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Researchers

Encounter problems
State problems
Propose hypotheses
Deduce outcomes
Formulate rival hypotheses
Devise and conduct empirical tests
Draw conclusions

Drawing Conclusions
Based on sound reasoning

Types of Discourse

Exposition

Deduction

Argument

Induction

ARGUMENT
A claim or assertion that is backed
up with solid reasons
The statement that is supported is
called the CONCLUSION
The supporting statements or reasons
are called PREMISES

TYPES OF ARGUMENTS
DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENT : the
conclusion is a logical necessary
consequence of the premises
INDUCTIVE ARGUMENT: the
premises provide support for the
conclusion but is not a logical
necessary consequence of the
premises

EXAMPLE

EXAMPLE

DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENT
Premise : Carlos has a 3.5 GPA
Premise : Hitech U accepts all students
With a 3.5 GPA
Conclusion: Carlos will get into Hitech U
If he applies

EXAMPLE

EXAMPLE

INDUCTIVE ARGUMENT
Premise : Ann has a 3.2 GPA
Premise : Ann was editor of the school
newspaper
Premise : Ann was captain of the tennis
Team
Premise : Ann was senior class president
Premise : Ann is an accomplished musician
Premise : Ann has strong letters of
Recommendation
Conclusion: Ann will get into Hitech U
If she applies

Language of Research
Concepts

Constructs

Models

Terms used
in research
Theory

Conceptual
schemes
Operational
definitions

Variables

Propositions/
Hypotheses

Understanding Theories

A theory is a set of systematically


interrelated concepts definitions and
propositions that are used to explain
and predict phenomena

Uses of Theory
it narrows the range of facts we need to study
it suggests a system for the researcher to
impose on data in order to classify them in the
most meaningful way

Motivation Theory
Motivation
The psychological forces acting on an individual
that determine:
Directionpossible behaviors the individual could
engage in
Efforthow hard the individual will work
Persistencewhether the individual will keep trying or
give up

Explains why people behave the way they do in


organizations

Two basic types of motivation theories


Process theories of motivation : explanations
of motivation that emphasize how individuals
are motivated
Content theories of motivation : explanations
of motivation that emphasize peoples internal
characteristics. They are theories of peoples
needs. They focus on the need to understand
what needs people have and how these needs
can be satisfied

Process Theories of Motivation


1. Needs-Goal Theory
Motivation starts with an individual feeling a
need. This need is then transformed into
behavior directed at supporting or allowing
the performance of goal behavior to reduce
the felt need
Felt Need

Feedback
Goal Behavior

GoalSupportive
Behavior

Process Theories of Motivation


Implications Of the Needs-Goal Theory of
Motivation:
To be successful in motivating employees,
they must understand the personal needs of
the employees
When a manager offers rewards that are not
relevant to employees personal needs, the
employees will not be motivated

Content Theories of Motivation

Theories developed to help managers better


understand human needs
1. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
Most widely accepted description of human
needs
States that human beings possess five basic
needs and these needs can be arranged in a
hierarchy of importance

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


SelfActualization
Esteem Needs
Social Needs
Security Needs
Physiological Needs

Content Theories of Motivation


2. Alderfers ERG Theory
Identified three basic categories of needs:
1. Existence needs : the need for physical wellbeing
2. Relatedness needs : the need for satisfying
interpersonal relationships
3. Growth needs: the need for continuing
personal growth and development

Alderfers ERG Theory


Needs
Highest-level
needs

Lowest-level
needs

Description

Examples

Growth

Self-development,
creative work

Continually
improve skills

Relatedness

Interpersonal
relations, feelings

Good relations,
accurate feedback

Food, water,
clothing, and shelter

Adequate pay
for necessities

Existence

After lower level needs satisfied, person seeks higher needs. When
unable to satisfy higher needs, lower needs motivation is raised.

Building Blocks of Theory


Concepts
Definitions
Contructs
Variables
Propositions and Hypotheses
Models

Concepts and Constructs


A concept is a bundle of meanings or
characteristics associated with certain events,
objects, conditions, situations, and behaviors
A construct is an image or idea specifically
invented for a given research and/or theorybuilding purpose.

Functions of Concepts
Concepts are the foundation of
communication.
It introduces a perspective, a way of looking
at the empirical world.
Concepts are means of classification and
generalization
It serves as components of theories (models)
and thus of explanations and predictions

Understanding Concepts
The success of research hinges on:
how clearly we conceptualize
how well others understand the concepts
we use

A Variable Is the Property Being


Studied

Event

Act

Variable
Characteristic

Trait

Attribute

Types of Variables

Dichotomous

Male/Female
Employed/ Unemployed

Discrete

Ethnic background
Educational level
Religious affiliation

Continuous

Income
Temperature
Age

Types of Variables

Dependent - is the variable of primary


interest to the researcher. It is known as
the criterion variable.

Types of Variables

Independent - is one that influences the


dependent variable in either in a positive
or negative way.

Types of Variables
Moderating second independent variable
which has a contingent effect on the
originally stated independent-dependent
variable relationship

Exercises: Determination of Variables


1. An applied researcher wants to increase the commitment of

organizational members in a particular bank. What would be


the dependent variable in this case?
List the variables in this and the next exercise, individually,
and label them as dependent or independent, giving brief
reasons and explaining why they are so labeled.
Diagram the relationships.
2. A manager believes that good supervision and training will
increase the production level of the workers.

Exercises: Determination of Variables


3. A consultant is of the opinion that increasing the pay and
fringe benefits, contrary to common belief, decreases job
satisfaction instead of increasing it.
List and label the variables in the following situation and
explain and diagram the relationships among variables.
4. A manager finds that off-the-job classroom training has a
great impact on the productivity of the employees in his
department. However, he also observes that employees over
fifty years of age do not seem to derive much benefit and do
not improve from such training.

Hypothesis

is an educated guess
is a provisional explanation
of an outcome

Types of Hypotheses
NULL
-states that no relationship exists between
variables

Types of Hypotheses
ALTERNATIVE
- Logical opposite of the null hypothesis

Types of Hypotheses
Null
Existence needs are not dominant
employee needs
There is no relationship between sales
commissions and sales performance

Types of Hypotheses
Alternative
Existence needs are dominant
employee needs
There is a relationship between sales
commissions and sales performance

Hypothesis Formats
Descriptive Format
-describes the characteristics of the
variables
Ho: The true value of the products market
acceptability is equal to 91.23%
Ha: The true value of the products market
acceptability is greater than 91.23%

Hypothesis Formats
Explanatory/Causal Format
-states that a change in one variable has an effect on
the other variable
Ho: The change in the amount of sales commission
given to the sales force has no effect on the total
monthly unit sales
Ha: The change in the amount of sales commission
given to the sales force has a significant effect on the
total monthly unit sales

Hypothesis Formats
Relational Format
-states relationships
Ho: There is no relationship between peso sales
and advertising costs
Ha: There is a significant relationship between
peso sales and advertising costs