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Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

CHAPTER 7: ELECTRICITY

7.1 CHARGE AND ELECTRIC CURRENT

Van de Graaf

1. What is a Van de Graaff generator? Fill in each of the boxes the name of the part shown.

A device that produces and store electric charges at high voltage on its dome

Metal dome

dome

+

+

+

+

+

roller

rubber belt

roller

motor

-1-

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

2. How are electrical charges produced by a Van de Graaff generator? And what type of

charges is usually produced on the dome of the generator?

When the motor of the Van de Graaff generator is switched on, it drives the

rubber belt.

This causes the rubber belt to against the roller and hence becomes charged.

The charge is then carried by the moving belt up to the metal dome where it is

collected.

A large amount of charge is built up on the dome

Positive charges are usually produced on the dome of the generator.

the Van de Graaff is connected to the earth

via a micrometer? Explain.

There is a deflection of the pointer of

the meter.

This indicates an electric current flow.

-2-

+ + +

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

metal sphere to the charged dome.

+

+

brought

near

the

charged

+ + + + +

dome,

sparkling occurs.

An electric current flow.

5.

student is brought near to the charged

dome. Give reasons for your answer.

The metal dome attracts the hair and

the hair stand upright.

This is because of each strand of hair

receives positive charges and repels

each other.

-3-

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

Electric Current

1. Electric current consists of a flow of electrons

2. The more charges that flow through a cross

section within a given time, the larger is the

current.

3. Electric current is defined as the

rate of flow of electric charge

Each second, 15 coulombs of charge cross

the plane. The current is I = 15 amperes.

One ampere is one coulomb per second.

I=Q

t

Q = charge

t = time

(ii) The SI unit of time is (minute / second / hour)

(iii) The SI unit of current is (Ampere / Coulomb / Volt) is equivalent to

(Cs // C-1s // Cs-1)

/ I

4. If one coulomb of charge flows past in one second, then the current is one ampere.

5. 15 amperes means in each second, 15 coulomb of charge through a cross section of a

conductor.

6. In a metal wire, the charges are carried by electrons.

7. Each electron carries a charge of 1.6 x 10-19 C.

8. 1 C of charge is 6.25 x 1018 electrons.

-4-

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

Electric Field

a) An electric field is a region in which an electric charge experiences a force.

b) An electric field can be represented by a number of lines indicate both the magnitude and

direction of the field

c) The principles involved in drawing electric field lines are :

(i) electric field lines always extend from a positively-charged object to a

negatively-charged object to infinity, or from infinity to a negatively-charged object,

(ii) electric field lines never cross each other,

(iii)electric field lines are closer in a stronger electric field.

Demo 1 : To study the electric field and the effects of an electric field.

Apparatus & materials

Extra high tension (E.H.T) power supply (0 5 kV), petri dish, electrodes with different

shapes (pointed electrode and plane electrode), two metal plates, talcum powder, cooking oil,

polystyrene ball coated with conducting paint, thread and candle.

Method

DEMO

A)

2. Switch on the E.H.T. power supply and adjust the voltage to 4 kV

3. Observed the pattern formed by the talcum powder for different types of electrodes.

4. Draw the pattern of the electric field lines.

-5-

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

-6-

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

POSITIVELY CHARGED PLATE

NEGATIVELY CHARGED PLATE

PARALLEL PLATES

-7-

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

Observation:

The polystyrene ball oscillated between the

two plates, touching one plate after

another.

Explanation:

When the polystyrene ball touches the

negatively charged plate, the ball

receives negative charges from the plate

and experiences a repulsive force.

two metal plates.

charged plate.

polystyrene ball slightly so that it

loses some of its negative charges to the

This process continues.

-8-

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

C)

Observation:

The candle flame splits into two portions in

opposite direction. The portion that is

attracted to the negative plate is very much

larger than the portion of the flame that is

attracted to the positive plate.

polystyrene ball with a lighted candle.

Explanation:

The heat of the flame ionizes the air

molecules to become positive and

E.H.T. is switched on.

negative charges.

The positive charges are attracted to the

negative plate while the negative

charges are attracted to the positive

plate.

The flame is dispersed in two opposite

directions but more to the negative

plate.

The positive charges are heavier than

the negative charges. This causes the

uneven dispersion of the flame.

Conclusion

1. Electric field is a region where an electric charge experiences a force.

2. Like charges repel each other but opposite charges attract each other.

3. Electric field lines are lines of force in an electric field. The direction of the field

lines is from positive to negative.

-9-

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

Exercise 7.1

1. 5 C of charge flows through a wire in 10 s. What is the current in the wire?

Q

I

2.

=

It

=

Q/t

=

5 / 10

=

0.5 A

A charge of 300 C flow through a bulb in every 2 minutes. What is the electric

current in the bulb?

Q

=

It

I

=

Q/t

=

300 / 120

=

2.5 A

3.

The current in a lamp is 0.2 A. Calculate the amount of electric charge that passes

through the lamp in 1 hour.

Q

4.

=

=

=

It

0.2 (60 x 60)

720 C

If a current of 0.8 A flows in a wire, how many electrons pass through the wire in one

minute? (Given: The charge on an electron is 1.6 x 10-19 C)

Q

=

=

=

It

0.8 (60)

48 C

1 electron.

Hence, 2880 C of charges is brought by

48 C

1.6 x 10 -19 C

= 3 x 1020 electrons

5.An electric current of 200 mA flows through a resistor for 3 seconds, what is the

(a)

electric charge

(b)

a) Q

=

=

=

b)

1 electron.

Hence, 2880 C of charges is 0.6 C

= 3.75 x 1018 electrons

-19

1.6 x 10 C

It

200 x 10-3 (3)

0.6 C

- 10 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

(a)

(b)

at point Q

opened.

released.

water

potential energy.

(c) Similarly,

Point A is connected to positive terminal

Point B is connected to negative terminal

Electric potential at A is greater than the electric potential at

B.

Electric current flows from A to B, passing the bulb in the

Bulb

This is due to the electric potential difference between the two

terminals.

As the charges flow from A to B, work is done when electrical

energy is transformed to light and heat energy.

The potential difference, V between two points in a circuit is

defined as the amount of work done, W when one coulomb of

charge passes from one point to the other point in an electric

field.

The potential difference,V between the two points will be

given by:

W

Work

V = Quantityofch arg e = Q

- 11 -

Q is charge in Coulomb (C)

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

ammeter

voltmeter

connecting wire

Cells

Switch

Constantan wire //

eureka wire

bulb

resistance

rheostat

Measurement of electricity

- 12 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

current.

potential difference.

An ammeter

A voltmeter

Amperes

difference?

Volts

current?

A

potential difference?

V

electrical circuit?

In series

electrical circuit?

In parallel

connected to which terminal of the dry

cell?

Positive

cell?

Positive

the ammeter is connected to the negative

terminal of the dry cell?

The ammeter needle will deflect and show

reading below zero.

- 13 -

Teachers Guide

Exp 1:

Chapter 7: Electricity

for an ohmic conductor.

(a)

(b)

Figure (a) and figure (b) show two electrical circuits. Why do the ammeters show different

readings? Why do the bulbs light up with different intensity?

Referring to the figure (a) and (b) complete the following table:

(a) Inference

The current flowing through the bulb is influenced by the potential difference across it.

(b) Hypothesis

The higher the current flows through a wire, the higher the potential difference across

(c) Aim

it.

To determine the relationship between current and potential difference for a

constantan wire.

(i)

(d) Variables

manipulated variable

(iii) fixed variable

: current, I

: potential difference, V

: length of the wire // cross sectional area //

temperature

Apparatus /

materials

- 14 -

Teachers Guide

Method

Chapter 7: Electricity

:

1.

2.

Turn on the switch and adjust the rheostat so that the ammeter reads the

current, I= 0.2 A.

Tabulation of

3.

4.

Repeat steps 2 and 3 for I = 0.3 A, 0.4 A, 0.5 A, 0.6 A and 0.7 A.

data

Analysis of data

Current,I/A

Volt, V/V

0.2

1.0

0.3

1.5

0.4

2.0

0.5

2.5

0.6

3.0

0.7

3.5

Potential difference, V /V

0.2

0.4

- 15 -

0.6

Current, I /A

0.8

Teachers Guide

Discussion

Chapter 7: Electricity

1.

(a) What is the shape of the V-I graph?

The graph of V against I is a straight line that passes through origin

(b) What is the relationship between V and I?

This shows that the potential difference, V is directly proportional to the

current, I.

(c) Does the gradient change as the current increases?

The gradient the ratio of

2.

V

I

The resistance, R, of the constantan wire used in the experiment is equal to the

gradient of the V-I graph. Determine the value of R.

3.5

o.7

3.

=5

It is to control the current flow in the circuit

Conclusion

The potential difference, V across a conductor increases when the current, I passing

through it increases as long as the conductor is kept at constant temperature.

- 16 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

Ohms Law

(a)

Ohms law states

that the electric current, I flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to

the potential difference across the ends of the conductor,

if temperature and other physical conditions remain constant

(b) By Ohms law:

= constant I

or

V

= constant

I

(d) The resistance, R is a term that describes the opposition experienced by the electrons

as they flow in a conductor. It is also defined as the ratio of the potential difference

across the conductor to the current, I flowing through the conductor. That is

V

R= I

and

V=IR

(f) An ohmic conductor is one which obeys Ohms law, while a conductor which does not

obey Ohms law is known as a non-ohmic conductor

- 17 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

1. The resistance of a conductor is a measure of the ability of the conductor to (resist /

allow) the flow of an electric current through it.

2. From the formula V = IR, the current I is (directly / inversely) proportional to the

resistance, R.

3. When the value of the resistance, R is large, the current, I flowing in the conductor is

(small / large)

4. What are the factors affecting the resistance of a conductor?

a) the length of the conductor

b) the cross-sectional area of the conductor

c) type of material of the conductor

d) the temperature of the conductor

5. Write down the relevant hypothesis for the factors affecting the resistance in the table

below.

The temperature of

the conductor

material of the

conductor

The cross-sectional

area of the

conductor, A

Length of the

conductor, l

Factors

Diagram

Hypothesis

The longer the conductor, the

higher its resistance

Resistance is directly proportional

to the length of a conductor

area, the lower the its resistance

Resistance is inversely

proportional to the crosssectional area of a conductor

Different conductors with the

same physical conditions have

different resistance

conductor,

the

higher

the

resistance

- 18 -

Graph

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

Resistance of a conductor,

length

Resistance of a conductor,

1

cross-sectional area

length

cross-sectional area

Or

or

R= l

- 19 -

where =

resistivity of the

substance

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

Exercise 7.2

1.

True

(a) Unit of potential difference is J C-1

False

(c) of work is required to move a charge of 1 coulomb from one

point to another.

(d)

2.

I

t

/

)

t

I

i) Electric charge,

Q = ( It /

W = (QV /

V Q

/

)

Q V

iii) Base on your answer in 2(i) and (ii) derive the work done, W in terms of I, V and t.

W

QV

ItV

3. If a charge of 5.0 C flows through a wire and the amount of electrical energy converted

into heat is 2.5 J. Calculate the potential differences across the ends of the wire.

W

QV

2.5

5.0 (V)

0.5 V

4. A light bulb is switched on for a period of time. In that period of time, 5 C of charges

passed through it and 25 J of electrical energy is converted to light and heat energy. What

is the potential difference across the bulb?

W

QV

20

6 (V)

3.33 V

- 20 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

5. The potential difference of 10 V is used to operate an electric motor. How much work is

done in moving 3 C of electric charge through the motor?

W

QV

3 (10)

30 J

20 V, the current flow is 3 A. How much work

done to transform electrical energy to light and

heat energy in 50 s?

W

VIt

20 (3) (50)

3000 J

Bulb

3A

A

20 V

of resistance 5 when the current that passes

through it is 0.5 A?

V

IR

0.5 (5)

2.5 V

2.0 A through it. Calculate R.

V

IR

3.0

2.0 (R)

1.5

the dry cells supply 2.0 V and the ammeter

reading is 0.5 A?

V

IR

2.0

0.5 (R)

- 21 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

what is the reading shown on the ammeter, if the

dry cells supply 3 V?

V

IR

3.0

6 (R)

0.5

3 in the figure, calculate the voltage supplied

by the dry cells?

V

R

IR

0.5 (3)

1.5

determine the resistance of a wire. The resistance

of the wire is

From V-I graph, resistance

V/V

1.2

= gradient

1.2

= 5

= 2.4

current, I flowing through a constantan wire when

the potential difference V across it was varied.

The graph shows the results of the experiment.

What is the resistance of the resistor?

From V-I graph, resistance

= gradient

=

8 x10 3

4

= 2.0 x 10-3

- 22 -

I/A

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

(a) The current flowing through the resistor.

V

IR

12

I (5)

2.4 A

5

12 V

through the resistor in 30 s

Q

It

2.4 (30)

72 C

electric energy to the heat energy in 30 s.

W

QV

or

72 (12)

= 12(2.4)(30)

864 C

= 864 C

cells. The two dry cells are able to provide a

current of 0.3 A when the bulb is at its normal

brightness. What is the resistance of the filament?

V

IR

3.0

0.3(R)

10

and S made of the same substance.

a) Which of the rod has the most

resistance?

P

b) Which of the rod has the least

resistance?

S

- 23 -

= VIt

+ 1.5 V -

+ 1.5 V -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

V/V

8

Y

From V-I graph, resistance

= gradient

=2

I/A

= 4

b) Calculate the resistance of conductor Y.

From V-I graph, resistance

= gradient

2

=2

= 1

c) If the cross sectional area of X is 5.0 x 10-6

m2, and the length of X is 1.2 m, calculate its

resistivity.

l

= A

= l

RA

4( 5.0 x10 6 )

=

1 .2

= 1.67 x 10-5m

18. The graph shows a graph of I against V for three

conductors, P, Q and R.

i) Compare the resistance of conductor P, Q and R.

Q

I/A

P

Q

Rr > RQ >Rp

R

From V-I graph, resistance = gradient

The greater the gradient, the greater the resistance

Gradient of R > Gradient of Q > Gradient of P

- 24 -

V/V

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

19. Figure shows a wire P of length, l with a crosssectional area, A and a resistance, R. Another

wire, Q is a conductor of the same material with

a length of 3l and twice the cross-sectional area

of P. What is resistance of Q in terms of R?

Conductor P

l

= A

Conductor Q

l'

= A' (notes: P and R have the same resistivity, )

( 3l )

2A

= 2R

20. PQ, is a piece of uniform wire of length 1 m

with a resistance of 10. Q is connected to an

ammeter, a 2 resistor and a 3 V battery. What

is the reading on the ammeter when the jockey

is at X?

Resistance in the wire

R is directly proportional to l

= 10

100 cm

20

R

= 2

Total resistance

2 + 2 = 4

Current, I

= R

3

= 4

= 0.75 A

- 25 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

21. Figure shows the circuit used to investigate the relationship between potential

difference, V and current, I for a piece of constantan wire. The graph of V against I

from the experiment is as shown in the figure below.

(a)

Length // cross-sectional area // type of material // temperature of the wire

(b)

i) the constantan wire is heated

R , gradient // the resistance increases, hence the gradient increases

ii) a constantan wire of a smaller cross-sectional area is used

R , gradient // the resistance increases, hence the gradient increases

iii)a shorter constantan wire is used

R , gradient // the resistance decreases, hence the gradient decreases

- 26 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

Current Flow and Potential Difference in Series and Parallel Circuit

SERIES CIRCUIT

PARALLEL CIRCUIT

the same

bulb/resistor

I = I1 = I2 = I3

2

V = V1 = V2 = V3

resistors in its parallel branches.

V = V1 + V2 + V3

difference across the

I = I1 + I2 + I3

battery

3

3

resistor, we get :

resistor, we get :

V = V1 + V2 + V3

IR = IR1 + IR2 + IR3

I = I1 + I2 + I3

V

V

V

V

R = R1 + R2 + R3

1

R

R = R1 + R2 + R3

- 27 -

= R + R + R3

1

2

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Series

Parallel

A, B - series

Q, S - parallel

3A

0.5

1

1.5

5

6

- 28 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

Effective resistance, R

R = 20 + 10 + 5= 35

(a)

(b)

1/R

= +1/5 + 1/10 = 4/5

Effective R = 1.25

1/R

(c)

E

(d)

=5/16

Effective R = 3.2

R=4

Effective R = 20 + 10 + 4 = 34

(e)

R = 1.33

Effective R = 1.33 + 1 = 2.33

Effective R = 2+5+3+10

= 20

R = 3.33

(g)

(i)

(f)

R=3

Effective R = 3 + 2 = 5

(h)

R = 10

Effective R = 10 + 10 + 5 =25

(j)

R = 8 + 20/3 = 14.67

- 29 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

V = IR

9 =I(18)

= 0.5

V = IR

240 = 6(R)

R =40

20

1/R = 1/10 + 1/10 =2/10

R=5

Effective R = 1 + 4 = 5

R=4

Effective R = 1 + 4 = 5

V = IR

= 2(5) = 10 V

V = IR

12 =I(5)

= 2.4 A

Exercise 7.3

1.

respectively. If the voltage of the dry cell is 2.5 V, calculate

(a) the effective resistance, R of the circuit

Effective R = 2 + 3 = 5

(b) the main current, I in the circuit

2: V = IR = (0.5)(2) = 1V

3: V = IR = (0.5)(3) = 1.5 V

V = IR

2.5 =I(5)

= 0.5 A

2.

resistance of 1. If a 3V voltage causes a current of 0.5A to flow

through the circuit, calculate the resistance of R2.

V = IR

3=0.5(1+R2)

R2 = 5

- 30 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

The electrical current flowing through each branch, I 1 and I2, is 5

3.

the voltage supplied.

Parallelcircuit;V =V1=V2 = IR1 or

= IR2

= 5(2)

= 10 V

4.

The voltage supplied to the parallel is 3 V. R1 and R2

have a resistance of 5 and 20. Calculate

(a) the potential difference across each resistor

3 V (parallel circuit)

(b) the effective resistance, R of the circuit

1/R = 1/5 + 1/20 =1/4

R=4

(c) the main current, I in the circuit

5:

V = IR

3 =I(4)

= 0.75 A

5.

20 :

V = IR

3 =I(20)

I = 0.15 A

when switch, S

(a) is open?

(b) is closed?

Effective R = 6

V = IR

12 =I(6)

I=2A

6.

V = IR

3 =I(5)

I = 0.6 A

Effective R = 4

V = IR

12 =I(4)

I=3A

(a)

R = 12

I = 24/12

= 2A

(a)

V= IR

= (2)(8)

= 16 V

(b)

R = 12

I = 6/12

= 0.5A

V at 9 : V= IR

= (0.5)(9)

= 4.5 V

V reading : 6 4.5 = 1.5 V

- 31 -

R =9

I = 4.5/9

= 0.5A

A reading : 0.5/2= 0.25 A

Notes: Divide 2 because

the resistors have similar

resistance.

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

7.

Calculate

resistor.

R = 12

V = IR

= 2(8) = 16 V

I=2A

resistor.

V = IR

resistors.

I=2A

= 2(2.5) = 5 V

(e) The current passing through 6 resistor.

V = V8 + V2.5 +Vparallel

24 = 16 + 5 + Vparallel

Vparallel = 3V

V = IR

3 = I(6)

I = 0.5 A

- 32 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

8.

The electrical components in our household appliances are connected in a combination of series and

parallel circuits. The above figure shows a hair dryer which has components connected in series and

parallel. Describe how the circuit works.

Suggested answer

When switch A is switched on, the dryer will only blow air at ordinary room temperature

When switches A and B are both switched on, the dryer will blow hot air.

As a safety feature to prevent overheating, the heating element will not be switched on if the fan is

not switched on

The hair dryer has an energy saving feature. Switch C will switch on the dryer only when it is

held by the hand of user

The body of the hair dryer must be safe to hold and does not get hot easily

- 33 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

Electromotive force

Figure (a)

Figure (b)

Voltmeter reading,

potential difference, V < e.m.f.,

E

Voltmeter reading,

e.m.f.

E,r

R

Current flowing

No current flow

connected across a dry cell which labeled 1.5 V.

a) Figure (a) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit)

b) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in the circuit. The bulb (does not light up /

lights up)

c) The voltmeter reading shows the (amount of current flow across the dry cell / potential

difference across the dry cell)

d) The voltmeter reading is (0 V / 1.5 V / Less than 1.5 V)

e) The potential difference across the cell in open circuit is (0 V / 1.5 V / Less than 1.5 V).

Hence, the electromotive force, e.m.f., E is (0 V / 1.5 V / Less than 1.5 V)

f) It means, (0 J / less than 1.5 J / 1.5 J / 3.0 J) of electrical energy is required to move 1 C

charge across the cell or around a complete circuit.

- 34 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

a) Figure (b) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit)

b) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in the circuit. The bulb (does not light up /

lights up)

c) The voltmeter reading is the (potential difference across the dry cell / potential difference

across the bulb / electromotive force).

d) The reading of the voltmeter when the switch is closed is (lower than/ the same as /

higher than) when the switch is open.

e) If the voltmeter reading in figure (b) is 1.3 V, it means, the electrical energy dissipated by

1C of charge after passing through the bulb is (0.2 J / 1.3 J / 1.5 J)

f) The potential difference drops by (0.2 V/ 1.3 V / 1.5 V). It means, the potential difference

lost across the internal resistance, r of the dry cell is (0.2 V/ 1.3 V / 1.5 V).

g) State the relationship between e.m.f , E , potential difference across the bulb, VR and drop

in potential difference due to internal resistance, Vr.

Electromotive force, e.m.f., E = Potential Difference + Drop in Potential Difference

across resistor, R

= VR + Vr

where VR = IR and Vr = Ir

= IR + Ir

= I (R + r)

- 35 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

3.

a) Why is the potential difference across the resistor not the same as the e.m.f. of the

battery?

The potential drops as much as 0.4

Since

1.5 =

r

1.1 +

Ir

0.5 r

0.8

0.8

Since

1.1 =

R

=

IR

0.5 R

2.2

- 36 -

2.2

Teachers Guide

Activity :

Chapter 7: Electricity

the internal resistance, r of the cell

Voltmeter

V

Internal resistance

Dry cell

Ammeter

Switch

Rheostat

To determine the values of the electromotive force (e.m.f.) and

Aim

Apparatus /

materials

Method

:

a)

b) Turn on the switch, and adjust the rheostat to give a small reading of the

ammeter, I, 0.2 A.

c)

d) Adjust the rheostat to produce four more sets of readings, I = 0.3 A, 0.4 A, 0.5

A and 0.6 A.

Tabulation of

data

:

Current,I/A

Volt, V/V

0.2

2.6

0.3

2.5

0.4

2.4

0.5

2.2

0.6

2.0

0.7

1.9

- 37 -

Teachers Guide

Analysis of data

Chapter 7: Electricity

Potential difference, V /V

Draw a graph of

V against I

0.2

Discussion

0.4

0.6

Current, I /A

0.8

1. From the graph plotted, state the relationship between the potential difference, V

across the cell and the current flow, I?

The potential difference, V across the cell decreases as the current flow increases.

2. A cell has an internal resistance, r. This is the resistance against the movement of

the charge due to the electrolyte in the cell. With the help of the figure, explain the

result obtained in this experiment.

When the current flowing through the circuit increases, the quantity of charge

flowing per unit time increased. Hence, more energy was lost in moving a larger

amount of charge across the electrolyte. Because of this, there was a bigger drop

in potential difference measured by the voltmeter.

3. By using the equation E = V + Ir

(a) write down V in terms of E, I and r.

V = -rI + E

(b) explain how can you determine the values of E and r from the graph plotted

in this experiment.

E = the vertical intercept of the V I graph

R = the gradient of the V I graph

(c) determine the values of E and r from the graph.

By extrapolating the graph until it cuts the vertical axis,

E = 2.9 V

r = - gradient

= 1.4

- 38 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

Exercise 7.4

1

The voltmeter reading drops to 1.35 V when a bulb is connected to the

battery and the ammeter reading is 0.3 A. Find the internal resistance of

the battery.

E = 3.0 V, V = 1.35 V, I = 0.3 A

Substitute in :

E = V + Ir

1.5 = 1.35 + 0.3(r)

r = 0.5

2. A circuit contains a cell of e.m.f 3.0 V and internal resistance, r. If the external resistor has a value of 10.0

and the potential difference across it is 2.5 V, find the value of the current, I in the circuit and the internal

resistance, r.

E = 3.0 V, R = 10 , V = 2.5 V

Calculate current : V = IR

Calculate internal resistance : E = I(R + r)

r = 2.0

A simple circuit consisting of a 2 V dry cell with an internal resistance of 0.5. When the switch is

closed, the ammeter reading is 0.4 A.

Calculate

(a) the voltmeter reading in open circuit

The voltmeter reading = e.m.f. = 2 V

(b) the resistance, R

E = I(R + r)

2

V = IR

= 0.4(R + 0.5)

= 0.4 (4.5)

R = 4.5

= 1.8 V

Find the voltmeter reading and the resistance, R of the

resistor.

E = V + Ir

e.m.f.

12 = V + 0.5 (1.2)

V = 11.4 V

V = IR

11.4 = 0.5 (R)

R = 22.8

- 39 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

/V

a rheostat. The ammeter reading, I and the voltmeter

6

rheostat. The graph of V against I is as shown.

a)

E = V + Ir

Rearrange

:V = E - Ir

Equivalent

: y = mx + c

/A

2

b) the internal resistor, r of the cell

r = - gradient

= - (6 - 2)

2

=2

=6V

V/V

1.5

0.2

5

1/A

i) the internal resistance of the battery

r = -gradient

E = c = intercept of V-axis

= 0.26

= 1.5 V

A graph of R against 1/I shown in figure was obtained

R/

1.3

graph, determine

a)

E = I(R + r)

-1

0.5

- 0.2

1 (A )

Rearrange

I

:R=

E

- r,

I

b) the e.m.f. of the cell

e.m.f. = gradient = 3 V

- 40 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

Electrical Energy

1.

Energy Conversion

battery

(chemical energy)

(a)

current

(b)

current

battery

(chemical energy)

current

current

energy

Energy Conversion:

Electrical energy Light energy

+ Heat energy

Energy Conversion:

Electrical energy Kinetic

energy

2. When an electrical appliance is switched on, the current flows and the electrical energy

supplied by the source is transformed to other forms of energy.

3. Therefore, we can define electrical energy as : The energy carried by electrical charges

which can be transformed to other forms of energy by the operation of an electrical

appliance.

- 41 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

1. Potential difference, V across two points is the energy,E dissipated or transferred by a

coulomb of charge, Q that moves across the two points.

2. Therefore,

Charge, Q

3. Hence, E = VQ

4. Power is defined as the rate of energy dissipated or transferred.

5. Hence, Power, P = Energy dissipated, E

time, t

Electrical Energy, E

From the definition of potential

difference, V

Electrical Power, P

Power is the rate of transfer of electrical energy,

P= E

t

V= E

Q

E = VQ

Hence,

E = VI t

Hence,

E=IR

Hence,

2

V

t

E=

R

P = VQ

t

; where Q = It

; where V = IR

P = VI

2

P= I R

t

; where I = V

R

P = I2 R

- 42 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

1. The amount of electrical energy consumed in a given period of time can be calculated by

Energy consumed

E

Power rating x

Time

Pt

energy, E is in Joules

where

power, P is in watts

time, t is in seconds

2. The unit of measurement used for electrical energy consumption is the

kilowatt-hour, kWh.

1 kWh

1000 x 3600 J

3.6 x 106 J

1 unit

one hour

4. Household electrical appliances that work on the heating effect of current are usually

marked with voltage, V and power rating, P.

5. The energy consumption of an electrical appliance depends on the power rating and the

usage time, E = Pt

6. Power dissipated in a resistor, three ways to calculate:

P = I2R

= (0.5)2 100

= 25 watts

P = (V/R)2 R

= V2/R

= (50)2 /100

= 2500/100

= 25 watts

- 43 -

P = I2(V/I)

= IV

= (0.50)50

= 25 watts

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

Cost of energy

Appliance

Quantity

Power / W

Power / kW

Time

Energy

Consumed

(kWh)

Bulb

60

0.06

8 hours

2.4

Refrigerator

400

0.4

24 hours

9.6

Kettle

1500

1.5

3 hours

4.5

Iron

1000

1.0

2 hours

2.0

= 18.5 kWh

= 18.5 kWh x RM 0.28

Cost

= RM 5.18

Comparing Various Electrical Appliances in Terms of Efficient Use of Energy

1. A tungsten filament lamp changes electrical energy to

useful light energy and unwanted heat energy

2. A fluorescent lamp or an energy saving lamp

produces less heat than a filament lamp for the same

amount of light produced.

3. a) Efficiency of a filament lamp :

Efficiency

Input power

3 x 100

60

5%

saving lamp

Efficiency

Input power

3 x 100

12

25 %

- 44 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

Exercise 7.5

R = 10

(a)

=

=

5V

(b)

R = 10

=

=

5V

V= 15V

R1=2

V2

R

52 / 10

2.5 W

R = 10

2.

V2

R

52 / 10

2.5 W

R2=4

R3=4

Calculate

(a) the current, I in the circuit

Total resistance, R

V

I

=

=

=

=

= (2 + 4 + 4)

= 10

IR

V/R

15 / 10

1.5 A

E

=

=

=

I2Rt

(1.5)2 (10)(10)

225 J

- 45 -

=

=

=

I2Rt

(1.5)2 (2)(10)

45 J

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

in an hour?

E

=

=

=

Pt

24 (1 x 60 x 60)

86 400 J

supply. How much heat is released after 2 minutes?

E

=

=

=

VI t

24 (5) (2 x 60)

144 000 J

4. An electric kettle is rated 240 V 2 kW. Calculate the resistance of its heating element and

the current at normal usage.

P

I

=

=

=

=

IV

P/V

2000 / 240

8.3 A

(a) How much charge will flow through the heating coil in 2 minutes.

Q

=

=

=

It

(1.5) (2 x 60)

180 C

(b) How much energy will be transferred to the water in the kettle in 2 minutes?

E

=

=

=

QV

180 (240)

4.32 kJ

P

=

=

=

IV

1.5 (240)

360 W

- 46 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

(a) What is meant by the label 3 kW, 240 V?

The electric kettle dissipates electrical power 3 kW if it operates at 240 V

(b) What is the current flow through the kettle?

P =

3000 =

I =

IV

I (240)

12.5 A

12 A

(d) Determine the resistance of the heating elements in the kettle.

P =

3000 =

R =

I2 R

(12.5)2 R

19.2

7. Table below shows the power rating and energy consumption of some electrical appliances

when connected to the 240 V mains supply.

Appliance

Quantity

Power rating / W

Kettle jug

2000

1 hour

Refrigerator

400

24 hours

Television

200

6 hours

Lamp

60

8 hours

Calculate

(a) Energy consumed in 1 day

Energy consumed

Kettle jug,

=1x2x1

= 2 kWh

Refrigerator

Television

= 1 x 0.2 x 6

= 1.2 kWh

Lamp

= 5 x 0.06 x 8

= 2.4 kWh

= 15.2 kWh

- 47 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

(b) How much would it cost to operate the appliances for 1 month?

= 16.58 kWh x 30 x RM 0.218

Cost

= RM 108.43

8. A vacuum cleaner consumes 1 kW of power but only delivers 400 J of useful work per

second. What is the efficiency of the vacuum cleaner?

Efficiency

Input power

400 x 100 %

1000

40 %

=

=

9. An electric motor is used to lift a load of mass 2 kg to a height 5 m in 2.5 s. If the supply

voltage is 12 V and the flow of current in the motor is 5.0 A, calculate

(a) Energy input to the motor

E

=

=

=

VIt

12 (5.0) (2.5)

150 J

U

=

=

=

mgh

2 (9.8) (5)

98 J

Efficiency

=

=

=

Input power

98 x 100 %

150

65.3 %

- 48 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

Part A: Objective Questions

1. What is the unit of electric charge?

A. Ampere, A

B. kelvin,K

C. Coulomb, C

D. Volt, V

A.

shows the correct electric field?

A.

B.

B.

C.

C.

D.

- 49 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

How much energy will it use when it is

run for 5 minutes?

A. 90 J

C.

B. 120 J

C. 1800 J

D. 7200 J

D.

battery in a digital watch is 3.0 x 10-5

A. What is the quantity of charge that

flows in 2 hours?

A. 2.5 x 10-7 C

B. 1.5 x 10-5 C

C. 6.0 x 10-5 C

shape of a coil?

D. 3.6 x 10-3 C

E. 2.2 x 10-1 C

a higher resistance.

B. To increase the current and produce

used to determine the resistance of the

bulb?

more energy.

C. To decrease the resistance and

produce higher current

A.

a higher potential difference

8. Which of the following will not

affect the resistance of a conducting

wire.

B.

A. temperature

B. length

C. cross-sectional area

D. current flow through the wire

- 50 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

points in a circuit is

one point to another

B. the rate of energy dissipation in

moving one coulomb of charge

from one point to another

C. the work done in moving one

coulomb of charge from one point

to another

D. the work done per unit current

flowing from one point to another

10.

A. P and Q

B. P and S

C. Q and R

D. R and S

E.

kettle?

A. 200 W

B. 2000 W

C. 2400 W

D. 3600 W

E. 4800 W

11. An e.m.f. of a battery is defined as

is turned on?

A. 1.0 A

B. 1.5 A

C. 2.0 A

charge

D. 9.0 A

E. 10.0 A

charge

- 51 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

A. 1.2 x 106 J

B. 1.8 x 106 J

vertical height of 4 m

C. 2.4 x 106 J

A. 20 s

D. 3.6 x 106 J

B. 40 s

E. 4.8 x 106 J

C. 60 s

D. 80 s

E. 100 s

smallest effective resistance?

A.

measurement of

A. Power

B. Electrical energy

C. Electromotive force

B.

C.

D.

identical bulbs to a cell 6 V. Which

bulb labeled A, B, C and D is the

brightest?

- 52 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

the terminals of a 12 V battery.

resistor.

A. Resistance

A. 0.5 W

B. Potential difference

B. 2.0 W

C. Electric current

C. 4.0 W

D. 6.0 W

E. 8.0 W

- 53 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

1.

Gradient

0 .6 0 .2

3 .6 0

-1

= 0.11 A V

=

The figure above shows a graph of electric current against potential difference for three

different conductors X, Y and Z.

(a) Among the three conductors, which conductor obeys Ohms law?

Conductor Y

(b) State Ohms law.

The potential difference across a conductor is directly proportional to the current that

flows through it, if the temperature and other physical quantities are kept constant.

(c) Resistance, R is given by the formula R = V/I. What is the resistance of X when the

current flowing through it is 0.4 A? Show clearly on the graph how is the answer

obtained.

From the graph I against V;

resistance, R

1

= 0.11

= 9.09

(d) Among X, Y and Z, which is a bulb? Explain your answer.

X, because as I increases, the gradient decreases. Hence, the resistance X increases

as I increases which is a characteristic of a bulb.

- 54 -

Teachers Guide

2.

Chapter 7: Electricity

The figure below shows an electric kettle connected to a 240 V power supply by a

flexible cable. The kettle is rated 240 V, 2500 W.

The table below shows the maximum electric current that is able to flow through

wires of various diameters.

(a)

diameter of wire / mm

maximum current / A

0.80

1.00

10

1.20

13

1.40

15

What is the current flowing through the cable when the kettle is switched

on?

P = IV

I = P/V

(b)

i. What is the smallest diameter wire that can be safely used for this

kettle?

1.20 mm

ii. Explain why it is dangerous to use a wire thinner than the one selected

in b(i)

As resistance is inversely proportional to cross-sectional area,

a thinner wire will have a higher resistance thus the wire will

become very hot. This could probably cause a fire to break

out.

- 55 -

Teachers Guide

(c)

Chapter 7: Electricity

State one precautionary measure that should be taken to ensure safe usage of

the kettle.

Do not operate kettle with wet hands.

(d)

Mention one fault that might happen in the cable that will cause the fuse in the

plug to melt.

Short circuit might occur if the insulating materials of the wires in the cable are

damaged.

- 56 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

1.

Figure 2 shows the reading of the same voltmeter

(b) Referring to figure (a) and figure (b), compare the state of the switch, S, and

the readings of the voltmeter. State a reason for the observation on the

readings of the voltmeter.

(c) Draw a suitable simple electric circuit and a suitable graph, briefly explain

how the e.m.f. and the quantity in your reason in (b) can be obtained.

(d)

The figure above shows a dry cell operated torchlight with metal casing

(i)

(ii)

Why it is safe to use the torchlight although the casing is made of metal?

(iii)

- 57 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

Suggested Answers

1. (a) The work done by a battery to move a unit charge around a complete circuit.

(b) - Switch in figure 1 is turned off

- Switch in figure 2 in turned on

- Reading of voltmeter in figure 1 is higher than in figure 2

- This is due to the presence of an internal resistance in the battery

(c)

Voltmeter

V

Internal resistance

Dry cell

Ammeter

Switch

Rheostat

emf

Currrent, I/A

(d)

internal resistance = -(gradient of the graph)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

To improve the contact between the dry cells and the terminals of the

torchlight

Current flowing through the torchlight is very small, will not cause

electric shock

To converge the light rays to obtain increase the intensity of the light rays

projected by the torchlight.

- 58 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

transmitting cable for a long distance electrical transmission through National Grid

Network.

Four different cables and their characteristic of the cables were given. The length and

diameter of all the cables are similar.

(a) Define the resistance of a conductor.

(b) The table below shows the characteristic of the four cables, A, B, C and D.

Resistivity /

m

Maximum load

before breaking/

N

Density /

kgm-3

Rate of

expansion

0.020

500

2800

Low

0.056

300

3200

Low

0.031

400

5600

Medium

0.085

200

3800

High

(i)

Explain the suitability of each characteristic of the table to be used for a long

distance electricity transmission

(ii)

(c) Suggest how three similar bulbs are arranged effectively in a domestic circuit.

Draw a diagram to explain your answer. Give two reasons for the arrangement.

(d) An electric kettle is rated 2.0 kW.

(i)

Calculate how long would it take to boil 1.5 kg of water from an initial

temperature of 280 C.

[specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg-1 0C-1]

(ii)

- 59 -

Teachers Guide

Chapter 7: Electricity

Suggested Answers

2.(a) Resistance is the ratio of potential difference to current flowing in an ohmic conductor.

(b)

Characteristics

Explanations

A low resistivity

braking is high

tower

A low density

Cable A is chosen because it has low resistivity, high max load before breaking, low

density and low expansion rate.

(c) (i) If one bulb is burnt the others is still be lighted up

(ii) Each bulb can be switch on and off independently

(d) (i)

Pt = mc

(2000)(t)

t

(ii)

(1.5)(4200)(100-28)

226.8 s

- 60 -

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