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METHODS OF RESEARCH

Maria Victoria P. Tibon, DBA

NATURE OF RESEARCH

An activity that consists of


providing a solution to a specific
problem and/or contribute to the
general body of knowledge through a
systematic, organized and objective analysis
of data

WHEEL OF RESEARCH (Ghauri &


Gronhaug, 2002)

THE RESEARCH PROCESS


(SEKARAN,1992)

THE VALUE OF RESEARCH


A course of action is taken on the basis of the data gathered
( e.g. economic and financial environment, competition,
etc.)
- adequate information
- useful and informative summary of information
- thorough analysis and clear findings
A management dilemma is appropriately evaluated and
resolved
RESEARCH IS THE BASIS OF MANAGERIAL DECISIONS

RESEARCH IS SCIENTIFIC IN SO FAR AS


IT IS :
PURPOSEFUL

PRECISE

RIGOROUS

OBJECTIVE

TESTABLE

GENERALIZABLE

REPLICABLE

PARSIMONIOUS

PARTS OF A RESEARCH PAPER

Introduction
Review of Related Literature
Research Methodology
Discussion
Summary or Conclusions/ Recommendations

RESEARCH
IS NOT MUCH
DIFFERENT FROM
PRACTICAL PROBLEM SOLVING
AND DECISIONMAKING

RESEARCH PROBLEM AREAS

Existing business problems


Areas for improvement
Areas for conceptual clarification
Empirical support to theories

PROBLEM DEFINITION
A problem is an undesirable factor that causes or
prevents the non-achievement of goals desired
by an organization
Of three types:
1. People
2. Operational
3. Technical

HOW ARE RESEARCH PROBLEMS


IDENTIFIED?
Read a lot of literature in your field of
concentration and be critical of what you read
Attend professional lectures
Be observant of situations and happening
around you
Think out the possibility of research for
lessons taken in content courses

A RESEARCH PROBLEM IS JUSTIFIED


WHEN:

It is timely
It is pervasive
It has an effect on particular groups
It is related to ongoing programs
It is related with broad social, economic and health
issues
It concerns other people as well
It has direct, indirect, short-term and long-range
impact on the welfare of a group of people or the
society as a whole

INTRODUCTION
Explains the reason for the research
Details the goals which are expected to be
achieved at the end of the research process
Emphasizes the value of the study to
individuals, groups and sectors
Discusses the coverage and limitations of the
study

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Enumeration, citation and discussion of all the


key studies in the research area under study

A narrative or description of previous works


done in the field

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Reviews all the key studies in the research
area by providing a narrative or description of
the journal articles or other pieces of work
Links the review to the research questions

CONDUCTING THE REVIEW


For each piece of work, the following questions are
posed:
1. What is the purpose of the study?
2. What is the focus of the study?
3. What types of data were collected?
4. How were the data managed?
5. What analytical approach is used?
In the process, strengths and weaknesses of the
arguments are assessed

DOING A LITERATURE MAP

WORKS CITED

Books
Multivolume Works and Series
Journals
Magazines
Newspapers
Reviews
Works of Literature
Reference Works
Public Documents
Unpublished Sources
Dissertations
Nonprint Sources
Microform Materials
Computer Materials

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Suggests a system for the researcher to
impose on data in order to classify them in the
most meaningful way
Shows the systematic interrelationships of
concepts, definitions, constructs, variables,
propositions and hypotheses in a model used
to explain and predict phenomena

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Two general types of variables:
1. Dependent variable : is the variable of
primary interest to the researcher.

2. Independent Variable : is the one that


influences the dependent variable in a
positive or negative way

EXERCISES : DETERMINATION OF
VARIABLES
List the variables in the next exercises, individually, and
label them as dependent or independent. Diagram the
relationships.
1. An applied researcher wants to increase the
commitment of organizational members in a particular
bank. What would be the dependent variable in this case?
2. A manager believes that good supervision and training
will increase the production level of the workers.
3. A consultant is of the opinion that increasing the pay
and fringe benefits, contrary to common belief, decreases
job satisfaction instead of increasing it.

GENERATION OF HYPOTHESES
A hypothesis is a provisional explanation of an
outcome
Types :
1. Null : states that no relationship exists between
variables
2. Alternative: logical hypothesis of the null
hypothesis

RESEARCH DESIGN
Over all strategy to get the information
wanted
Covers the purpose of the study, timeframe,
sources of data, types of data to be collected

HYPOTHESES FORMAT AND RESEARCH


DESIGN
RESEARCH DESIGN
Descriptive
- Conducted to illustrate
patterns or characteristics
of variables in particular
instances or events

HYPOTHESES FORMAT
Ho: The true value of the
products market
acceptability is 91.23%
Ha: The true value of the
products market
acceptability is greater than
91.23%

HYPOTHESES FORMAT AND RESEARCH


DESIGN
RESEARCH DESIGN
Explanatory/ Causal
- Carried out to ascertain that
the occurrence of or change in
the independent variables
leads to changes in the
dependent variables

HYPOTHESES FORMAT
Ho: The change in the
amount of sales commission
given to the sales force has
no effect on the monthly
unit sales
Ha: The change in the
amount of sales commission
given to the sales force has
a significant effect on the
monthly unit sales

HYPOTHESES FORMAT AND RESEARCH


DESIGN
RESEARCH DESIGN
Correlational
- Conducted to establish the
fact that the outcome of
certain patterns of
relationships occur together in
a specified manner without
suggesting that one variable
causes the other variable to
change

HYPOTHESES FORMAT
Ho : There is no relationship
between peso sales and
advertising costs
Ha: There is a significant
relationship between peso
sales and advertising costs

OTHER RESEARCH DESIGNS


Comparative: undertaken to confirm if two or
more variables reveal similar or different
patterns of characteristics when compared,
using a set of variables as standard bases

Evaluative : conducted to assess performance


outcome or impact of a set of variables on a
another one

OTHER RESEARCH DESIGNS


Experimental: undertaken to detremine the possible
cause and effect relationships through experimental
and control groups
Action : conducted to develop or recommend fresh
approaches, policies, programs, strategies or skills to
solve problems in an organizational setting
Exploratory : undertaken to gather initial data patterns
where studies have not been done or minimal data are
available to establish significant patterns or
relationships of variables in a particular scope

RESEARCH DESIGN
Constitutes the blueprint for the collection,
measurement and analysis of data

DATA SOURCES
Primary : actual situations where events occur
Secondary : readily available

TYPES OF PRIMARY DATA


Primary data

Experiment

Observations
Human

Natural
Settings

Communication

Mechanical

Contrived
settings

Surveys Interviews

Mail

Source: Ghauri & Gronhaug (2002, p.81) Research Methods in


Business Studies

Phone,
e-mail

Personal

TYPES OF SECONDARY DATA


Secondary Data

External sources
Internal sources
invoices
reports from different
departments
warranties
complaints
brochures and catalogues

Published
general statistics
industry statistics
statistical bureau
annual accounts
research reports

Commercial
panel research
scanner research
monitors
in-shop research and
reports

Source: Ghauri & Gronhaug (2002, p.80) Research Methods in


Business Studies

PRIMARY DATA
ADVANTAGE
Fits the research data and
objectives

DISADVANTAGE
Time required
Cost

SECONDARY DATA
ADVANTAGE
Savings in time and money

DISADVANTAGE
Lack of fit to the research
problem

Data Collection Techniques


Qualitative techniques
Quantitative techniques

Distinction between
Qualitative & Quantitative Research

Theory
Building

Theory
Testing

Qualitative Research
Qualitative methods are most useful in
exploring new issues, investigating hard-tostudy groups, and determining the meaning
people give to their lives and actions. In
addition, most social research projects can be
improved in some respects by taking
advantage of qualitative techniques.

Qualitative Research
Qualitative methods can often be used to
enrich experiments and surveys, and refer to
three distinctive research designs: participant
observation, intensive interviewing, and focus
groups.

Qualitative Methods
Participant observation A qualitative method for gathering
data that involves developing a sustained relationship with
people while they go about their normal activities.
Intensive interviewing A qualitative method that involves
open-ended, relatively unstructured questioning in which the
interviewer seeks in-depth information on the interviewees
feelings, experiences, and perceptions
Focus groups A qualitative method that involves unstructured
group interviews in which the focus group leader actively
encourages discussion among participants on the topics of
interest.

Focus of Research
Qualitative
Understanding
Interpretation

Quantitative
Description
Explanation

Researcher Involvement
Qualitative
High
Participation-based

Quantitative
Limited
Controlled

Sample Design and Size


Qualitative
Non-probability
Purposive
Small sample
Quantitative
Probability
Large sample

Data Type and Preparation


Qualitative
Verbal or pictorial
Reduced to verbal
codes
Quantitative
Verbal descriptions
Reduced to numeric
codes

Turnaround
Qualitative
Shorter turnaround
possible
Insight development
ongoing
Quantitative
May be time-consuming
Insight development
follows data entry

Data Analysis
Qualitative
Nonquantitative; human
Judgment mixed with fact
Emphasis on themes

Quantitative
Computerized analysis
Facts distinguished
Emphasis on counts

Measurement Scales
A scale is devised on which the indication of
property indicants are transferred
Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio

Characteristics of Sound Measurement


Reliability
Validity

Development of Measurement Tools


Concept Development & Specification
Indicator Selection

Sampling
The ultimate test of a sample design is how
well it represents the characteristics of the
population it purports to represent

Steps in Sampling Design

What is the relevant population?


What are the parameters of interest?
What is the sampling frame?
What is the type of sample?
What sample size is needed?
How much will it cost?

Types of Sampling Design


Probability : based on the concept of random
selection a controlled procedure that
assures that each population element is given
a nonzero chance of selection
Nonprobability : selection is nonrandom
Samples may also be classified by whether the
elements are selected individually and
directly from the population viewed as a
single pool or whether additional controls are
placed in the process of element selection

Four Critical Areas in Question


Construction

Question construction
Question wording
Response structure
Question sequence

DATA PRESENTATION,
ANALYSIS AND
INTERPRETATION

Data by themselves do not always


tell a straightforward story;
meaning is acquired when they
are analyzed and interpreted

Statistics
Is the science dealing with the
.
collection, analysis and interpretation
and presentation of numerical data

Descriptive Statistics
Provide us with techniques to describe a set of data
Used to organize data in various ways to point out where
the data values tend to concentrate and help distinguish
the largest and smallest values

Inferential Statistics
Allow the determination of how
likely the results of a study of a
sample can be generalized to the
whole population

Hypothesis Testing
We establish a hypothesis about populations, collect
sample data and see how likely the sample results
are, given our hypothesis about the populations.
If the sample results are reasonably plausible under
the hypothesis about the populations, we retain the
hypothesis and attribute any departure from our
expected results to pure chance based on sampling
error
If the sample results are so unlikely (less than 5
chances in 100), we reject the hypothesis.

Statistical Testing Procedures


State null
hypothesis
Interpret the
test

Stages

Obtain critical
test value

Choose
statistical test

Select level of
significance
Compute
difference value

Tests of Significance
Parametric tests are significance tests for data from interval or ratio scales. They
are more powerful than nonparametric tests.
Nonparametric tests are used to test hypotheses with nominal and ordinal data.
Parametric tests should be used if their assumptions are met.

Parametric

Nonparametric

DISCUSSION
Contains the presentation, analysis and
interpretation of the findings or results based
on the problems and hypotheses earlier
identified.

SUMMARY OR
CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS
The findings are organized according to
research problems and an explicit answer to
each of the hypothesis is given

Ethics and Research


Ethics are norms or standards of behavior that
guide moral choices about our behavior and
our relationship with others
The goal of ethics in research is to ensure that
no one is harmed or suffers adverse
consequences from research activities
Participant
Sponsor

Ethical Issues at all Stages of the


Research Process

Ethical Treatment of Participants

Explain study benefits

Obtain informed
consent

Components of Informed
Consent
Identify researchers
Describe survey topic
Describe target
sample
Identify sponsor
Describe purpose of
research
Promise anonymity
and confidentiality

Give good-faith
estimate of required
time commitment
State participation is
voluntary
State item-non
response is
acceptable
Ask for permission

Characteristics of
Informed Consent
Competence

Knowledge

Elements

Informed

Voluntary

Right to Privacy
Right to refuse

Prior permission to
interview

Limit time required