output supplied by an alternator depends on the mechanical power supplied to the prime

mover of the alternator. An increase in mechanical power to the prime mover increases the kW output

of the alternator and not the kVAR. A decrease in the mechanical power to the prime mover decreases

the kW output of the alternator and not the kVAR.

(iii) If the mechanical power to the prime mover of an alternator is kept constant, then change in

excitation will change the power factor at which the machine supplies changed current. In other

words, change of excitation controls the kVAR and not kW.

Note. An infinite busbars system has constant terminal voltage and constant busbars frequency

because of its large size and inertia. However, the busbars voltage can be raised or lowered by

increasing or decreasing simultaneously the field excitation of a large number of alternators.

Likewise, system frequency can be raised or lowered by increasing or decreasing the speed of prime

movers of a large number of alternators.

1.38. Effect of Change of Excitation and Mechanical Input.

(i). Effect of change of field excitation.

An overexcited alternator operates at lagging power factor and supplies lagging reactive power to

infinite busbars. On the other hand, an under excited alternator operates at leading power factor and

supplies leading reactive power to the infinite busbars.

(ii). Effect of change in mechanical input.

Increasing the mechanical input power to the prime mover will not change the speed ultimately but

will increase the power angle . As a result, the change of driving torque controls the output kW and

not the kVAR. When this change takes place, the power factor of the machine is practically not

affected.

1.40. Capability curve of Synchronous generator.

Capability Curve is a plot of reactive power (Q) versus real

power (P).The capability curve of the synchronous generator

defines the boundary (maximum limits ) within which it can operate

safely. Various bounds imposed on the ma chine are:

(i).MVA- loading cannot exceed the generator rating.

This limit is imposed by the stator heating.

(ii).MW-loading cannot exceed the turbine rating which is given by MVA.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 29

(iii).The generator must operate a safe margin away from the steady state stability limit.

(iv).The maximum field current cannot exceed a specified value imposed by rotor heating.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 30

K.L.N.College of Engineering.

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.

EE6504-ELECTRICAL MACHINES-II-Sem:V

UNIT-I-SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR.

1.What is an Alternator? How it differs from the D.C.Generator?(2)

2.What are the different types of ac generators in use.? What is the essential differences in their

construction?(2)

3.Write the advantages of stationary armature and rotating field in an alternator.(2).

4.Describe , with neat sketches, the constructional details of a salient pole type alternator.(6)

5.Compare salient pole and non-salient pole synchronous machines.(2)

6.Deduce the relation between the number of poles,the frequency and the speed of the alternator.(2)

7.State the advantages and disadvantages of using short-pitched and distributed winding in an

alternator.(2).

8.Derive an expression for the pitch factor and distribution factor of an alternator.(8)

9.Derive from the first principle , emf equation of of an alternator.(6)

10.What are the causes of harmonics in the voltage waveform of of an alternator?

How can these be minimized?(2)

11.What is armature reaction? Explain the effect of armature reaction on the terminal voltage of an

alternator at (i).unity power factor load (ii).lagging and (iii) leading power .

Draw the relevant phasor diagram.(12)

12.What is synchronous impedance?. (2)

13.Sketch and explain the open circuit and short circuit characteristics of of an alternator.(6)

14.What is SCR?(2)

15.What is meant by regulation of an alternator? What is its effect on Unity,lagging and leading pf

load?(2)

16.Define the term leakage reactance and synchronous reactance.(2)

17.Explain the synchronous impedance method of determination of regulation of of an alternator.

Why it is called the pessimistic method (8)

18.Describe the mmf method for predetermining the voltage regulation of alternator.(8)

19.Compare synchronous impedance and ampere-turn method of predetermining regulation of an

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 31

alternator(2)

20.Briefly explain the Potier method of finding the voltage regulation.(6)

21.Discuss Blondels two reaction theory applicable to salient pole synchronous machines. (8)

22.Describe a method of determining direct and quadrature axis synchronous axis reactance of

salient pole alternator.(8)

23.Explain the terms direct and quadrature axis reactance of salient pole alternator.(2)

24.Explain the reasons for resorting to Two reaction theory to predetermine the regulation of salient

pole alternators.Why it is applicable to salient pole machine only(8)

25.For a salient pole synchronous machine, neglecting the effect of armature resistance, derive an

expression for power developed as a function of load angle.**

26.What is the role of damper winding in an alternator.(2)

27.What are the losses that take place in an alternator? How the alternators are rated?(2)

28.What are the advantages of connecting the alternators in parallel?(2).

29.What conditions are required to be fulfilled for the successful parallel operation of alternators?(2)

30.What are the methods of synchronising of alternators?(2)

31.Discuss the use of synchroscope in the parallel operation of alternator.(4)

32.What is an infinite bus?(2)

33.Explain with diagrams any one method of synchronising two three-phase alternators.(8)

34.Derive an expression for synchronising power and synchronising torque when two alternators are

connected in parallel.(8)**

35.Two alternators are running in parallel sharing a load in desired proportion. Explain what will

happen if (i)the excitation of alternators are changed while their prime mover inputs are

fixed.(ii).the prime mover inputs are varied while the excitations are kept fixed.(4)

36.An alternator is connected to infinite bus and is running at no-load. Explain briefly how to

increase its eal and reactive power outputs?(2)

37.Explain the effect of varying the excitation of a alternator connected to an infinite bus bar on

power factor, armature current and load angle.(8)

38.What do you understand by power angle of alternator?(2)

39.What is meant by Hunting?What the causes ,its bad effects and methods of elimination of

hunting(6)

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 32

40.Why bright lamp method is preferred over dark lamp method for synchronisation of alternator?(2)

41.How do synchronising lamps indicate the phase variation of the incoming machine and the

running machine?(2)

42.What is synchronizing current, synchronizing power, synchronizing torque?(6)

43.A 6 pole ac generator is running and producing the frequency of 60Hz.Calculate the revolution per

minute of the generator. If the frequency is decreased to 20 Hz, how many number of poles will

be required to be run at the same speed.?(1,200 rpm,2poles).(2).

44.Calculate the pitch factor for the under-given windings.(a).36 stator slots,4 poles,coil span,1to

8,(b).72 slots,6poles,coils span 1 to 10 and (c).96 stator slots,6poles,coil span 1 to

12.(.94,.924,.882,BLT1412).

45.An alternator has 18 slots/pole and the first coil lies in slots 1 and 16.Calculate the pitch factor for

(i).fundamental (ii)3rd harmonic,(iii).5th Harmonic and (iv). 7th harmonic.

(0.966,.707,.259,.259, BLT1416) (2)

46.Caculate the distribution factor for a 36 slots ,4pole,single layer 3 phase winding.(.966,JBG207).

47.A 3 phase ,16 pole alternator has a star connected winding with 144 slots and 10 conductors per

slot.The flux per pole is 0.03 Wb,sinusoidally distributed and the speed is 375 rpm.Find the

frequency and the phase and line emf. Assume full-pitched coil.(1544V,2658V,BLT 1416)(8)

48.A 3 phase,8pole,750 rpm star connected alternator has 72 slots on the armature.Each slots has 12

conductors and winding is short chorded by 2 slots.Find the induced emf between lines, given the

flux per pole is 0.06 Wb.(2,988V,210 JBG).(8)

49.Find the synchronous impedance and reactance of an alternator in which a given field current

produces an armature current of 200A on short-circuit and a generated emf of 50V on open

circuit.The armature resistance is 0.1 .To what induced voltage must the alternator be excited if it is

to deliver a load of 100A at a pf of 0.8 lagging,with a terminal voltage of

200V.(0.25,0.23,222V,BLT1432).(8)**

50.From the following test results, determine the voltage regulation of a2000V,1 phase alternator

delivering a current of 100A,at (i).unity pf.(ii).0.8 lead pf (iii).0.71 lead pf.Full load current of

100A is produced on short circuit by a field excitation of 2.5A.An emf of 500V is produced on open

circuit by the same excitation .The armature resistance is 0.82.(8) (7%,-9%,21.6%1433BLT).(8)

51.A 100kVA,3000V,50Hz,3 phase star connected alternator has effective armature resistance of

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 33

0.2 . The field current of 40A produces short circuit current of 200A and an open circuit emf of

1040V(line ).Calculate the full-load voltage regulation at 0.8pf lagging and 0.8 pf leading.Draw

phasor diagrams.(2.25,-1.8%)

UNIT-I- SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR.

1.What is an alternator ? How it is differ from D.C.Generator ?

An alternator is an electrical machines which converts mechanical energy in to electrical

energy . It generates altering EMF(AC) , whereas a D.C.Generator , generates direct

EMF(DC),requires commutator, low capacity. The other names of alternator are A.C.Generator /

synchronous Generator . They are mainly used in electrical power generating stations .

2.What is the operating principle of Alternator ?

An alternator consists of a stator and rotor . Stator has slots to accommodate three phase

windings . These windings are displaced at 120 electrical . The rotor also has slots to

accommodate field winding. Mechanical input is applied to the rotor so as to run the machine at

rated speed . Then dc excitation is applied to the rotor . The flux from the rotor cuts the

stationary armature winding .Hence, according to Faradays law ,EMF is induced in stator

winding .The induced EMF is taken out and is connected to the electrical load .

3.What are the two types of alternator ?

Based on the constructions , alternators are classified into ( i ) rotating armature ( ii ) rotating

field type . In rotating armature type, field winding is stationary and kept in the stator. The EMF is

induced in rotor, and through the slip rings, the output is taken outside. In the rotating field type,

the field winding is kept in the rotor , and Emf is induced in the stator , where the induced

EMF is directly connected to the load .

4.What are the advantages of stationary armature and revolving field system of alternator ?

(i)It is easier to insulate stationary armature winding for very high voltage .(ii).There is no

mechanical stress on the stator.(iii). More space available on the stator for providing more

insulation.(iv).the load circuit can be connected directly with the fixed terminal of stator(v).

It is easier to cool the stator windings due to more space on stator side .

(vi).only two slip rings are required for supply of D.C. to rotor .

5. What are the classification of alternators , based on its rotor construction ?

Based on rotor constructions, alternators are classified into

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 34

(i).Salient pole alternator ( projecting pole ) (ii)non salient pole alternator (smooth cylindrical

rotor )

6.What are the differences between the salient pole and non salient pole type alternator?.

Salient pole alternator

Medium speed ( 1500rpm to 100 rpm )

Used in hydel power generating stations

Driven by water turbines

Projecting pole

High speed ( 3,000 rpm to 1500 rpm )

Used in thermal power generating stations.

Driven by steam turbines

Smooth cylindrical rotor

Concentrated winding :If slots equal to number of poles are employed, then concentrated winding is

obtained .Advantage :gives maximum emf. Disadvantage :induced emf is not exactly of sinusoidal .

Distributed winding : If the conductors are placed at several slots under one pole , the

winding is known as distributed winding .

Advantage :(i).Harmonic emf is reduced.(ii).Wave form is improved.(iii).Reduced armature

reactions and armature reactance .(iv).Better utilization of core.(v).Reduction in copper loss

and improvement in cooling .

8. What is meant by short pitch and full pitch coils/winding ?

Full pitch winding : when the coil span is 180 ,i.e. when the two coil sides forming a

complete coil of a winding are 180 electrical space degree apart , the winding is known as

full pitch winding . In such winding when one side of the coil under N pole the other side

is in corresponding position under S pole .The induced emf differ by 180 in phase , but the

coil is connected in such a way that emf add giving resultant emf E

Short pitch winding : when the coil span of the winding is less than 180 electrical

space degrees ,i.e. the coil sides forming a complete coil of the winding are less than 180

electrical space degree apart , the windings is known as fractional pitch or short pitch winding

. In such types , the induced emf is not in phase , so the resultant emf is the phasor sum of

induced emf in the coil sides , which is slightly less than arithmetic sum . Hence the induced

emf in short pitch winding is less than that induced in full pitch winding under same

conditions .

9.What are the advantages of short pitch winding ?

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 35

(i).Waveform of the induced emf is improved .(ii).Effect of harmonics are reduced .(iii).Copper

is saved in the coil due to less span (iv).Inductance of the winding is reduced due to lesser

length of the coil(v)Mechanical strength of the coil is increased .

10. What is pitch factor ?

In a short pitch winding , the induced emf in the two sides of the coil are not in phase .

Hence , their resultant emf , given by the phasor sum is always less than their arithmetic sum

. The ratio of phasor sum of induced emf per coil to be arithmetic sum of induced emf per

coil is known as pitch factor(kp) .It is always less than unity.kp =cos(/2), =short chorded

angle.

11. What is distribution factor ?

The ratio of the phasor sum of the emf induced in all the coil distributed in a number of

slots under one pole to the arithmetic sum of the emfs induced is known as breadth factor or

distribution factor (kd).Kd =sin(m/2)/msin(/2).where m =slots/pole X phase , =180/n ,n

=slots/pole.

12 . What are the essential elements for generating emf in alternators ?

The essential elements for generating emf in alternators are prime mover ,stator , rotor ,

exciter.

13. Why it is possible to design alternator to generate much higher voltage than

d.c.generators ?

In case of alternator, field system is moving and armature is stationary. It is easier

to insulate stationary armature winding for very high voltage, because insulation of

stationary armature is not subjected to mechanical stresses due to centrifugal action and

more space is available on the armature for providing more insulation as the stator is

outside the rotor . In case of d.c. generator field is stationary and armature is moving .

14. What are the types of rotor is adopted for high speed alternators ?Non-salient pole.

Name the types of alternator depending on the type of prime-mover ?

(i).turbo-generators (ii).hydro generators ( or water wheel generators) (iii).diesel engine driven

generators .

15. What is maximum speed of 50 Hz alternator ?

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

3,000 rpm .

Page 36

16.Why are the salient pole alternator more suitable for low speed and non salient pole for

high speed operation ?

The salient pole field structure is used almost entirely for low speed alternators , since

it is least expensive and provide ample space for field ampere-turns but it cannot be used

for high speed alternators on account of high peripheral speed and the difficulty of obtaining

sufficient mechanical strength . So non-salient pole field structure is used for high speed

operation .

17.What is role of damper winding in (a)synchronous generator and (b) synchronous motor

(a)

sequence field and to damp the oscillation when the generator starts hunting .

(b)

as to make the motor self starting and to develop and damping torque when the machine

start hunting 18.What is an exciter ?

19.Why are distributed winding preferred over concentrated winding ?

Distributed winding preferred over concentrated winding as (i)Improved wave form of induced

emf .(ii).Provide better utilization of core . (iii).Diminished armature reaction .(iv)Facilitate

cooling .

20.What is the necessity for chording in the armature winding of a synchronous machine ?

The armature winding is chorded in order to (i).Improve the wave form of induced emf .

(ii).Save copper in the coil ends due to less span .(iii).Reduced inductance of the winding .

21.What is meant by armature reaction of a synchronous machine ?

The effect of armature flux on the main field is known as armature reaction. Armature

reaction has distorting effect on unity power factor , wholly demagnetizing at zero power

factor lagging and wholly magnetizing at zero power factor leading

22.What are the effects of regulation of the alternator of power factor (a) at lagging power

factor and (b) leading power factor ?

The regulation of alternator is positive and increased with decreasing in lagging power factor

. The regulation of alternator improves first with decreasing in lagging power factor

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 37

becomes unity and further decreasing in lagging power factor makes the regulation negative

and increasing.

23.Why voltage regulation of an alternator is negative for leading power factor ?

When power factor is leading the effect of armature flux is to assist the main flux hence

to generate more emf and so to increase the terminal voltage when the alternator is loaded.

Thus the terminal voltage of an alternator decreases when the loaded of leading is thrown

off the voltage regulation is negative .

24.Why does synchronous impedance method give a poorer voltage regulation ?

In the

sort circuit condition saturation is very low and therefore the value of synchronous

impedance measured is higher than that in the actual operating conditions and the regulations

determined is higher the actual one .

25.Which quantity is usually determined using the zero power factor characteristics of a

synchronous machine ?

Leakage reactants drop , Voltage drop due to armature reaction and armature reaction AT.

26.Two reactions theory is applied only to

A multipolar machine with cylindrical rotor has a uniform air gap and therefore its

reactants remains the same , irrespective of the spatial position of rotor. But in case of

salient pole machine the air gap is not uniform and its reactants is varies with the rotor

positions. Because of non- uniformity of the reluctance of the magnetic paths the mmf of the

armature are divided into components viz.

(i).A direct acting component along the field pole axis called direct axis .(ii). Quadrature

component along the axis passing to the center of the inter-polar space called Quadrature axis

.

These facts form the basis of the two reactants theory is applied to the salient pole

machines.

27.State the use of slip test on an alternator .

The slip test is performed on an alternator to determine Direct axis reactance-xd and Quadrature

axis reactance. Xq.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 38

(i).Electrical losses including armature winding loss , brush contact loss ana field loss.

(ii).Core loss .(iii).Friction and winding loss .(iv).Stray power loss .

29.A 6 pole ac generator is running and producing the frequency of 60Hz.Calculate the revolutions

per minute of the generator. If the frequency is decreased to 20Hz,how many number of poles will be

required if the generator is to be run at the same speed.

Data:p =6,Alternator,f=60Hz.To find N. If f = 20Hz, p=?

Solution:Ns 120f/p =Ns =120 X60/6 =1,200rpm.Also,1,200 =120 X20/p : p =2

30.The coil span for the stator winding of an alternator is 120.Find the chording factor of the

winding.

Data:coil span =120.To find Kp

Kp =Cos(/2); =180 -coil span ==180 -120 =60 ;Kp =Cos(60/2) =0.866.

31.Calculate the distribution factor for a 36 slot,4-pole,single layer 3-phase winding.

Data:slots, s=36,pole,p=4,phase =3.To find Kd

Kd =sin(m/2)/msin(/2);m=slots/pole .phase==36/4 x 3 =3; =180/n;n=slots/pole =36/4 =9;

=180/9 =20

Kd =sin(3*20/2)/3sin(20/2) =0.96

32.Write the emf equation of Alternator.

Eph =4.44fTphKpKd Volts;EL=3Eph ;f=frequency in Hz,Tph =Turns per phase=Zph=6Tph,=flux

inWb.

33.Draw the sketches of Salient and Non-salient pole synchronous generators.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 39

there will be a force acting on the conductor and on the other hand, if a conductor is forcefully

brought under a magnetic field there will be an induced current in that conductor. In both of the

phenomenon there is an relation between magnetic field, electric current and force. This relation

directionally determined by Fleming Left Hand rule and Fleming Right Hand rule respectively.

Directionally means these rules do not show the magnitude but show the direction of any of the

three parameters (magnetic field, electric current, force) if the direction of other two are known.

Fleming Left Hand rule is mainly applicable for electric motor and Fleming Right Hand rule is

mainly applicable for electric generator. In late 19th century, John Ambrose Fleming, introduced these

both rules and as per his name the rules are well known as Fleming left and right hand rule.

It is found that whenever a current carrying conductor is placed inside a magnetic field, a

force acts on the conductor, in a direction, perpendicular both to the direction of the electric current

and the magnetic field. In the figure it shown that a portion of a conductor of length L placed

vertically in a uniform horizontal magnetic field of strength H, produced by two magnetic pole N and

S. If i is the electric current flowing through this conductor , the magnitude of the force acts on the

conductor is, F = BiL

Hold out your left hand with forefinger, second finger and thumb at right angle to one another.

If the fore finger represents the direction of the field and the second finger that of the current, then

thumb gives the direction of the force.

While electric current flows through a conductor one magnetic field is induced around it. This can be

imagined by considering numbers of closed magnetic lines of force around the conductor. The

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 40

direction of magnetic lines of force can be determiner by Maxwells corkscrew rule or right-hand grip

rule. As per these rules the direction of the magnetic lines of force (or flux lines) is clockwise if the

current is flowing away from the viewer that is if the direction of current through the conductor is

inward from the reference plane as shown in the figure.

Now if a horizontal magnetic field is applied externally to the conductor, these two magnetic

fields i.e. field around the conductor due to current through it and the externally applied field will

interact each other. We observe in the picture, the magnetic lines of force of external magnetic field

are form N to S pole that is from left to right. The magnetic lines of force of external magnetic field

and magnetic lines of force due to current in the conductor are in same direction, above the conductor

and they are in opposite direction below the conductor. Hence there will be larger numbers of codirectional magnetic lines of force above the conductor than that of below the conductor.

Consequently, there will be a larger concentration of magnetic lines of force in a small space above

the conductor. As magnetic lines of force are no longer straight lines, they are under tension like

stretched rubber bands. As a result there will be a force which tends to move the conductor from more

concentrated magnetic field to less concentrated magnetic field that is from present position to

downwards. Now if you observe the direction of current, force and magnetic field in the above

explanation, you will find that the directions are according to Fleming left hand rule.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 41

As per Faradays law of electromagnetic induction, whenever a conductor moves inside a

magnetic field, there will be an induced current in it. If this conductor is forcefully moved inside the

magnetic field, there will be a relation between the direction of applied force, magnetic field and the

electric current. This relation among these three directions, is determined by by Fleming Right Hand

Rule.This rule states Hold out the right hand with the first finger, second finger and thumb at right

angles to each other. If forefinger represents the direction of the line of force, the thumb points in the

direction of motion or applied force, then second finger points in the direction of the induced current.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 42

2.1.Introduction.

An alternator may operate as a motor by connecting its armature winding to a 3-phase supply. It is

then called a synchronous motor. A synchronous motor runs at synchronous speed (Ns = 120f/P) i.e.,

in synchronism with the revolving field produced by the 3-phase supply. The speed of rotation is,

therefore, tied to the frequency of the source. Since the frequency is fixed, the motor speed stays

constant irrespective of the load or voltage of 3-phase supply. However, synchronous motors are not

used so much because they run at constant speed (i.e., synchronous speed) .

2.2. Construction

A synchronous motor is a machine that operates at synchronous speed and converts electrical energy

into mechanical energy. It is fundamentally an alternator operated as a motor. Like an alternator, a

synchronous motor has the following two parts:

(i) a stator which houses 3-phase armature winding in the slots of the stator core and receives power

from a 3-phase supply.

(ii) a rotor that has a set of salient poles excited by direct current to form alternate N and S poles. The

exciting coils are connected in series to two slip rings and direct current is fed into the winding from

an external exciter mounted on the rotor shaft. As in the case of an induction motor, the number of

poles determines the synchronous speed of the motor:

Synchronous speed, Ns=120f/p;where f = frequency of supply in Hz,p = number of poles

An important drawback of a synchronous motor is that it is not self-starting and

auxiliary means have to be used for starting it.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 43

(i) A synchronous motor runs at synchronous speed or not at all. Its speed is constant (synchronous

speed) at all loads. The only way to change its speed is to alter the supply frequency (Ns = 120 f/P).

(ii) The outstanding characteristic of a synchronous motor is that it can be made to operate over a

wide range of power factors (lagging, unity orleading) by adjustment of its field excitation. Therefore,

a synchronous motor can be made to carry the mechanical load at constant speed and at the same time

improve the power factor of the system.

(iii) Synchronous motors are generally of the salient pole type.

(iv) A synchronous motor is not self-starting and an auxiliary means has to be used for starting it. We

use either induction motor principle or a separate starting motor for this purpose. If the latter method

is used, the machine must be run up to synchronous speed and synchronized as an alternator.

2.4. Operating Principle-Why synchronous motor is not self starting?

(i) Consider a 3-phase synchronous motor having two rotor poles NR and SR. Then the stator will also

be wound for two poles NS and SS. The motor has direct voltage applied to the rotor winding and a 3phase voltage applied to the stator winding. The stator winding produces a rotating field which

revolves round the stator at synchronous speed Ns(= 120 f/P). The direct (or

zero frequency) current sets up a two-pole field which is stationary so long as the rotor is not turning.

Thus, we have a situation in which there exists a pair of revolving armature poles (i.e., NS - SS) and a

pair of stationary rotor poles (i.e., NR - SR).(ii) Suppose at

any instant, the stator poles are at positions A and B as

shown in Fig.(i). It is clear that poles NS and NR repel each

other and so do the poles SS and SR. Therefore, the rotor

tends to move in the anticlockwise direction. After a period

of half-cycle (or f = 1/100 second), the polarities of the stator poles are reversed but the polarities

of the rotor Poles remain the same as shown in Fig. (ii). Now SS and NR attract each other and so do

NS and SR. Therefore, the rotor tends to move in the clockwise direction. Since the stator poles

change their polarities rapidly, they tend to pull the rotor first in one direction and then after a period

of half-cycle in the other.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 44

Due to high inertia of the rotor, the motor fails to start. Hence, a synchronous motor has no selfstarting torque i.e., a synchronous motor cannot start by itself.

How to get continuous unidirectional torque? If the rotor poles are rotated by some external means

at such a speed that they interchange their positions along with the stator poles, then the rotor will

experience a continuous unidirectional torque. This can be understood from the following discussion:

(i) Suppose the stator field is rotating in the clockwise direction and the rotor is also rotated clockwise

by some external means at such a speed that

the rotor poles interchange their positions

along with the stator poles.

(ii) Suppose at any instant the stator and

rotor poles are in the position shown in Fig.

(iii). It is clear that torque on the rotor will be

clockwise. After a period of half-cycle, the

stator poles reverse their polarities and at the same time rotor poles also interchange their positions as

shown in Fig. (iv). The result is that again the torque on the rotor is clockwise. Hence a continuous

unidirectional torque acts on the rotor and moves it in the clockwise direction. Under this condition,

poles on the rotor always face poles of opposite polarity on the stator and a strong magnetic attraction

is set up between them. This mutual attraction locks the rotor and stator together and the rotor is

virtually pulled into step with the speed of revolving flux (i.e., synchronous speed).

(iii) If now the external prime mover driving the rotor is removed, the rotor will continue to rotate at

synchronous speed in the clockwise direction because the rotor poles are magnetically locked up with

the stator poles. It is due to this magnetic interlocking between stator and rotor poles that a

synchronous motor runs at the speed of revolving flux i.e., synchronous speed.

2.5. Making Synchronous Motor Self-Starting

A synchronous motor cannot start by itself. In order to make the motor selfstarting, a squirrel cage winding (also called damper winding) is provided

on the rotor. The damper winding consists of copper bars embedded in the

pole faces of the salient poles of the rotor as shown in Fig. The bars are

short-circuited at the ends to form in effect a partial squirrel cage winding.

The damper winding serves to start the motor.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 45

(i) To start with, 3-phase supply is given to the stator winding while the rotor field winding is left

unenergized. The rotating stator field induces currents in the damper or squirrel cage winding and the

motor starts as an induction motor.

(ii) As the motor approaches the synchronous speed, the rotor is excited with direct current. Now the

resulting poles on the rotor face poles of opposite polarity on the stator and a strong magnetic

attraction is set up between them. The rotor poles lock in with the poles of rotating flux.

Consequently, the rotor revolves at the same speed as the stator field i.e., at synchronous speed.

Note: It is important to excite the rotor with direct current at the right moment.For example, if the d.c.

excitation is applied when N-pole of the stator faces N pole of the rotor, the resulting magnetic

repulsion will produce a violent mechanical shock. The motor will immediately slow down and the

circuit breakers will trip. In practice, starters for synchronous motors are designed to detect the

precise moment when excitation should be applied.

2.6. Equivalent Circuit of synchronous motor.

Fig.(i). shows the schematic

diagram for one phase of a starconnected synchronous motor

while Fig. (ii) shows its

equivalent circuit. Referring to

the equivalent circuit in Fig. (ii).

Net voltage/phase in stator winding is Er = V Eb ;Ia =Er/Zs; Zs= (Ra2-Xs2)---Ohms.

Note:A synchronous motor is said to be normally excited if the field excitation is such

that Eb = V. If the field excitation is such that Eb < V, the motor is said to be under-excited. The

motor is said to be over-excited if the field excitation is such that Eb > V. For both normal and under

excitation, the motor has lagging power factor. However, for over-excitation, the motor has leading

power factor.

2.7. Synchronous Motor on Load

In d.c. motors and induction motors, an addition of load causes the motor speed to decrease. The

decrease in speed reduces the counter e.m.f. enough so that additional current is drawn from the

source to carry the increased load at a reduced speed. This action cannot take place in a synchronous

motor because it runs at a constant speed (i.e., synchronous speed) at all loads.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 46

What happens when we apply mechanical load to a synchronous motor? The rotor poles fall slightly

behind the stator poles while continuing to run at

synchronous speed. The angular displacement

between stator and rotor poles (called torque angle

a) causes the phase of back e.m.f. Eb to change w.r.t.

supply voltage V. This increases the net e.m.f. Er in

the stator winding. Thus,stator current Ia ( = Er/Zs)

increases to carry the load.

The following points may be noted in synchronous motor operation:

(i) A synchronous motor runs at synchronous speed at all loads. It meets the increased load not by a

decrease in speed but by the relative shift between stator and rotor poles i.e., by the adjustment of

torque angle .

(ii) If the load on the motor increases, the torque angle also increases (i.e.,rotor poles lag behind the

stator poles by a greater angle) but the motor continues to run at synchronous speed. The increase in

torque angle causes a greater phase shift of back e.m.f. Eb w.r.t. supply voltage V. This increases

the net voltage Er in the stator winding. Consequently, armature current

Ia (= Er/Zs) increases to meet the load demand.

(iii) If the load on the motor decreases, the torque angle also decreases. This causes a smaller phase

shift of Eb w.r.t. V. Consequently, the net voltage Er in the stator winding decreases and so does the

armature current Ia (= Er/Zs).

2.7. Pull-Out Torque.

There is a limit to the mechanical load that can be applied to a synchronous motor. As the load

increases, the torque angle also increases so that a stage is reached when the rotor is pulled out of

synchronism and the motor comes to a standstill. This load torque at which the motor pulls out of

synchronism is called pullout or breakdown torque. Its value varies from 1.5 to 3.5 times the full

load torque.

2.8. Motor Phasor Diagram.

Consider an under-excited star-connected synchronous motor (Eb < V) supplied with fixed excitation

i.e., back e.m.f. Eb is constantLet V = supply voltage/phase;Eb = back e.m.f./phase;Zs = synchronous impedance/phase

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 47

When the motor is on no load, the torque angle is small as shown in Fig(i). Consequently, back

e.m.f. Eb lags behind the supply voltage V by a small angle as shown in the phasor diagram in

Fig.(ii). The net voltage/phase in the stator winding, is Er.Armature current/phase, Ia = Er/Zs

The armature current Ia lags behind Er by

Thus at no load, the motor takes

a small power VIa cos

from

losses while it continues to run at

synchronous speed.

(ii) Motor on load

When load is applied to the motor, the torque angle a increases as shown in Fig(iii). This causes Eb

(its magnitude is constant as excitation is fixed) to lag behind V by a greater angle as shown in the

phasor diagram in Fig. (iv).The net voltage/phase Er in the stator winding increases. Consequently,

the motor draws more armature current Ia (=Er/Zs) to meet the applied load.

Again Ia lags Er by about 90 since Xs

>> Ra. The p f of the motor is cos .

Input power, Pi = V Ia cos

Mechanical power developed by motor ,

Pm = Eb x Ia x cosine of angle between

Eb and Ia. = Eb Ia cos(

Excitation at Constant Load.

One of the most important features of a synchronous motor is that by changing the field excitation, it

can be made to operate from lagging to leading power factor. Consider a synchronous motor having a

fixed supply voltage and driving a constant mechanical load. Since the mechanical load as well as the

speed is constant, the power input to the motor (=3 VIa cos ) is also constant. This means that the inKLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 48

phase component Ia cos drawn from the supply will remain constant. If the field excitation is

changed, back e.m.f Eb also changes. This results in the change of phase position of Ia w.r.t. V and

hence the power factor cos of the motor changes. Fig. shows the phasor diagram of the

synchronous motor for different values of field excitation.

(i) Under excitation

The motor is said to be under-excited if the field excitation is such that Eb < V. Under such

conditions, the current Ia lags behind V so that motor power factor is lagging as shown in Fig.(ii)).

This can be easily explained. Since Eb < V,the net voltage Er is decreased and turns clockwise. As

angle (= 90) between Er and Ia is constant, therefore, phasor Ia also turns clockwise i.e., current Ia

lags behind the supply voltage. Consequently, the motor has a lagging power factor.

(ii) Normal excitation

The motor is said to be normally excited if the field excitation is such that Eb = V. This is shown in

Fig. Note that the effect of increasing excitation (i.e., increasing Eb) is to turn the phasor Er and hence

Ia in the anti-clockwise direction i.e., Ia phasor has come closer to phasor V. Therefore, p.f. increases

though still lagging. Since input power (=3 V Ia cos ) is unchanged, the current Ia must decrease

with increase in p.f.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 49

Suppose the field excitation is increased until the current Ia is in phase with the applied voltage V,

making the p.f. of the synchronous motor unity [See Fig. (iii)]. For a given load, at unity p.f. the

resultant Er and, therefore, Ia are minimum.

The motor is said to be overexcited if the field excitation is such that Eb > V. Under-such conditions,

current Ia leads V and the motor power factor is leading as shown in Fig. (iv). Note that Er and hence

Ia further turn anti-clockwise from the normal excitation position.consequently Ia leads V.From the

above discussion, it is concluded that if the synchronous motor is under-excited, it has a lagging

power factor. As the excitation is increased, the power factor improves till it becomes unity at normal

excitation. Under such conditions, the current drawn from the supply is minimum. If the excitation is

further increased (i.e., over excitation), the motor power factor becomes leading.

Note. The armature current (Ia) is minimum at unity p.f and increases as the power factor becomes

poor, either leading or lagging.

2.10. Phasor Diagrams With Different ExcitationsFig. shows the phasor diagrams for different field excitations at constant load. Fig. (i) shows the

phasor diagram for normal excitation (Eb = V),

whereas Fig. (ii) shows the phasor diagram for under-excitation. In both cases, the motor has lagging

power factor. Fig. (iii) shows the phasor diagram when field excitation is adjusted for

unity p.f. operation. Under this condition, the resultant voltage Er and, therefore, the stator current Ia

are minimum. When the motor is overexcited, it has leading power factor as shown in Fig. (iv). The

following points may be remembered:

(i) For a given load, the power factor is governed by the field excitation; a weak field produces the

lagging armature current and a strong field produces a leading armature current.

(ii) The armature current (Ia) is minimum at unity p.f and increases as the p.f. becomes less either

leading or lagging.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 50

(i).It is the curve drawn between field current,

If and armature current Ia for constant supply

voltage ,V.

(ii).Upto 100% excitation, If and Ia both are

inversely proportional to each other, ie,If

1/Ia.

(iii).After 100% of excitation, If =Ia.

(iv).If ,If decreases, incrases, cos decreases.

(v). The curve between If and cos is known as inverted V curves.

Procedure:

The synchronous machine is started by DC shunt motor and brought to its rated speed.When

the synchronous motor reaches nearly the synchronous speed, its field winding is energized.

Synchronous machine is connected to 3 phase AC.DC supply to the DC motor is disconnected

by operating the switch S1.Now the synchronous machine is running on no load and it can

drive the DC shunt machine working as a DC shunt generator.

Keeping the synchronous motor on no load, take the reading of Ammeter,Voltmeter and

Wattmeter on AC side for different values of excitation.

Now the DC generator is loaded so that the motor is loaded to of its full load.Keeping this

load as constant, take the readings of A,V&W on AC side for different excitation.

Repeat the process for 1/2, 3/4 ,1 and 1 full load on synchronous motor.The corresponding

curves are shown in fig.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 51

With the help of V curves , pf for any value is determined from the relation,cos=Imin/I, where

Imin=minimum current drawn by motor at given load.

Observations:

With low value of If,Ia is large and lagging.

As If increases, pf increases and Ia decreases till it reaches a minimum value.

When Ia is minimum, pf is unity and corresponding If is as normal field current.The region in

which If is less than its normal value is known as region of under excitation or region of

lagging.

If the If is increased, pf becomes leading and begins to decrease, so Ia increases. The region in

which If is more than normal value is known as region of over excitation or region of leading.

(i).Starting torque: It is the ability of the motor to accelerate the load. It is also known as breakaway

torque .It is 10% in case of centrifugal pumps and as high as 200% of full load torque ,as in case of

loaded reciprocating compressors.

(ii).Running torque: It is the torque developed by the motor under running condition.

(iii).Pull in torque: It refers to the ability of motor to pull into synchronism when changing from

induction to synchronous motor operation.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 52

(iv).Pullout torque: It refers to the ability of the motor to remain in synchronism under rated load

conditions. The maximum torque which the motor will develop without pulling out of step is called

pullout torque.

2.13.Phasor diagram of Synchronous motor for various pf.

Note:Er=IZs

AD2=OA2+OD2-2(OA)(OD)cos( +)

E=V2 +Er2 -2VEr cos( +)Volts(phase)

=pf angle; =tan-1(Xs/Ra);Pin=3VLILcos ;

=Po/Pin;Pin=Pm+I2R.

Fig. shows the phasor diagram of an under-excited

synchronous motor driving a mechanical load. Since

armature resistance Ra is assumed zero.

tan = Xs/Ra =

and hence

= 90.

Since Ra is assumed zero, stator Cu loss (I2 Ra )will be zero. Hence input power is equal to the

mechanical power Pm developed by the motor.

Mech. power developed/ phase, Pm = V Ia cos

Referring to the phasor diagram in Fig. , AB

Also AB

Eb sin

Eb sin

Pm = V Ia cos

V [Eb sin

(i)

Er cos

IaXs cos

Eb sin

Xs

Xs]=VEb/Xsfor 1 ;3VEb/Xsfor 3 .

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 53

Let OA=V=supply voltage per phase; I=Ia=armature current in ampere;AB=Eb=back emf at load

angel ;OB=Er=resultant voltage (I Zs I Xs);I leads V by angle and lags behind Eb by .where

=tan -1(Xs/Ra).Line CD is drawn at an angle to the line AB.AC and ED are perpendicular to CD

and also to AE.

Mechanic power developed in the rotor,Pm=Eb.I cos ---- 1

In triangle OBD, cos =BD/OB =BD/IZs;

In triangle OAE, cos(- )= AE/OA

BD=IZs.cos ---2;

(since, OA=V),

To find BC:In triangle, cos =BC/AB

AE=V cos(- ).

I cos = V cos(- )/Zs - Eb cos/Zs ------------- 4;substitute the eqn.4 in the eqn 1

Pm=Eb.I. cos =Pm= Eb.V cos(- )/Zs Eb2 cos/Zs

The above is the expression for the mechanical power interms of load angle and internal angle of

the synchronous motor for constant voltage.

To find maximum power developed:

To find Pmax,the above expression Pm is differentiated with respect to load angle .

Pm= Eb.V cos(- )/Zs Eb2 cos/Zs ;dPm/d = Eb.V/Zs[sin (- )] =0

sin (- )=0

- =0,= at Pmax.

substiture in Pm,Pm= Eb.V cos(- )/Zs Eb2 cos/Zs;Pm= EbV/Zs Eb2 cos/Zs

from the above ,the maximum power and torque depends on V and Eb.

also the max. value of =90.

If Ra is neglected, =90 Pm= Eb.V/Xs ;

[Xs=Zs].

Ex.2.1.A 50kW,400V,synchronous motor is operating at full load with efficiency of 92%.If the field

current is adjusted to make its pf 0.8 leading, estimate the armature current.

Data:Po=50kW,VL=400V,=92%,cos=0.8.Find:Ia.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 54

Pin=3VLILcos 54.34 x103=3x400x Ia Ia=IL=98A.

Ex.2.2.A 2.3kV,3 , synchronous motor has Zs=(0.2+j2.2) per phase.The motor is operating at 0.5pf

leading with the line current of 200A.Determine the generated emf per phase.

Data:VL=2.3x103V,3, synchronous motor,Ra=0.2,Xs=2.2, cos=0.8(lead).IL=Ia=200A.Find E.

V=Vph= VL/3=2.3x103/3=1327.9V;Er=IZs;Zs=Ra2+Xs2=(0.2)2+(2.2)2=2.2;Er=200x2.2=441.8A.

=tan-1(Xs/Ra)= tan-1(2.2/0.2)=85, =cos-1(0.8)=60.

E=V2 +Er2 -2VEr cos( +)= 13282 +4422 -2(1328)(442) cos(85 +60)=1708Volts.(phase).

reactance per phase of 0.04 and 0.4 respectively. Compute for full load 0.8pf (lead), the open

circuit emf / phase and gross mechanical power developed. Assume full load efficiency of 92%.

Data:Po=75kW,VL=400V, 3 Y- synchronous motor, Ra=0.04,Xs=042, cos =0.8 (lead),=92%.

V=Vph= VL/3=400/3=230V, Er=IZs;Zs=Ra2+Xs2;I=IL=Ia; Pin=3VLILcos ; =Po/Pin

=Po/Pin0.92=75x103/ Pin;Pin=81 x103, Pin=3VLILcos 81 x103=3x400xILx0.8I=146.3A.

Zs=(0.04)2+(0.4)2=0.4. Er=146 x 0.4=58.66V; =tan-1(Xs/Ra)= tan-1(0.4/0.04)=84, =cos-1(0.8)=36.

E=V2 +Er2 -2VEr cos( +)= 2302 +582 -2(230)(58) cos(84 +36)=265Volts.(phase).

(ii).Pin=Pmech+I2RP mech=Pin-I2R=81 x103-1462x0.04=80.7kW.

Ex2.4.A 3, star connected synchronous motor has synchronous reactance of 4 per phase working

on 1100V busbar. Calculate the power factor of the machine when taking 90kW from the mains, the

excitation being adjusted to a value corresponding to induced emf of 1200V.Neglect armature

resistance.

Data:Star connected synchronous motor,Xs=4,Ra=0,V=VL=1100V,Po=90x103,E=1200V(line).

To find cos.

OBC,cos=BC/OB=BC/Er

BC=Er cos----(a).

ABC,AB2=AC2+BC2.

AC=AB2-BC2

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Ia

Er

Page 55

Er=IZs;Zs=Ra2+Xs2=Xs as Ra=0;Er=IXsI=Er/Xs.

Pin=3VLIL cos; IL cos=90x103/3x1100=47A. IL cos=47A.

BC=Er cos= IXs cos= IL cos xXs =47x4=189V BC=189V= Er cos

AC=E2-(Er cos)2 ;Eph=E/3=1200/3=692V.; AC=E2-(Er cos)2= 6922-(189)2=666V.(phase)

From the phasor diagram,AC=OC + OA OC=AC-OA=666-V/3=666-1100/3=32V(phase)

OC=32V;From OBC,OB2=OC2+BC2OB=OC2+BC2=322 +1882=191V.=Er

Now, Er cos=188V, cos=188/Er=188/191=0.986;Icos=47AmpI=47/0.986=47A.

Ex.2.5.A 2000V,3 phase ,star connected synchronous motor has an effective resistance and reactance

of 0.2 and 2.2 respectively. The input is 800kW at normal voltage and the emf(line) is

2500V.Calculate the line current and power factor of the load.

Data:Star connected synchronous motor,Xs=2.2,Ra=0.2,V=VL=2000V,Pin=800x103,E=2500V(line).

To find Ia& cos.

OBC,cos=BC/OB=BC/Er ; BC=Er cos----(a). ABC,AB2=AC2+BC2. AC=AB2-BC2

AC=E2-(Er cos)2 ---(b) Er=IZs;Zs=Ra2+Xs2=2.2Er=IZsI=Er/Zs.

Pin=3VLIL cos; IL cos=800x103/3x2000=47A. IL cos=230.9A.

BC=Er cos= IZs cos= IL cos xZs =230.9x2.2=508V BC=508V= Er cos

AC=E2-(Er cos)2 ;Eph=E/3=2500/3=1443V.; AC=E2-(Er cos)2= 14432-(508)2=1350V(phase)

From the phasor diagram,AC=OC + OA OC=AC-OA=666-V/3=666-2000/3=196V(phase)

OC=196V;From OBC,OB2=OC2+BC2OB=OC2+BC2=1962 +5082=544V.=Er

Now, Er cos=508V, cos=508/Er=508/544=0.933;Icos=230AmpI=230/0.933=247.5A.

Ex.2.6.A 2000V, 3 phase, 4 pole, star connected synchronous motor runs at 1500rpm.The excitation

is constant and related to OCC voltage of 2000V.The resistance is negligible as compared to

synchronous reactance of 3 per phase. Determine the input power, power factor and torque

developed for an armature current of 200A.

Data:V=VL=E=2000V,3phase,star connected synchronous motor,p=4,N=1500rpm,Ra=0,Xs=3.

Ia=200A.Find Pin,cos andT.Assume lagging pf.

Sol:(i). Pin: Pin=3VLILcos;To findcos:

E=V2 +Er2 -2VEr cos( +); E2=[V2 +Er2 -2VEr cos( -)];Er=IZs=IXs=200 x3 =600V.(phase).

E=Eph=Vph= E/3=2000/3=1154V;

E2=[V2 +Er2 -2VEr cos( -)]11542=[11542 +6002 -2x11542x600 cos( -)]

cos( -)= [11542 +6002 -11542]/ 2x11542x600 cos( -)=0.2598.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 56

(iii).To find Torque:Pm=2NT/60;Pm=Pin-3I2R=669-0=669 x103.

T=Pmx60/2N=669 x103 x60/2x1500=4258Nm.

Ex.2.7.A 3phase 6600V,50Hz,star connected synchronous motor takes 50A current. The resistance and

reactance per phase are 1 and 20 respectively. Find the power supplied to the motor and induced emf for a

pf of (i)0.8pf lagging (ii)0.8 pf leading (iii).UPF. Draw the vector diagram for each case.

Data:3 phase star connected synchronous motor,f=50Hz,V=VL=6000V,Ia=50A,Ra=1,Xs=20.

Find Pin,E for cos =0.8lagging,0.8leading and UPF.

Sol:Pin=3VLILcos= 3x6600x50x0.8=457kW.

E=V2 +Er2 -2VEr cos( +);Er=IZs=1001.2V;=87, for leading pf ,E=4448.5V.

For lagging pf,Pin =457kW, E=3262V;for UPF,Pin=571kW,E=3891V.

Ex.2.8.A 3phase 6600V,50Hz, star connected synchronous motor takes 50A current. The resistance and

reactance per phase are 1 and 20 respectively. Find the power supplied to the motor and induced emf for a

pf of (i)0.8pf lagging (ii)0.8 pf leading (iii).UPF. Draw the vector diagram for each case.

To find: Pin ,E, for cos

(i).Pin=3*6600*50*0.8=457.26 KW,for cos =UPF,Pin=3*6600*50*1=571.57KW

(ii). wkt Er=ILXs => 50*20 = 1000 V;* =tan -1(Xs/Rs) => tan -1(20/1)=87.137o

iii)for 0.8 lagging, E=(V2+Er2-2*V*Er*cos(- ))=

Eph=3810.52+10002-2(3810.5*1000*cos(87.13-36.86))=3263.369 V

*for 0.8 leading,Eph=3810.52+10002-2(3810.5*1000*cos(123.997))Eph=4447.61 V

*for UPF,Eph=3810.52+10002-2(3810.5*1000*cos(87.137))Eph=3890.81 V

RESULT:

PF

0.8 lagging

Pin in KW

457.26

Eph in volts

3263.369

2.15. Synchronous Condenser

0.8 leading

457.26

4447.61

UPF

571.57

3890.81

behaves as a capacitor.An over-excited synchronous motor running on no-load in known as

synchronous condenser.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 57

When such a machine is connected in parallel with induction motors or other devices that operate at

low lagging power factor, the leading kVAR supplied by the synchronous condenser partly

neutralizes the lagging reactive kVAR of the loads. Consequently, the power factor of the system is

improved.

Fig. shows the power factor improvement by synchronous condenser method. The 3 - phase load

takes current IL at low lagging power factor cos L. The synchronous condenser takes a current Im

which leads the voltage by an angle fm. The resultant current I is the vector sum of Im and IL and lags

behind the voltage by an angle . It is clear that f is less than L so that cos is greater than cosL.

Thus the power factor is increased from cos L to cos . Synchronous

condensers are generally used at major

substations for pf improvement.

Advantages

(i) By varying the field excitation, the

magnitude of current drawn by the motor can

be changed by any amount. This helps in

achieving control of pf.

(ii) The motor windings have high thermal

stability to short circuit currents.

(iii) The faults can be removed easily.

Disadvantages

(i) There are considerable losses in the motor.

(ii) The maintenance cost is high.

(iii) It produces noise.

(iv) Except in sizes above 500 kVAr, the cost is greater than that of static capacitors of the same

rating.

(v) As a synchronous motor has no self-starting torque, there-fore, an auxiliary equipment has to be

provided for this purpose.

2.16. Applications of Synchronous Motors

(i) Synchronous motors are particularly attractive for low speeds (< 300 r.p.m.) because the power

factor can always be adjusted to unity and efficiency is high.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 58

(ii) Overexcited synchronous motors can be used to improve the power factor

of a plant while carrying their rated loads.

(iii) They are used to improve the voltage regulation of transmission lines.

(iv) High-power electronic converters generating very low frequencies enables to run synchronous

motors at ultra-low speeds. Thus huge motors in the

10 MW range drive crushers, rotary kilns and variable-speed ball mills.

2.17.Comparison of Synchronous and Induction Motors

S.No.

Particular

Synchronous Motor

1.

Speed

no-load to full-load.

2.

Power factor

Operates at lagging

power factor.

3.

Excitation

4.

Economy

600 r.p.m.

5.

Self-starting

Self-starting

6.

Construction

Complicated

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Simple

Page 59

improvement

in power factor:

KWL

L

KWS

S

KVARL

KVAL

KVARS

KVAL

KWT

cos T= KWT/ KVAT

KWL

KWS

T

KVART

L

KVAT

KVARL

KVAL

KVARL= KVART + KVARS KVARS= KVARL- KVART

Ex.2.9.A 3 sync motor absorbing 60 kW is connected in parallel; with a factory load of 240 kW

having pf 0.8 lag. If the combined load has p.f. 0.9 What is the value of leading kVAR supplied by

motor and at what p.f. it is working?

Data: 3 sync motor ,kWs = 60 kW; kWL = 240 kW; cos L = 0.8; cos T = 0.9;

To Find: kVARs, cos S = ?;

Solution: cos L = 0.8; sin L = 0.6;L = 36.86;

kVAL= kWL/ cos L =240*103/0.8 =300kVA;

kVARL= sin L. kVAL = .6*300k= 180 kVAR,kWT =kWs +kWL =(60 +240)k = 300kW

kVAT= kWT/ cos T = 300k/0.9 = 333.33kVAkVART= sin T.

kVAT = .436*333.33k= 145.3 kVAR

kVART = kVARL kVARS = (180 145.3)k =34.7 kVAR

T = L S; S = L T =11.03; cos 11.03=0.98; cos S = 0.98;

Result: ; cos S = 0.98; kVART=34.7 kVAR

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 60

Synchronous condensers are operated at pf ranging from lagging through unity leads to leading value

for voltage control. When operated in this manner, a synchronous condenser is called synchronous

phase modifier or reactor. (These are connected at the end of transmission line.

2.20.Hunting in SM:

When a synchronous motor is loaded, the rotor poles fallback by certain angle called the load angle or

Torque angle . If the load is suddenly removed, the rotor poles are pulled into exact position to the

poles of forward field, but due to inertia of rotor they travel too far. They are then pulled back again.

Thus an oscillation is set up above the equilibrium position corresponding to the new load. The

oscillation of the rotor about the equilibrium position is called HUNTING. It is caused by change in

load, change in excitation.

Hunting is reduced by providing a damper winding. The damper winding consists of short circuit bars

embedded in the phases of field poles of synchronous motor. When the motor is running at Ns there is

no relative motion between rotor and airgap flux and so no voltage is induced in the damper winding.

When the speed of the machine deviates from Ns, or hunting takes place, there is relative motion

between the rotor and airgap flux. Thus an emf is induced in the winding. The current flow in the

damper winding sets up a flux, which opposes oscillations and hence hunting is prevented.

2.21.Starting Methods of SM:

(i).From DC source:

If a DC supply and DC compound motor are available, the synchronous motor is coupled and started

by means of DC compound motor. The speed of DC motor is adjusted by means of speed regulator.

The sync. motor is then excited and synchronized with AC supply. At the moment of

synchronization, the Sync motor is switched ON with AC mains. The DC motor is then disconnected

from DC mains. Now synchronous machine operates as motor , from AC supply mains and DC motor

acts as load on it.

(ii).From AC motor:

A small direct coupled induction motor called Pony motor may be used for starting the SM. The

induction motor has two poles less than SM and so is capable of raising the later to sync. speed. Then

AC supply is given to SM. After normal operation is established, the pony motor is uncoupled from

the supply.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 61

A SM is made self starting by providing a special winding on rotor poles called damper winding or

short circuit winding. The damper winding consists of SC copper bars embedded in the phase of field

poles. AC supply given to stator poles produces a rotating magnetic field, which causes the rotor to

rotate. Hence in the beginning SM provided with damper winding starts as squirrel cage induction

motor.

Advantages:

When motor is overloaded it does not stop. Continues to run as squirrel cage induction motor.

Disadvantages:

Since damper winding resistance is low, it takes larger current from supply to start.

2.22.Speed Contorl of SM:

The speed of SM is given by Ns=120f/P.

Thus by varying the no. of poles or supply frequency its speed can be varied. Voltage to Frequency

ratio control (V/f) is also used to control the speed of synchronous motor.

Questions in Synchronous motor.

1. What is the role of damper winding in an (i) alternator (ii).Synchronous Motor.

2. Does the change in excitation affect the speed or power factor of the synchronous motor?

3. What happens when (i)the excitation of a synchronous motor connected to an infinite bus is

varied, the load torque remaining constant?(ii).the excitation of a synchronous motor is

varied at constant load.

4. Write the expression for maximum power developed by Salient and non-salient pole

synchronous motor.

5.What is a synchronous capacitor?

6.Draw the phasor diagram of a synchronous motor for leading, lagging and unity pf load

7.How will you reverse the direction of rotation of synchronous motor?

8. What is meant by hunting in (i) Synchronous motor ? (ii)Alternator.

9. Describe with neat sketches, the construction, principle of operation a 3 phase SM.

10.What could be the reasons if a 3 phase synchronous motor fails to start?

11.Why a 3 phase synchronous motor will always run at synchronous speed?

12. List any two merits ,demerits and applications of Synchronous motor.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 62

14. Describe briefly the effect of varying excitation upon the armature current and power factor

of a 3 phase synchronous motor when the input power to the motor is maintained constant.

15.Draw Vand inverted V curves of a synchronous motor. What happens when (i)the

excitation of a synchronous motor connected to an infinite bus is varied, the load torque

remaining constant?(ii).the excitation of a synchronous motor is varied at constant load.

16.Explain the experimental method of determining V and inverted V curves.

20.Draw the equivalent circuit of a synchronous motor.

21.Derive the expression for the power developed by a synchronous motor, interms of the load

angle. What is the condition for maximum power developed?

22.A 75kW,400V,3,star connected synchronous motor has resistance and synchronous

reactance per phase of 0.04 and 0.4 respectively. Compute for full load ,0.8power factor

leading, the open circuit emf per phase and gross mechanical power developed Assume

efficiency as 92.5%. [E=226.1V,Pm =78.2kW]

23.Explain how a synchronous motor can be operated as synchronous condenser? Explain how it

can be used for power factor improvement?

24.A 500V,50Hz,3 load takes 20A at 0.8pf lagging. A Synchronous motor is used to improve

the power factor to unity. Calculate the kVAR input to the motor and its power factor when

driving a mechanical load of 7.5kW.The motor has an efficiency of 85%. [kVARs=10.39.s=36.8

25.How is the speed of a synchronous motor varied?

26.Why a 3 phase synchronous motor will always run at synchronous speed?

27.In what operating condition, is a synchronous motor referred to as synchronous condenser.

28. A 2.3 KV, 3 Phase star connected synchronous motor has Zs = (0.2+j 2.2) ohms per phase.

The motor is operating at 0.5 power factor leading with a line current of 200 Ampere.

Determine the generated emf per phase.

29.. A 3 phase, star connected synchronous motor has a synchronous reactance of 4 ohms per

phase and is working on 1,100V bus bar. Calculate the power factor of this machine when

taking 90KW from the mains, the excitation being adjusted to a value corresponding to an

induced emf of 1,200V, Neglect armature resistance.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 63

K.L.N.College of Engineering.

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.

EE6504-ELECTRICAL MACHINES-II-[C305]

Assignment-I-.[Issue: 06.07.2015,Submission: 17.8.2015

CO

Questions

CO305.1

1 to 12

CO305.2

13 to 17

1. The stator of a 3-phase,16 pole alternator has 144slots and there are 4conductors per slot

connected in two layers and the conductors of each phase are connected in series.If the speed

of the alternator is 375 rpm, calculate the emf induced per phase. Resultant flux in the air gap

is 5 X 10-2 webers per pole sinusoidally distributed.Assume the coil span as 150 electrical.

[ =30, k p =0.966, =20,kd =0.96,Eph =988V]

2. A 3 phase ,8 pole,750 rpm, star connected alternator has 72 slots on the armature. Each slot

has 12 conductors and winding is short chorded by 2 slots.Find the induced emf between lines

, given the flux per pole is 0.06Wb.

[=20,=20,EL=2,998V]

3. A 3 phase, star connected alternator is rated at 1,600kVA,13,500V.The armature resistance

and reactance are 1.5 and 30 respectively per phase. Calculate the percentage regulation

for a load of 1,280kW at 0.8 leading power factor.

[IL=68.4A,Eo =6,860V,%R=-11.98%]

4. A 3 phase ,star connected ,5kVA,400V,50Hz, 4 pole, alternator has the following test data at

rated speed.

If(A)

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

5.0

6.0

8.0

Eph(V)

75

140

173

202

224

240

250

257

260

263

266

If(A)

1.0

2.0

3.0

RefJBG(229).Zs=38.88,IL=7.217A,Eo =463.88V,

SC line current

3.6

7.2

10.8

%R=100.81%,Eo =244.5V,%R=5.844%

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 64

Draw OC and SC characteristics and then determine unsaturated value of synchronous reactance per

phase in ohms in per unit.Also determine percentage regulation at rated load at 0.8pf lag and lead by

synchronous impedance method under saturated condtion.Draw relevant phasor diagram.

5. A 3.5MVA,Star Connected Alternator, rated at 4160V,at 50Hz has open circuit characteristics

given by the following data.

Field current in Amp

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

EMF in Volts

1620

3150

4160

4750

5130

5370

5550

5650

5750

A field current of 200Amp,is found necessary to circulate full load current on short circuit of the

alternator.Calculate by (i).Synchronous impedance method (ii).Ampere Turn method, the Voltage

regulation at 0.8pf lagging. Neglect resistance.Comment on the result obtained.

[IL=486A,Zs =5.64/ph,Eo=4600V,%R=91%,If1=150A,If2 =200A,Eo=3140V,%R=30.7%]

6. A 3 phase star connected salient pole synchronous generator is driven at a speed near

synchronous with the field circuit open, and the stator is supplied from a balanced 3 phase

supply. Voltmeter connected across the line gave minimum and maximum readings of

2,800and 2,820volts.The line current fluctuated between 360 and 275 amperes. Find the

direct and quadrature axis synchronous reactances per phase. [xd= 5.9,xq=4.5]

7. Two synchronous generators operate in parallel on a load impedance of Z ohms.Their emfs

are E1 amd E2 and their synchronous impedances are Z1and Z2.Deduce the terminal voltage in

terms of these emfs and admittances.Y,Y1,Y2.Determine the terminal voltage and kW output

of each machine if,E1=100V, E2=110V, Z=(3+j4) and Z1=Z2=(0.2+j1).

[JBG336.V=(96-j3.87),I1=5.457A,I2=14.24A,kW1=442W,kW2=664.8W]

8. A 3MVA ,6pole,alternator runs at 1,000rpm,on 3.3kV,busbars.The synchronous reactance is

25%.Calculate the synchronising power and toque per mechanical degree of displacement

when the alternator is supplying full-load at 0.8 pf lag.

[JBG 336,IL=525A,IXs=476.25V,E=2,224V,Psy=502.6kW,Tsy=6,400Nm.]

9. A 10MVA,5kV,3phase,4pole,50Hz,alternator is connected to infinite bus bars.The short

circuit current is 3.5times the normal current full load current and the moment of inertia of the

rotating systems is 21,00kg-m2.Determine its normal period of oscillation.[JBG

352,T=1.365Seconds]

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 65

10. From the following test results, determine the voltage regulation of a2000V,1 phase alternator

delivering a current of 100A,at (i).unity pf.(ii).0.8 lead pf (iii).0.71 lagging pf.

Test results: Full load current of 100A is produced on short-circuit by a field excitation of 2.5A.

An emf of 500V is produced on open circuit by the same excitation. The armature resistance is 0.8.

(7%,-9%,21.6%1433BLT).

11. Two AC generators running in parallel supply a lighting load of 2,000KW and a motor load of

4,000KW at 0.8 pf lagging. One machine is loaded to 2,400KW at 0.95 lagging. What is the

output power factor of the second machine?[Ref:JBG,pp340,Ex6.7]

[3,600KW,0.8521lag]

12. Two identical 2MVA alternators operate in parallel. The governor of first machine is such

that the frequency drops uniformly from 50Hz on no load to 47.5Hz on full load. The

corresponding uniform speed drop of the second machine is 50Hz to 48Hz.How will they

share a load of 3MW.

[P1=1.333MW,P2=1.667MW ,JBG:343,344]

13. A 75kW,400V,3,star connected synchronous motor has resistance and synchronous

reactance per phase of 0.04 and 0.4 respectively. Compute for full load ,0.8power factor

leading, the open circuit emf per phase and gross mechanical power developed Assume

efficiency as 92.5%.

[E=226.1V,Pm =78.512kW]

14.A 500V,50Hz,3 load takes 20A at 0.8pf lagging.A Synchronous motor is used to improve the

power factor to unity.Calculate the kVAR input to the motor and its power factor when driving a

mechanical load of 7.5kW.The motor has an efficiency of 85%.

[kVARs=10.39.s=36.8]

15.A 3,star connected synchronous motor has a synchronous reactanc of 4per phase and is

working on 1,100V,bus bar.Calculate the power factor of this machine when taking 90kW fom the

mains , the excitation being adjusted to a value corresponding to an induced emf of 1,200V.Neglect

armature resistance.

[Er =191.56V,IL=47.88A,Cos =0.98]

16.A 2,000V,3,4pole Y connected synchronous motor runs at 1,500rpm.The excitation is constant

and corresponds to an open circuit voltage of 2,000V.The resistance is negligible as compared to

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 66

synchronous reactance of 3 per phase. Determine the power input, power factor and torque

developed for an armature current of 200A.

[cos=0.966,Pin=669kW,T=4,259Nm.]

17.A 3,150kW,2,300V,50Hz,1,000rpm,salient pole synchronous motor has Xd =32/phase and

Xq=20/phase.Neglecting losses, calculate the torque developed by the motor if field excitation is so

adjusted as to make the back emf twice the applied voltage and torque angle =16.

[BLT1505,Pm=1,17,425W,Tg=1120Nm]

[BOYS-Roll No.end with odd No&0:1,3,8,9,14], [BOYS-Roll No.end with Even No:2,4,7,12,15],

[GIRLS-Roll No.end with odd No&0:1,5,6,10,11], [GIRLS-Roll No.end with Even

No:2,4,7,,13,15]

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 67

3.1.Introduction

The three-phase induction motors are the most widely used electric motors in industry. They run at

essentially constant speed from no-load to full-load. However, the speed is frequency dependent and these

motors are not easily adapted to speed control. We usually prefer d.c. motors when large speed variations

are required. The 3-phase induction motors are simple, rugged, low-priced, easy to maintain and can be

manufactured with characteristics to suit most industrial requirements.

3.2. Three-Phase Induction Motor

Like any electric motor, a 3-phase induction motor has a stator and a rotor. The stator carries a 3-phase

winding (called stator winding) while the rotor carries a short-circuited winding (called rotor winding). Only

the stator winding is fed from 3-phase supply. The rotor winding derives its voltage and power from the

externally energized stator winding through electromagnetic induction and hence the name. The induction

motor may be considered to be a transformer with a rotating secondary and it can, therefore, be described as a

transformertype a.c. machine in which electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy.

3.3.Advantages

(i) It has simple and rugged construction.(ii) It is relatively cheap.(iii)

It requires little maintenance.(iv) It has high efficiency and

reasonably good power factor.

(v) It has self starting torque.

Disadvantages

(i) It is essentially a constant speed motor and its speed cannot be

changed easily.

(ii) Its starting torque is inferior to d.c. shunt motor.

3.4. Construction

A 3-phase induction motor has two main parts (i) stator and (ii) rotor.

The rotor is separated from the stator by a small air-gap which

ranges from 0.4 mm to 4 mm, depending on the power of the motor.

1. Stator

It consists of a steel frame which encloses a

hollow, cylindrical core made up of thin

laminations of silicon steel to reduce hysteresis and eddy current

losses. A number of evenly spaced slots are provided on the inner

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 68

periphery of the laminations . The insulated connected to form a balanced 3-phase star or delta connected

circuit. The 3-phase stator winding is wound for a definite number of poles as per requirement of speed.

Greater the number of poles, lesser is the speed of the motor and vice-versa.

When 3-phase supply is given to the stator winding, a rotating magnetic field of constant magnitude

is produced. This rotating field induces currents in the rotor by electromagnetic induction.

2. Rotor

The rotor, mounted on a shaft, is a hollow laminated core having slots on its outer periphery. The

winding placed in these slots (called rotor winding) may be one of the following two types:

(i) Squirrel cage type (ii) Wound type

(i) Squirrel cage rotor. It consists of a laminated cylindrical core having parallel slots on its outer

periphery. One copper or aluminum bar is placed in each slot. All these bars are joined at each end by

metal rings called end rings . This forms a permanently short-circuited winding which is

indestructible. The entire construction (bars and end rings) resembles a squirrel cage and hence the

name. The rotor is not connected electrically to the supply but has current induced in it by

transformer action from the stator.

Those induction motors which employ squirrel cage rotor are called squirrel cage induction motors.

Most of 3-phase induction motors use squirrel cage rotor as it has a remarkably simple and robust

construction enabling it to operate in the most adverse circumstances. However, it

suffers from the disadvantage of a low starting torque. It is because the rotor bars are permanently

short-circuited and it is not possible to add any external resistance to the rotor circuit to have a large

starting torque.

(ii) Wound rotor. It consists of a

laminated cylindrical core and carries

a 3- phase winding, similar to the one

on the stator . The rotor winding is

uniformly distributed in the slots and

is usually star-connected. The open

ends of the rotor winding are brought

out and joined to three

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 69

insulated slip rings mounted on the rotor shaft with one brush resting on each slip ring. The three

brushes are connected to a 3-phase star-connected rheostat as shown in Fig. At starting, the external

resistances are included in the rotor circuit to give a large starting torque. These

resistances are gradually reduced to zero as the motor runs up to speed.

3.5. Rotating Magnetic Field Due to 3-Phase Currents

When a 3-phase winding is energized from a 3-phase supply, a rotating magnetic field is produced. This field

is such that its poles do no remain in a fixed position on the stator but go on shifting their positions around the

stator. For this reason, it is called a rotating field. It can be shown that magnitude of

this rotating field is constant and is equal to 1.5

where

is the maximum

To see how rotating field is produced, consider a 2-pole,

3phase winding as shown in Fig.(i). The three phases X, Y and Z are

energized from a 3-phase source and currents in these phases are indicated as

Ix, Iy and Iz [See Fig. (ii). Referring to Fig. (ii), the fluxes

produced by these currents are given by:

x=

Here

mSint

m

y=

mSin(t-120)

z=

mSin(t-240)

is the maximum flux due to any phase. Fig. shows the phasor diagram of the three fluxes. We shall

now prove that this 3-phase supply produces a rotating field of constant magnitude equal to 1.5

m.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 70

zero and currents in phases Y and Z are equal and opposite. The

currents are flowing outward in the top conductors and inward in the

bottom conductors. This establishes a resultant flux towards right. The

magnitude of the resultant flux is constant and is equal to 1.5

as

proved under:

At instant 1, t = 0. Therefore, the three fluxes are given by;

x=

y=

mSin(-120)

and

=-3/2;

z=

m cos(60/2)=

2 x 3/2

mSin(-240)=3/2

. It is clear that:

m

x 3/2=1.5

0.5 maximum (positive) in phases X and Z. The

magnitude of resultant flux is 1.5

as proved under:

x=

mSin30= m/2;

Phasor sum of

y=

x,

mSin(-90)

and

and z, r=2 x

y,

=- m;

z=

mSin(-210)= m

m/2

Cos 120/2=

m/2

m=1.5

/2

m/2

m.

(iii) At instant 3, current in phase Z is zero and the currents in phases

X and Y are equal and opposite (currents in phases X and Y arc 0.866

max. value). The magnitude of resultant flux is 1.5

as proved

under:

At instant 3, wt = 60. Therefore, the three fluxes are given by;

x=

mSin60= m 3/2;

z=

mSin(-180)=0.

r

=2x

x,

y=

mSin(-60)

z=0)

=-

m 3/2;

(iv) At instant 4, the current in phase X is maximum (positive) and the currents in phases Y and Z are equal

and negative (currents in phases V and Z are 0.5 max. value). This establishes a resultant flux downward as

shown under:

At instant 4, wt = 90. Therefore, the threefluxes are given by;

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 71

x=

mSin=90= m ;

Phasor sum of -

y=

x,

and -

mSin(-30)

and -

y,

x,

m /2;

z=

mSin(-150)=- m /2.

r =2

r= m /2

=-

m /2

x cos120/2=

m /2

m =1.5 m

Note that the resultant flux is downward i.e., it is displaced 90 clockwise from position 1

It follows from the above discussion that a 3-phase supply produces a rotating field of constant value (= 1.5

m,

The speed at which the rotating magnetic field revolves is called the synchronous speed (Ns). It is

given by, Ns=120f/p; Ns=Synchronous speed in rpm,f=supply frequency in Hz, p=No.of poles.

3.7.Direction of rotating magnetic field

The phase sequence of the three-phase voltage applied to the stator winding is R-Y-B. If this

sequence is changed to R-B-Y, it is observed that direction of rotation of the field is reversed i.e., the

field rotates counterclockwise rather than clockwise. However, the number of poles and the

speed at which the magnetic field rotates remain unchanged. Thus it is necessary only to change the

phase sequence in order to change the direction of rotation of the magnetic field. For a three-phase

supply, this can be done by interchanging any two of the three lines. As we shall see, the rotor in a 3phase induction motor runs in the same direction as the rotating magnetic field. Therefore, the

direction of rotation of a 3-phase induction motor can be reversed by

interchanging any two of the three motor supply lines.

3.8. Principle of Operation

Consider a portion of 3-phase induction motor as shown in Fig. The

operation of the motor can be explained as under:

(i) When 3-phase stator winding is energized

from a 3-phase supply, a

rotating magnetic field is set up which rotates

round the stator at synchronous speed Ns (=

120 f/P).

(ii) The rotating field passes through the air

gap and cuts the rotor conductors, which as

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 72

yet, are stationary. Due to the relative speed between the rotating flux and the stationary rotor, e.m.f.s

are induced in the rotor conductors. Since the rotor circuit is short-circuited, currents start flowing in

the rotor conductors.

(iii) The current-carrying rotor conductors are placed in the magnetic field produced by the stator.

Consequently, mechanical force acts on the rotor conductors. The sum of the mechanical forces on all

the rotor conductors produces a torque which tends to move the rotor in the same direction as the

rotating field.

(iv) The fact that rotor is urged to follow the stator field (i.e., rotor moves in the direction of stator

field) can be explained by Lenzs law. According to this law, the direction of rotor currents will be

such that they tend to oppose the cause producing them. Now, the cause producing the rotor currents

is the relative speed between the rotating field and the stationary rotor conductors. Hence to reduce

this relative speed, the rotor starts running in the same direction as that of stator field and tries to

catch it.

3.9. Slip

The difference between the synchronous speed Ns of the rotating stator field and the actual rotor

speed N is called slip. It is usually expressed as a percentage of synchronous speed i.e.,

%S=(Ns-N)/Ns x 100;Ns=120f/p;N=speed of the rotor or motor, in rpm. Also.N=Ns(1-s)

Note:(i) The quantity Ns - N is sometimes called slip speed.

(ii) When the rotor is stationary (i.e., N = 0), slip, s = 1 or 100 %.

(iii) In an induction motor, the change in slip from no-load to full-load is hardly 0.1% to 3% so that it

is essentially a constant-speed motor.

3.10. Rotor Current Frequency

When the rotor is stationary, the frequency of rotor current is the same as supply frequency. When the

rotor started revolving, then the frequency depends on the relative speed between stator and rotor flux

given by,

f=relative speed in rpm /(120/p)f=(Ns-N)/ (120/p); but S=(Ns-N)/Ns(Ns-N)=SNs

Also,SNs=S(120f/p)= (Ns-N);f=s(120f/p)/(120/p);f=sf---------(1).

T 3.1.A six pole induction motor is fed from 50Hz supply. If the frequency of the rotor emf at full

load is 2Hz,find the full load speed and slip.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 73

Data:p=6,3 IM,f=50Hz,f=2Hz.Find s.

Sol:f=sf2=s x50s=4%;N=Ns(1-s);Ns=120f/p=120 x 50/6=1000rpm;N=1000(1-0.04)=960.

T 3.2.A 3 IM,has 2 poles and is connected to 400V, 50Hz supply. Calculate the actual rotor speed

and rotor frequency when the slip is 4%.

Data: 3 IM,p=2,VL=400V,f=50Hz,s=4%=0.04.Find N,f.

Sol:N=Ns(1-s);Ns=120f/p=120x 50/2=3000rpm.;N=3000(1-.0.04)=2880rpm.f=sf=0.04x50=2Hz.

3.11.Rotor emf(E2).

When the rotor is at stand still,the motor is equivalent to a 3 transformer with short circuite

secondary,So, induced emf per phase in the rotor E2, when it is at stand still ie at the instant of

starting is given by,E2=(N2/N2)x E1.Where E1=Supply voltage per phase.,N1,N2= turns per phase in

stator and rotor.

3.12.Rotor current and Pf:

(a).At standstill:

I2=E2/Z2=E2/(R2

+X22).

(2a)

T.3.3.In a 6pole,3 ,50Hz motor with star connected rotor, the rotor resistance per phase is 0.3, the

reactance at standstill is 1.5 per phase and emf between the slip rings on open circuit is

175V.Calculate the slip at a speed of 950rpm and rotor emf per phase, rotor frequency and reactance

at a speed of 950rpm.

Data:3 IM,p=6,f=50Hz,R2=0.3,X2=1.5.E2=175V(line).N=950rpm.Find,s,E2,f.

Sol:S=(Ns-N)/Ns;Ns=120f/p=1000rpm,s=5%;E2=E2(line)/3=101V;f=sf=2.5Hz,X2=sX2=0.075.

3.13.Rotor torque.

It depends on (i).rotor current I2 (ii).Stator flux ( E2).(iii).Power factor of rotor circuit.

T E2I2cos

------(3a)

We have, T E2I2cos

(1).

T E2I2cos

Tr = ksR2E22/[R2 2 +(sX2) 2] ---(3b)

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 74

At the start, the rotor is stationary,ie N=0; s=1.Tst is obtained by putting s =1 in (3b).

Tst = kR2E22/[R2 2 +(X2) 2] ---(3b).

3.16.Condition for maximum torque of induction motor under running.

We have, Tr = ksR2E22/[R2 2 +(sX2) 2] = Tr = ksR2E22/[R2 2 +s2 X2 2]

For Tmax(running),dTr/ds =0;d/ds[ksR2E22/[R2 2 +s2 X2 2] =0;

[R2 2 +s2 X2 2][ kR2E22] [[ksR2E22][2sX22]

=0 .

[R2 2 +s2 X2 2][ kR2E22] [ksR2E22][2sX22] =0[R2 2 +s2 X2 2][ kR2E22]= [ksR2E22][2sX22]

R2 =sX2. ----(3c);Slip corresponding to maximum torque is s=R2/X2.---(3d)

Now, Tr = ksR2E22/[R2 2 +(sX2) 2]; for Tmax, R2 =sX2; Tmax(running)= ks(sX2)E22/[(sX2) 2 +(sX2) 2]

Tmax(running)= kE22/2X2.---(4a) Tmax(running)E22/X2.

It is evident from the above equations that:

(i) The value of rotor resistance does not alter the value of the maximum torque but only the

value of the slip at which it occurs.

(ii) The maximum torque varies inversely as the standstill reactance. Therefore, it should be kept

as small as possible.

(iii) The maximum torque varies directly with the square of the applied voltage.

(iv) To obtain maximum torque at starting (s = 1), the rotor resistance must be made equal to

rotor reactance at standstill.

3.17.Condition for maximum starting Torque .

We have, Tst =KR2E22/[R22+X22]=KR2/[R22+X22] [Differentiatew.r.t R2, and equate to zero, we get

R2=X2] or at start, s=1.Sub in (3c),

Condition for maximum starting torque,R2 =X2----(4b).

3.18.Effect of change in supply Voltage.

Tst =KR2E22/[R22+X22];At standstill ,E2 V; TV2.

Therefore, the starting torque is very sensitive to changes in the value of supply voltage. For example,

a drop of 10% in supply voltage will decrease the starting torque by about 20%. This could mean the

motor failing to start if it cannot produce a torque greater than the load torque plus friction torque.

3.19. Torque-Slip Characteristics

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 75

Tr = ksR2E22/[R2 2 +(sX2) 2] = Tr = K2sR2/[R2 2 +s2 X2 2]

If a curve is drawn between the torque and slip for a particular value of rotor resistance R2, the graph

thus obtained is called torque-slip characteristic. Fig. shows a family of torque-slip characteristics for

a slip-range from s = 0 to s = 1 for various values of rotor resistance.The following points may be

noted.

(i) At s = 0, T = 0 so that torque-slip curve starts from the origin.

(ii) At normal speed, slip is small so

that s X2 is negligible as compared to

R2. TsR2 s.

Hence torque slip curve is a straight line

from zero slip to a slip that corresponds

to full-load.

(iii) As slip increases beyond full-load

slip, the torque increases and becomes

maximum at s = R2/X2. This maximum torque in an induction motor is called pull-out torque or

break-down torque. Its value is at least twice the full-load value when the motor is operated at rated

voltage and frequency.

(iv)With further increase in slip or drop in speed due to increase in speed, due to increase in load,

beyond the point of Tmax, the torque decreases, and motor slows down.i.e ,T1/s.

Thus the torque is now inversely proportional to slip. Hence torque-slip curve is a rectangular

hyperbola.

(v) The maximum torque remains the same and is independent of the value of rotor resistance.

Therefore, the addition of resistance to the rotor circuit does not change the value of

maximum torque but it only changes the value of slip at which maximum torque occurs.

3.20.Effect of rotor resistance on Torque Slip characteristics.

Tr = KsR2/[R2 2 +s2 X2 2];For low value of R2,(sX2)2>>R22;& hence R22 is neglected.

TrsR22E22/(sX2)2;

TR2.

For low value of R2, torque is directly proportional to the rotor resistance R2.

For high value of R2,(sX2)2<<R22;& hence (sX2 )2 is neglected.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 76

TrsR22E22/R22;

T1/R2.

3.20.Relation between Maximum and Full load torque.(Tf/Tmax).

W. k.t, Tr = KsR2E22 /[R2 2 +s2 X2 2];Tf=full load torque;sf=full load slip.

Tf= Ksf R2E22/[R2 2 +s2 X2 2];Also,Tmax=KE22/2X2 ;Tf/Tmax=2sfR2X2/[R2 2 +s2 X2 2]

Divide both Dr &Nr by X22; Tf/Tmax=2sf (R2 /X2 )/[(R2 2/X2 2 )+sf 2].

Let,a=R2/X2;

Tst R2/[R2 2 +X2 2];Tmax 1/2X2 ;

Let,a=R2/X2;

Tf/Tmax=2a /[a2+1].

T.3.4.A 6 pole,50Hz,3 ,slip ring induction motor has a resistance and reactance of 0.5 and 5 per

phase respectively. Calculate (i).at what speed the torque is maximum?(ii).The ratio of maximum to

starting torque.(iii).What must be external resistance per to be added so that the starting torque is half

the maximum torque.

Data:3 ,Y connected IM,p=6,f=50Hz,R2=0.5,X2=5.To find(i).N for Tmax(running) .(ii)Tmax/Tst

(iii).r for Tst=0.5Tmax.

Sol:(i). For Tmax(running),R2=sX2s=R2/X2=0.5/5=0.1;N=Ns(1-s);Ns=120f/p=1000rpm;N=900rpm

(ii).Tst/Tmax=2a/1+a2;a= R2/X2=0.1; Tmax/Tst=5.05.

(iii). Tst =0.5Tmax.; Tst /Tmax=0.5=2a/1+a20.5a2-2a+0.5=0;a=3.72.

(R2 +r )/X2= 3.72

r=18.

T 3.5.A 746kW,3 ,50Hz,16 pole IM has a rotor impedance of (0.2+j1.5) at standstill.Full load

torque is obtained at 360rpm.Calculate (i).Ratio of maximum to full load torque.

(ii).speed for maximum torque.(iii).Rotor resistance to be added to get maximum starting torque.

Data: 3 ,IM,p=16,f=50Hz,R2=0.2,X2=0.15,Po=726kW,N=360rpm.

To find (i).Tmax/Tf (ii).N for Tmax (iii).r for Tmax(st)

Sol: (i).Tmax/Tf:Tf/Tmax=2asf /[a2+sf 2];sf=(Ns-N)/Ns ;Ns=120f/p=375rpm;sf=0.04;a=R2/X2=0.133.

Tf/Tmax=0.55; Tmax/Tf =1.82.

(ii). N for Tmax;For Tmax(run),R2=sX2;s=R2/X2=0.133;N=Ns(1-s)=331rpm.

(iii). r for Tmax(st): for Tmax(st),R2=X2(without external resistance);

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 77

3.22. Power Stages in an Induction Motor

The input electric power fed to the stator of the motor is converted into mechanical power at the shaft

of the motor. The various losses during the energy conversion are:

1. Fixed losses:(i) Stator iron loss.(ii) Friction and windage loss

The rotor iron loss is negligible because the frequency of rotor currents under normal running

condition is small.

2. Variable losses:(i) Stator copper loss(ii) Rotor copper loss

Fig. shows how electric power fed to the stator of an induction motor suffers losses and finally

converted into mechanical power. The following points may be noted from the diagram:

(i) Stator input, Pi = Stator output + Stator losses = Stator o/p + Stator Iron loss + Stator Cu loss

(ii) Rotor input, P2= Stator output .It is because stator output is entirely transferred to the rotor

through airgap by electromagnetic induction.

(iii) Mechanical power available, Pmech = P2 -

This mechanical power available is the gross rotor output and will produce a gross torque Tg.

(iv) Mechanical power at shaft, Pout = Pm Mechanical power available at the shaft produces a shaft torque Tsh.

Clearly, Pm -

Stator input

2

&

Iron loss

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Rotor

Cu loss

Rotor O/P

(Pmech)

O/P (Pg)

Page 78

= Output Power/[Output Power +Stator cu loss+Stator iron loss +Rotor cu loss+FW loss].

=Pmech/[Pmech+ Stator cu loss+Rotor cu loss+constant loss].

(i).Rotor output of IM:

Input to rotor,P2=2NsT/60-Watts -(a).Mechanical power developed in rotor,Pmech=2NT/60-W.

Rotor Cu loss=P2-Pmech.= 2NsT/60 -2NT/60 =2T(Ns N)/60=2TSNs /60=SP2.

Rotor Cu loss= SP2.=slip X Rotor input.

Now,Pmech=Rotor input-Rotor cu loss.=P2-SP2=P2(1-S).

Now, Rotor Cu loss= SP2; Pmech= P2(1-S)

Pmech= P2(1-S).

Also,Power input to rotor: Mechanical power developed: rotor cu loss=1:(1-s):s.

3.23.Synchronous Watts.

It is defined as the torque which develops a power of 1W at the synchronous speed of motor.

When we say that the motor is developing a torque of 100Watts, we mean that the rotor input is

100Watts and that torque is such that power developed would be 100Watts.the above is true, provided

the rotor is running synchronously and developing same torque.

Rotor input =2NsTsy/60Tsy=Rotor input/(2Ns/60).----Synchronous Watts.

T3.6.The power input to rotor of a 440V,50Hz,3 , 6pole IM is 60kW.It is observed that the rotor emf

make 90 complete cycles per minute. Calculate (i).slip (ii).The rotor speed (iii).rotor Cu loss.

(iv).mechanical power developed.

Data:3 IM,VL=440V,f=50Hz,p=6,P2=60kW,f=90cycles/minute=90cycles/60second=1.5Hz.

To find:(i).s.(ii).N.(iii).Pcu(rotor).(iv).Pmech.

Solution.(i).f=sf s=f/f=1.5/50=0.03.

(ii).N=Ns(1-s);Ns=120f/p=120x50/6=1000rpm. N=1000(1-0.03)=970rpm.

(iii).Rotor cu loss=sP2=0.03 x 60kW=1800Watts.

(iv).Pmech=P2(1-s)=60kW(1-0.03)=58.2kW.

EX.3.7.A 3 , 6 pole,50Hz,IM develops 3700W at 950rpm.What is the stator input if the stator loss is

300W.

Data:3 IM, p=6,f=50Hz,N=950rpm,Pmech=3700W, stator loss is 300W.To find Stator input.

Sol: Refer power stages in IM:

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 79

WKT, Rotor cu loss/Pmech =s/(1-s).;s=(Ns N)/Ns;Ns=120f/p=120x50/6=1000rpm.

s=(1000-950)/1000=0.05; Rotor Cu loss=Pmech[s/(1-s)]=3700[0.05/(1-0.05)]=194Watts.

Rotor cu loss=sP2P2=Rotor cu loss/s=194/0.05=3894Watts.

Stator input=P2+stator loss=3894+300=4194W.

=Pmech/(Pmech+Pcu+Pconstant)=3700/(3700+194+300) x100 =88%.

Ex.3.8.The power input to a 500V, 50Hz,6 pole 3 , squirrel cage IM running at 975rpm is 40kW.The

stator losses are 1kW and the friction and windage losses are 2kW.Calculate (i).slip (ii).rotor cu loss

(iii).efficiency (iv).BHP.

Data:3 SCIM,VL=500V,f=50Hz,p=6,N=975rpm,stator input=40kW,Stator loss=1kW,

FW loss=2kW.Find (i).s (ii)rotor cu loss (iii). (iv).BHP.

(i)s=(Ns-N)/Ns;Ns=120f/p=1000rpm;s=0.025.

(ii).P2=stator input-stator loss=40kW-1kW=39kW.;Pcu=sP2=975W.;Pconstant=PFW+Pstator=3kW.

(iii).=Pmech/(Pmech+Pcu+Pconstant);Pmech=P2(1-s)=38.025kW. =38/(38+0.975+3)=90%.

(iv).BHP=Pmech/746=38,025/746=50HP.

3.23.Equivalent circuit of 3 Induction motor.[R2/s=R2 +R2/s R2=R2+R2(1/s-1)=R2 +RL]

In 3 IM, the energy is transferred from primary winding to secondary winding by induction

. Induction motor is essentially a transformer(Rotating transformer).

In the transformer the load on secondary is electrical and in induction motor the load is

mechanical which can be replaced by an equivalent electrical load of resistance RL, given by

RL =R2[(1/s)-1]; R2 =R2/K2;K=V2/V1.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 80

We shall now see how mechanical load of the motor is replaced by the equivalent electrical load. Fig.

(i) shows the equivalent circuit per phase of the rotor at slip s. The rotor phase current is given by;

I2=sE2/Z2= sE2/[R22 +(sX2)2]= E2/[(R2 /s)2 +X22].

As shown in Fig. (ii), we now have a rotor circuit that has a fixed reactance X2 connected in series

with a variable resistance R2/s and supplied with constant voltage E2. Note that Fig. (ii) transfers the

variable to the resistance without altering power or power factor conditions.

The

quantity R2/s is greater than R2 since s is a fraction. Therefore, R2/s can be

divided into a fixed part R2 and a variable part (R2/s R2) i.e.,

R2/s= R2 + R2 [(1/s)-1].

(i) The first part R2 is the rotor resistance/phase, and represents the rotor Cu loss.

(ii) The second part R2 [(1/s)-1] is a variable-resistance load. The power delivered to this load

represents the total mechanical power developed in the rotor. Thus mechanical load on the induction

motor can be replaced by a variable-resistance load of value

R2 [(1/s)-1]. RL = R2 [(1/s)-1].

The equivalent circuit, referred to primary is drawn as

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 81

3.24.Maximum power output,Pg(max).

Referring to the equivalent circuit of IM, RL= R2 [(1/s)-1] ; R2 =R2/K2.

Gross mechanical power output,Pg =3I12RL;

The condition for maximum power output can be obtained by differentiating the above equation and

equating the first derivative to zero.

The result is RL=[(R01) 2+(X01)2=Z01.

Sub. RL =Z01, in Pg, we get, Pg(max) =3V2 Z01 /[(R01+ Z01)2 +(X01)2].

= 3V2 Z01/[(R01)2+(X01)2+(Z01)2+2 R01Z01]= 3V2 Z01/[(Z01)2+(Z01)2+2 R01Z01].

=3V2 Z01/[2(Z01)2+2 R01Z01]= 3V2 Z01/2(Z01)[ R01 + Z01]= 3V2/2[ R01 + Z01].

Pg(max)= 3V2/2[ R01 + Z01].

The slip corresponding to maximum gross mechanical power output will be

Z01= RL= R2 [(1/s)-1] ; R2 =R2/K2;

s= R2/[ R2+Z01].

Note:

I1=I0+I1;

I1 =I2.

I0=Vph/Z0;Z0=(R02+X02).

I1=Vph/(R01+RL)+jX01.

R01=R1+R2;RL=R2 [(1/s)-1]

X01=X1+X2;X2=X2/K2.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 82

3.9.Estimate the stator current ,pf and efficiency at slip of 5% for a motor having the following data.

Stator impedance =(1+j3). Rotor standstill impedance=(1+j2). No load shunt

impedance=(10+j50). Voltage per phase=250V.

Data:s=0.05,R1=1,X1=3,R2=1,X2=2,R0=10,X0=50.V1(ph)=250V.let, k=1,V1(ph)=250V.

To find:(i).I1.(ii)cos (iii)..

Sol:

I1=I0+I1;

I1 =I2.

I0=V1ph/Z0;Z0=(R0+jX0).

I0=V1ph/Z0=0.96-j4.8=4.9at( -78).

I1=V1/(R01+RL)+jX01.

R01=R1+R2;R2=R2/k2 =1,R01=2;RL=R2 [(1/s)-1]=19;X01=X1+X2 ; X2=X2/K2 ;X01= 5.

I1=11.26-j2.68=11.58 at (-13.4). I1= I0+I1=12.221-j7.488=14.33 at (-31.5).

(ii)Pf=cos =cos(-31.5)=0.853.

(iii)=Pmech/Pin;Pmech=3 (I1 )2RL=3 x 11.58 x 19 =7643W.;Pin=3VI1cos =9167W. =83%

3.10.A 25HP, 6 pole,50Hz induction motor has stator/rotor phase voltage ratio of 6/5.The stator

&rotor impedance per phase are (0.25+j0.75) and (0.173+j0.5) respectively. Find the starting

torque developed by the motor when external resistance of 1 inserted in each phase. The motor

being started directly on the 400V supply system. Assume Y-Y connection.

Data:Po=25HP,p=6,f=50Hz,3 Y-Y IM,E1/E2=5/6E2/E1 =k=5/6, R1=0.25, X1=0.75,

R2=0.173,X2=0.5.r=1,V1(line)=400V.To find:Tst.

Sol:P2=2NsTst/60;Pcu=sP2; for standstill condition,s=1, Pcu=P2; Pcu=3I22R2;I2=E2(ph)/Z02.

Z02=[(R02+r)2+X022];R02=R2+R1;R2=R1=k2 R1. X02=X2+X1;X2=X1=k2 X1.

Now, Pcu=3I22R2;I2=E2(ph)/Z02;E2/E1=k=5/6 E2(ph)=E1(5/6)=400/3 (5/6)=192V.

Z02=[(R02+r)2+X022];R02=R2+R1;R1=k2 R1

R02=0.35.X02=1.04,Z02=1.7.

3.25.Induction motor tests.

The tests which are performed

on a 3 IM for the determination of

its efficiency and other

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 83

characteristics are (i).Stator resistance test (ii). No load test (iii). Blocked rotor test.

(i).Stator resistance test: The stator winding resistance is measured between any two terminals using

dc supply. This gives resistance of 2 phases in series, this must be divided by 2 to obtain stator

winding resistance per phase. Re=1.6Rdc.

(ii).No load test: It is performed with different values of voltages applied, below and above rated

voltage while the motor is running on no load.

This test is performed to determine Io,cos o, noload core loss ,R0,X0.The no load test readings

are V0,I0 and W0 measured from Voltmeter, Wattmeter and ammeter respectively.

W0=3V0I0cos cos

Also core loss component, Il=Iocos o;Magnetising component, Im=Iosin 0;I0=(Im2 +Il2).

I0=(Im2+Il2),R0=V0(ph)/Il;X0=V0(ph)/Im.

(iii).Blocked rotor test:

In this test the rotor is stopped from running and stator is connected across the supply.Rated

current is applied .The readings are Vsc,Isc,Wsc.

Wsc=3VscIsccos s cos

Wsc/3VscIsc;Wsc=3Isc2R01R01=Wsc/3Isc2;Z01=Vsc/Isc;X01=(Z012-R012).

3.11.A 400V,3 ,delta connected induction motor gave the following results on no load and short circuit (line

values).No load test:400V,3A,645W;Short circuit test :200V,12A,1660W.The friction and windage losses

amount to 183W.Determine energy and magnetizing components of no load current ,no load pf,no load

resistance and reactance per phase referred to primary, pf on short circuit and short circuit current with normal

voltage applied of 400V across the stator. Stator resistance may be assumed to be 5.

Isc=12A(line),Wsc=1660W,PFW=183W,VN=400V(line).To find:Il,Im,cos 0,R0,X0,cos s,Isc.

Sol:Note:For 3 , connection,VL=Vph,IL=3Iph. V0(ph)=400V, Vsc(ph)=200V,I 0(ph)=3/3,Isc(ph)=12/3.

From no load test,W0=Piron+Pcu(stator)+PFW Piron= W0 -Pcu(stator)-PFW.

Pcu(stator)=3I0(ph)2R1=45W; Piron=417W,PIron=3V0I0cos cos

Energy component,Il=I0(ph)cos

0 =0.346A;Magnetising

Piron/3V0I0 cos

R0=V0(ph)/Il =1156;X0=V0(ph)/Im=235.

Short circuit test:

Wsc=3VscIsccos s cos

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 84

Z01=Vsc(ph)/Isc(ph)=28.8.;X01=(Z012-R012)=26.5.

short circuit current with normal voltage applied of 400V across the stator,

ISN=(VN/Vsc)Isc=(400/200) x12=24A.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 85

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 86

For RLC series circuit,I=V/Z=V/(R2 +X2) =(V/X) [ (X/(R2 +X2)] ---(a).

WKT,cos =R/Z;sin =X/Z=(X/(R2 +X2)].---(b).

I=(V/X)sin ---(c).

It is equation of circle in polar co-ordinates with diameter =V/X. The equivalent circuit of induction

motor considered as a series circuit where R01=R1+R2 &X01=X1+X2.

Thus the operating characteristics of an induction motor can be computed by the use of a circle

diagram, easily and conveniently.

Construction of circle diagram:

Circle diagram of induction motor can be drawn by using data obtained from

(i).No load test [V0,Io,W0].(ii).Blocked rotor test[Vsc,Isc,Wsc] (iii).Stator resistance test[R1]. Note:

Before drawing the diagram ,select suitable scale corresponding to the current scale.

Step-1:No load test readings: Vo,Io,W0.Draw Io at an angle

where

0=cos

-1

0.[line

oo].

sc=cos

-1

sc,

where ISN=(VN/Vsc)Isc

sc.

sc

was

line.This line will intersect OX at the point C(centre of the circle).With C as centre and OC as

radius, draw a semicircle. Line OA=Output line;OO=No load input[core loss,FW&stator Cu

loss].AG is drawn perpendicular to OX, where AG=input power .

Step-3:EF is the line which separates the stator and rotor Cu loss. When rotor is blocked, all the

power supplied to the motor to be core loss and cu loss in the stator and rotor winding.

From the diagram, AG=Power input;FG=Fixed loss;AF=sum of Stator and rotor Cu loss.

The point E is located such that AE/EF=Rotor Cu loss/Stator Cu loss.

Location of the pointE:

(i).Squirrel cage rotor:

Wsc=stator cu loss +rotor cu loss=3Isc2R1+Rotor cu loss. Rotor cu loss= Wsc -3Isc2R1.

AE/EF=Rotor Cu loss/Stator Cu loss= [Wsc -3Isc2R1]/ 3Isc2R1.

Where R1=stator resistance per phase.Note:Usually ststor cu loss=Rotor Cu loss/2.

(ii).Slip ring IM:

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 87

AE/EF=Rotor Cu loss/Stator Cu loss=I22r2/ I12r1=(r2/r1)(I2/I1)2=(r2/r1)[1/k]2.

Where k is found out from SC test using 2 ammeters connected in the stator and rotor circuits.

Let us assume that the motor is running and taking a current I1 or OL. Then the perpendicular line

drawn from L is shown.

Motor input=LK;stator cu loss=NJ;rotor cu loss=MN;fixed loss=JK;total loss=MK;

rotor input =NL,;Mechanical output=ML;slip=Rotor cu loss/rotor input=MN/LN.

PF=LK/OL;=ML/NL.

3.12.A 3 ,400V,IM gave the following test readings. No load test:400V,1250W,9A.

SC test:150V,4KW,38A.Draw the circle diagram.If the normal rating is 14.9kW,find from the circle

diagram, the full load value of current, pf ,slip and efficiency.

Data:3 IM,VN=400V,V0=400V,I0=9A,W0=1250W,Vsc=150V,Isc=38A,Wsc=4000W,Po=14.9kW.

To find IL,pf,s,.

Sol:Fixing of current scale:ISN=(VN/Vsc)Isc=101A. Let us take 1cm=5A.

Step1:Draw Io at an angle cos o;cos o=Wo/3VoIo o=78. Io( o)=9A(78)=1.8cm(78)=line00.

Step2:Draw ISN at

s;

Join 0 and A by a dotted line .Draw perpendicular bisector line for 0A line.This line will intersect

0X at the point C(centre of the circle).With C as centre and 0C as radius, draw a

semicircle.Line 0A=Output line;.AG is drawn perpendicular to OX, where AG=input power .

Assume Stator cu loss=Rotor cu loss. Point E is located middle of the line AF.

To find power scale:Input power=PSN=3VoISNcos s=28554W.=AG=8.2cm1cm=3482Watts.

Corresponding to 14,9kW,the rated power output ,the length in cm is given by 14.9/3.48=4.3cm.

Line AG is extended at top such that AS=4.3cm.From the point S, draw a parallel line to OA, such

that it intersects the semi circle at the point L.Connect OL.Lentgh OL=Full laod current.

From the circle diagram,OL=4.8cm x5=24A;pf=angle OVL=LK/OL=0.866.

Slip,Rotor cu loss=sxrotor input.s=MN/NL=6%,=LM/LK=82.5%.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 88

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 89

3.13. Draw the circle diagram for a 5.6KW,400V,3phase,4pole,50Hz,slip ring IM from the following

secondary turns is 2.62,stator resistance per phase is 0.67 ohm and of the rotor is 0.185ohm.calculate

(i)full load current (ii).full load slip (iii)full load pf,(iv).maximum torque (v) maximum power.

Data:3 SRIM,VL=400V,p=4,f=50Hz,V0=400V,I0=6A,cos0=0.087,Vsc=100V,Isc=12A,

Wsc=720W, 1/k=2.62,R1=0.67,R2=0.185 ohm.To find:I,S,cos ,Tmax, Pmax.

Soln:cos 0=0.087

o=85,cossc=Wsc/3.Vsc.Isc

ISN=VN*Isc/Vsc =400*12/100=48A.let us take 1cm=3A.

1. Draw IO ,ISN at an angle of O and SNIO=6A85 = 2 cm85=OO

ISN = 48A69.73 = 16cm69.73=OA.

2. Draw a horizontal line parallel O parallel to X-axis.3. Join OA. This is output line.

4. Draw a perpendicular bisector of OA to meet horizontal of OX at point C.

5. Take C as center OC as radius Draw a semi circle.

6. Draw a vertical line from A which meets X-axis at G.

POWER SCALE

Psn = 3 Vsn * Isn * coss =3*400*48*0.346=11,506.36W;Length AG= 5.5 cm;

5.5cm = 11506.36W ; 1 cm = 2092W

To locate point E:

For slip ring Induction motor, (rotor cu loss/stator cu loss) = (r2/r1) * (1/k2)

But, (I2/I1) = (1/k),

5.3 cm= Rotor cu loss*1.526,Rotor cu loss= 5.3 / 1.526 = 3.47 cm

*Draw a line of length 3.47cm from the point A to locate point E and connect OE (torque line)

AS=rating of motor/power scale 5.6*103/2092.1,AS=2.7cm

*Line AG is extended such that AS=2.7cm.Draw parallel line to output line from S,to meet

semicircle at L. Then Draw a vertical line from L.

(i) Line current=L(01) X current scale=4.6cmX3=13.8A

(ii) Slip=MN/NL =0.2/36.3 X100 = 6.06%

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 90

(iv) cos = cos 37 =0.799

(v) Tmax =JS X Power scale =6.5cm x 2092.1 = 13598.65 synchronous watts

Draw a line parallel to torque line meet the circle at point J and draw a vertical

line from J to torque line at point S.

(vi)Pmax=5cmX2092.1 = 10460.5 watts

One of the advantages of the slip-ring motor is that resistance may be inserted in the rotor

circuit to obtain high starting torque (at low starting current) and then cut out to obtain optimum

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 91

running conditions. However, such a procedure cannot be adopted for a squirrel cage motor because

its cage is permanently short-circuited. In order to provide high starting torque at low starting current,

double-cage construction is used.

Construction

As the name suggests, the rotor of this motor has two squirrel-cage windings located one above the

other as shown in Fig.

(i) The outer winding consists of bars of smaller cross-section short-circuited by end rings.

Therefore, the resistance of this winding is high. Since the outer winding has relatively open slots and

a poorer flux path around its bars , it has a low inductance. Thus the resistance of

the outer squirrel-cage winding is high and its inductance is low.

(ii) The inner winding consists of bars of greater cross-section short-circuited by end rings.

Therefore, the resistance of this winding is low. Since the bars of the inner winding are thoroughly

buried in iron, it has a high inductance . Thus the resistance of the inner squirrel cage

winding is low and its inductance is high.

Working

When a rotating magnetic field sweeps across the two windings, equal e.m.f.s are induced in each.

(i) At starting, the rotor frequency is the same as that of the line (i.e., 50 Hz), making the reactance of

the lower winding much higher than that of the upper winding. Because of the high reactance of the

lower winding, nearly all the rotor current flows in the high-resistance outer cage winding. This

provides the good starting characteristics of a high-resistance cage winding.

Thus the outer winding gives high starting torque at low starting current.

(ii) As the motor accelerates, the rotor frequency decreases, thereby lowering the reactance of the

inner winding, allowing it to carry a larger proportion of the total rotor current At the normal

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 92

operating speed of the motor, the rotor frequency is so low (2 to 3 Hz) that nearly all the rotor current

flows in the low-resistance inner cage winding. This results in good operating efficiency and speed

regulation.

Fig. shows the operating characteristics of double squirrel-cage motor.

The starting torque of this motor ranges from 200 to 250 percent of full-load torque with a starting

current of 4 to 6 times the full-load value. It is classed as a high-torque, low starting current motor.

3.28. Equivalent Circuit of Double Squirrel-Cage Motor.

Fig. shows a section of the double squirrel cage motor.

Here Ro and Ri are the per phase resistances of the outer cage

winding and inner cage winding whereas Xo and Xi are the

corresponding per phase standstill reactances. For the outer

cage, the resistance is made intentionally high, giving a high

starting torque. For the inner cage winding, the resistance is

low and the leakage reactance is high, giving a low starting

torque but high efficiency on load. Note that in a double squirrel cage motor, the outer winding

produces the high starting and accelerating torque while the inner winding provides the running

torque at good efficiency.

Fig. shows the equivalent circuit for one phase of double cage motor referred to stator. The two cage

impedances are effectively in parallel. The resistances and reactances of the outer and inner rotors are

referred to the stator. The exciting circuit is accounted for as in a single cage motor. If the

magnetizing current (I0) is neglected, then the circuit is simplified to that shown in Fig. .

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 93

From the equivalent circuit, the performance of the motor can be predicted.

Total impedance as referred to stator is

Zeq=Z1 +Zo Zi/( Zo+ Zi);Z1=R1+jX1;Z0=(Ro/s)+jXo; Zi=(Ri/s)+jXi.

3.13.In a double cage IM, the outer cage has impedance of (2+j1.2), determine the slip at which the

2 cages develops equal torques,if the inner cage has an impedance of (0.5+j3.5) at standstill

Data:Ro=2,Xo=1.2, Ri=0.5,Xi=3.5.,To=Ti.To find s.

Sol:PoTo; PiTi;Po/Pi=To/Ti;Po=Io2(Ro/s);Pi= Ii2(Ri/s);Io=E2/Zo; Ii=E2/Zi.;Zo=[( Ro/s)2+Xo2]

Zi=[( Ri/s)2+Xi2] (Po/Pi)= (To/Ti)To=Tis=0.25.

3.14.If the standstill impedance of outer cage of a double cage machine is (0.3+j0.4) and of the

inner cage is (0.1+j1.5), compare the relative currents and torques of the outer and inner cages at

(a).standstill (b).at a slip of 5%.

Data: Ro=0.3,Xo=0.4, Ri=0.1,Xi=1.5., Compare I1/I2&T1&T2.for(a)s=1(b)s=0.05.

Given ,Po/Pi=To/Ti.To=27.13Ti.

(b).for s=0.05, Z0=[(Ro/s)+Xo]=6;Io=E2/Zo=0.166E2;Po= Io2(Ro/s)=0.166E22 Watts;

Similarly,Pi=0.32.E22Watts. Po/Pi=To/TiTo=0.5187.

3.29.HARMONIC INDUCTION TORQUE:

Unwanted waveform present in the motor or generator

is called harmonics. Harmonics are developed in the

winding due to irregularity in the slots, magnetic,

saturation, airgap length ,etc. A 3phase winding

carrying sinusoidal current produces harmonics in the

order of n=6m +-1 where m is an integer .The

movement of harmonics is with or against the

direction of rotation for +ve and -ve sign respectively.

Such a harmonics will affect the torque developed by the induction motor .It also affect the torque slip characteristics of IM as shown in fig.

3.30.MERITS AND DEMERITS OF 3 PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

MERITS (SQUIRREL CAGE)

DEMERITS

Cheaper than SRIM

1)low starting torque ,low power factor

simple and rugged construction

2) speed control not possible

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 94

3) sensitive to change in supply voltage(torque

efficiency

directly proportional to the V2)

no slip rings ,brushes , no maintenance

4)more energy loss during starting

no risk of sparking

constant speed , high overload capacity ,simple

starting methods

3.31.MERITS AND DEMERITS OF SLIP RING IM

MERITS

DEMERITS

1)high starting torque Tmax can be varied by

1)high maintenance cost.(slip rings ,brushes)

adjusting the resistance

2)low efficiency

2)better speed control

3)sensitive to change in supply voltage

3)high overload capacity .

4)low pf at light loads

4)nearly constant speed

3.32.APPLICATIONS OF 3 IM.

SCIM: 1)printing machinery 2) flour mill

SRIM: 1)lifts, pumps,cranes,hoists,winding machines,compressors

3.33.COMPARISION BETWEEN SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR AND IM

SM

IM

2)speed is constant

5)requires DC excitation

7)less sensitive to change in supply .

3.34.INDUCTION GENERATOR:

Principle of operation.

Induction generators and motors produce electrical power when their rotor is rotated faster than the

''synchronous frequency''. For a typical four-pole motor (two pairs of poles on stator) operating on a

60 Hz electrical grid, synchronous speed is 1800 rotations per minute. Similar four-pole motor

operating on a 50 Hz grid will have synchronous speed equal to 1500 rpm.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 95

In normal motor operation, stator flux rotation is faster than the rotor rotation. This is causing stator

flux to induce rotor currents, which create rotor flux with magnetic polarity opposite to stator. In this

way, rotor is dragged along behind stator flux, by value equal to slip.

In generator operation, a [[prime mover]] (turbine, engine) is driving the rotor above the synchronous

speed. Stator flux still induces currents in the rotor, but since the opposing rotor flux is now cutting

the stator coils, active current is produced in stator coils, and motor is now operating as a generator,

and sending power back to the electrical grid.

When running faster than its synchronus speed an IM runs as a generator called induction generator.

Note.(i)IM coupled to petrol engine (prime mover).(ii)it will operate at ve slip.(iii)the machine

delivers electrical energy to the supply.(iv)it receivers

reactive currents from the supply. for this purpose capacitor

banks are used .

Application:Wind turbines.

3.34.SYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION MOTOR:

A machine which is capable of running both as IM and SM is

called synchronous induction motor,the machine will run at IM

during starting and it will run SM during normal running.,

For the operation of synchronous motor dc excitation will be supplied and for the operation of IM

,dc supply will be disconnected.

APPLICATION(i)connected along with 3 phase IM. to improve overall p.f of the system

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 96

PART-A1.What are the two types of Induction Motor? Which type is generally preferred?

2.Why the slots of induction motor rotor are usually skewed?

3.Which type of induction motor develops high starting torque?

4.How can the direction of rotation of the 3- IM be reversed?

5.What is the slip of induction motor

6.What is the condition for maximum torque developed in an IM (i)at starting (ii)at running

7.What are the losses in a 3- IM?

8.What is meant by cogging & crawling? How to avoid it?

9.How will you improve the starting torque of a 3 IM?

10.What are the main advantages of cage IM?

11.What are the main disadvantages of cage IM?

12.What is meant by single phasing?

13.Compare 3 IM with synchronous motor.

14.Compare 3 Squirrel cage IM and Slip ring IM.

15.Draw the equivalent circuit of double cage IM.

16.Draw the Torque slip characteristics of Double cage IM.

17.Draw the performance characteristics of 3 IM.

18.What is meant by harmonic induction Torque? Draw the torque-Speed characteristics due to such

effects.

19.What is a circle-diagram?

20. How will you measure the slip of IM using stroboscopic method?

21. Write the expression for power input to output in terms of slip.

22.Write the expression for (i)starting torque to maximum torque (ii)Full load torque to maximum

torque

23. What is the effect of change in supply voltage on torque and slip of IM?

24.Draw the torque slip & torque speed characteristics of a 3 IM.

25. Distinguish between SCIM & SPIM.

PART-BKLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 97

27.Explain with the help of suitable diagrams how rotating magnetic field is produced.

28. Explain the terms slip, slip frequency, wound rotor, cage rotor.

29. Derive an expression for toque developed in a 3 IM and find the condition for maximum

torque (i)starting (ii)running

30.Derive an expression for rotor frequency in terms of main supply frequency and slip.

31.Draw the torque speed characteristics of poly phase IM and clearly indicate the effect of

change in rotor resistance.

32. For an IM derive a relationship between (i)starting torque and maximum torque (ii) Full load

torque and maximum torque

33.Prove that the ratio of actual speed of rotor of an IM to its synchronous speed is given by

rotor i/p to rotor o/p.

34.Show that the Pg: rotor ohmic loss: Pm =1: s: (1-s)

35.Derive the equivalent circuit of a 3 IM. From the approximate equivalent circuit ,find the (i)

rotor i/p (ii) o/p power (iii) o/p torque. Also find slip @ maximum torque.

36.Describe double cage IM.

37. Describe the No-load test and Blocked rotor test of an IM

38. Explain how the parameters of 3 IM can be obtained from the test results.

39.What is the effect of variation of supply frequency and supply voltage on starting torque,

synchronous speed, % slip and load current?

40. Explain the procedure for drawing Circle Diagram.

41. A 6 pole induction motor is fed from 50 Hz supply. If the frequency of rotor emf at full load

is 2Hz,

Find the full load speed and slip. (ans: s=0.04,N=960 rpm).

42. A 3 phase induction motor has 2poles is connected to 400v, 50 Hz supply. Calculate the

actual rotor speed, rotor frequency when slip is 4 %( ans: f=2Hz, N=2880 rpm)

43. In a 6pole, 3phase, 50Hz induction motor with star connected rotor, the rotor resistance per

phase is 0.3, the reactance at stand still is 1.5/ph & emf between the slip rings on open

circuit is 175v. Calculate slip at the speed of 950 rpm, rotor emf /ph, rotor frequency &

reactance at this speed. (ans: s=5%, f=2.5Hz, x2=.075)

44. In a 6pole, 3phase, 50Hz slip ring induction motor has a resistance & reactance of .5 &

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 98

5 /ph.Calculate a. At what speed torque is maximum. B. the ratio of Tmax to Tst. c. What

must be the external resistance per phase to be added so that the starting torque is half of the

maximum torque? (ans: N=900 rpm,r=18.16, ratio of Tmax to Tst =5.05)

45. In a 16pole, 3phase, 50Hz, 746 kw induction motor has a rotor impedance of 0.02+j .15 at

stand still. Full load torque is obtained at 360 rpm. Calculate a) ratio of maxi to full load

torque b). Speed for maxi torque c). Rotor resistance to be added to get maxi starting

torque.(ans: ratio of Tmax to Tf =1.81,N=325.125 rpm,r=.13)

46.The power input to a rotor of 440v,50Hz,3ph,6pole induction motor is 60 kw. It is observed

that the rotor emf makes 90 complete cycle per minute. Calculate slip, rotor speed, rotor cu

loss, Pmech .(ans: s=3%, N=970 rpm,

p2=1800 w, Pmech=58.2kw).

47. In a 6pole, 3phase, 50Hz induction motor develops 3700 watts at 950 rpm. What is the stator

input, if the stator loss is 300 watts. (ans: stator input=4194.7 watts).

48. The power input to 500v, 6pole, 3phase, 50Hz squirrel cage induction motor running at 975

rpm is 40 KW. The stator losses are 1kw & friction- windage losses are 2kw. Calculate slip,

rotor cu loss,efficiency (ans: s=2.5%, p2=0.975 watts, n=90%)

49. Estimate the stator current, power factor, efficiency at the slip of 5% for a motor having

statorimpedance 1+3j, rotor stand still impedance=1+2j, No load shunt

impedance=10+j50,voltage/ph=250v. (ans: pf=.85, =83.6%, I1=14.33A)

50. A 25 hp, 6 pole, 3phase, 50Hz induction motor has stator/rotor ph voltage ratio of 6/5. The

stator and rotor impedance/ph are (.25+j.075) & (.173+j.52 ) respectively. Find the

starting torque developed by the motor when external resistance of 1 is inserted in each

phase, the motor being started directly on the 400v supply system. Assume star-star

connection. (Ans: Tst=63.5 Nm)

51. A 400V ,3ph delta connected I.M gave the following results on no load and short circuit

(line ) values No load test- 400v,3A,645W Short circuit test-200v, 12A,1660 w. The friction

& windage losses among two 183 W. Determine energy magnetizing components, no load

current, no load power factor , no load resistance &reactance, equivalent resistance

&reactance/ph referred to primary, power factor on S.C and S.C with normal applied voltage

of 400v across the stator. Stator resistance may be assumed to be 5 . (ans: pcu=45W,

pi=417W, cos=0.2, R01=11.11 ,x01=26.63 )

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 99

52. A 400V ,3ph I.M gave the following results on no load and short circuit (line ) values No

load test- 400v, 9A, 1250W Short circuit test-150v, 38 A, 4000 w. Draw the circle diagram if

the normal rating is 14.9kW. Find from the circle diagram the full load value of current,

power factor, slip &efficiency. (ans:n=82%, =30, S=5.12%,Il=26A).

53.Draw the circle diagram of a 3ph, 14.92kW, 400v, 6 pole I.M from the following test results

No load test- 400v, 11A, pf=0.2 Short circuit test-100v, 25 A, pf=0.4 Rotor cu loss at stand

still=half the total cu loss. Find line current, slip, efficiency, power factor at full load & Tmax

(ans: Tmax=26.04syn w, S=6.12%,pf=0.84, n=79%, Il=33.5 A)

54. Draw the circle diagram of a 3ph, 5.6kW, 400v, 4 pole , 50 Hz slip ring I.M from the

following test results No load test- 400v, 6 A, pf=0.087 Short circuit test-100v, 12 A, 720W.

The ratio of primary to secondary turns=2.620, stator resistance/ph=.67/ph. Rotor resistance

per phase=0.185 /ph. Calculate full load current, full load slip, power factor, maxi torque &

max power.

55. In a double cage I.M if the outer cage has impedance at stand still of (2+j1.2 )/ph.

Determine the slip at which the two cages develop equal torques if the inner cage has an

impedance of (0.5+j3.5) at stand still. (ans: S=25%)

56. If the standstill impedance of outer cage of double cage machine is 0.3+j0.4 & of the inner

(0.1+j1.5 ). Compare the relative current torque of the outer & inner cages at standstill & at

a slip of 5%.

57.Write short notes on (i).Synchronous induction motor.(ii)Induction generator.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 100

4.1. Starting of 3-Phase Induction Motors.

The induction motor is fundamentally a transformer in which the stator is the primary and

the rotor is short-circuited secondary. At starting, the voltage induced in the induction motor rotor is

maximum (s = 1). Since the rotor impedance is low, the rotor current is excessively large. This large

rotor current is reflected in the stator because of transformer action. This results in high starting

current (4 to 10 times the full-load current) in the stator at low power factor and consequently the

value of starting torque is low. Because of the short duration, this value of large current does not

harm the motor if the motor accelerates normally. However, this large starting current will produce

large line-voltage drop. This will adversely affect the operation of other electrical equipment

connected to the same lines. Therefore, it is desirable and necessary

to reduce the magnitude of stator current at starting and several methods are available for this

purpose.

4.2. Need for Starters in IM .

The main problem in starting induction motors having

large or medium size lies mainly in the requirement of

high starting current, when started direct-on-line (DOL).

Assume that the distribution line is starting from a

substation , where the supply voltage is constant. The

line feeds a no. of consumers, of which one consumer

has an induction motor with a DOL starter, drawing a high current from the line, which is higher than

the current for which this line is designed. This will cause a drop (dip) in the voltage, all along the

line, both for the consumers between the substation and this consumer, and those, who are in the line

after this consumer. This drop in the voltage is more than the drop permitted, i.e. higher than the limit

as per ISS, because the current drawn is more than the current for which the line is designed. Only for

the current lower than the current for which the line is designed, the drop in voltage is lower the limit.

So, the supply authorities set a limit on the rating or size of IM, which can be started DOL. Any

motor exceeding the specified rating, is not permitted to be started DOL, for which a starter is to be

used to reduce the current drawn at starting.

Note: Starting current of 3 IM=5to7 times full load current.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 101

The method to be employed in starting a given induction motor depends upon the size of

the motor and the type of the motor. The common methods used to start induction motors are:

(i) Direct-on-line starting (ii) Stator resistance starting (iii) Autotransformer starting

(iv) Star- delta starting.(v) Rotor resistance starting

Methods (i) to (iv) are applicable to both squirrel-cage and slip ring motors.

However, method (v) is applicable only to slip ring motors. In practice, any one of the first four

methods is used for starting squirrel cage motors, depending upon ,the size of the motor. But slip ring

motors are invariably started by rotor resistance starting.

4.4. Methods of Starting Squirrel-Cage Motors

Except direct-on-line starting, all other methods of starting squirrel-cage motors

employ reduced voltage across motor terminals at starting.

(i) Direct-on-line starting(upto 1.5KW)

This method of starting in just what the name impliesthe motor is started by connecting it

directly to 3-phase supply. The impedance of the motor at standstill is relatively low and when it is

directly connected to the supply system, the starting current will

be high (4 to 10 times the full-load current) and at a low power

factor. Consequently, this method of starting is suitable for

relatively small (up to 1.5 kW) machines.

The start button is a contact switch that is held normally open by

a spring. The stop button is normally closed switch.When the

start button is pressed the operating coil(Main contactor) gets

energized through Over Load(OL) relaycontacts. This closes the

three main contacts(MC) that connects the motor to the

supply.At the same time the auxiliary maintaining contact MC

are closed.When the stop button is is pressed, the operating coil

gets de-energized, thereby opening all main contacts .

If the supply fails or line voltage drops below a certain value, the main contacts and the maintaining

contacts are both opened. Upon return of the supply, the contactor cannot close until start button is

again closed. This is said to be under voltage protection.Over load protection is employed for

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 102

protecting the motor from excessive heating due to over load on the motor. Thermal overload relays

are used for motor over load protection.

Relation between starting and F.L. torques.

We know that: Rotor input = 2NsT/60 = kT ;

But Rotor Cu loss = s x Rotor input.3I22R2=s xkT

T I2 2/s.; as I2 I1; T I12/s. ---(a) .At start, s=1;T=Tst;I1=Ist.

At full load,T =Tf;s=sf,I1=If.

When the motor is started direct-on-line, the starting current is the short-circuit (blockedrotor) current Isc.ie Ist=Isc, Tst/Tf =(Isc/If)2 x sf ----(e).

Let us illustrate the above relation with a numerical example. Suppose Isc = 5If

and full-load slip sf =0.04. Then, Tst/Tf =(Isc/If)2 x sf Tst/Tf=(5If/If)2 x0.04 =1.

Tst=Tf. Note that starting current is as large as five times the full-load current but

starting torque is just equal to the full-load torque. Therefore, starting current is very high and the

starting torque is comparatively low. If this large starting current flows for a long time, it may

overheat the motor and damage the insulation.

(ii) Stator resistance starting-Primary resistor starter.

In this method, external resistances are connected in series with

each phase of stator winding during starting. This causes voltage

drop across the resistances so that voltage available across motor

terminals is reduced and hence the starting current. The starting

resistances are gradually cut out in steps (two or more steps)

from the stator circuit as the motor picks up speed. When the

motor attains rated speed, the resistances are completely cut out

and full line voltage isapplied to the rotor.

This method suffers from two drawbacks. First, the

reduced voltage applied to the motor during the starting period

lowers the starting torque and hence increases the accelerating

time. Secondly, a lot of power is wasted in the starting resistances.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 103

If the voltage is reduced by a fraction x by the insertion of resistors in the line,then voltage applied to

the motor per phase will be xV.;

Ist = x Isc.WKT, Tst/Tf =(Ist/If)2 x sf. (Tst/Tf)=x2(Isc/If)2 x sf.

Thus while the starting current reduces by a fraction x of the rated-voltage starting current (Isc), the

starting torque is reduced by a fraction x 2 of that obtained by direct switching. The reduced voltage

applied to the motor during the starting period lowers the starting current but at the same time

increases the accelerating time because of the reduced value of the starting torque. Therefore, this

method is used for starting small motors only.

Advantages: smooth acceleration, high pf during starting, less expensive than auto-transformer

starter, closed transition starting, Availabe with 7 accelerating points.

Disadvantages: Resistors gives off heat, low torque, efficiency, starting duration exceeds 5seconds so

needs expensive resistors.

T.4.1.A small 3 IM has short circuit current 5 times of full load and full load slip is 5%. Determine

starting current, if the starting resistance starter is used to reduce the impressed voltage to 60% of

normal.

Data:3 IM,Isc=5If, Isc /If=5; Sf=5%.

To find Ist,V=60% of VN.

Sol: Tst/Tf =(Isc/If)2 x sf

Tst/Tf=(5)2 x 0.05=1.25.

Tst =1.25Tf ---(a).

Also,Tst=kIst2;Tf=kIf2/sf (b).Sub

(b)in(a), kIst2=1.25 x kIf2/sf Ist =5If.

Also,Ist=0.6 xIsc;Isc=5If

Ist=0.6 x 5If

Ist/If=3.

We have (Tst/Tf)=(Ist/If)2 x sf =(3)2x 0.05Tst=0.45Tf.

(iii) Autotransformer starting[>25HP]

This method also aims at connecting the induction motor to a reduced supply at starting and

then connecting it to the full voltage as the motor picks up sufficient speed. Fig. shows the circuit

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 104

arrangement for autotransformer starting. The tapping on the autotransformer is so set that when it is

in the circuit, 65% to 80% of line voltage is applied to the motor.

At the instant of starting, the change-over switch is thrown to start position. This puts the

autotransformer in the circuit and thus reduced voltage is applied to the circuit. Consequently, starting

current is limited to safe value. When the motor attains about 80% of normal speed, the changeover

switch is thrown to run position. This takes out the autotransformer from the circuit and puts the

motor to full line voltage. Autotransformer starting has several advantages viz low power loss, low

starting current and less radiated heat. For large machines (over 25 H.P) this method of starting is

often used. This method can be used for both star and delta connected motors.

Relation between starting and F.L. torques.

Consider a star-connected

squirrel-cage induction motor. If V is the line voltage, then

voltage across motor phase on direct switching is V/3 and

starting current is Ist = Isc. In case of autotransformer, if a

tapping of transformation ratio K (a fraction) is used, then

phase voltage across motor is KV/3 and Ist = K Isc, Now,

Tst/Tf=(Ist/If)2sf.= (kIsc/If)2sf Tst/Tf=k2(Isc/If)2sf.

Tst/Tf=k2 x (Torque obtained by direct switching)

The current taken from the supply or by autotransformer

is I1 = KI2 ;(I2= Ist , Ist = K Isc)=K2Isc. Note that the motor current is K

times, the supply line current is K2 times and the starting

torque is K2 times the value it would have been on direct-on-line starting.

Merits:(i).Voltage is reduced by transformation and not by dropping

voltage in resistor.

(ii).High starting torque.(iii).Adjustment of starting voltage by selection of proper tap from

Auto.tr.(iv).Suitability for long starting period.

Demerits: Low pf, high cost. Applications: Used where the rating of machine is >20kW.

T 4.2.Determine the suitable auto transformation ratio for starting 3 IM with line current not

exceeding 3 times the full load current .The short circuit current is 5 times the full load current and

the full load slip is 5%.Estimate, also, the starting torque interms of the full load torque.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 105

Sol: For Auto-transformer starter, supply line current, Il=k2Isc. 3If=k2(5If)k=0.77.

For Auto-transformer starter, Tst/Tf=k2(Isc/If)2sf =0.772[5If/If]2 0.05 Tst/Tf=0.75.

(iv). Star-delta starting

The stator winding of the motor is designed for delta operation and is connected in star during the

starting period. When the machine is up to speed, the connections are changed to delta. The circuit

arrangement for star-delta starting is shown in Fig.The six leads of the stator windings are connected

to the changeover switch as shown. At the instant of starting, the changeover switch is thrown to

Startposition which connects the stator windings in star. Therefore, each stator phase gets V /3

volts where V is the line voltage. This reduces the starting current.When the motor picks up speed,

the changeover switch is thrown to Runposition which

connects the stator windings in delta. Now each stator

phase getsfull line voltage V.

Advantages: simple, cheap, effective and efficient as no

power is lost in auxiliary components.

The disadvantages of this method are:

(a) With star-connection during starting, stator phase

voltage is 1/ 3 times the line voltage. Consequently,

starting torque is (1/3 )2 or 1/3 times the value it would

have with Delta-connection. This is rather a large

reduction in starting torque.

(b) The reduction in voltage is fixed.

This method of starting is used for medium-size machines (upto about 25 H.P.).

Relation between starting and F.L. torques.

In direct delta starting, Starting current/phase, Isc = V/Zsc where V = line voltage

Starting line current = 3 Isc ; In star starting, we have,Starting current/phase, Ist=(V/3)/Zsc=Isc/3.

Now,(Tst/Tf)=(Ist/If)2 x sf =[ (Isc/If3)2xsf] (Tst/Tf)=1/3(Isc/If)2 x sf.

where Isc = starting phase current (delta) ;

If = F.L. phase current (delta).

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 106

Application:1.Effective and cheaper where starting torque is not greater than 1.5times full load

torque.Also, they are used in m/c tools, pumps, and motor-generator set.

4.3.A 12kW,3 ,6pole,50Hz,400V,delta connected IM runs at 960rpm,on full load. If it takes 85A,on

direct switching (starting),find the ratio of Tst/Tf with star-delta starter. Full load efficiency and pf of

88% and 0.85 respectively.

Data:3 ,delta connected IM,Po=12kW,p=6,f=50Hz,Vl=400V,N=960rpm, Is t=85A(line),

=88%,cos =0.85. To find (Tst/Tf).Sol:For Y- starter, (Tst/Tf)=1/3(Ist/If)2 x sf.

To find sf :sf =(Ns-N)/Ns;Ns=120f/p=1000 rpm,N=960rpm,

sf=0.04.

Pin=12x103/0.88=13,636W;Pin=3VLILcos

L=40A(line)=23.15A(phase).=If.;Isc=49A=Ist

(Tst/Tf)=1/3(Ist/If)2 x sf Tst=0.18Tf.

4.4.Determine approximately, the starting torque of a 3 IM interms of full load torque, when started

by(i). star delta starter (ii).Auto-transformer starter with 50% tapping. The SC current of motor is 5

times the full load current and the full load slip is 5%.

Data: 3 IM,Ist= Isc=5If,sf=0.05,k=0.5(i)Y- starter: Tst/Tf =1/3(Ist/If)2 x sf.Tst=0.416Tf.

(ii).For Auto-Transformer starter, Tst/Tf =k2 (Ist/If)2 x sf .Tst=0.3125Tf.

4.5. Starting of Slip-Ring Induction Motors

Slip-ring motors are invariably started by rotor resistance starting. In this method, a variable starconnected rheostat is connected in the rotor circuit through slip rings and full voltage is applied to the

stator winding as shown in Fig.

(i) At starting, the handle of rheostat is set in the

OFF position so that maximum resistance is placed

in each phase of the rotor circuit. This reduces the

starting current and at the same time starting

torque is increased.

(ii) As the motor picks up speed, the handle of rheostat is gradually moved in clockwise direction and

cuts out the external resistance in each phase of the rotor circuit. When the motor attains normal

speed, the change-over switch is in the ON position and the whole external resistance is cut out from

the rotor circuit.

Calculation of resistance steps for 3-pahse Slip Ring Induction motor:

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 107

R1, R2, R3.. Rn-1 and Rn=Total resistance per phase in the rotor circuit on the 1st ,2nd ,3rd,

--(n-1)th and nth stud respectively.

Assume that rotor current fluctuates between two fixed values of I2max and I2min respectively.

At the commencement of each step, the current is I2max and the resistance in the rotor circuit is R1 for

slip s1=1, R2 for slip s2 and so on.

W. k. that, I2=sE2/Z2=sE2/(R12 +(sX2)2 = E2/((R1/s) 2 +(X2)2

I2(max)=

E2

= E2

E2

----

(R3/s3)2 +(X2)2

Cancelling all the common terms,

R1/s1= R2/s2= R3/s3= -------= R(n-1)/s (n-1) = R2/smax.-(a)

R1/s1= R2/smax. R1=s1 X R2/smax; at start,s1=1,

From (a), R1/s1= R2/s2= R3/s3= -------= R(n-1)/s (n-1) = R2/smax.-(a)

By cross multiplication and rearranging,

R2/ R1= R3/ R2=R4/ R3=----- R2/R(n-1)=K (say) (b);

From (b),R2=kR1; R3=KR2=K2R1-----(C)

R2/R(n-1)=K

R2=K R(n-1)(B)

Kn-1 =smaxK=(smax)1/(n-1).

Where (n-1) is the number of sections in the starter.

The resistances of various sections are,r1=R1-R2=R1(1-K); r2=R2-R3=R1(K-K2)=Kr1

4.4.Design the five sections of a 6-stud rotor starter for a 3-phase wound rotor induction motor. The slip at full

load is 2% and the starting current is 1.5times the full load current. The resistance of the rotor is 0.02 per

phase.

Data:3-phaseSRIM, No. of studs, n=6,s=0.02,Ist=1.5If.R2=0.02.To design r1,r2--.

Sol: Slip varies with rotor current. smax=1.5 X 0.02=0.03.

On first stud, the total resistance is R1=R2/smax=0.02/0.03=0.6667.;K=(Smax)1/n-1=(0.03)1/5=0.496.

The resistance of the various sections of the starter are,

r1=(1-K)R1=(1-0.496)X0.6667=0.336.; r2=Kr1=0.496X0.336=0.0826;r3=K2r1(0.496)20.336=0.08

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 108

4.5.Calculate the steps in 5 step rotor resistance starter, for a 3 IM, the slip at the maximum starting current is

2% with slip ring short circuited and the resistance per rotor phase is 0.02.

Data: 3 SRIM,smax=0.02,n=5,R2=0.02.To find ,r1,r2,r3,r4 &r5.

r4= k3 r1=0.034,r5= k4 r1=0.13.

4.7. Cogging and crawling of 3-phase IM:

(a).Cogging (or) magnetic locking:

The rotor of a SCIM ,sometimes refuse to start , particularly when the voltage is low. This

happens when the number of stator slots,SS= Number of rotor slots or teeth (ie) Sr.This is due

to the magnetic locking between the stator and rotor teeth. This phenomenon is known as cogging

(or) magnetic locking (or) teeth locking.

This can be easily overcome by making certain combination of stator and rotor teeth (or) ie

No. of stator slots=No. of rotor slots.

(b).Crawling:

In SCIM ,sometimes have a tendency to run stability at speeds as slow as 1/7th of the synchronous

speed(Ns). This phenomenon is known as crawling of IM.

This action is due to the fact that the AC winding of the stator produces a flux wave which is

not pure a sine wave. It is a complex wave consisting of a fundamental wave ,which revolves

synchronously and odd harmonics like 3rd,5th & 7th etc. which rotate either in the forward or backward

direction at Ns/3,Ns/5 & Ns/7 speeds respectively. As a result , in addition to the fundamental torque,

harmonic torque can also be produced.

WKT,N=Ns(1-s)=120f/p x(1-s).-------(i).

An inspection of eq. (i) reveals that the speed N of an induction motor can be varied by changing (i)

supply frequency f (ii) number of poles P on the stator and (iii) slip s. The change of frequency is

generally not possible because the commercial supplies have constant frequency. Therefore, the

practical methods of speed control are either to change the number of stator poles or the motor slip.

1. Squirrel cage motors

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 109

The speed of a squirrel cage motor is changed by changing the number of stator poles. Only two or

four speeds are possible by this method. Two-speed motor has one stator winding that may be

switched through suitable control equipment to provide two speeds, one of which is half of the other.

For instance, the winding may be connected for either 4 or 8 poles, giving synchronous speeds of

1500 and 750 r.p.m. Four-speed motors are equipped with two separate stator

windings each of which provides two speeds. The disadvantages of this method are:

(i) It is not possible to obtain gradual continuous speed control.

(ii) Because of the complications in the design and switching of the interconnections of the stator

winding, this method can provide a maximum of four different synchronous speeds for any one

motor.

2. Wound rotor motors

The speed of wound rotor motors is changed by changing the motor slip. This

can be achieved by;

(i) varying the stator line voltage(ii) varying the resistance of the rotor circuit

(iii) inserting and varying a foreign voltage in the rotor circuit

4.8.Speed control of 3-phase IM:

A 3-phase IM is practically a constant speed machine. Its speed can be controlled with help of the

following methods.Control from stator side: By changing (i). applied voltage.(ii). applied

frequency.(iii). no.of polesControl from rotor side :(i).Rotor rheostat control.(ii).By operating 2

motors in cascade (iii). By injecting an emf in the rotor circuit .

A brief description of these methods are given below.

(a).By changing applied voltage:

This method the cheapest & easiest, is rarely used because a large change in voltage is

required for a relatively small charge in speed. This large change in voltage will result in a large

change in flux density, thereby seriously disturbing the magnetic conditions of motor.

Supply voltage can be changed by using (i). auto transformer.(ii). tape changing transformer

(b) supply frequency:

Wkt

Ns=120f/p

Clearly ,the synchronous speed of IM can be changed by changing the supply frequency(f).

Application:Electrically driven ships

Supply frequency can be changed by with help of frequency changer circuit like cyclo converter.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 110

In this method ,separate stator windings are used which are wound for 2 different pole number.Also

we can use a single stator winding which can be

divided into two-coil groups.

No.of poles can be changed by changing these coil

groups.This is by dividing the winding into no.of coil

groups and bringing out terminals of all these groups.

A no. of poles can be obtained by rearranging these

groups.

Fig(a) shows a phase winding consisting of 6coils(1-6) these coils are divided into 2 groups (AB and CD).coil group AB consists of odd numbered

coils(1,3,5) connected in series. Coil group CD consists of even numbered coils(2,4,6)connected in

series. The coils can be made to carry current in the given direction by connecting the coil group

either in series or in parallel manner. In this

connection , current flows from AtoB and D to C.

the machine has 6 poles.

If the current through the coil AB is reversed then all

the coils will produce N-pole. Fluxes coming out of

these N-poles will now find paths through the inner

pole spaces for going out, hence producing spoles. Inner- pole spaces as shown in fig .

Here the coil groups AB&CD are connected either in parallel or in series . Thus each phase winding

of the machine has 2 coil groups AB & CD which can be connected either in series or in parallel for

both pole numbers 6&12.

(d).Rotor rheostat control:

It is applicable to SRIM. The motor speed is reduced by introducing an external resistance in the

rotor circuit. For this purpose , rotor starter may be used.

Wkt, torque, TE2I2cos 2.

I2=sE2/Z2,cos 2=R2/Z2.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

T s/R2.

Page 111

s1=(Ns-N1)/Ns; s2=(Ns-N2)/Ns;where N1=speed of the motor without r;N2=speed withr.

For a given torque ,slip can be increased by (ie) speed can be decreased by inserting rotor resistance

R2 .

Disadvantage:With increase in R2, I2R2 losses increases hence efficiency decreases.

Ex4.6.The rotor of a 4 pole 50Hz SRIM has a resistance of 0.3per phase and runs at 1440rpm at full load.

Calculate the external resistance/phase which must be added to lower the speed to 1320rpm, the torque being

the same.

Data:3 SRIM,R2=0.3,p=4,f=50Hz,N1=1440rpm,N2=1320rpm, T1=T2 .To find r.

Nsb=NSol: T1s1/R2; T2s2/(R2+r);T1=T2

Ns=120f/p. solving,r=0.6.

(E).Speed control by cascade connection:

In this method, two motors are used are mounted on the

same shaft, so that both run at the same speed.

The stator winding of the main motor A is connected to

the mains in the usual way while that of the auxiliary motor

B is fed from the rotor circuit of motorA.

For satisfactory operation,the motor A should be slip

ring type.Also,in addition to the cascade, each motor may

be run from the supply mains separately.

Note:MotorA=SRIM; Motor B=SCIM or DC shunt motor.

There are atleast 3 ways in which the combination may run .

(i).Main motor A may be run separately from the supply. In that case, the synchronous speed is 120f/Pa.

Nsa =120f/Pa : Pa=No.of stator poles of Motor A.

(ii).The auxiliary motor B may run separately from the mains, with main motor A being disconnected. In

that case, the synchronous speed is

Nsb =120f/Pb : Pb=No.of stator poles of Motor B.

(iii).The combination may be connected in cumulative cascade , ie in such a way that the phase rotation of the

stator fields of the both motor is in the same direction. The synchronous speed of the set is given by

Nsc =120f/(Pa + Pb).

Proof:Let,N=Speed of the set; Nsa=Synchronous speed of the motor, A.f=supply frequency,f=rotor frequency

of motor A.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 112

This is also the frequency of the emf applied to stator of motor B.Hence , the synchronous speed,Nsb of

motor B with this input frequency ,f is ,

Nsb=120f/Pb Nsb=120/Pb[(Nsa-N)/Nsa ] xf. ------------I.

On no load, the speed of rotor B is almost equal to the synchronous speed, sothat, the frequency of the

induced emf is zero. ie Nsb=N.

Put Nsb=N, in equation I, we get, Nsb=120/Pb[(Nsa-N)/Nsa ] xfN=120/Pb[(Nsa-N)/Nsa ] xf.

N=120f(Nsa-N)/Pb xNsa.;Nsa=120f/p ;

N=120f/(pa +pb).

4.7.Two,50Hz,3 IM having 6&4Poles respectively are cumulatively cascaded. The 6 pole motor being

connected to the main supply. Determine the frequency of the rotor current and slip referred to each stator

field, if the set has a slip of 2%.

Data:3 IM,f=50Hz,pa=6,pb=4.sc=0.02.To find ,f,f,sa,sb.

Sol:N=Nsc(1-sc). ; Nsc=120f/(pa+pb)=600rpm;

sa=(1000-588)/1000=0.412.;f=saf=0.412 x 50 =20.6Hz.

f'=sb xf ;sb=(Nsb-N)/Nsb ;Nsb =120f/pb=618rpm. sb=0.048 ; f =sb x f=1Hz.

(F).Injecting emf into the rotor circuit: Kramer system-slip power recovery scheme.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 113

circuit .When we insert a voltage,which is in phase opposition ,to the induced rotor emf, it amounts to

increasing the rotor resistance, where as inserting a voltage which is in phase with the rotor emf is

equivalent to decrease its resistance. Hence, by changing the phase of injected emf and hence the

rotor resistance , the speed can be controlled.

One such practical method of speed control is Kramer system. It is used in case of large

motors of 4000KW(or) above. It consists of a rotary converter c, which converts low slip frequency

AC power into DC power, which is used to drive the dc shunt motor D. This DC shunt motor D and

the main motor M, are mechanically coupled.

The slip rings of M are connected to rotary converter c.The DC output of C is used to drive

D.Both C & D are excited from the DC busbar (or) from an exciter. There is a field regulator which

controls the back emf Eb developed in the DC motor D.Hence the DC potential of the rotary converter

is varied and there by AC output from the converter c is varied. The AC voltage from the converter

is applied to the slip ring of the IM. Now there are two emfs applied to the IM, one from the stator

side and another from the rotor side. These two emfs will be in phase opposition (or) in phase with

each other , there by varying the resistance of the rotor circuit and hence the speed control is

achieved.

Advantages:

(i).Speed variation is from minimum to maximum instead of 1(or)2 possible speed control.

(ii).If the rotary converter is overexcited , it will take a leading current, which compensate for the

lagging current, drawn by the main motor M. and hence improves the cos of the system.

Ex.4.8. A 4 pole IM and a six pole IM are connected in cumulative cascade. The frequency in

the secondary circuit of the 6 pole motor is observed to be 1 Hz. Determine the slip in each

machine & the combined speed of the set. Take supply frequency as 50 Hz.

Data:Pa= 4,Pb= 6,f = 1 Hz,f = 50Hz,To find:(i).Sa (ii)Sb(iii)Nsc.

Soln: Here f= sx f, s= f/f,s=1/50

=0.02;

Sa= (Nsa-N)/Nsa =1500-600/1500=0.6.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 114

4.9. A 4 pole, 3 phase, 50 Hz SRIM, when fully loaded runs with a slip of 3% . Determine the value

of resistance to be inserted per phase in the rotor circuit by reduce the speed by 10% and the new

slip. The rotor resistance per phase is 0.2. The load torque remaining the same.

Data:3-phase, SRIM ,p=4, f= 50 Hz, s1= 3% =0.03 , R2=0.2.To find: r=?

Soln: Ns=120f/p =120*50/4=1500rpm.

N1=Ns(1-s1) = 1500(1-0.03)=1455rpm.

Wkt:T1 s1/R2 and T2 s2/(R2+r) ;Here T1=T2.

s1/R2 =s2/(R2+r)

r= 0.8467-0.2 = 0.647.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 115

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 116

Stopping the motor precisely and smoothly without heavy vibrations/oscillations is called

Electrical braking. This type of braking mainly employed in Electric traction and in industries.

Methods of Electrical braking:

(i).Plugging (ii).Dynamic (rheostatic braking) (iii).Regenerative braking.

(i).Plugging

Plugging involves interchanging the supply to two of the stator phase windings. This method

is used in applications which require immediate stop applications. When the phase supply is

reversed, torque is produced in the opposite direction. This leads to braking of the electric motor.

Motors which are operated this way have a plugging switch. This switch operates when the stop

command is given to the motor circuit. The operation of this switch applies reverses the supply to

two of the windings. When the motor comes to a complete halt, this reversed supply is disconnected.

Note : The method can be applied to both squirrel cage as well as wound rotor induction motors.

One important aspect about plugging is production of very high heat in the rotor. While plugging,

the load keeps on revolving and rotor absorbs kinetic energy from the revolving load, causing speed

to reduce. The corresponding gross mechanical power is entirely dissipated as heat in the rotor.

Similarly as stator is connected to supply, rotor continues to receive power from stator which also

gets dissipated as heat in the rotor. This is shown in the Fig. 1.

In this method of braking, the motor which is at a running condition is disconnected from the

source and connected across a resistance. When the motor is disconnected from the source, the rotor

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 117

keeps rotating due to inertia and it works as a self excited generator. When the motor works as a

generator the flow of the current and torque reverses.

In rheostatic braking, one supply line out of R, Y or B is disconnected from the supply.

Depending upon the condition of this disconnected line, two types of rheostatic braking can be

achieved.

1. Two lead connections : In this method, the disconnected line is kept open. This is shown in the Fig.

1(a) and is called two lead connections.

2. Three lead connections : In this method, the disconnected line is connected directly to the other line

of the machine. This is shown in the Fig. 1(b).

In both cases, a high resistance is inserted in the rotor circuit, with the help of rheostat.

Note : Thus this method is effective only for slip ring or wound rotor induction motors.

As one of the motor terminals is not connected to the supply, the motor continues to run as single

phase motor. In this case the breakdown torque i.e. maximum toque decreases to 40% of its original

value and motor develops no starting torque at all. And due to high rotor resistance, the net torque

produced becomes negative and the braking operation is obtained.

In two lead connections, the braking torque is small while in three lead connections, The

braking torque is high at high speeds. But in three lead connections there is possibility of inequality

between the contact resistances in connections of two paralleled lines. This might reduce the braking

torque and even may produce the motoring torque again. Hence inspite of low braking torque, two

lead connections is preferred over three lead connections.

The torque-slip characteristics for motoring and braking operation is shown in the Fig. 2.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 118

(iii).Regenerative braking.

Regenerative braking takes place whenever the speed of the motor exceeds the synchronous speed.

This braking method is called regenerative braking because here the motor works as generator. The main

criteria for regenerative braking is that the rotor has to rotate at a speed higher than synchronous speed,

only then the motor will act as a generator and the direction of current flow through the circuit and direction

of the torque reverses and braking takes place. The only disadvantage of this type of braking is that the

motor has to run at super synchronous speed which may damage the motor mechanically and electrically,

but regenerative braking can be done at sub synchronous speed if the variable frequency source is available.

Note:

Conventional braking systems convert kinetic energy into heat, usually via friction.

This wastes a great deal of energy

Regenerative braking systems reclaim and storing the kinetic energy in a reusable manner

Many modern electric drive vehicles including electric locomotives and HEVs have regenerative

braking systems.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 119

Short Q&A.

1.State two advantage of speed control of IM by injecting an e.m.f in the rotor circuit .

(i).The main advantage of this method is that any speed , within the working range can be

obtained. (ii).If the rotary converter is over excited , it will take a leading current which compensates

for the lagging current drawn by SRIM and hence improve the cos of the system .

2. Point out the disadvantages of rotor rheostat control to obtain variable speed of the IM.

(i). Reduced efficiency because the slip energy is wasted in the rotor circuit resistance

(ii).

Speed changes vary widely with load variation . (iii). Unbalance in voltage and current if rotor

circuit resistance are not equal.

3. Give the functions performed by induction motor starter.

(i). To limit the starting current .(ii). To start the motor.(iii). To protect from over load condition and

low voltage condition.

4. List out four methods of speed control in 3 phase induction motor .

(i).Stator voltage control .(ii). Rotor resistance control.(iii). Slip power recovery scheme.

(iv).Stator frequency control.(v). Pole changing method.

5. Why the starter is necessary to start a 3 phase induction motor?

When a 3 induction motor is switched on at a normal supply voltage , heavy current will flow

through the motor because at the time of starting ,there is no back emf in induction motor.When

directly switched on, it takes 5 to 7 times its full load current and it is developed only 1.5 to 2.5 times

full load torque . This initial inrush of excessive current is objectionable because it will produced

large line voltage drop. This will affect the operation of other electrical equipments connected to the

same line . Due to this , starters are used for starting 3 IM.

6. What are the types of starters used for 3 phase induction motor?

(i). DOL starter (ii). Autotransformer starter. (iii). Rotor resistance starter.

(iv). Primary resistance starter.(v). Star delta starter

7. What is voltage / frequency method ?

The voltage / frequency control is one method of speed control of 3 phase induction motor.

From the emf. equation , the air gap flux is given by = 1/2T1Kw (V/f)

From this expression , by varying the supply frequency , the air gap flux changes. This will

lead to saturation of the motor. To avoid this , the air gap flux should be maintained constant

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 120

To maintain the air gap flux constant, the parameters V and f must be changed so as to

maintain (V/f) ratio constant. This is known as V/f control.

8. What are the advantage and disadvantage of rotor resistance control ?

Advantages :(i).Smooth and wide range of speed control.(ii).Absence of in rush starting

current.(iii). Availability of full rated torque at starting.(iv).High line power factor.

(v). Absence of current harmonics.(vi).Starting torque can be improved.

Disadvantages:(i).Reduced efficiency because the slip energy is wasted in the rotor circuit

resistance.(ii).Speed changes very widely with load variation.(iii).Unbalance in voltage and current if

rotor circuit resistance are not equal.

9. What is meant by slip power recovery scheme?

The slip power can be returned to the supply source and can be used to supply an additional

motor which is mechanically coupled to the main motor. This type of drive is known as the slip

power recovery system and improvers the overall efficiency of the system.

10 . Why is speed control by pole changing technique suitable only to SCIM?

Cage rotor is not wound for any specific number of poles as stator winding has . Therefore ,in

a squirrel cage induction motor, an arrangement is required only for changing the number of the poles

in stator. In slip ring induction motor arrangement for changing the number of poles in rotor is also

required , which complicates the machine . Therefore, this method of speed control is used with

squirrel cage induction motors only.

11. Indicate the method of starting 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor (any two)

(i). Autotransformer starter.(ii). Star/delta starter

12. What are the various method of speed control of 3 phase induction motor from stator side?

(i).Stator voltage control (ii). Stator frequency control (iii). 3. V/f method .

(iv). Pole changing method

13. What are the speed control of 3 phase induction motor from rotor side ?

(i).Rotor resistance control.(ii). Slip power recovery scheme (iii). Cascaded control

14. What are the types of slip power recovery scheme?

. (i).Kramer system

Answer ALL Questions.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 121

2.What are the various types of starters used for starting (i)squirrel cage induction motor(ii).Slip

ring induction motor? Which is the cheapest method of starting a 3 phase induction motor?

3.What is cogging of induction motor? How to avoid it?

4.What is crawling of an induction motor?

4.What is meant by single phasing?

5.What are the possible reasons of failure of a 3-phase induction motor?

6.What are the various methods of speed control of (i).Squirrel cage induction motor (ii).SRIM?

8.On what factors does the speed of an induction motor depend?

9.What will be the effect on the torque developed by an induction motor when the applied

voltage is reduced to half ,supply frequency remaining unchanged?

10.What will be the effect on the torque developed by an induction motor when both the applied

voltage and supply frequency are reduced to half?

11.Explain with the help of diagram the working of an automatic direct on- line starter.

12.Derive the expression for the torque developed on starting of induction motor by Direct

switching.

13.A small 3 phase induction motor has a short circuit current equal to 4 times the full load

current.Determine the starting torque as a %of full-load torque if full load slip is 2.5%

14..Explain ,with the help of a neat diagram the working of a star-delta starter.what is its

limitation?

15.Explain auto transformer starter in detail.Compare DOL,Star-Delta and auto transformer

starters.

16.Explain ,with the help of a neat diagram the working of a starter used for starting slip-ring

induction motor. Derive the expression for the resistance steps for 3-phase slip ring

induction motor.

17.Design the five sections of a 6-stud rotor starter for a 3-phase wound rotor induction

motor.The slip at full-load is 2% and the starting current is 1.5 times the full-load current.The

resistance of rotor is 0.02 per phase.

18.Discuss the method of speed control of squirrel cage induction motor by (i). changing the

number of poles (ii).cascade operation. Derive the expression for the speed of the cascaded

set.

1 : A 3 phase , 6 poles , 50Hz induced motor runs at 950 rpm . Find the slip.

Data :p = 6, f =50 Hz,N = 950 rpm.To find :s

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 122

2 : A 3 phase , 6poles ,50 Hz induction motor in the slip of 1% at no load 3% at full load. Find

(1)synchronous speed (2) no load speed (3) full load speed (4) frequency of rotor current at

stand still (5) frequency of rotor current at full load .

Data :p = 6, f = 50 Hz,Slip at no load snl = 0.01,Slip at full loadsfl = 0.03

To find (i) Ns (ii) Nnl (iii) Nfl (iv) frs (v)frfl

Solution :(i) Synchronous speed,Ns = 120f/P = 120 * 50 /6 = 1000 rpm.

Ns = 1000 rpm

(iii) Full load speed (Ns),Nfl=M(1-sfl)= 1000(1-0.03) = 970 rpm.

(iv).Frequency of rotor current at standstill(frs)Frs= sf.At standstill, slips s =1,Frs=sf=50Hz

(v) Frequency of rotor current at full load (frfl).Frfl = sflf = 0.03 * 50 = 1.5 Hz.

3: The induced emf between the slip ring terminals of a three phase induction motor , when the

rotor is standstill is 100V. The rotor winding is star connected and has resistance and standstill

reactance of 0.05 and 0.1 per phase respectively. Calculate the voltage and rotor current at

(1) 4% slip and (2) 100% slip.

Data :The induced emf between the slip ring terminals E2l = 100V,

Phase voltage, E2 = 100 /3 = 57.7 V,R2 = 0.05,X2 = 0.1.

To find :The voltage and rotor current at (1) 4% slip and (2) 100% slip.

Solution :(i). At slip s = 0.04.;Voltage E2r = s E2 = 0.04 * 57.7

E2r = 2.308 V

Rotor current I2r = E2r / Z2r = 2.308/0.05 = 46.16 A

(ii).

E2 = 57.7 V,Z2= (R2^2+(sX2^2)) = ((0.05)^2+(0.1)^2) = 0.111

Rotor current at standstill,I2 = E2/Z2 = 57.7/0.111 = 519.8 A

4.: A 4 pole,50 Hz , 3phase induction motor has a rotor resisrance of 0.024 per phase and

standstill reactance of 0.6 per phase. Determining the speed at which the maximum torque is

developed.

Data : p = 4,f = 50 Hz,R2 = 0.024, X2 = 0.6.To find :Nfor Tmax.

Solution :The slip at which the maximum torque occur is, Sm = R2 / X2 = 0.024/0.6 = 0.04

Ns = 120 f/P = 120*50/4 = 1500rpm, Speed, N = Ns(1-sm) = 1500(1-0.04) = 1440rpm

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 123

5 : The power input to the rotor of a 415 V,50 Hz , 6ploes ,3 phase induction motor is 75kW.

The rotor emf is observed to make 120 complete cycles per minute. Determine (1) the rotor

speed (2)air gap power per phase (3) mechanical power developed .

Data :V = 415 V,f = 50 Hz,p = 6, P2 = 75kW,Number of cycles complete per minute = 120 Hz

To find :(i) the rotor speed .(N).(ii)air gap power per phase .(iii) Pm

Solution :(i). frequency of rotor emf fr = 120/60 = 2 Hz;

fr = sf ; s = fr / f = 2/50 = 0.04

(ii) Air gap power phase

6. : The active power input to a 415 V,50Hz , 6 poles ,3 phase induction motor running at 970

rpm is 41 kW. The input power factor is 0.9. The stator lossess amount to 1.1kW and the

mechanical lossess 1.2 kW. Calculate line current,slip,rotor copper loss,mechanical power

output and efficiency .

Data :Vl = 415V,f =50Hz,p =6,N=970rpm,Pin =41kW, cos =0.9,PSL =1.1kW,PML = 1.2 kW

To find :line current,slip,rotor copper loss,mechanical power output and efficiency

Solution :Line current (IL),Input power Pin = 3VLIL cos,

IL = Pin/3VL cos = (41*10^3)/3*415*0.9 = 63.37 A

Slip (s),Ns = 120f/P = 120*50/6 = 1000rpm, Slip s = Ns-N/Ns = 1000-970/1000 = 0.03

Rotor input power,P2 = input power stator lossess= Pin - PSL = 41-1.1 = 39.9kW,

Rotor copper loss

Output power

Efficiency()

7 : A three phase induction motor develops a full load torque of 10 Nm. It has a starting torque

of 10 Nm and maximum torque of 20 Nm. Calculate the value of slip at maximum torque .

Data : Tf = 10 N -m , Tst = 10 N -m , Tmax = 20 N-m ,To find : value of slip at maximum torque

Solution :Tf/Tmax=2aSf/a^2+Sf^2,Tst/Tmax=2a/1+a^2,Tst/Tf=10/10 =1,Tmax/Tf=20/10 = 2

Tf/Tmax =10/20 = 0.5,ButTst/ Tmax=2a/1+a^2 0.5=2a/1+a^2,

(1+a^2)0.5=2a;0.5a+0.5a^2 =2a;0.5a^2-2a+0.5=0; a^2-4a+1=0;a=416-4/2 = 0.268

a=R2/X2 = 0.268,R2=0.268 X2 ,Maximum torque occurs at a slip given by, Sm = R2/X2 = 0.268

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 124

8. A 4-pole,415 V,50 Hz,star connected,3 induction motor has stator impedance of (0.8 +

j2.4)ohm/phase and equivalent standstill rotor impedance of (1.0 + j2.2)ohm per phase. Find the

maximum torque that the motor can develop and the slip at which it occurs.

Data:P = 4,V = 415 V,f = 50 Hz,Z1 = 0.8+j 204 = 0.8^2+2.4^2 = 2.53, Z2=1+j2.2 =

2.42

To find :i)slip at which the maximum torque occurs,(ii) maximum torque (Tmax)

Solution :slip at which the maximum torque occurs (sm): sm = R2/X2 = .2 = 0.4545

Tmax:E2/E1 = Z2/Z1,E1=V/3= 415/3 = 239.6V,E2 = E1 * Z2/Z1 = 239.6 * 2.42/2.53 = 229.18 V

Tmax = KE2^2/2X2;K=3/2ns,ns = Ns/60,Ns=120f/P = 120*50/4 = 1500 rpm,ns = 1500/60 = 25 rps

Tmax = 3/2*25 * ((229.18)^2/2*2.2) = 227.98 N-m

Example 18 : A 1100 V,50 Hz delta connected induction motor has a star connected slip ring

rotor with a phase transformation ratio of 3.8. The rotor resistance and stand still leakage

reactance are 0.012 and 0.25 per phase respectively. Neglecting stator impedance and

magnesting current , determining :

(i).Rotor current at start with slip ring shorted (ii).The rotor P.F at start with slip ring

shorted(iii).The rotor current at 4% slip with slip ring shorted(iv).The rotor power factor at

4% slip with slip ring shorted(v).The external rotor resistance per phase required to obtain a

starting current of 100A in the stator supply lines.

Data : V,=1100V, f=50Hz, K =1/3.8 =0.263,R2=0.012, X2=0.25

Solution :Here , stator is delta connected and rotor is star connected. The stator phase voltage is the

same as the line voltage . The rotor phase voltage is found out from by using phase transformation

ratio K.

E2ph=1100 * 0.263 = 289.3 V,I2 = E2ph / Z2 = 289.3/(0.012)^2+(0.25)^2) = 1157.2 A

cos = R2/Z2 = 0.012/(0.012)^2+(0.25)^2 = 0.048 lagging

I2r = sE2/Z2r = sE2/R2^2+(sX2)^2 = 0.04*289.3/(0.012)^2+(0.04*0.25)^2 = 742A

cos = R2/Z2r = 0.012/(0.012)^2+(0.04*0.25)^2 = 0.77(lagging)

The external rotor resistance per phase:I2 = I1/K = 100/0.263 = 380.2A,E2 = 289.3V,

Z2 = E2/I2 = 289.3/380.2 = 0.761,R2 = Z2^2 X2^2 = (0.761)^2+(0.25)^2 = 0.719

therefore ., External resistance required / phase r = 0.719 0.012 = 0.707

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 125

Instructional Objectives

Why there is no starting torque in a single-phase induction motor with one (main) winding in the

stator?

Various starting methods used in the single-phase induction motors, with the introduction of

additional features, like the addition of another winding in the stator, and/or capacitor in series with it.

5.1. Introduction.

As the name suggests, these motors are used on single-phase supply. Single phase motors are

the most familiar of all electric motors because they are extensively used in home appliances, shops,

offices, small toys, hairdryers, small fans etc. It is true that single phase motors are less efficient

substitute for 3-phase motors but 3-phase power is normally not available except in large commercial

and industrial establishments. Since electric power was originally generated and distributed for

lighting only, millions of homes were given single-phase supply. This led to the development of

single-phase motors. Even where 3-phase mains are present, the single-phase supply may be obtained

by using one of the three lines and the neutral. In this chapter, we shall focus our attention on the

construction, working and characteristics of commonly used single-phase motors.

5.2.Single-PhaseInductionMotorsConstruction-Principle of operation.

A single phase induction motor is very

similar to a 3-phase squirrel cage induction motor.

It has (i) a squirrel-cage rotor identical to a 3phase motor and (ii) a single-phase winding on the stator. Unlike a

3-phase induction motor, a single-phase induction motor is not self

starting but requires some starting means. The single-phase stator

winding produces a magnetic field that pulsates in strength in a

sinusoidal manner. The field polarity reverses after each half cycle

but the field does not rotate. Consequently, the alternating flux

cannot produce rotation in a stationary squirrel-cage rotor. However, if the rotor of a single-phase

motor is rotated in one direction by some mechanical means, it will continue to run in the direction of

rotation. The rotor quickly accelerates until it reaches a speed slightly below the synchronous speed.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 126

Once the motor is running at this speed, it will continue to rotate even though single-phase current is

flowing through the stator winding. This method of starting is generally not convenient for large

motors. Nor can it be employed for a motor located at some inaccessible spot.

Fig. (5.1) shows single-phase induction motor having a squirrel cage rotor and a single phase

distributed stator winding. Such a motor inherently does not develop any starting torque and,

therefore, will not start to rotate if the stator winding is connected to single-phase a.c. supply.

However, if the rotor is started by auxiliary means, the motor will quickly attain the

final speed. This strange behavior of single-phase induction motor can be explained on the basis of

(i)double-field revolving theory (ii)Cross field theory.

5.3. Double-Field Revolving Theory-Why 1 IM is not self starting.

The double-field revolving theory is proposed to explain why no torque at start and yet torque once

rotated. This theory is based on the fact that an alternating sinusoidal flux ( =

cos t) can be

represented by two revolving fluxes, each equal to one-half of the maximum value of alternating flux

(i.e.,

m/2)

above statement will now be proved. The instantaneous value of flux due to the stator current of a

single-phase induction motor is given by; =

Consider two rotating magnetic fluxes

and

cos t.

2.

each of magnitude

m/2

Let the two fluxes start rotating from OX axis at t = 0. After time t seconds,

the angle through which the flux vectors have rotated

is t. Resolving the flux vectors along-X-axis and Y-axis, we have,

Total X-component=

m/2

cos t +

Total Y-component=

m/2

sin t -

m/2

m/2

cos t =

sin t = 0.[clockwise+,anticlockwise-ve]

cos t.

replaced by two relating fields of half its amplitude rotating in opposite directions at synchronous

speed. Note that the resultant vector of two revolving flux vectors is a stationary vector that oscillates

in length with time along X-axis.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 127

When the rotating flux vectors are in phase [See Fig.(5.3 (i))], the resultant vector is =

m;

when out

Alternative explanation:

Let us explain the operation of single-phase induction motor by

double-field revolving theory.

(i) Rotor at standstill.

Consider the case that the rotor is stationary and the stator winding is connected to a single-phase

supply. The alternating flux produced by the stator winding can be presented as the sum of two

rotating fluxes

and

2,

each equal to one half of the maximum value of alternating flux and each

rotating at synchronous speed (Ns = 120 f/P) in opposite directions as shown in Fig. (5.4 (i)). Let the

flux

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

will result in

Page 128

torque T2 In the clockwise direction. At standstill, these two torques are equal and opposite and the

net torque developed is zero. Therefore, single-phase induction motor is not self-starting. This fact is

illustrated in Fig. (5.4 (ii)). Note that each rotating field tends to drive the rotor in the direction in

which the field rotates. Thus the point of zero slip for one field corresponds to 200% slip for the other

as explained later. The value of 100% slip (standstill condition) is the same for both the fields.

Now assume that the rotor is started by spinning the rotor or by using auxiliary circuit, in say

clockwise direction. The flux rotating in the clockwise direction is the forward rotating flux ( f) and

that in the other direction is the backward rotating flux ( b). The slip w.r.t. the forward flux will be,

sf=(Ns-N)/Ns=s. where Ns = synchronous speed, N = speed of rotor in the direction of forward

flux.The rotor rotates opposite to the rotation of the backward flux. Therefore, the

slip w.r.t. the backward flux will be,

sb=[Ns-(-N)]/Ns =(Ns+N)/Ns=(2Ns Ns+N)/Ns =2Ns/Ns-(Ns-N)/Ns =2-s; sb=2-s.

Thus the forward rotating flux, slip is s (less than unity) and for backward rotating flux, the slip is 2 s (greater than unity). Since for usual rotor resistance/reactance ratios, the torques at slips of less than

unity are greater than those at slips of more than unity, the resultant torque will be in the direction of

the rotation of the forward flux. Thus if the motor is once started, it will develop

net torque in the direction in which it has been started and will function as a motor.

(ii).Cross-field theory.

Consider a single phase induction motor with standstill rotor as shown in the Fig. 1. The stator

winding is excited by the single phase a.c. supply. This supply produces an alternating flux s which

acts along the axis of the stator winding. Due to this flux, e.m.f., gets induced in the rotor conductors

due to transformer action. As rotor is closed one, this e.m.f. circulates current through the rotor

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 129

conductors. The direction of the rotor current is as shown in the Fig. 1. The direction of rotor current

is so as to oppose the cause producing it, which is stator flux s.

Now Fleming's left hand rule can be used to find the direction of the force experienced by the rotor

conductors. It can be seen that when s acts in upward direction and increasing positively, the

conductors on left experience force from left to right while conductors on right experience force from

right to left. Thus overall, the force experienced by the rotor is zero. Hence no torque exists on the

rotor and rotor ca not start rotating.

We have seen that there must exist two fluxes separated by some angle so as to produce rotating

magnetic field. According to cross field theory, the stator flux can be resolved into two components

which are mutually perpendicular. One acts along axis of the stator winding and other acts

perpendicular to it.

Assume now that an initial push is given to the rotor anticlockwise direction. Due to the rotation,

rotor physically cuts the stator flux and dynamically e.m.f. gets induced in the rotor. This is called

speed e.m.f. or rotational e.m.f. The direction of such e.m.f. can be obtained by Fleming's right hand

rule and this e.m.f. in phase with the stator flux s. The direction of e.m.f. is shown in the Fig. 2. This

e.m.f. us denoted as E2N. This e.m.f. circulates current through rotor which is I2N. This current

produces its own flux called rotor flux r. This axis of r is at 90o to the axis of stator flux hence this

rotor flux is called cross-field.Due to very high rotor reactance, the rotor current I2N and r lags the

rotational e.m.f. by almost 90o .

Thus r is in quadrature with s in space and lags s by 90o in time phase. Such two fluxes

produce the rotating magnetic field.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 130

The direction of this rotating magnetic field will be same as the direction of the initial push

given. Thus rotor experiences a torque in the same direction as that of rotating magnetic field i.e. the

direction of initial push. So rotor accelerates in the anticlockwise direction under the case considered

and attains a sub synchronous speed in the steady state.

5.5. Making Single-Phase Induction Motor Self-Starting.

The single-phase induction motor is not self starting. To make a single-phase induction motor selfstarting, we should somehow produce a revolving stator

magnetic field. This may be achieved by converting a singlephase supply into two-phase supply through the use of an

additional winding.

When the motor attains sufficient speed, the starting means

(i.e., additional winding) may be removed depending upon the

type of the motor. Single-phase induction motors are classified

and named according to the method employed to make them

self-starting.

(i). Split-phase motors-started by two phase motor action through the use of an auxiliary or starting

winding.

(ii) Capacitor motors-started by two-phase motor action through the use of an auxiliary

winding and a capacitor.

(iii) Shaded-pole motors-started by the motion of the magnetic field produced by means of a

shading coil around a portion of the pole structure.

5.2 Types of Single-Phase Motors

Single-phase motors are generally built in the fractional-horsepower range and may be

classified into the following four basic types:

1. Single-phase induction motors

(i) split-phase type (ii) capacitor type (iii) shaded-pole type .

2. A.C. series motor or universal motor.3. Repulsion motors

(i) Repulsion-start induction-run motor.(ii) Repulsion-induction motor

4. Synchronous motors:(i) Reluctance motor (ii) Hysteresis motor

5.6. Resistance-Split-Phase Induction Motor.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 131

The stator of a split-phase induction motor is provided with an auxiliary or starting winding S in

addition to the main or running winding M. The starting winding is located 90 electrical from the

main winding [See Fig. (i)] and operates only during the brief period when the motor starts up. The

two windings are so

designed that the starting

winding S has a high

resistance and

relatively small reactance

while the main winding M

has relatively low resistance

and large reactance as shown

in the schematic connections in

Fig. (ii). Consequently, the

currents flowing in the two

windings have reasonable phase

difference c (25 to 30) as

shown in the phasor diagram in

Fig. (iii).

Operation

(i) When the two stator windings are energized from a single-phase supply, the main winding carries

current Im while the starting winding carries current Is.

(ii) Since main winding is made highly inductive while the starting winding highly resistive, the

currents Im and Is have a reasonable phase angle (25 to 30) between them as shown in Fig. (iii).

Consequently, a weak revolving field approximating to that of a 2-phase machine is produced which

starts the motor. The starting torque is given by;

Ts = kIm Is sin.

where k is a constant whose magnitude depends upon the design of the motor.

(iii) When the motor reaches about 75% of synchronous speed, the centrifugal switch opens the

circuit of the starting winding. The motor then operates as a single-phase induction motor and

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 132

continues to accelerate till it reaches the normal speed. The normal speed of the motor is below the

synchronous speed and depends upon the load on the motor.

Characteristics.

(i).The starting torque is 1.5 to 2 times the full-load torque ie starting current is 6 to 8 times the fullload current.

(ii). Due to their low cost, split-phase induction motors are most popular single phase motors in the

market.

(iii). Since the starting winding is made of fine wire, the current density is high and the winding

heats up quickly. If the starting period exceeds 5 seconds, the winding may burn out unless the motor

is protected by built-in-thermal relay. This motor is, therefore, suitable where starting periods are not

frequent.

(iv) An important characteristic of these motors is that they are essentially constant-speed motors.

The speed variation is 2-5% from no-load to fullload.

(v) These motors are suitable where a moderate starting torque is required and where starting periods

are infrequent e.g., to drive: (a) fans (b) washing machines (c) oil burners (d) small machine tools etc.

The power rating of such motors generally lies between 60 W and 250 W.

Note: The direction of rotation is reversed by reversing the terminals of any one of two windings, but

not both, before connecting the motor to the supply terminals. This motor is used in applications, such

as fan, saw, small lathe, centrifugal pump, blower, office equipment, washing machine, etc.

5.7.Capacitor Split-phase Motor .

The resistance split IM, is a simple one, requiring only second (auxiliary) winding placed at a space

angle from the main winding. It does not need any other thing, except for centrifugal switch, as the

auxiliary winding is used as a starting winding. But the main problem is

low starting torque in the motor. To get high starting torque, the phase difference required is 90.

This can be can be achieved by having a capacitor in series with the

auxiliary winding, which results in additional cost, with the increase

in starting torque, The two types of such motors are described here.

(i).Capacitor-start motor.

The circuit diagram of this

motor is given in Fig. A

capacitor along with a

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 133

centrifugal switch is connected in series with the auxiliary winding, which is being used here as a

starting winding. The capacitor may be rated only for intermittent duty, the cost of which decreases,

as it is used only at the time of starting. The function of the centrifugal switch is to disconnect the

auxiliary winding after the motor attains 75%of normal speed. The phasor diagram of two currents

and the torque-speed characteristics of the motor with/without auxiliary winding, are shown in Fig.

This motor is used in applications, such as compressor, conveyor, machine tool drive, refrigeration

and air-conditioning equipment, etc.

The power rating of such motors lies between 120 W and 7-5 kW.

(ii).Capacitor-start and Capacitor-run Motor

In this motor two capacitors Cs for starting, and Cr for running,

are used. The first capacitor is rated for intermittent duty, being

used only for starting. A centrifugal switch is also needed here.

The second one is to be rated for continuous duty, as it is used for running. The phasor diagram of

two currents in both cases, and the torque-speed characteristics with two windings having different

values of capacitors, are shown in Fig. The phase difference between the two currents is (

second case (running). In the second case, the motor is a

balanced two phase one, the two windings having same

number of turns and other conditions as given earlier, are

also satisfied. So, only the forward rotating field is present,

and the no backward rotating field exists. The efficiency of

the motor under this condition is higher. Hence, using two

capacitors, the performance of the motor improves both at the time of starting and then running. This

motor is used in applications, such as compressor, refrigerator, etc.

Beside the above two types of motors, a Permanent Capacitor Motor with the same capacitor being

utilised for both starting and running, is also used. The power factor of this motor, when it is

operating (running), is high. The operation is also quiet and smooth. This motor is used in

applications, such as ceiling fans, air circulator, blower, etc.

5.8.Shaded-Pole Motor.

The shaded-pole motor is very popular for ratings below 0.05

H.P. (~ 40 W) because of its extremely simple construction. It

has salient poles on the stator excited by single-phase supply

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 134

and a squirrelcage rotor as shown in Fig. A portion of each pole is surrounded by a short-circuited

turn of copper strip called shading coil.

Operation

The operation of the motor can be understood by referring to Fig.(i).which shows one pole of the

motor with a shading coil.

(i) During the portion OA of the alternating-current cycle , the flux begins to increase and an e.m.f. is

induced in the shading coil. The resulting current in the shading coil will be in such a direction

(Lenzs law) so as to oppose the change in flux. Thus the flux in the shaded portion of the pole is

weakened while that in the unshaded portion is strengthened as shown in Fig. (ii).

(ii) During the portion AB of the alternating-current cycle, the flux has reached

almost maximum value and is not changing. Consequently, the flux distribution across the pole is

uniform [See Fig. (iii)] since no current is flowing in the shading coil. As the flux decreases (portion

BC of the alternating current cycle), current is induced in the shading coil so as to oppose the

decrease in current. Thus the flux in the shaded portion of the pole is strengthened while that in the

unshaded portion is weakened as

shown in Fig. (iv).

(iii) The effect of the shading coil is

to cause the field flux to shift across

the pole face from the unshaded to

the shaded portion. This shifting flux

is like a rotating weak field moving

in the direction from unshaded

portion to the shaded portion of the

pole.

(iv) The rotor is of the squirrel-cage type and is under the influence of this moving field.

Consequently, a small starting torque is developed. As soon as this torque starts to revolve the rotor,

additional torque is produced by single-phase induction-motor action. The motor accelerates to a

speed slightly below the synchronous speed and runs as a single-phase induction motor.

Characteristics.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 135

(i) The salient features of this motor are extremely simple construction and absence of centrifugal

switch.

(ii) Since starting torque, efficiency and power factor are very low, these motors are only suitable for

low power applications e.g., to drive:

(a) small fans (6) toys (c) hair driers (d) desk fans etc.

The power rating of such motors is upto about 30 W.

Note:The reversal of the direction of rotation, where desired, can be achieved by providing two

shading coils, one on each end of every pole, and by open-circuiting one set of shading coils and by

short-circuiting the other set.

The fact that the shaded-pole motor is single-winding (no auxiliary winding) self-starting one, makes

it less costly and results in rugged construction. The motor has low efficiency and is usually available

in a range of 1/300 to 1/20 kW. It is used for domestic fans, record players and tape recorders,

humidifiers, slide projectors, small business machines, etc. The shaded-pole principle is used in

starting electric clocks and other single-phase synchronous timing motors.

5.9. Equivalent Circuit of Single-Phase Induction Motor.

When the stator of a single-phase induction motor is connected to single-phase supply, the stator

current produces a pulsating flux that is equivalent to two-constant-amplitude fluxes revolving in

opposite directions at the synchronous speed (double-field revolving theory). Each of these fluxes

induces currents in the rotor circuit and produces induction motor action similar to that in a 3-phase

induction motor. Therefore, a single-phase induction motor imagined to be consisting of two motors,

having a common stator winding but with their respective rotors revolving in opposite directions.

Each rotor has resistance and reactance half the actual rotor values.

Let R1 = resistance of stator winding;X1 = leakage reactance of stator winding

Xm = total magnetizing reactance ;R'2 = resistance of the rotor referred to the stator

X'2 = leakage reactance of the rotor referred to the stator revolving theory.

(i) At standstill. At standstill, the motor is simply a transformer with its secondary short-circuited.

Therefore, the equivalent circuit of single-phase motor at standstill will be as shown in Fig. The

double-field revolving theory suggests that characteristics associated with each

revolving field will be just one-half of the characteristics associated with the actual total flux.

Therefore, each rotor has resistance and reactance equal to R'2/2 and X'2/2 respectively.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 136

Each rotor is associated with half the total magnetizing reactance. Note that in the equivalent circuit,

the core loss has been neglected. However, core loss can be represented by an

equivalent resistance in parallel with the

magnetizing reactance.

Now,Ef =4.44fN f ;

Ef =4.44fN

b.

At stand still, f=

Ef =Eb.

V1 =Ef + Eb = I1Zf + I1Zb.

where Zf = impedance of forward parallel

branch.

Zb = impedance of backward parallel branch.

(ii) Rotor running. Now consider that the motor is running at some speed in the direction of the

forward revolving field, the slip being s. The rotor current produced by the forward field will have a

frequency sf where f is the stator frequency. Also, the rotor current produced by the backward field

will have a frequency of (2 - s)f. Fig. shows the equivalent circuit of a single-phase induction motor

when the rotor is rotating at slip s.

Note:Here the single phase IM has been assumed to be made of (i).one stator winding (ii).Two

imaginary rotor.

Let,Z1=R1+jX1;R1=stator resistance,X1 =stator reactance.

Zf =jxm[r2/s +jx2]/[(r2/s)+j(xm+x2)] =forward impedance and runs with a slip s.

Zb= jxm[r2/(2-s) +jx2]/[(r2/(2-s)+j(xm+x2)] =backward impedance and runs with a slip (2-s).

Here r2=R2/2;x2=X2/2;Xm=xm/2.

Under stand still condition,Vf=Vb;under running condition,Vf=(92 to 95% )of V.

Total circuit impedance,Z01=Z1+Zf+Zb;Motor current,I1=V/Z01;

Vf=I1Zf ; ;Vb=I1Zb ;Let I3=Vf/Z3 ;Z3=[(r2/s)2+x22];I5=Vb/Z5 ;where Z5=[{(r2/(2-s)}2+x22].

Tf=I32(r2/s); Tb=I52[r2/(2-s)];Net torque,T=Tf Tb.

Output in synchronous watts,Ps=T(1-s).

Note:If core,friction and windage loss is given,Po =T(1-s) {PI +PFW}

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 137

5.1.Find the mechanical power output at a slip of 0.05 of the 185Watts, 4 pole,110V,60Hz,1 IM

whose constants are given below,

Resistance of stator main winding =1.86, Reactance of stator main winding =2.56,

Magnetizing reactance of stator main winding =53.5, Rotor resistance at standstill =3.56,

Rotor reactance at standstill =2.56.

Data: s=0.05,Po=185Watts,p=4,V=110V,f=60Hz,1 IM,R1=1.86,X1=2.56,

Xm=53.5,

xm=Xm/2;R2=3.56,

r2 =R2/2; X2=2.56.

Vf=I1Zf ; ;Vb=I1Zb; Z01=Z1+Zf+Zb;I1=V/Z01;

Zf =jxm[r2/s +jx2]/[(r2/s)+j(xm+x2)]=21[53.8] =(12.4 +j16.98).

Zb= jxm[r2/(2-s) +jx2]/[(r2/(2-s)+j(xm+x2)]=1.5[56.3]=(0.83+j1.25).;Z1=(1.86+j20.8)

Z01= Z01=Z1+Zf+Zb=(15.1+j20.8) =25.7[54]. I1=V/Z01=4.3[-54]A= (2.51-j3.46)A;

Vf=I1Zf=90[-0.18].V ;Vb= I1Zb=6.4[2.34].

Z3=[(r2/s)2+x22]=35.6 ; Z5=[{(r2/(2-s)}2+x22] =1.59.

I3=Vf/Z3 =2.5[-0.18]A; I5=Vb/Z5 =4[2.34]A;

Tf=I32(r2/s)=227N-m.; Tb=I52[r2/(2-s)]=14.8N-m;Net torque,

T=Tf Tb =212N-m.Ps=T(1-s)=201Watts.

5.10.A.C. Series Motor or Universal Motor.

A d.c. series motor will rotate in the same direction regardless of the

polarity of the supply. A d.c. series motor would also operate on a singlephase supply. It is then called an a.c. series motor. However, some changes must be made in a d.c.

motor that is to operate satisfactorily on a.c. supply. The changes effected are:

(i) The entire magnetic circuit is laminated in order to reduce the eddy current loss. Hence an a.c.

series motor requires a more expensive construction than a d.c. series motor.

(ii) The series field winding has few turns to reduce the reactance of the field winding to a minimum.

This reduces the voltage drop across the field winding.

(iii) A high field flux is obtained by using a low- reluctance magnetic circuit.

(iv) There is considerable sparking between the brushes and the

Commutator when the motor is used on a.c. supply. It is because the

alternating flux establishes high currents in the coils short-circuited by

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 138

the brushes. When the short-circuited coils break contact from the commutator, excessive sparking is

produced. This can be eliminated by using high-resistance leads to connect the coils to the

commutator segments.

Construction.

The construction of en a.c. series motor is very similar to a d.c. series motor except that above

modifications are incorporated. Such a motor can be operated either on a.c. or d.c.

supply and the resulting torque-speed curve is about the same in each case. For this

reason, it is sometimes called a universal motor.

Operation.

When the motor is connected to an a.c. supply, the same alternating current flows through the field

and armature windings.The field winding produces an alternating flux that reacts with the current

flowing inthe armature to produce a torque. Since both armature current and flux reverse

simultaneously, the torque always acts in the same direction. It may be noted that no rotating flux is

produced in this type of machines; the principle of operation is the same as that of a d.c. series motor.

Characteristics.

The operating characteristics of an a.c. series motor are similar to those of a d.c.series motor.

(i) The speed increases to a high value with a decrease in load. In very small series motors, the losses

are usually large enough at no load that limit the speed to a definite value (1500 - 15,000 r.p.m.).

(ii) The motor torque is high for large armature currents, thus giving a high starting torque.

(iii) At full-load, the power factor is about 90%. However, at starting or when carrying an overload,

the power factor is lower.

Applications.

The fractional horsepower a.c. series motors have high-speed (and corresponding small size) and

large starting torque. They can, therefore, be used to drive:

(a) high-speed vacuum cleaners (b) sewing machines (c) electric shavers (d) drills

(e) machine tools etc.

5.11. Repulsion Motor.

A repulsion motor is similar to an a.c. series motor except that:

(i) brushes are not connected to supply, but are short-circuited . Consequently, currents are induced in

the armature conductors by transformer action.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 139

(ii) the field structure has non-salient pole construction. By adjusting the position of short-circuited

brushes on the commutator, the starting torque can be developed in the motor.

Construction.

The field of stator winding is wound like the main winding of a split-phase motor and is connected

directly to a single-phase source. The armature or rotor is similar to a d.c. motor armature with drum

type winding connected to a commutator. However, the brushes are not connected to supply but are

connected to each other or short-circuited. Short-circuiting the

brushes effectively makes the rotor into a type of squirrel cage. The major difficulty with an ordinary

single-phase induction motor is the low starting torque. By using a commutator motor with brushes

short-circuited, it is possible to vary the starting torque by changing the brush axis. It has also better

power factor than the conventional single-phase motor.

Principle of operation.

The principle of operation is illustrated in Fig. which shows a two-pole repulsion motor with its two

short-circuited brushes. The two drawings of Fig. represent a time at which the field current is

increasing in the direction shown so that the left-hand pole is N-pole and the right-hand pole is S-pole

at the instant shown.

(i) In Fig.(i), the brush axis is parallel to the stator field. When the stator winding is energized from

single-phase supply, e.m.f. is induced in the armature conductors (rotor) by induction. By Lenzs law,

the direction of the e.m.f. is such that the magnetic effect of the resulting armature

currents will oppose the increase in flux. The direction of current in armature conductors will be as

shown in Fig.(i). With the brush axis in the position shown in Fig.(i),current will flow from brush B

to brush A where it enters the armature and flows back to brush B through the two paths ACB and

ADB. With brushes set in this position, half of the armature conductors under the N-pole carry

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 140

current inward and half carry current outward. The same is true under S-pole. Therefore, as much

torque is developed in one direction as in the other and the armature remains

stationary. The armature will also remain stationary if the brush axis is perpendicular to the stator

field axis.

(ii) If the brush axis is at some angle other than 0 or 90 to the axis of the stator field, a net torque is

developed on the rotor and the rotor accelerates to its final speed. Fig. (ii) represents the motor at the

same instant as that in Fig.(i) but the brushes have been shifted clockwise through

some angle from the stator field axis. Now e.m.f. is still induced in the direction indicated in Fig. (i)

and current flows through the two paths of the armature winding from brush A to brush B. However,

because of the new brush positions, the greater part of the conductors under the Npole

carry current in one direction while the greater part of conductors under S-pole carry current in the

opposite direction. With brushes in the position shown in Fig. (ii), torque is developed in the

clockwise direction and the rotor quickly attains the final speed.

(iii) The direction of rotation of the rotor

depends upon the direction in which

the brushes are shifted. If the brushes

are shifted in clockwise direction

from the stator field axis, the net

torque acts in the clockwise direction and the rotor

accelerates in the clockwise direction. If the brushes are shifted in anti-clockwise direction as in

Fig.(iii). the armature current under the pole faces is reversed and the net torque is developed in the

anti-clockwise direction.Thus a repulsion motor may be made to rotate in either direction depending

upon the direction in which the brushes are shifted.

(iv) The total armature torque in a repulsion motor can be shown to be ,Ta sin 2.

where = angle between brush axis and stator field axis.

For maximum torque, 2 = 90 or = 45.

Thus adjusting a to 45 at starting, maximum torque can be obtained during the starting period.

However, a has to be adjusted to give a suitable running speed.

Characteristics

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 141

(i) The repulsion motor has characteristics very similar to those of an a.c. series motor i.e., it has a

high starting torque and a high speed at no load.

(ii) The speed which the repulsion motor develops for any given load will depend upon the position

of the brushes.

(iii) In comparison with other single-phase motors, the repulsion motor has a high starring torque and

relatively low starting current.

5.12.Reluctance Motor.

It is a single-phase synchronous motor which does not

require d.c. excitation to the rotor. Its operation is based

upon the following principle:

Whenever a piece of ferromagnetic material is located in

a magnetic field; a force is exerted on the material,

tending to align the material so that reluctance of the magnetic path that passes through the material is

minimum.

Construction.

A reluctance motor (also called synchronous reluctance motor) consists of:

(i) a stator carrying a single-phase winding along with an auxiliary winding to produce a

synchronous-revolving magnetic field.

(ii) a squirrel-cage rotor having unsymmetrical magnetic construction. This is achieved by

symmetrically removing some of the teeth from the squirrel cage rotor to produce salient poles on the

rotor. As shown in Fig. (i),4 salient poles have been produced on me stator. The salient poles created

on the rotor must be equal to the poles on the stator.

Note that rotor salient poles offer low reluctance to the stator flux and, therefore, become strongly

magnetized.

Operation.

(i) When single-phase stator having an auxiliary winding is energized, a synchronously-revolving

field is produced. The motor starts as a standard squirrel-cage induction motor and will accelerate to

near its synchronous speed.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 142

(ii) As the rotor approaches synchronous speed, the rotating stator flux will exert reluctance torque on

the rotor poles tending to align the salient-pole axis with the axis of the rotating field. The rotor

assumes a position where its salient poles lock with the poles of the revolving field .

Consequently, the motor will continue to run at the speed of revolving flux i.e., at the synchronous

speed.

(iii) When we apply a mechanical load, the rotor poles fall slightly behind the stator poles, while

continuing to turn at synchronous speed. As the load on the motor is increased, the mechanical angle

between the poles increases progressively. Nevertheless, magnetic attraction keeps the rotor locked to

the rotating flux. If the load is increased beyond the amount under which

the reluctance torque can maintain synchronous speed, the rotor drops out of step with the revolving

field. The speed, then, drops to some value at which the slip is sufficient to develop the necessary

torque to drive the load by induction-motor action.

Characteristics.

(i) These motors have poor torque, power factor and efficiency.

(ii) These motors cannot accelerate high-inertia loads to synchronous speed.

(iii) The pull-in and pull-out torques of such motors are weak.

Despite the above drawbacks, the reluctance motor is cheaper than any other

type of synchronous motor. They are widely used for constant-speed

applications such as timing devices, signaling devices etc.

5.13.Hysteresis Motor.

It is a single-phase motor whose operation depends upon the hysteresis effect i.e., magnetization

produced in a ferromagnetic material lags behind the magnetizing force.

Construction :

It consists of:(i) a stator designed to produce a synchronously-revolving field from a single-phase

supply. This is accomplished by using permanent-split capacitor type construction. Consequently,

both the windings (i.e., starting as well as main winding) remain connected in the circuit during

running operation as well as at starting. The value of capacitance is so adjusted as to result in a flux

revolving at synchronous speed.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 143

magnetically hard steel, without winding or

teeth.

Operation.

(i) When the stator is energized from a

single-phase supply, a synchronously

revolving field (assumed in anti-clockwise

direction) is produced due to split-phase

operation.

(ii) The revolving stator flux magnetizes the

rotor. Due to hysteresis effect, the axis of

magnetization of rotor will lag behind the

axis of stator field by hysteresis lag angle a as shown in Fig. Thus the rotor and stator

poles are locked. If the rotor is stationary, the starting torque produced is given by:

Ts

sin where

= stator flux.

= rotor flux.

From now onwards, the rotor accelerates to synchronous speed with a uniform torque.

(iii) After reaching synchronism, the motor continues to run at synchronous speed and adjusts its

torque angle so as to develop the torque required by the load.

Characteristics

(i) A hysteresis motor can synchronize any load which it can accelerate, no matter how great the

inertia. It is because the torque is uniform from standstill to synchronous speed.

(ii) Since the rotor has no teeth or salient poles or winding, a hysteresis motor is inherently quiet and

produces smooth rotation of the load.

(iii) The rotor takes on the same number of poles as the stator field. Thus by changing the number of

stator poles through pole-changing connections,we can get a set of synchronous speeds for the motor.

Applications:Due to their quiet operation and ability to

drive high-inertia loads, hysteresis motors are particularly

well suited for driving (i) electric clocks (ii) timing devices

(iii) tape-decks (iv)from-tables and other precision audioequipment.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 144

A stepper motor is an electromechanical device which converts electrical pulses into discrete

mechanical movements. The shaft or spindle of a stepper motor rotates in discrete step increments

when electrical command pulses are applied to it in the proper sequence. The motors rotation has

several direct relationships to these applied input pulses. The sequence of the applied

pulses is directly related to the direction of motor shafts rotation. The speed of the motor shafts

rotation is directly related to the frequency of the input pulses

and the length of rotation is directly related to the number of

input pulses applied.

Switch A is closed, so this creates a north pole to attract the

south pole of the rotor. There are 2 options, either de-energize

the A switch and energize the B switch, or de-energize the A

switch and energize the C switch.

When a stepper motor increments, each increment is referred to

as a step.

Depending on the number of poles in the stator, a stepper motor has the ability to either full step, or

half step.Full stepping with a 4 pole stator is where 2 coils are energized at a time, so that the center

of the two poles is the center point of the step.

Stepper Motor Types

Variable-reluctance Permanent-magnet Hybrid.

VARIABLE RELUCTANCE

VR stepper motors have no permanent magnet, so the rotor spins freely without detent torque.

Torque output for a given frame size is restricted, although the torque-to-inertia ratio is good, and this

type of motor is used frequently in small sizes for applications such as micro- positioning tables. VR

motors are seldom used in industrial applications (having

no permanent magnet). They are not sensitive to current

polarity and require a different driving arrangement than

the other motor types.

PERMANENT MAGNET

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 145

PM motors have a permanent magnet in the rotor, giving it a detent torque, so it retains its

position when de-energized.

Also known as the tin can or canstack motor, it is the most widely used type in nonindustrial applications.

Low cost, low torque, and low speed, are suited to applications in fields such as computer

peripherals.

The motor construction results in relatively large step angles, but their simplicity lends itself

to economic high-volume production at a low cost.

The axial-air gap or disc motor is a variant of the permanent magnet design which achieves

higher performance, largely because of its very low rotor inertia.

This restricts the applications of the motor to those involving little inertia. (e.g., positioning

the print wheel in a daisy-wheel printer).

It is difficult to build small PM motors with many poles therefore the step sizes for PM motors

are usually large.

PM rotors are also bulkier and therefore these motors have higher inertia, and consequently,

they accelerate slower.

The maximum pulse rate is around 300 Hz.

HYBRID STEPPER MOTORS

Combination of VR and PM type motors.

Have a permanent magnet sandwiched between two soft iron armatures, so that all of one

armature is N biased and all of the other armature is S biased.

These two armatures are staggered in their construction, so that the incremental size the motor

is capable is very small.

One major benefit of a hybrid motor is the detent torque, like the PM steppers.

Ability to retain its position. (for precision movement)

Power can be saved by de-energizing the motor and re-energizing it when it needs to be used

again.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 146

Advantages

1. The rotation angle of the motor is proportional to the input pulse.

2. The motor has full torque at standstill (if the windings are energized)

3. Precise positioning and repeatability of movement since good stepper motors have an accuracy of 3

5% of a step and this error is non cumulative from one step to the next.

4. Excellent response to starting/ stopping/reversing.

5. Very reliable since there are no contact brushes in the motor. Therefore the life of the motor is

simply dependant on the life of the bearing.

6. The motors response to digital input pulses provides open-loop control, making the motor simpler

and less costly to control.

7. It is possible to achieve very low speed synchronous rotation with a load that is directly coupled to

the shaft.

8. A wide range of rotational speeds can be realized as the speed is proportional to the frequency of

the input pulses.

Size and Power

Size 11 stepper motor has a body diameter of approximately 1.1 inches.Likewise a size 23 stepper

motor has a body diameter of 2.3 inches (58 mm),etc.Power levels for IC-driven stepper motors

typically range from below a watt for very small motors up to 10 20 watts for larger motors.

Phases, Poles and Stepping Angles

It is the relationship between the number of rotor poles and the equivalent stator poles, and the

number the number of phases that determines the full-step angle of a stepper motor.

Step angle=360/N ;N=NPh x Ph ;NPh = number of rotor poles;Ph = Number of phases

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 147

Applications:(i).Paper feed motors in type writers and teleprinters(ii).positioning of print heads

(iii).pens in X-Y graphical plotters (iv).recording heads in computer disk drives (v).positioning of

work tables and tools in numerically controlled machining equipment.

5.15.No load & Blocked rotor test on 1 IM.

To determine the equivalent circuit parameters of 1 IM.ie,R1,X1,xm,r2,x2.

R1=Resistance of main winding. It can be measured using ammeter &Voltmeter method.

I.Blocked rotor test:

Rotor should be blocked from running.

Apply reduced voltage to the motor so that rated current flows through the main winding.

Auxiliary winding is kept opened during the test.

From the test,Wsc=Isc2RscRsc=Wsc/Isc2 ;Zsc=Vsc/Isc ;Rsc=Wsc/Isc2 ;Xsc=(Zsc2 Rsc2)

Also,Rsc =R1 + R2 ; R2 = Rsc -R1 ;Xsc =X1 +X2

Assuming that both reactances are equal ,ie,X1=X2 ; Xsc =2X1=2 X2.

X1=X2 = Xsc/2.

No load test:

The 1 IM is made to run at rated speed &rated voltage is applied. Readings are noted.

Zo=Vo/Io ;Ro=Wo/Io2 ; Xo=(Zo2 Ro2).

Also,Xo=X1+Xm/2 +X2/2 ;X1=X2=Xsc/2.

Sub. for X1&X2 in Xo ;Xo= X1+Xm/2 +X2/2=3Xsc/2 +Xm/2. ;Xm/2=Xo-3Xsc/2Xm=2Xo-3Xsc/2.

5.2 A 250V ,50Hz,single phase capacitor start Induction motor has the following constants for the

main winding and auxiliary windings.Main winding,Zm=(4.5+j3.7).,auxiliary winding

Za=(9.5+j3.5).Determine the value of the capacitor that will place the main and auxiliary winding

currents in quadrature at starting.

Let Xc=reactance of the capacitor connected in the auxiliary winding.

Za=(9.5+j3.5) ---without capacitor;= (9.5+j3.5-jXc)---with capacitor;

Zm=(4.5+j3.7)=5.8258 at an angle39.42.

Thus Im lags behind V by 39.42.Since , time phase angle between Im and Ia has to be 90,Ia must lead

V by an angle given by,a=90-39.42=50.58.

For auxiliary winding, tana=X/Rtan50.58=X/9.5X=11.55

We have,Xc-3.5=X Xc-3.5=11.55 Xc=15.05.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 148

Capacitive reactance,Xc=1/2fCC=211.4F.

2.What is the use of shading coil in the shaded pole motor?

3.Name the motors used in ceiling fan and in lathes.

4.Which type of single phase IM is to be selected for driving fans and blowers and why?

5.Draw the equivalent circuit of single phase induction motor.

6.Why centrifugal switches provided on many single phase induction motor?

7.Explain how the single phase induction motor is made self starting?

8.What is stepper motor?

9.What type of motor is used in computer drivers?

10.Determine the step angle of a single stack,4phase,6 pole stepper motor.

11.What are the classification of stepper motor?

12.Name the two theories regarding single phase induction motor.

13.What is the effect of increasing rotor resistance in a single phase induction motor?

14.What is split phase motor?

15.How is the direction of rotation of single phase induction motor reversed?

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 149

16.How does a capacitor start motor differ from a resistance start motor?

17.What happens to a capacitor start induction motor, if the auxiliary winding is left in the circuit

after it has been used to start the motor?

18.In a 2-phase capacitor motor, which capacitor is of fairly high value and to what order?

19.State the advantages of capacitor-run over capacitor start motor.

20.Name the motor being used in ceiling fan.

21.What is a shaded pole motor?In what direction do shaded pole motor turn?

22.State the applications of shaded pole single phase induction motor.

23.How can the a shaded pole motor be reversed in direction of rotation?

24.Whta is a Universal motor?How can the direction of rotation be reversed?

25.Why compensating winding is provided in a universal motor for ac operation?

26.What happens when the brush axis of a repulsion motor is aligned with its stator poleaxis?

27.A ceiling fan when switched on to a single phase supply does not start rotating.What may be the

reason?

28.Discuss the characteristics of single phase series motor.

29.What are the drawbacks of the presence of the backward rotating field in a SPIM?

30.What are the applications of reluctance motor.

Part-BGive,

constructional details,

MOTOR.

principle of operation,

2.CAPACITOR START .

RUN.

phasor diagram,

characteristics,

Torque-Speed characteristics,

advantages and disadvantages,

power rating,

Specific application and

method of reversal of rotation of

4.SHADED POLE

5.REPULSION MOTOR.

6.A.C.SERIES MOTOR.

7.UNIVERSAL MOTOR.

8.STEPPER MOTOR

9.HYSTERESIS MOTOR

10.RELUCTANCE MOTOR.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 150

31.Prove that a single phase motor winding when excited by a single phase supply produce two equal

and opposite revolving fields.

32.Explain why a single phase induction motor does not self start. Discuss its operation based on

double revolving field theory. Sketch and explain its torque slip characteristics.

33.Explain the constructional details and principle of operation of single phase induction motor.

34.Explain cross-field theory as applied to a single phase induction motor.

35.Find the mechanical power output at a slip of 0.05 of the 185 W,4 pole ,110V,60HZ,single phase

induction motor whose constants are given below.

Resistance of stator main winding=1.86,Reactance of stator main winding=2.56,Magnetising

reactance of the stator main winding=53.5,Rotor resistance at standstill =3.56,Rotor reactance at

standstill =2.56.[Ans201.5W].

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 151

K.L.N.College of Engineering.

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.

EE6504-ELECTRICAL MACHINES-II-[C305]

Assignment-I-.[Issue:06.07.2015,Submission:

CO

Questions

CO305.3

1 to 5

CO305.4

6 ,7

CO305.5

8 to 12

1. In a 6pole, 3phase, 50Hz induction motor with star connected rotor, the rotor resistance per

phase is 0.3, the reactance at stand still is 1.5/ph & emf between the slip rings on open

circuit is 175V. Calculate slip at the speed of 950 rpm, rotor emf /ph, rotor frequency &

reactance at this speed. (Ans: s=5%, f=2.5Hz, x2=.075)

2. An alternator of 8-pole runs at 750rpm and supplies power to a 6-pole induction motor which

has full-load slip of 3%.Find the full-load speed of induction motor and the frequency of its

rotor emf.(Ans:970rpm,1.5Hz)

3. A 3-phse star connected, 220V(line to line),50Hz,4-pole induction motor has the following

constants in ohm per phase referred to stator.

r1=0.29,r2=0.14,x1=0.5,x2=0.21 and magnetizing reactance xm

assumed to be constant at 400Watts.For a slip of 2%,compute(i).speed(ii).output torque (iii).stator

current of the motor .Neglect frictional and windage losses. (Ans:1,470rpm, 40Nm,21.5A)

4. A 3-phase, 400V induction motor gave the following test readings.

No-load:400V,1250W,9A;short circuit:150V,4kW,38A.Draw the circle diagram. If the normal rating

is 20.27hp,find from the circle diagram, the full load values of current, power factor and

slip.[Ans:15A,0.83,180%]

5. An induction motor has a double cage rotor with equivalent impedances at standstill of

6. Determine the starting torque of an induction motor interms of its full-load torque when

started by means of (i).star-delta starter and (ii) by an auto-transformer starter with 50% taps.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 152

The motor draws 5 times full load current when switched directly on line and has a full load

slip of 4%[1/3rd and 1/4th of Tf]

7. Calculate the steps in 5-section rotor for a 3-phase induction motor. The maximum starting

current =full load current. Full load slip=1.8% with rings shortcircuited. Rotor resistance per

1

3=0.0923,r4=0.0413,r5=0.0185]

8. Calculate the stepping angle for a 3phase ,24 pole permanent magnet type step motor(5)

9. A 4-pole,415 V,50 Hz, star connected , 3-phase induction motor has stator impedance of

(0.8 + j2.4) ohm per phase and equivalent standstill rotor impedance of (1.0 + j2.2)ohm per

phase. Find the maximum torque that the motor can develop and the slip at which it

occurs.[227.78rpm]

10. Find the mechanical power output at a slip of 0.05 of the 185 W,4 pole ,110V, 60HZ,single

phase induction motor whose constants are given below.

Resistance of stator main winding=1.86,Reactance of stator main

winding=2.56,Magnetising reactance of the stator main winding=53.5,Rotor resistance at

standstill =3.56,Rotor reactance at standstill =2.56.[Ans201.5W]

11. The equivalent impedances of the main and auxiliary windings in a capacitor motor are

(15+j22.5)

and (50+j120)

12. A 250 Watts, 230V,50Hz, single phase induction motor has the following constants for the

main and auxiliary windings. Main winding Zm

Zo

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 153

Degree/Program: B.E./EEE .course code&Name:EE 6504-Electrical Machines-IIDuration: July-October 2015.Semester:V

TUTORIAL PROBLEMS

Unit-I-Synchronous Generator.

1.1.

1.2.

1.3

1.4.

1.5.

1.6.

Calculate the number of poles required for generating frequency of 50Hz using a turbine

running at (a).3000 rpm (b).1000rpm (c).300 rpm and (d) 40 rpm.[Ans:2,6,20,150].

A 60Hz,1200 rpm, alternator is running at 1000.Calculate the frequency of the induced EMF.

[Ans:For 1200 rpm, p=6;for 1000 rpm ,f=50Hz]

Determine the pitch factors for the following windings.(i).36 stator slots, 4poles,coil span 1to

8;(ii).96 stator slots,6poles,coil span 1 to 12.[Ans:0.94,0.883].

A 3 phase 16 pole alternator has the following data. Number of slots=192,conductors/ slot=8,

coil span=160 electrical degrees, speed of the alternator=375 rpm; flux/pole=55mWb.Calculate

the phase and line voltages.[=180-160=20, Eph=2928V, EL=5106V.]

A 4 pole,50Hz,star connected alternator has a flux per pole of 0.12Wb.It has 4 slots per pole

per phase,conductors per slot being 4.If the winding coil span is 150,find the phase and line

emf.[n=12,S=48,Zph=48,Tph=32,Eph=788V,EL=1366V.]

A 3 phase star connected synchronous generator is rated at 1.5MVA,11KV.The armature

effective resistance and synchronous reactance are 1.2 and 25 respectively per

phase.Calculate the percentage voltage regulation for a load of 1.4375MVA at 0.8pf lagging

and (ii)0.8pf leading.Also find out the pf at which the regulation becomes zero.[ 21.6%,13.1%.,0.981(lead)]

1.7.

A 3 phase, star connected alternator is rated at 1600kVA,1350V has armature resistance and

synchronous reactance as 1.5,30 respectively per phase. Calculate voltage regulation for a

load of 1280kW at 0.8 pf leading.[Ans:IL=68A,E0=6859V,%VR=-1.21%]

T.1.8.The following test results are obtained for a 6600v alternator.

If(Amps)

16

25

37.5

50

70

Emf(Volts) 3100 4900 6600 7500 8300

A field current of 20A is found necessary to circulate full load current on short circuit of

armature. Calculate by (i).mmf (ii).emf method, full load regulation at 0.8pf (lagging).Neglect

armature resistance.Ans(i).mmf method:%R=14.8%.(ii).38.7%.

Unit-II-Synchronous Motor.

2.1

reactance per phase of 0.04 and 0.4 respectively. Compute for full load 0.8pf (lead), the

open circuit emf / phase and gross mechanical power developed. Assume full load efficiency

of 92%.[265Volts.(phase), 80.7kW.]

2.2.

A 2000V,3 phase ,star connected synchronous motor has an effective resistance and reactance

of 0.2 and 2.2 respectively. The input is 800kW at normal voltage and the emf(line) is

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 154

2500V.Calculate the line current and power factor of the load.[ 247.5A, 0.933]

2.3.

A 3phase 6600V,50Hz,star connected synchronous motor takes 50A current. The resistance

and reactance per phase are 1 and 20 respectively. Find the power supplied to the motor

and induced emf for a pf of (i)0.8pf lagging (ii)0.8 pf leading (iii).UPF. Draw the vector

diagram for each case.[ 457kW, 571kW, 4448.5V, 3891V]

2.4.

having pf 0.8 lag. If the combined load has p.f. 0.9 What is the value of leading kVAR

supplied by motor and at what p.f. it is working?[ 34.7 kVAR, cos S = 0.98]

Unit-III- Three phase induction Motor.

3.1.

T 3.1.A six pole induction motor is fed from 50Hz supply. If the frequency of the rotor emf at

full load is 2Hz,find the full load speed and slip.(960rpm,4%)

3.2.

A 3 IM,has 2 poles and is connected to 400V, 50Hz supply. Calculate the actual rotor speed

and rotor frequency when the slip is 4%.[2880rpm,2Hz]

3.3.

reactance at standstill is 1.5 per phase and emf between the slip rings on open circuit is

175V.Calculate the slip at a speed of 950rpm and rotor emf per phase, rotor frequency and

reactance at a speed of 950rpm.[5%,101V,0.075 ].

3.4.

3.5.

3.6.

3.7.

3.8.

A 6 pole,50Hz,3phase,slip ring induction motor has a resistance and reactance of 0.5 and 5

per phase respectively. Calculate (i).at what speed the torque is maximum?(ii).The ratio of

maximum to starting torque.(iii).What must be external resistance per to be added so that the

starting torque is half the maximum torque.[900rpm,5.05,18 ]

impedance of (0.2+j1.5) at standstill. Full load

torque is obtained at 360rpm.Calculate (i).Ratio of maximum to full load torque.(ii).speed for

maximum torque.(iii).Rotor resistance to be added to get Tmax.[1.82,331rpm, 0.13.]

The power input to r

emf make 90 complete cycles per minute. Calculate (i).slip (ii).The rotor speed (iii).rotor Cu

loss. (iv).mechanical power developed.[0.03,970rpm,1800W,58.2W]

A 25HP, 6 pole,50Hz induction motor has stator/rotor phase voltage ratio of 6/5.The stator

&rotor impedance per phase are (0.25+j0.75) and (0.173+j0.5) respectively. Find the

starting torque developed by the motor when external resistance of 1 inserted in each phase.

The motor being started directly on the 400V supply system. Assume Y-Y connection.[63Nm]

Draw the circle diagram for a 5.6KW,400V,3phase,4pole,50Hz,slip ring IM from the following

data.No load readings-400V,6A,pf = 0.087.SC test- 100V,12A,720watts. The ratio of primary

to secondary turns is 2.62,stator resistance per phase is 0.67 ohm and of the rotor is

0.185ohm.calculate (i)full load current (ii).full load slip (iii)full load pf,(iv).maximum torque

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 155

Unit-IV-Starting and Speed control of three phase induction motor

4.1.

starting current, if the starting resistance starter is used to reduce the impressed voltage to 60%

of normal. [Tst=0.45Tf]

4.2.

exceeding 3 times the full load current .The short circuit current is 5 times the full load current

and the full load slip is 5%.Estimate, also, the starting torque interms of the full load torque.

l=3If,Isc=5If,sf =5%.Find K,Tst/Tf.[0.77,0.75]

4.3.

85A,on direct switching (starting),find the ratio of Tst/Tf with star-delta starter. Full load

efficiency and pf of 88% and 0.85 respectively.[0.18]

4.4.

started by(i). star delta starter (ii).Auto-transformer starter with 50% tapping. The SC current

of motor is 5 times the full load current and the full load slip is 5%.[0.3125]

4.5.

4.6.

4.7.

5.1.

starting current is 2% with slip ring short circuited and the resistance per rotor phase is 0.02.

max=0.02,n=5,R2=0.02.To find ,r1,r2,r3,r4 &r5.[k=0.38, r1=0.62,r2=kr1=0.24,

r3=k2 r1=0.09, r4= k3 r1=0.034,r5= k4 r1=0.13.]

The rotor of a 4 pole 50Hz SRIM has a resistance of 0.3per phase and runs at 1440rpm at full

load. Calculate the external resistance/phase which must be added to lower the speed to

1320rpm, the torque being the same.[ 0.6.]

cascaded. The 6 pole motor

being connected to the main supply. Determine the frequency of the rotor current and slip

referred to each stator field, if the set has a slip of 2%.[20.6Hz,1Hz]

Unit-V-single phase induction motor and special machines

Fi

whose constants are given below,Resistance of stator main winding =1.86, Reactance of

stator main winding =2.56,Magnetizing reactance of stator main winding =53.5, Rotor

resistance at standstill =3.56, Rotor reactance at standstill =2.56.

5.2.

5.2 A 250V ,50Hz,single phase capacitor start Induction motor has the following constants for

the main winding and auxiliary windings.Main winding,Zm=(4.5+j3.7).,auxiliary winding

Za=(9.5+j3.5).Determine the value of the capacitor that will place the main and auxiliary

winding currents in quadrature at starting.[ C=211.4F.]

5.3.

5.3. Determine the step angle of a single stack,4phase,6 pole stepper motor.

KLNCE/EEE/SMK/EM-II-EE6504-July2015

Page 156

- Induction MachinesHochgeladen vonNitin Kaushik
- Role of Cooling on MV Motor DesignHochgeladen vonSUBRATA BISWAS
- GATE EE Solved Paper by RK KanodiaHochgeladen vonAravind Sampath
- IES OBJ Electrical Engineering 2001 Paper IIHochgeladen vonjiten
- power system analysis-iiHochgeladen vonSrinivasReddy
- MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF THE THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR USING SIMULINKHochgeladen vonÁron Fehér
- Electrical Machines-III Question BankHochgeladen vonsanthi
- Obj Electrical 2001Paper IIHochgeladen vonmuthusamyeee
- Machines EPM405A Presentation 06Hochgeladen vonIbrahim Ahmed
- Induction MotorHochgeladen vonyogacruise
- Synchronous MotorHochgeladen vonPraveen Ramesh Karnam
- Engineering CookbookHochgeladen vonJose Tabisi
- Www Brighthubengineering Com Hvac 74957 Starting Methods for Induction MotorsHochgeladen vonxyza304gmailcom
- EE 6352 ELECTRICAL ENGG. & INSTRUMNTATION (ECE III SEMESTER) UNIT III – INDUCTION MACHINES AND SPECIAL MACHINESHochgeladen vonRenold Elsen
- Induction MachinesHochgeladen vonsandyarajagopalan321
- Ece3414synchronous MachinesHochgeladen vonStephanie B. Tonio
- Ac GeneratorHochgeladen vonBhanu Mittal
- Generator AuxHochgeladen vonupendra35
- Siemens AC MotorsHochgeladen vonAnonymous BwLfvu
- 06__ISSN_1392-1215_The Air Gap and Angle Optimization in the Axial Flux Permanent Magnet MotorHochgeladen vonionutmiru
- Ngoyi Luka- Induction Machines MEng 26 May 2014Hochgeladen vonIzaiah Mulenga
- 2009729224344148767.pdfHochgeladen vonRojan Bhattarai
- Dynamic Modeling and Analysis of the Synchronous Generator in LM6000 GasHochgeladen vonraghavendran raghu
- b 737 TheoryHochgeladen vonkrikipad
- Ssc Je Paper 2016 electrical enggHochgeladen vonrvrsantosh
- (4) 05-Equivalent CircuitsHochgeladen vonAuli Syafira
- Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit Including the Stray Load Losses in the Machine Power Balance.pdfHochgeladen vonBaiceanu Floryn
- RAILWAY PROJECT.docxHochgeladen vonalankar123
- Objective.docxHochgeladen vonwan mastu
- ZS00019(Generator Data Sheet)Hochgeladen vonaqccc120

- RESUME RENUGAnew (1) (1)Hochgeladen vonnagu
- TicketHochgeladen vonnagu
- 238252169-2011-PhDCourse-SpecialElectricalMachines.pdfHochgeladen vonnagu
- Presentation 1Hochgeladen vonnagu
- exHochgeladen vonnagu
- 161303-NOL.docHochgeladen vonnagu
- ee1016Hochgeladen vonnagu
- BEEEfrntHochgeladen vonnagu
- Ibps Clerk Mains Capsule 2015 16Hochgeladen vonAnonymous lt2LFZH
- 117Hochgeladen vonnagu
- CongratulationHochgeladen vonnagu
- Photos News LetterHochgeladen vonnagu
- A4 Sheets Requirements.docxHochgeladen vonnagu
- ReadyHochgeladen vonnagu
- EE6303 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND APPLICATIONS.docxHochgeladen vonnagu
- Course File Front Page BeeeHochgeladen vonnagu

- Sjvn Question Paper With Answer-2013 for EeeHochgeladen vonSatnam Singh
- Jassal PhD Thesis FinalHochgeladen vonPopina Andrei
- IEEE Generator CapabilityHochgeladen vonPartha Sarathi Ganguly
- English GlossaryHochgeladen vonzero
- 2004 Microturbines BioenergyHochgeladen vonNestrami
- sem1_2-_basic-electrical_engineering_unit_1_2_3_4_5_6_7_8.pdfHochgeladen vonAiswarya Rejo
- 1-phase Ind Motor.pdfHochgeladen vonAhmed M H Al-Yousif
- s-1463Hochgeladen vonOscar Fernando Guerrero Romero
- Basic ElectriHochgeladen vonSuman Karmakar
- Ee6365 Electrical Engineering Lab ManualHochgeladen vonN R GOVINTHASAMY
- Enertec DG Control ModuleHochgeladen vonmrashid286
- Micro-Hydro Power Systems_NEWHochgeladen vonAnonymous NV73Jhe
- MetHochgeladen vonPandiya Rajan
- Kholopov Harm Pract1Hochgeladen vonMiljan Pajovic
- PDT226G1Hochgeladen vonganesh_d2k6
- Seminar TopicHochgeladen vonVeera Anju
- Flight Reference Cards BulldogHochgeladen vonGraham Waterfield
- 305737684-KTA-19-Parts-Catalogue.pdfHochgeladen vonArgee Padauan
- MSS200Hochgeladen vonamr abdelkarim
- alternador delfoHochgeladen vonJesi Rulli
- Power System Operation and ControlHochgeladen vonadam sharma
- LAB SHEET Electric MachineHochgeladen vonDhiyauZola
- IIT DC MachinesHochgeladen vonVasudev Agrawal
- 0045-ff-005312Hochgeladen vonh_derghal1011
- KG934V1 21-25Hochgeladen vonNiten Gupta
- Introduction to Synchronizing _ Automatic Synchronizing _ Considerations and Applications _ BASLER ELECTRIC COMPANYHochgeladen vonGilberto Pantoja
- MCQS (AutoRecovered)Hochgeladen vonlovelyosmile253
- RDSO vendor1Hochgeladen vonadarshietk
- EE153-Quiz4Hochgeladen vonAldrin Padua
- caterpillar-3306-engine-service-manual-sn-3n.pdfHochgeladen vonrayendra

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.