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TITLE : EXPERIMENT ON SEMI-CIRCULAR ARCH

1.1 INTRODUCTION
The main advantage of an arch has over a beam, is that it can carry a much larger load. History arches
wee important because they could be constructed using small, easy carry blocks of brick or stone rather
than using massive, monolithic stone beam or lentil. Romans used the semi-circular arch in bridges,
aqueducts and in large-scale architecture. In most cases they did not use mortar, relying simply on the
precision of their stone finish. When an arch is loaded by gravity forces, the pressure acts downward on
the arch and has the effect of compressing it together instead of pulling it apart.
In this laboratory activity students will be exposed to the apparatus and the procedures to carry out
experiment on two-hinged and three-hinged arches.
1.2 OBJECTIVE
The objective of the experiment is:
To determine the relationship between applied load and the horizontal thrust at the supports
of a two-hinged and a three-hinged arches.
To explore the relationship between the loads and the horizontal reaction force in threepinned arch.
To determine the horizontal thrust in a three hinged arch for a given system of loads
experimentally and verify the same with calculated values.

1.3 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND


Arches have a diverse range of applications in bridges, arched dams and in industrial, commercial and
recreational buildings.
An arch is supported by abutments. The heels and crown are the lowest and highest points of the arch,
respectively; supports may be rolled, pinned, or fixed. Horizontal distance between two heels is span
L, a vertical distance between heels line and crown is rise r.
(Source: Theory of Arched Structures by Igor A. Karnovsky)

Three-hinged semi-circular arch

1.4 PROBLEM STATEMENT


to determine the relationship between applied load and the horizontal thrust at the supports of a threehinged arches.
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2.1 APPARATUS
I.
Support frame
II.
Three hinge arch assembly
III.
A simple support
IV.
A roller support
V.
A set of weights
2.2 PROCEDURE
i. The load cell was connected to the digital indicator
ii. The indicator was switched on. For stability of the reading the indicator must be switch on 10
minutes before taking readings.
iii. The load hanger was placed at the location where the load is to be applied.
iv. The indicator reading was noted. If it is not zero press the tare button.
v. A load was placed on the load hanger.
vi. The indicator reading was recorded. This represents the horizontal reaction of the pinned support.
vii. The load on the load hanger was increased and the horizontal reaction was recorded.
viii.Step 7 was repeated for another 4 load increments.
ix. The result was tabulated.
x. The experiment was repeated to get another set of readings.