Sie sind auf Seite 1von 107

Course Overview

Long Term Evolution of 3G UMTS (LTE)

Issue 1.1

1
1

Perfecting Wireless Communications

System Architecture
Physical Layer structure and coding
Physical Channel functionality
Control of channel data rates
Radio link reliability
Radio Resource connection
Mobility Management and handovers
Security
Services and session establishment

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Requirements for LTE

Services

Matching of wireline and WiMAX evolution


Ever higher data rates

Increased capacity
Efficient and flexible use of radio spectrum

Competitive pricing
Data transfer and protocol efficiency

Application and feature support


Adaptable support for new services

All IP and Always on


Web browsing and file transfer
Multimedia telephony - Voice over IP, Video
Push to talk over cellular (PoC)
Multimedia broadcast and multicast
Instant messaging
Presence (availability status)
4

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Wireline (used for home broadband) includes ADSL up to 8 Mbps, ADSL2+ up


to 20 Mbps, VDSL2 up to 50 Mbps and GPON (optical fibre) up to 100 Mbps.
Performance Targets are
10 x data rate of HSPA
to 1/3 latency of HSPA
2 to 4 x spectral efficiency of HSPA

LTE Features

Data Rate Comparison

Higher data rates (>100 Mbps DL, >50 Mbps UL)


Technology

Increased mean data throughput across the cell

Reduced latency in data transfer


Important for VoIP and fast data transfer

Spectrum flexibility (bandwidth 1.4 to 20 MHz)


Greater spectrum efficiency than UTRAN

Efficient Always-on Support


Rapid transition from Idle to Active mode for Instant
messaging, PoC and Presence services (<100ms)

User Connections maintained up to 350 km/h

EGPRS
WCDMA

Peak Data Rate


(downlink)
0.47 Mbps
2 Mbps

HSPA
HSPA+
LTE 2x2
LTE 4x2

14 Mbps
42 Mbps
150 Mbps
300 Mbps

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

LTE reuses the higher layer functional blocks from the 2G and 3G core
networks.

In LTE 2x2 relates to MIMO operation with 2 antennas at the base station
(eNodeB) and 2 antennas in the mobile.

The lower layers provide higher data rates than previously, rates up to
300Mbps downlink and 75Mbps uplink are indicated with the highest class
mobile and using multiple antennas at the base station and mobile.
LTE also offers greater efficiency in the use of the available spectrum (3 or 4
times DL and 2 or 3 times better UL). The instantaneous data rate can be
changed as the input data rate varies (eg web browsing) or to give the user a
specific Quality of Service. Several services may be multiplexed onto a single
connection.
Reduced latency (< 5ms one way in user plane) for user data is important for
speech circuits but also for data transfer at high speeds on poor channels
where repetitions of data are required.
The mobile does still fallback to an Idle mode, but the transition to Active is fast
(<100ms) so classed as Always on. This is important for instant messaging,
push to talk PoC and the Presence services

Mobile Categories
Category Modulation Modulation
UL
DL

Architecture
MIMO
DL
1x2

MGW

IMS
(IP Multimedia
Sub-system)

Peak Rate
DL/UL

MGCF

PSTN

P/I/S-CSCF

IP Net

10/5 Mbps
SGi

2
3
4
5

QPSK
16QAM
64QAM

QPSK
16QAM

50/25 Mbps
2x2

EPC
(Evolved
Packet Core)

150/50 Mbps
QPSK
16QAM
64QAM

4x2

S2

WLAN

100/50 Mbps

PDN
Gateway

Rx+
S7

PCRF

S5/S8

Serving
Gateway

S11

MME

S6

HSS

300/75 Mbps
S1

E-UTRAN

eNodeB

X2

Perfecting Wireless Communications

eNodeB
8

Perfecting Wireless Communications


E-UTRAN is the access network which provides support for the data services
EPC controls session establishment and security for user data. It then routes
the packet data to the appropriate network.
IMS supports the IP based multimedia services
MME - Mobility Management Entity
PCRF - Policy and Charging Rules Function
PDN Gateway - Packet Data Network Gateway
HSS - Home Subscriber Server - Home location register and the Authentication
Centre
CSCF - Call Session Control Function
P - Proxy
I - Interrogating
S - Serving
MGCF - Media Gateway Control Function - in charge of signalling over the
PSTN
MGW - Media Gateway - conversion of VoIP data to 64kbps PCM for PSTN
telephony network
7

E-UTRAN and EPC Functions

E-UTRAN

PDN-Gateway
MME

UE IP address allocation
Routing of data packets

EPC

NAS Security
Mobility (Idle mode)

Serving Gateway
Mobility Anchoring

The Access Network (Access Stratum)

eNodeBs linked by X2 interface for transfer of


user data packets during handover (no RNC)

EPS Bearer Control

eNodeB

E-UTRAN

Inter cell RR Management

RRC

Radio Bearer Control

PDCP

Connection Mobility Control

RLC

Radio Admission Control

MAC

Dynamic Resource Allocation

PHY

Optimised for Packet Switched services only


Support for non-real-time (data services) and
real-time services (constant data rate and delay)

eNodeB

X2

eNodeB

10

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications


Unlike, 3G where several NodeB stations are linked to an RNC, here the
eNodeBs communicate with each other to forward unacknowledged data
packets during handover. The eNodeBs then connect directly to the Core
Network (EPC).
Since there is no support for Circuit Switched services, the PS domain must be
able to support real time services by ensuring that it provide a constant data
rate and delay for speech or video telephony calls.

10

eNodeB Architecture

eNodeB Functionality

Radio Resource Control


Allocation and control of radio bearers
Dynamic radio resource management and packet
scheduling

eNodeB

RRC
X2
PDCP

Radio Mobility Management


Measurement reporting and Handover control

RLC

MAC

Layer 2
Header compression, encryption and integrity check

PHY

Layer 1
Modulation and Coding, RF transmission / reception

11

12

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications


Since there is no RNC, the eNodeB has inherited some of the functionality of
the other stations in the Access Network.
Overall management of the radio bearers is performed by the MME, but the
implementation is achieved at the eNodeB
Broadcast of System Information and Paging messages is also included in
RRC
Layer 2 also includes the usual acknowledgement protocols to ensure reliable
transfer of higher layer messaging.

11

12

Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

Mobility Management Entity (MME)

NAS Control plane functions related to the


network attachment and session management

Authentication

No support for Circuit Switched services


User plane data routed by Serving and PDN
Gateways
(PCRF is for charging)
Control plane functions handled by the
Mobility Management Entity (MME)
PDN
Gateway

S7

PCRF

S5

Serving
Gateway

S11

MME

S6

HSS
13

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Control of ciphering and integrity checking


Signalling to establish a PS session
Negotiation of QoS parameters
Tracking Area Updates in Idle mode
Mobility support in Active mode (handovers)
Determination of the Serving and PDN Gateway

14

Perfecting Wireless Communications


To permit handovers, the eNodeB can be linked to different Serving and PDN
gateways, so the MME is used to determine the appropriate gateways when
the radio bearers are setup

13

14

Serving Gateway and PDN Gateway

Home Subscriber Server (HSS)

(Similar to the Home Location Register and


Authentication Centre combined)

Database storing

Serving Gateway
Routes user data to the appropriate eNodeB as the
mobile moves
Routing to an SGSN for 2G/3G access

Mobile user identities and telephone numbers


User subscription details and QoS information
Security parameters for authentication, ciphering and
integrity protection
Current mobile location (Tracking Area)
...

Packet Data Network (PDN) Gateway

Routing of data to the external Packet Data Network


Routing user data to WLAN (Wifi, WiMAX)
For mobile to mobile calls - routes data to its peer
Allocation of IP address to mobiles
Links to PCRF for charging and operator policy
enforcement (resource allocation and usage)

15

16

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The Serving Gateway and PDN Gateway may be implemented in one node.
Alternatively, the Serving Gateway could be joined with the MME.

Identities for the mobile include the IMSI, Mobile Subscriber ISDN number
(MSISDN)

If the mobile roams to a different network, the Serving gateway (that is linked
with the local eNodeB) will communicate with the PDN Gateway for the
mobiles registered network. Also the local MME will have to communicate with
the HSS of the mobiles registered network to obtain security details (for
authentication and ciphering control).
The PDN Gateway also performs packet filtering, inspection packets for
viruses.

15

16

IMS - IP Multimedia Subsystem

Call Session Control Function (CSCF)

Provides IP based multimedia services

Functional support for session control, bearer


control and policy/charging

Controls establishment, modification and


termination of IMS sessions

CSCF is a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)


server

May be used over Packet Core of LTE, 3G or


GPRS - or legacy systems may be used for LTE

MGW

MGW
MGCF

PSTN

P/I/S-CSCF

IP Net

MGCF

PSTN

S-CSCF

IP Net

Home Network

I-CSCF

Visited Network

P-CSCF

HSS

17

18

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications


SIP is used to establish user services such as Voice over IP.

17

18

Session Control Function

Media Gateway Nodes

Proxy (P-CSCF ) - in a visited network


When roaming, routes the SIP messages to the
I-CSCF of the home network
Allocates bearers and performs SIP header
compression

Call control protocol conversion (SIP to ISDN User Part


signalling)
Media Gateway control
I-CSCF identification

Interrogating (I-CSCF ) - border of home network

Identifies the appropriate S-CSCF based on information


from the HSS

Media Gateway Control Function

Media Gateway
Media conversion
Bearer control
Translation of the AMR Codec data (within IP packets)
to 64kbps PCM for the telephone network

Serving (S-CSCF) - in the users home network


SIP server for authentication and service establishment
Provides access to Application server to the mobile
19

20

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications


The MGCF performs the translation of the protocols from SIP signalling to
ISUP (ISDN) User Part signalling for transmission over the PSTN network.
It also selects the appropriate I-CSCF routing as the mobile moves (from
information from the PSTN called party routing number)
The MG performs a conversion from the H248 standard which is used to
define and modify the media streams.

19

20

Mobile Terminal (UE) Architecture


Terminal
Equipment
(TE)

Mobile Terminal Functionality

Video
E-mail
Web Browser

Support for IMS applications (SIP, SDP, RTP)


Web browsing, e-mail, file transfer
Video and telephony applications

Telephone

AT Commands

Application

Mobile
Terminal
(MT)

Mobile Terminal

NAS
RRC
PDCP
RLC

Terminal Equipment

SIM

RRC for Handover, measurement reporting


Session Control
MM Authentication and Tracking Area Updating
Layer 2 and Layer 1 functions

MAC
PHY

21

22

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

21

22

User Plane Packet Handling


EPC

Serving
Gateway

User Plane Protocol Stack


Air interface

S1

S5

SGi

Packet Routing

Appl

S1

eNodeB

Compression PDCP
Ciphering PDCP

PDCP, RLC and


MAC are all in the
eNodeB

E-UTRAN
ARQ RLC
HARQ MAC

This reduces the


latency in processing
and buffering data

Appl

IP

IP

PDCP

PDCP

GTP

GTP

GTP

GTP

RLC

RLC

UDP

UDP

UDP

UDP

MAC

MAC

IP

IP

IP

IP

PHY

PHY

L2/L1

UE

IP

eNodeB

L2/L1 L2/L1

Serving GW

IP

L2

L2

L1

L1

L2/L1

PDN GW

23

Application
Server
24

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Compression and ciphering are both included in PDCP (differs from 3G or


GPRS) and this is located in the eNodeB for efficiency.

GTP - GPRS tunnelling Protocol, transfer of the data between the two nodes
and manages routing for a mobile that is moving between different eNodeBs

The retransmissions are performed by RLC and MAC again located in the
eNodeB to reduce any latency related to repetition of the data. Also it reduces
the about of buffering.

UDP - User Datagram protocol, connectionless and (hence not reliable


protocol) that may be safely used between network elements

23

24

Control Plane Protocol Stack

Protocol Structure

(NAS)

User Plane
Air Interface

S1

NAS
RRC

RRC

NAS

(IP user data)

ROHC
Ciphering

SI

Paging

ROHC
Ciphering

RRC

Ciphering
Integrity

Radio Bearers

RRC
SCTP

SCTP

PDCP

PDCP

RLC

RLC

IP

IP

MAC

MAC

L2

L2

PHY

PHY

L1

L1

UE

PDCP

Control Plane

eNodeB

RLC

ARQ

ARQ

BCCH

PCCH

ARQ

Logical Channels
MAC

HARQ

PHY

Channel
Coding

HARQ
Transport Channels
Channel
Coding

Channel
Coding

Channel
Coding

MME
25

26

Physical Channels

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

NAS includes GPRS Mobility Management and Session Management


functionality for establishment and maintenance of the PS sessions as the
mobile moves between cells

Note
ROHC is robust header compression performed on the IP packet
headers in PDCP
Ciphering performed in PDCP

SCTP - Stream Control Transmission Protocol, a connection oriented


transport protocol similar to TCP

Integrity checking performed in PDCP for RRC messages (and hence


encapsulated NAS messages)
MAC may multiplex several Logical channels to form a single Transport
channel
HARQ performed in MAC

25

26

Channel Types
RLC
Logical Channels
MAC
Transport Channels

Physical layer
PHY

Physical Channels

Radio Link
27

28

27

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications


There are three types of channel:
Logical Channels define the type of data to be transferred, for example,
traffic, Paging messages, dedicated control information.
Transport Channels define how the information will be carried to the
physical layer and define the characteristics of the data. For example, error
protection, channel coding and CRC, data packet size. This information is
described by the Transport Format.
Physical Channels are characterised by their timing and access
protocols (eg random access channels), data rates (eg traffic channels), and
many other parameters.

27

28

Physical Layer - Requirements

Physical Layer - Functionality

Peak data rates DL - 100Mbps UL - 50Mbps


Variable bandwidth 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz
Improved spectrum efficiency (4 x UTRAN in DL)
Reduced delay - RRC idle to active state
Reduced transmission latency < 5ms

CRC insertion - for detection of channel errors


Channel coding for error protection
Channel interleaving
Modulation QPSK, 16QAM, 64 QAM
Mapping to resources and antenna ports

Support for high mobile speeds - 350km/h


(but best data rates achieved at low speeds)

29

30

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications


Several Transport channels may be multiplexed to be transmitted on the same
physical channel (or if the data rate is high, several physical channels)
Data is given a CRC then forward error protected and interleaved. Errors
received via the channel may then be corrected and identified.

29

30

Comparison of Spectrum Usage

GSM - 200 kHz band for the ARFCN

UTRAN - 5 MHz band for the entire cell

E-UTRAN - set of 15 kHz bands used

E-UTRA Physical layer

31

32

31

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications


The total bandwidth used in E-UTRA is variable between 1.4 and 20 MHz

31

32

Physical Channel Sharing

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

Downlink OFDMA

Transmit data is mapped to a set of frequencies

Modulation

frequency

OFDM symbols

Data bits

Uplink SC-FDMA

Demux

Modulation

Modulation
C

Modulation (QAM)

A
frequency

33

Frequency translation
34

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

33

34

OFDM subcarriers - Orthogonality


Where a selected sub-carrier is at its maximum,
the adjacent subcarriers are at zero

Sub-carriers (in the frequency band)

Time and Frequency Domains

Resource block

Resource element

0
OFDM symbols (in a time slot)

35

Perfecting Wireless Communications

36

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The spectrum is represented by a sin (x) / x or sinc function and the frequency
bandwidth of each sub-carrier is determined by the inverse of the symbol rate the inverse of 15kHz being 66.67 s.

A resource block is the smallest number of symbols x sub-carriers that is


allocated for transmission, but in practice the Transmit Time Interval is 1ms so
two timeslots are (usually) allocated.

(Symbols are the data symbols that will be modulated using QPSK, 16-QAM or
64-QAM modulation. The more complex the modulation scheme, the more
data bits transmitted in parallel, but the symbol rate is fixed. IF QAM is used,
the amplitude of the subcarriers will also vary.
This orthogonality ensures very good spectral efficiency. The overall
bandwidth is nearly fully used without the need for large guard frequency
bands. The receiver can equalise the received subcarriers to compensate for
variable attenuation across the frequency band.

35

36

OFDMA Virtual Resource Block

FDD and TDD

With OFDMA, the resource elements for a user


are dynamically distributed, increasing efficiency

FDD
Frequency division duplex
Uplink and downlink on different
frequencies

TDD
Time division duplex
Uplink and downlink on same
frequency

Virtual Resource Block (logical grouping)

Physical resource allocation

Combined FDD/TDD
Uplink and downlink on different
frequencies

37

38

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access - resource elements may be


allocated in non-consecutive positions to provide diversity in frequency and
time domains which gives better tolerance against channel disturbances. For
simplicity, the concept of a virtual resource block (a chunk) is used to show the
resource allocation per mobile.

FDD - frequency division duplex - uses paired spectrum, in other words two
blocks of allocated frequency, a fixed distance apart. Uplink (mobile to network)
and downlink (network to mobile) signals use different frequencies. This makes
FDD mode suitable for sustained transmission of data in both directions, at
high speeds, such as encoded voice transmission.

(For clarity, reference (pilot) symbols and other details are not shown)
TDD - time division duplex - uses unpaired spectrum. Uplink and downlink
signals use the same frequency, where each block is used for either uplink or
downlink transmission. Because the block usage in TDD mode is weighted
towards downlink data, this makes TDD mode suitable for asymmetric
applications, such as web browsing.
For TDD operation, the stations require time synchronisation to ensure that
signals from different sources do not overlap in time and hence interfere.

37

38

Frame Structures

Multipath Interference

Type 1 Frame Structure - FDD


0

17

18

19

Inter-symbol interference would result from the


reception on different length paths

Slot = 0.5ms
Sub-frame = 2 slots

Time delay = T

Radio Frame = 10ms


Special Subframe - DL to UL transition

Type 2 Frame Structure TDD only


0

Subframe = 1ms

DwPTS Guard UpPTS

Half frame

Time delay = T + t1

Radio Frame = 10ms

39

40

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

For TDD operation, there are various formats for downlink, uplink and the
special subframe allocations.

The difference in path lengths would be typically 1.5km or 5 s maximum this


is the value t1. The absolute path length is not important, merely the difference
in the path lengths and hence the spread of timings.

Sub-frame 0 is always allocated for the downlink.


Subframe 1 is always a Special subframe, subframe 6 may be a special if
there is a change from downlink to uplink between subframes 5 and 7.
The first timeslot is always used for downlink and is followed by the DwPTS
field
The Guard period allows time between downlink and uplink transmissions
An UpPTS field is added before the uplink timeslots

Time length Ts = 1/(15000 x 2048) = 32.55ns. This is used as a reference for


all other slot and frame timings A timeslot = 15360 xTs.

39

40

OFDM Symbols and Cyclic Prefix

Symbol rate is very low (67s) which make the


communication inherently tolerant of multipath
delays.

In addition, the end of the symbol is repeated at


the start to form a Cyclic Prefix

The receiver can avoid inter-symbol interference


and maintain frequency orthogonality
Cyclic Prefix

Downlink Physical Layer

Data

Last part of the data is copied to the start to form the Cyclic Prefix

41

42
42

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The size of the cyclic prefix may be variable. The standard length is about 5 s
which will allow for a difference in multipath lengths up to 1.5km (CP is longer
than the value t1 which was the difference in path delays on the multipath
illustration on the previous slide)
There is also provision for an extended cyclic prefix length (16.67s) to cope
with larger cells (hence longer delays with differences up to 10km) and
broadcast of MBMS channels from more than one cell to large groups of
mobiles.
Addition of a CP is preferable to simply having a guard time between OFDMA
symbols since it makes the symbol appear periodic. This periodic nature
allows for a discrete Fourier spectrum which is simpler to implement in the
transmitter and receiver.

41

42

Downlink Transmission

Scalable Bandwidth

Downlink uses OFDMA with a cyclic prefix

6 to 110 resource blocks

Flexible bandwidth allocation 1.4 to 20 MHz

The bandwidth is varied by changing the number


of resource blocks about the centre frequency

12 consecutive sub-carriers during one time slot


form one resource block

Channel Bandwidth
(5 MHz)
Transmission Bandwidth Configuration
(25 Resource Blocks)

Resource Block
(180kHz)

15 kHz sub-carrier spacing


(or 7.5kHz option for MBMS dedicated channels)

CF

43

Perfecting Wireless Communications

44

Perfecting Wireless Communications

An optional 7.5 kHz spacing is considered for MBMS broadcast services since
this gives an even longer symbol length and is more robust for transmissions
over the entire cell to large groups of mobiles.

Channel Bandwidth
Resource Blocks

1.4

5 10 15

20

6 15 25 50 75 110

The Centre Frequency is the nominal cell frequency

43

44

Downlink Resource Block

Multipath Interference for MBSFN


Much longer inter-symbol interference would
result from the reception from different eNodeBs

Resource block
[12] Sub-carriers in the
resource block (180 kHz)

Sub-carriers (in the frequency band)

Time delay = T
Time delay = T + t2

Resource element

[7] OFDM symbols (in a time slot)

45

46

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

A resource block is the smallest number of symbols x sub-carriers that is


allocated for transmission. However, the TTI is 1ms so two timeslots are
always allocated

The difference in path lengths could be up to 10km or 33 s maximum this is


the value t2. The absolute path length is not important, merely the difference in
the path lengths and hence the spread of timings.

For the normal cyclic prefix and type 1 frame structure there are 12 subcarriers
and 7 symbols in the resource block. If the extended CP is used this changes
to 6 symbols.
Elements of this Virtual Resource Block (containing information to be sent to
one mobile) will be distributed over a larger frequency range to form the real
Resource Block for transmission. Moreover, the distribution may be semi-static
or dynamic - changing every subframe to increase randomness and strengthen
the transmission against frequency dependant interference.

45

46

Downlink Resource Block for MBSFN

Physical Layer transmission


CRC addition

Resource block
FEC Encoding
Rate Matching

24 Sub-carriers in the
resource block (180 kHz)

Sub-carriers (in the frequency band)

Transport blocks

Scrambling

Resource element

Modulation

Resource
mapping

Antenna
mapping

3 OFDM symbols (in a time slot)

47

48

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

For the Multimedia Broadcast over Single Frequency Network, the sub carrier
spacing is reduced to 7.5kHz and the symbols increase proportionally. This
allows for a longer cyclic prefix and hence larger multipath delays (equating to
a difference in path length of 10km).

The checksum (CRC) of 24 bits is added by the physical later but is used by
RLC to determine blocks that need to be retransmitted.

With the extended cyclic prefix and type 1 frame structure there are 24
subcarriers and 3 symbols in the resource block.

Scrambling is performed to remove long strings of 0s or 1s to ensure frequent


changes in the modulated data and a good balance between the symbols. The
algorithm is initialised by the specific mobiles RNTI or cell ID on the physical
channel so that the mobile only decodes the information it requires.

If the Transport block is larger than the Codeblock size (6144 bits) it is
segmented and an additional 24 bit CRC is added to each segment.

Forward Error Correction Encoding is 1/3 rate convolutional coding. This


provides error protection over the noisy channel. In addition, rate matching is
performed to match the block size to the physical channel. These are both
controlled by the MAC HARQ process in an adaptive manner.
Modulation is changeable between QPSK, 16 QAM and 64 QAM depending on
channel conditions.
Resource mapping segments the data in to the resource blocks.
Finally the resource blocks are mapped to the available Layers - antenna ports
(for MIMO operation)
47

48

CRC Attachment

Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request

Transport Block (MAC SDU)

Transport Block

CRC

Repetition scheme used even for RLC


Unacknowledged services (Speech and video)

Fast and frequent acknowledgements to give low


delay and BER of 10-6

Multiple channel Stop and Wait protocol for fast


repetition of received errors

Chase Combining / Incremental Redundancy is


used to combine repeated information

RLC ACK corrects residual HARQ errors

CRC
[24] bit CRC added

Code Block

Code Block

CRC CRC

If Transport Block is greater than 6144 bits


it is segmented and an additional [24] bit CRC
is added to each Code Block
49

50

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The CRC is 24 bits for UL and DL SCH

Two levels of acknowledgement process are used to provide a fast feedback


so short latency (HARQ) and an overseeing ACK process in RLC which will
catch any remaining errors and those caused by reception errors in the HARQ
feedback ACK/NACKs themselves.

16 bits for BCH


Then 16 bits for Downlink Control Information or 8 bits for UL Control
Information

The Ack/Nack information is based on verification of the CRCs on the received


Code Blocks / Transport Blocks.

The CRC is scrambled on the DL Control Information by the antenna selection


mask and mobiles RNTI so that the data is only accepted by the specific
mobile (hence it is implicitly addressed to the mobile).

Multiple stop and wait channels avoids stalling, waiting for an Ack for one
specific burst
With Incremental redundancy, the repeated signals have different parity bits
which makes the decoding more efficient than with the simpler Chase
combining schemes where the repeated signals are identical. Requirements for
processing and memory are greater with this scheme, however (not
inconsequential at these high data rates).
In addition, the modulation, resource block allocation and duration of the
transmissions may be varied in the repetition. Details would be included in the
repeated signals.

49

50

Hybrid-ARQ Example
Data

Data

HARQ Downlink and Uplink Variants

Data

Ack

Data

Ack

Asynchronous: the timing of the repetitions is not


scheduled
Adaptive: Modulation, resource block allocation and
duration of transmission may be varied
Incremental Redundancy is used (Type II HARQ)

Ack

3 stop and wait processes are shown here

In repetitions: modulation, resource block


allocation, redundancy and duration may change

Downlink scheme

Even if one process is stuck in repetitions, the other


parallel processes can continue

Uplink scheme
Synchronous: a scheduled time for repetitions of data
Non-adaptive: no change in the format / content of the
repeated data packets
Chase Combining is used
52

51

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

In this method, each transmitted block is numbered and the user data has
redundant bits and a checksum added.

Downlink - the system is similar to HSDPA and allows flexibility in the


scheduling of network transmissions since data is being sent to many mobiles.

In the receiver, the blocks are decoded and the received checksum is
compared to a calculated checksum. The receiver tells the transmitter which
blocks have been received correctly or incorrectly and the transmitter re-sends
any lost blocks.

Uplink - the system is similar to that adopted for HSUPA and reduces the need
for a lot of processing and storage of differently redundant data packets in the
mobile. The use of scheduled transmissions reduces the requirement for
further downlink signalling to control the uplink transmissions (the HARQ
channel process number can be derived from the subframe number used)

Incremental redundancy (IR), or ARQ type 2 improves this method:


- the redundancy added to the user data does not have to be the same in each
retransmission - for each coding scheme, there may be different ways of
encoding the data.
- the receiver keeps parts of incorrectly received blocks and can combine them
with the retransmitted block, to increase the chances of successfully decoding
the block.
Incremental redundancy is both an alternative and a complement to link
adaptation (where the coding scheme changes to improve robustness).
For FDD, 8 stop and wait processes are used in the uplink. In the downlink the
number is variable but 8 is the maximum

51

52

Incremental Redundancy (Downlink)


Data 1

Data 2

Data 3

Data 4

Physical Layer Adaption

Data 2b

X
Ack

When a block is encoded,


4 different Redundancy Versions
are generated

To adapt to changes in the communication


channel, the Physical layer includes:
Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC)

Nack

Ack

Transmit power variation

Bad packets are retransmitted but


the redundancy is different
(RV value is included in the block)
Receiver combines the received
blocks to recover the data
53

54

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

For Incremental Redundancy, each packet is encoded with differing


redundancy. The receiver keeps parts of incorrectly received blocks and can
combine them with the retransmitted block, to increase the chances of
successfully decoding the block.

53

54

Modulation and Coding (AMC)

Channel Quality Indicator

Network selects coding scheme to match


instantaneous channel conditions
Optimisation of capacity with a reasonable BLER
Reduction of latency but possibly lower throughput rate

Modulation
QPSK, 16 QAM, 64 QAM

Coding
Traffic and Paging 1/3 rate (0.33) Turbo coding
Rate matching adjusts the overall rate (0.08 to 0.93)
Broadcast channel 1/3 rate tail biting convolutional

Coding Rate Bits / symbol

CQI

Modulation

QPSK

0.076

0.15

QPSK

0.3

0.6

QPSK

0.59

0.9

16 QAM

0.37

1.5

16 QAM

0.6

2.4

10

64 QAM

0.45

2.7

13

64 QAM

0.75

4.5

15

64 QAM

0.93

5.6

55

56

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Higher data rates -

The mobile transmits the CQI value on the PUCCH and the eNodeB then uses
this to determine the modulation and coding rate to be used for downlink
transmissions. The efficiency increases as the CQI value.

More prone to interference


Used in small area around base station
When selecting the modulation and coding scheme, the network can focus
either on optimisation of capacity or a reduction of latency (clearly with a
balance between both parameters).
The set of supported coding schemes may not be fixed. They differ in their
complexity to implement and in their efficiency for different types of data and
possibly the latency introduced (block coding is good for data services but
coding is performed over a great depth of data so introduces an inherent
delay).
Additional coding methods are used for control information on PCFICH,
PHICH, PDCCH and PUCCH

55

56

Modulation Schemes

Modulation Schemes - 64 QAM


64-QAM - 6 bits per symbol

QPSK - 2 bits per symbol

Q
(-1,1)

16-QAM - 4 bits per symbol

Q
000011

(1,1)

0001

0011

0000

0010

I
(-1,-1)

(1,-1)

I
I

57

58

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The first two modulation schemes are QPSK and 16 QAM. If the channel
conditions are good, 16-QAM is used to increase the data rate since 4 bits are
sent in parallel. This modulation scheme is less tolerant of poor channels and
changes in received power since it includes a a power as well as a phase
aspect to the modulation.

The most complex scheme is 64QAM where 6 bits are sent in parallel. This
modulation scheme is less tolerant of poor channels and changes in received
power since it has a large power dependency as well as a phase aspect to the
modulation. Hence it would be applicable to a static mobile close to the base
station.
It is optional in the uplink direction.

57

58

Downlink Packet Scheduling

Scheduling by the eNode B controls the allocation


of time / frequency resource blocks to the mobile

1 TTI

Inputs to the scheduling process

Channel quality

Fast Packet Scheduling

Maximum and minimum data rate


QoS parameters, BER target, latency
Available power
Retransmissions (so tightly linked to HARQ process)
Mobiles sleep cycles and measurement periods

UE2

UE1

Scheduling of data
transmission depends on
(instantaneous) channel
quality reported by UE

Transmission when
conditions are most
favourable

UE2
Time

UE1
UE2

Channel Quality Indicator reports from the UE ...


59

60

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications


The advantage is that the high scheduling rate, combined with the other
features, means it is possible to use advanced scheduling methods where
channel allocation is conducted according to the current radio conditions, such
as 'proportional fair packet scheduling', in which the service order is determined
by the highest instantaneous relative channel quality, which tracks the fast
fading behaviour of the radio channel. Since the selection is based on relative
conditions, every user still gets approximately the same amount of allocation
time but the raise in system capacity can exceed 50%.

59

60

Downlink MIMO

Downlink Transmission Modes

Multiple Input, Multiple Output


Multiple antennas at the base station and mobile
Improved reliability over poor channel conditions
Increased data throughput
T

Transmitter
eNodeB

1x1 SISO

Transmitter

Receiver

1x2 SIMO

Transmitter

Receiver

2x1 MISO
Transmit Diversity

Transmitter

Receiver

2x2 MIMO
Spatial Multiplexing

Transmitter

Receiver

Receive Diversity

Receiver
T

Mobile

2 or 4 antennas at eNodeB

61

Perfecting Wireless Communications

1 or 2 antennas at mobile

62

Perfecting Wireless Communications

In the future, higher orders such as 4 x 2 MIMO are specified.

SISO is the simplest system using only 1 antenna at each station


SIMO uses receive diversity at the mobile to combat the effects of multipath
and fading in the radio channel. The gain can be up to 3dB.

Antenna spacing has to be a minimum of about 1/4 wavelength (30mm) which


is feasible on the mobile.

MISO uses Space Frequency Block Coding to provide transmit diversity where
data is copied onto different frequencies on the two antennas. This is used for
most of the physical channels but not the SCH and reference signals. These
are received by a single antenna in order to improve signal reception over the
channel thus combating the effects of multi-path and fading. MISO does not
increase data rates.

The terms are expressed from the viewpoint of the channel over which the
radio signals are sent, hence
SIMO - single input multiple output (ie 1 antenna transmitting into the ether and
2 antennas receiving the output from the ether)

MIMO relies on Spatial Multiplexing where two data streams are sent via 2 or 4
antennas. This is used on PDSCH and PMCH. Pre-defined orthogonal training
sequences are used from each transmitter to enable the receiver to learn to
distinguish the separate signals.
Additionally, Cyclic Delay Diversity may be used on the physical downlink
shared channel PDSCH in which there is a cyclical shift of the signal between
the different antennas. These appear as a phase diversity (a delay of half a
symbol for the 2 antenna case) in the received signal so may be separated
more easily. MIMO increases the data throughput.
If 4 antennas are used at the eNode B, there are two data streams and
transmit diversity is used for each of these on the second pair of antennas to
increase the reliability of transmission.

61

62

Capacity of a MIMO System

Improving MIMO using Feedback

Capacity

The capacity increases with the number of


transmit and receive antennas

Different Modulation and Coding used on each


antenna stream (layer)
Channel Quality Indicator for each antenna stream
provides feedback information

MIMO

SIMO

Pre-coding, the feedback then proposes the best


code based on the received reference signal

Increasing the power on antennas which are


received the best

MISO
Number of antennas
63

64

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

For SIMO and MISO benefits are seen on poor channel conditions in a
reduction of retransmission of data and hence increased overall throughput.

These enhancements to basic MIMO rely on feedback from the receiving


station so increase the complexity of the implementations. Also they would not
be possible for mobiles that are moving at medium or high speed since the
conditions will change too rapidly.

63

64

Uplink Transmission

Uplink Physical Layer

Uplink uses Single Carrier FDMA

6 to 110 resource blocks

Flexible bandwidth allocation 1.4 to 20 MHz


12 consecutive sub-carriers during one slot form
one resource block
15 kHz sub-carrier spacing

65

66

65

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications


In the uplink, the scheme used is called single carrier FDMA, in this the
symbols are spread on a group of sub-carriers. This is alternatively called
DFT-SOFDM, discrete Fourier transform - spread othogonal frequency division
multiplex.
OFDMA is not used in the uplink since the Peak Average Power Ratio is high
so with low cost power amplifiers in the mobile this would give rise to high
spectral spreading (interference between adjacent channels ) and hence poor
BER.

65

66

Uplink Symbols

Resource element

[7] SC-FDMA symbols (in a time slot)

Downlink

Uplink

OFDMA symbols (in a time slot)

SC-FDMA symbols (in a time slot)

Sub-carriers

Resource block
[12] Sub-carriers in the
resource block (180 kHz)

Sub-carriers (in the frequency band)

Uplink Slot Format (Type 1 frame)

67

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Several complex valued modulation symbols are


within the SC-FDMA symbol

Each symbol is spread over the subchannel


range allocated - hence Single Frequency

Constant amplitude of sub-carrier over the


symbol period

68

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The example is for a type 1 frame structure and normal cyclic prefix. If the
extended cyclic prefix is used, there are 6 symbols per time slot.

Since the amplitude of the subcariier (frequency) is constant over the FDMA
symbol period, the scheme still receives the benefits of tolerance to spread of
time delays caused by multipath. A cyclic prefix is used at the start of each
symbol as with the downlink scheme so allowing for multipath time delay
differences.
The number of sub-symbols within an SC-FDMA symbol depends on the
number of subcarriers allocated to mobile for the uplink transmission.

67

68

Sharing of Uplink Resource

Uplink FDMA Resource Sharing

Several mobiles share the set of sub-channels

Use of frequency hopping at TTI (1ms) rate

Sub-carriers

Localised sub-channel mapping so sub-channels


are consecutive in uplink
Mobile A allocation 2 resource blocks of sub-carriers

A
frequency
Mobile B allocation

69

Perfecting Wireless Communications

70

Perfecting Wireless Communications


In the uplink mobiles are allocated a sub-set of the sub-carriers within the
frequency bandwidth and share in a Frequency Division Multiple Access
manner. (Sharing is also performed in the time domain, TDMA on a sub-frame
(1ms) period.
Note that as the bandwidth (number of frequency resource blocks) is
increased, the sub-symbol rate (data rate) increases.
The allocated sub-channels may vary at the TTI rate to provide the benefits of
frequency hopping

69

70

Physical Layer Adaption

Adaption is similar to the Downlink physical layer


Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC)
Control of uplink transmit power

Power Control

71

72
72

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

71

72

Power Control Requirements

Transmit Power Control (Uplink)

Power control is important to minimise


interference from other mobiles or cells

Ensures that signals from all mobiles are


received at similar level by the eNodeB

Reduces interference received by the mobile


from neighbour cells

Open Loop Control


Used on PRACH
Transmit power level derived from received power
and a base level in downlink signalling

Closed Loop Control


Dynamically controlled by Transmitter Power Control
commands on PDCCH

Accumulative (relative power offsets, -1,


Absolute power level

0, +1, +3 dB)

Adjustment from the Modulation and Coding Scheme


Optimised per Resource Block (frequency dependant)
73

74

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Accurate power control is important (but not as essential as in CDMA) to


ensure near-neighbouring cells can reuse frequencies.

In closed loop operation, the modulation and coding scheme may change the
modulation type. Each modulation type has a related default value for the
power offset.

In the uplink, transmissions from the mobiles are adjusted so that all of the
signals from the mobiles are received at the same power level. If this were not
performed, a mobile close to the base station would drown out signals from
mobiles that were further away.

73

74

Open-Loop Power Control

Closed-Loop Control
Transmit power level is determined by information
fed back from the receiver

Tx power level = system constant - Rx power level

High Tx power

Reference Signals
measured

Low Tx power

Transmit Power Control


commands sent to mobile

75

76

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

This scheme is used for transmission on common channels. In the downlink,


common channels have to be transmitted at a constantly high power so that
they may be received by mobiles at the edge of the cell.

Closed-loop power control is used for dedicated channels. The eNodeB


receives the channel and measures the quality of the received signal based on
the reference Signals within the Resource Block. If the quality is too low, it
modifies the power control information sent to the mobile, which then increases
the power level. Thus a closed loop feedback system is used to provide the
minimum transmit power level that ensures the mobile receives a good quality
of received signal.

For uplink channels this scheme would provide a very fast response to the
changing channel conditions, but problems occur since a different frequency is
used in uplink and downlink (with FDD) and the path loss may vary in the two
directions. (Open loop control is employed well in TDD since the same
frequency is used for uplink and downlink.)
Thus, in FDD mode, open loop power control is used for RACH channels. The
mobile will measure the received downlink power level and use this value to
determine the power level for the initial transmission. The random access
procedure will then increase the level if no response is received - as described
in a later section.

75

76

Multi-User MIMO in Uplink

Data Rates with MIMO Operation


Peak data rates for a 20MHz bandwidth channel

The same physical resources are allocated to


different mobiles

Antennas

Uplink, the mobiles transmit simultaneously on


the same resource block using one antenna

16 QAM
64 QAM
64 QAM
64 QAM

The signals are separated by the BS by their


spatial diversity (SDMA)

SISO
SISO
MIMO 2x2
MIMO 4x2

D/L Mbps
100
150
302

U/L Mbps
51
75

Mobile 1
Node B

Mobile 2

Mobile

77

78

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Single user MIMO on the uplink may not be specified since it would require two
transmit stages (as well as 2 antennas) in the mobile which could be prohibitive
in terms of cost, size and battery life. Furthermore, uplink data rates are not
usually required to be as high as those in the downlink.
When the eNodeB selects the mobiles, it will chose those for which the
received signals are uncorrelated and hence more readily separated. Accurate
power control will be important to ensure the signals are received at the same
level by the eNodeB.

77

78

Physical Channels - Downlink

Downlink Physical Channels

PBCH

Physical Broadcast Channel

PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel


PCFICH Physical Control Format Indicator
PHICH

Physical Hybrid-ARQ Indicator Channel

PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel


PMCH

Physical Multicast Channel

SCH

Primary and secondary synchronisation

Reference Signals - One per antenna

79

80

79

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications


The reference and Sync signals appear only at the physical level.

79

80

Synchronisation Channels

Reference Signals

From the primary and secondary SCH, the


mobile has the Cell Identity

It can then calculate the (unique) Reference


Signal used in the cell

Reference Signals provide a reference for


amplitude, phase and timing

They are distributed over frequency and time in


the Resource Block

SCH reference signals in the centre of the band


to allow for variable channel bandwidths
Sent on central 62 subcarriers twice per frame

Primary SCH
Signal correlates to 1 of 3 cell identity sequences
Provides subframe timing and frequency references

Secondary SCH
Identifies 1 of 168 cell identity groups
Provides frame synchronisation

Hence, Cell Identity is determined

Hence, the mobile can compensate for variation in


amplitude and phase over time and frequency
81

82

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The narrowest channel bandwidth is 72 subcarriers (6 Resource Blocks) but


the SCH uses 62 since the processing for reception is simpler and hence
quicker.
The primary SCH provides one of 3 possible sequences - the secondary SCH
then gives the group Identity. Hence the mobile can then determine the
specific cell identity from the 3 x 168 (504) possibilities.

81

82

Downlink Reference Signals

Reference Symbols Frequency Spectrum

Sub-carriers (in the frequency band)

Data Sub-carriers

Reference sub-carriers

Data
Resource block
Second reference symbol
Guard sub-carriers

First reference symbol

OFDM symbols (in a time slot)

DC Sub-carrier
(Centre frequency)

83

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Frequency
84

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Reference symbols are added to the downlink transmissions for:

Guard sub carriers protect corruption to adjacent transmission channels.

Channel quality measurements

The central sub carrier on the downlink is not transmitted to aid identification of
the centre of the band in initial cell search.

Channel estimation and equalisation over the frequency band to allow


demodulation of the received signal
Hence the reference symbols are distributed in time and frequency.
If a second antenna is used (MIMO operation) this will transmit reference
signals in the alternate resource elements.
In the example above, we assume frame structure type 1 and a short cyclic
prefix so there are 7 symbols in the timeslot

83

84

PBCH - Physical Broadcast Channel

PDCCH - Physical Downlink Control

Carries the BCH - System Information


Only the Master Information Block is carried on the
PBCH
(The System Information Blocks are sent on PDSCH)

From SCH and BCH the mobile can determine


the cell identifiers

Sent on central 72 subcarriers (6 resource


blocks) once a frame (10ms)

Carries Downlink Control Information (DCI),


resource block assignments for transmissions
Assignment information is sent every subframe

Sent in a small set of Control Channel Elements


So UE does not need to decode all the PDCCH
Space for Control channel assignments is known to all
Space for Dedicated assignments is per mobile

CRC of the Assignments depends on the


mobiles active identity (implicit addressing)

Modulation QPSK

Modulation QPSK for reception over the cell


85

Perfecting Wireless Communications

86

Perfecting Wireless Communications


By generating the CRC based on the mobiles Identity, the receiving mobile will
only accept scheduling assignments that are meant for that individual mobile.
The identity could be for a common mobile identity (for random access) or a
mobile specific, dedicated identity.
(Resource Block Assignments are similar to the method used in the DL-MAP in
WiMax)

85

86

Resource Allocation

Resource Allocation for Downlink

Resource Blocks (in Channel Bandwidth)

Mobile Identity
Resource Block
Assignment

CRC

PDCCH

Allocation may be Dynamic - single TTI


or Semi-persistent (periodically repeating)

UE is sent a bitmap to assign the downlink


Resource Blocks in the same TTI
Direct bitmap - each bit assigns one resource block
Bitmap type 0 - assigns Resource Block Groups (sets
of consecutive Resource Blocks)
Bitmap type 1 - assigns individual resource blocks (for
frequency diversity) from the Resource Block Groups
Bitmap type 2 - several sets of contiguous blocks (no
segmentation of band into Resource Block Groups)

Resource
Blocks

Timeslot 0

PDSCH

Timeslot 1

87

Perfecting Wireless Communications

88

Perfecting Wireless Communications

As before, Virtual Resource Blocks are illustrated for simplicity.

Semi-persistent allocation of Resource Blocks is useful for real-time


applications such as VoIP where the transfer of data is constant and repetitive.
The semi-persistent allocation is provided to the mobiles C-RNTI so if the
mobile does not see any further allocation, it may use this repetitive allocation.
If it does see an allocation to its C-RNTI, this takes precedence.

The CRC is scrambled with the mobile identity, hence the mobile will only
deem the resource block assignment as a valid packet if the CRC matches that
for the addressed identity.

The direct bitmap is only used for up to 10 resource blocks (10 bits) otherwise
the bitmap size would become too large.
Assignments are usually made which cover transmissions in both halves of the
subframe, but it is also possible to have separate assignments for each half of
the subframe.

87

88

Resource Allocation for Uplink

Mobile Identities

Allocation may be Dynamic - single TTI


or Semi-persistent - periodically repeating

UE is sent a bitmap to assign the uplink


Resource Blocks

CRC generation depends on UE Identities implicitly addresses Resource Assignments


SI-RNTI = FFFF Assignments for System Information
P-RNTI = FFFE Assignments for Paging messages

Bitmap type 2 - Assignment of a set of contiguous


Resource Blocks

RA-RNTI based on subframe number in which


PRACH was received
Assignment for Random Access Response
C-RNTI the identity given during RRC Connection
Assignment for DLSCH or ULSCH (uplink grant)
89

90

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The grant in FDD mode relates to the uplink sub frame which is 4 sub frames
delayed from that in which the resource allocation is included to allow the
mobile time to process the information. In TDD the delay is different.

89

90

PCFICH - Physical Control Format Indicator

PHICH - Physical Hybrid-ARQ Indicator

Provides the mobile with details of the number of


OFDM symbols used on the PDCCH
Expressed in the Control Format Indicator (CFI) range
1 to 3 symbols within a sub-frame

Resource Blocks

This relates to the HARQ mechanism implemented


within MAC
1/3 Repetition coding so Ack = 1,1,1, Nack = 0,0,0

Modulation QPSK

PDCCH

PDSCH

Timeslot 0

Carries the Ack/Nack responses to the uplink


transmissions

Modulation QPSK

PDCCH

Timeslot 1

91

92

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

91

92

PDSCH - Physical Downlink Shared

PMCH - Physical Multicast Channel

Carries DL-SCH - user data and higher layer


(RRC, NAS) signalling

For transmission of multicast and broadcast


information

Time sharing of data transmission to mobiles

Format is similar to the PDSCH but it is for


reception by several mobiles

Sub-channel spacing is 7.5 kHz and symbol


length is doubled

Modulation QPSK, 16 QAM or 64 QAM

Carries the PCH - Paging of mobiles


Also carries the System Information

7.5 kHz
carrier spacing

The System Information Blocks are carried on the


PDSCH so the transmission bandwidth used and
repetition schedule can be varied

Modulation QPSK, 16 QAM or 64 QAM


93

Perfecting Wireless Communications

3 OFDM symbols in a time slot

94

Perfecting Wireless Communications


The longer symbol length means a longer cyclic prefix permitting good
reception over large cells or for combination of signals broadcast
simultaneously over a set of cells.

93

94

Resource Blocks (in Channel Bandwidth)

Example Channel Mapping


Reference
Signals
Every Timeslot

P-SCH
S-SCH
Timeslot 0 and 5

Initial Acquisition

PBCH

PDCCH

PDSCH

Even Timeslots

Timeslot 1

Timeslot 0

Timeslot 1

95

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Timing and frequency offset from Primary SCH


Cell Identity within the group from P-SCH
Frame timing from Secondary SCH
Unique Physical Layer Cell Identity from SCH
Reference Signals facilitate equalisation
System Information from PBCH and PDSCH
RRC Connection
Attach procedure
RRC Reconfiguration and Bearer assignment

96

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The SCH only occupies the central 62 subcarriers within the channel
bandwidth. There are 5 unused subcarriers on either side of the SCH (as a
guard) such that the total allocation is 6 resource blocks.
The PBCH occupies the central 72 subcarriers.
Up to 3 symbols may be assigned for the PDCCH and this is repeated every
subframe (every other timeslot).
4 symbols are allocated for the PBCH, but this is shared with the reference
signals which take precedence over all other channels

95

96

Physical Channels - Uplink

Uplink Physical Channels

97

PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel

DMRS

Demodulation Reference Signal

SRS

Sounding Reference Signal

PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel


PRACH Physical Random Access Channel

98

97

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

97

98

DMRS - Demodulation Reference Signal

SRS - Sounding Reference Signal

Provides synchronisation and uplink channel


estimation

Separate DMRS for PUSCH and PUCCH


Sent once every timeslot for PUSCH
Repeated 3 times every timeslot for PUCCH

Sent by the mobile upon request of the eNodeB


to allow uplink channel estimation when no other
transmissions are scheduled (on PUSCH or
PUCCH)
Periodicity and subframe offset are configurable
Sent in the last SC-FDMA symbol of a subframe

99

100

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

99

100

PUCCH - Physical Uplink Control Channel

PUSCH - Physical Uplink Shared Channel

Carries user data and also higher level (RRC,


NAS) signalling

Transports the UL-SCH and Uplink Control


Information related to the data

Modulation QPSK, 16 QAM or 64 QAM

Carries Uplink Control Information


Scheduling requests
Ack/Nack responses to downlink transmissions to the
HARQ mechanism implemented within MAC
Channel Quality Indications for feedback on the
downlink channel

Modulation BPSK or QPSK

101

102

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

A Scheduling Request Indicator is sent from the mobile when there is no


uplink grant on the PUSCH. The response from the eNodeB is an uplink
scheduling grant that the mobile will then use for transmission of data + a
further scheduling request

Uplink Control Information (UCI) includes control signalling that is always sent
with the uplink data such as Transport Format Indications, new data indications
and MIMO parameters.

101

102

Resource Blocks (in Channel Bandwidth)

Example Channel Mapping


Demodulation
Reference
Signal

PRACH Physical Random Access Channel

PUSCH

Every Timeslot

The Access burst comprises a preamble and a


few bits of payload data
Several preamble formats (lengths) are specified

Timeslot 0

Timeslot 1

Initial message from the mobile use nonsynchronised timing

The eNodeB supplies the required Timing


Advance

Any subsequent transmissions can use


synchronised PRACH

103

104

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Note that the mobile is usually only given a small number of resource blocks
within the total channel bandwidth and only for a limited time period (number of
TTIs)

Initially, the time delay between the base station and the mobile is not known
accurately, so the PRACH transmissions are not synchronised. Subsequently,
the timebase at the mobile is adjusted and the transmissions are synchronised
with uplink transmissions from other mobiles in the cell.
There are several preamble sequences defined for a cell, the mobile selects
one randomly and this is used to identify the mobile in the response sent from
the base station.

103

104

Random Access

Random Access Preamble

Network

UE

Radio Frame = 10ms


Sub-frame
Slot

Random Access Preamble

17

18

19

Random Access Response


(Timing Advance, uplink grant)
CP

Sequence

RRC message

RRC message
105

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Various burst formats are defined


Bandwidth used is 72 subcarriers (1.25 MHz)

106

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The preamble includes a 5 bit random identity used to uniquely identify


the transmitting mobile. The preamble sequence is chosen randomly
from the set broadcasted on the BCH beacon channel. One bit is used
to also define the amount of data required for the following RRC
message.

Cyclic prefix as before improves the reception of the signal and acts as a guard
time to ensure that bursts from different mobiles, (with different timing
references) do not collide. A typical CP length is 103us corresponding to a the
distance from the eNodeB of 2x15 km.

Timing Advance and an early resource allocation is provided in the


Random Access Response.

105

106

Power Control for Access Procedure

Resource Allocation
Network

UE

SIB 2 specifies PRACH resources

Timing, resource allocation


and Sequence number

PRACH

on PDCCH

PRACH Preamble

Message
PUSCH

PDSCH

Power

PDCCH

Resource Blocks

Random Access Response


sent in PDCCH + PDSCH

RAR
RAR provides uplink grant
for RRC message
Resource Block
Assignment

CRC

RRC Connection Request

Time

RRC message

N Retransmissions max

RA-RNTI

107

Downlink Sub-frames

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Uplink Sub-frames

108

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The mobile sends the initial PRACH preamble at a power level determined
from the downlink power (Open loop power control). The access slot and
preamble signature are chosen randomly from the allowed set.

System Information Block 2 specifies the resources reserved for the PRACH
transmissions. The resource may be specified as 1, 2, 3, 5, ... sub-frames
within the frame (the set of options depending on frame type and PRACH
preamble type). Initially this will be 6 contiguous resource blocks but additional
frequencies could be specified once all the time resource has been allocated.

If no timing and resource allocation message is received for the preamble


transmission, it is repeated in the next allowed access slot. Each repetition is
performed at a higher power using a step size determined from the System
Information. However, the power control is not as critical as with WCDMA so
the initial power may be sufficiently high to be received by the eNodeB.
System Information will also determine the maximum number of
retransmissions allowed before the procedure is deemed to have failed.

The mobile sends a PRACH preamble in a randomly chosen PRACH resource


and waits for the Random Access Response (RAR).
The Random Access Response comprises a resource assignment which is
implicitly addressed to the mobile by scrambling the CRC with the RA-RNTI
that was used by the mobile in the PRACH transmission. The Downlink
resource is used for transmission of the RAR which is addressed to a number
of mobiles which have sent PRACH preambles. For each mobile a grant is
given which the mobiles use to send their first RRC message.

Upon reception of the timing and resource allocation message on PDCCH, the
mobile can be sure that the PRACH has been correctly received. It then may
transmit the required message on the PUSCH (eg a scheduling request).

107

108

Timing Advance

Near
Uplink received symbol

Transport Channels

eNodeB symbol
Far
Uplink received symbol

Required Timing Advance

109

110
110

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

For a mobile at some distance from the eNodeB, the timing of symbol is
delayed by the time for the radio signal to travel the distance. When the mobile
transmits, the same delay is encountered so the signal received by the eNodeB
is not where it is expected.
Hence, the mobile is requested to advance its timebase by this amount so that
signals from all mobiles in the cell are received at the eNodeB synchronous to
its timebase.
The timing advance can be up to 0.67ms a distance of 100km and with a
granularity of 0.52 s which is less than the Cyclic Prefix (4.7s)
Timing Advance updates may be sent to the mobile after this to allow for the
mobile driving around the cell.

109

110

Transport Channels - Downlink

Transport Channels - Uplink

BCH

Broadcast Channel

Carries the Master Information Block

PCH

UL-SCH Uplink Shared Channel


Carries user data and higher level signalling

Paging Channel

RACH

Random Access Channel

DL-SCH Downlink Shared Channel


Carries user data and higher level signalling
Carries the System Information Blocks
May carry MBMS transmissions (when in a single cell)

MCH

Multicast Channel

support for MBSFN combining MBMS on multiple cells


111

112

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Transport channels define how the data is transferred between the mobile and
the eNodeB, for example error protection, channel coding and CRC, data
packet size. This information is described by the Transport Format.

UL-SCH
dynamic link adaption used (modulation, coding and power control
schemes)
support for dynamic and semi-static (repeating) resource allocations.

BCH uses a fixed transport format


PCH - usual Discontinuous reception so the mobile can sleep most of the time.

RACH

DL-SCH support for HARQ at MAC layer

Carries little control information

dynamic link adaption used (modulation, coding and power control


schemes)

contention risk since random access

support for dynamic and semi-static (repeating) resource allocations.


may use DRX for mobile power saving.
MBSFN
Network

Multimedia Broadcast multicast service Single Frequency

111

112

Logical Channels - Control

Logical Channels - Traffic

BCCH

Broadcast Control Channel

Distribution of System Information

PCCH
CCCH

Dedicated Traffic Channel

Bi-directional transfer of user data (and application


level signalling)

Paging Control Channel

Paging mobiles for MT sessions

DTCH

MTCH

Multicast Traffic Channel

For transfer of MBMS data to mobiles

Common Control Channel

Bi-directional, used prior to RRC Connection

DCCH

Dedicated Control Channel

Bi-directional, RRC and NAS signalling information

MCCH

Multicast Control Channel

Transmission of MBMS signalling to mobiles

113

114

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

113

114

Channel Mapping
Logical Channels

BCCH

Transport Channels

PCCH

CCCH

BCH DL-SCH PCH

DCCH

DTCH

MCCH MTCH

UL-SCH DL-SCH MCH

RACH

MAC layer
Physical Channels

PBCH

PUSCH PDSCH PMCH

PRACH

115

116
116

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The remaining physical channels, PUCCH, PDCCH, PCFICH and PHICH do


not have associated transport channels so are not shown
PBCH
Physical Broadcast Channel
PDCCH
Physical Downlink Control Channel
PCFICH
Physical Control Format Indicator
PHICH
Physical Hybrid-ARQ Indicator Channel
PDSCH
Physical Downlink Shared Channel
PMCH
Physical Multicast Channel
PUCCH
Physical Uplink Control Channel
PUSCH
Physical Uplink Shared Channel
PRACH
Physical Random Access Channel
BCH
PCH
DL-SCH
MCH
UL-SCH
RACH

Broadcast Channel
Paging Channel
Downlink Shared Channel
Multicast Channel
Uplink Shared Channel
Random Access Channel

BCCH
PCCH
CCCH
DCCH
MCCH
DTCH
MTCH

Broadcast Control Channel


Paging Control Channel
Common Control Channel
Dedicated Control Channel
Multicast Control Channel
Dedicated Traffic Channel
Multicast Traffic Channel
115

116

MAC Layer

Transport Blocks

Each Transport Channel transfers a Transport


Block Set of 1 (or 2) Transport Blocks to Layer 1
each Transmission Time Interval

TTI is fixed at 1ms for traffic and paging

Medium Access Control


Mapping (multiple) logical channels onto transport
channels
Managing the priorities of data flows
Prioritizing between different mobiles for uplink
transmission
Selecting transport formats (instantaneous data rate)
Selection of modulation scheme for the data
Support of Hybrid ARQ repetition process
Transfer of data (Transport Blocks) to the Physical
Layer every Transmission Time Interval (TTI)

TTI for BCH is 40ms

117

118

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Data is sent from the physical layer to the MAC layer in the form of transport
channels. The MAC layer is responsible for mapping the transport channels
onto logical channels and transmitting the data up to the RLC layer, and the
reverse - receiving data on logical channels from the RLC layer and mapping
that data onto transport channels for the physical layer. On those channels,
MAC layer is also responsible for segmenting long messages from higher
layers into blocks, and reassembling blocks from the physical layer into
messages for the higher layers.
MAC layer is also responsible for selecting the transport formats used on the
transport channels, and distinguishing between different UEs using the
common channels.

117

118

Transport Block Sets

MAC PDU Format

MAC
R/R/E/LCID
subheader

R/R/E/LCID/F/L R/R/E/LCID/F/L R/R/E/LCID/Pad


Subheader
Subheader
Subheader

1 TTI (1ms)

Transport Block Size = xxx bits


Number of Blocks = 1

MAC Header

MAC Control
Element

MAC SDU

Multiple PDUs
from several
Logical Channels

MAC SDU

Pad

MAC PDU

Physical
Layer

119

120

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Every TTI (1ms) a set of Transport Blocks is transferred from the MAC to the
Physical layer. The data will be coded and split into blocks to be sent out every
10ms radio frame.

#
Multiple sub headers may be included, each one is used to define details for
each MAC SDU within the payload

Data from MAC could be sent in a single large Transport Block or in a set of
smaller Transport Blocks. The latter approach allows the number of blocks
(and hence the data rate) to be varied more simply in each TTI.

LCID - Logical Channel Identity


L - Length of the MAC SDU
F - Format of the Length field (7 or 15 bits)
E - Extension (subheaders to follow)
(R is reserved)
MAC Control element(s) are sent to the peer MAC entity and include
Buffer size (max size of the MAC PDU for information to RLC and
PDCP)
Timing alignment (advance)
Contention resolution (during random access)
Power headroom reporting
DRX commands
Refer to the slide in the Physical Channel section for the segmentation and
CRC attachment to the MAC PDU.

119

120

MAC PDU Random Access Response


E/T/R/R/BI
subheader

E/T/RAPID
Subheader

E/T/RAPID
Subheader
Random Access Response
to several mobiles

RLC layer
MAC Header

MAC RAR

MAC RAR

MAC RAR

Pad

MAC PDU
121

122
122

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

#
The MAC Random Access Response can convey a response to several
mobiles.
Multiple sub headers may be included, each one is used to define details for
each MAC Random Access Response within the payload
BI is an optional Backoff Indicator (so the mobile will perform an Aloha
backoff and repeat the Random Access after a random delay
E - Extension (subheaders to follow)
T - Type Backoff or Random Access Response
(R is reserved)
RAPID - is the Random Access Preamble ID
MAC Random Access Response includes
Timing Advance Command
Uplink Grant
Temporary C-RNTI

121

122

RLC Layer

Transparent Mode

RLC : Radio link control


Reliable transfer of higher layer messages
Acknowledged, Unacknowledged, Transparent modes
Automatic Repeat Request (Acknowledged mode) using the CRC appended by the Physical layer
Segmentation / concatenation of messages

Used for Broadcast Control and Paging channels


Not used for User Plane Data
Data is passed through with no processing
No RLC header, no segmentation or
concatenation

123

124

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Data is passed from RLC to MAC layer and back on logical channels. The RLC
layer reassembles data to, and segments data from, the higher layers (e.g.
RRC or PDCP).

In 3G, transparent mode was used for CS speech, but here it is never used for
user data.

An RLC entity can be in any one of three modes : acknowledged,


unacknowledged, or transparent. In transparent mode, data from a higher layer
is sent directly through RLC layer with no processing at RLC layer except
segmentation and reassembly. In acknowledged and unacknowledged mode,
the RLC layer adds header information to the segments of the higher-layer
message.

123

124

Tranasparent RLC Entity

Unacknowledged Mode

PDCP

Used for Dedicated channel data


Delay sensitive services (VoIP, streaming)

RLC Tm SAP

And for Multicast channels


Since no acknowledgement from mobiles

RLC entity

Transmission buffer

Loss of packets can be detected and reported


Segmentation and Concatenation of packets
To fit PDU size currently required by MAC

MAC

Packets can be re-ordered and assembled


RLC header includes a sequence number

125

126

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The Transparent mode RLC entity, shown here.

Packets may need to be re-ordered following retransmission by the HARQ


process

No retransmission process is used. Data delivery is therefore not guaranteed.


Segmentation / concatenation is performed so that the RLC PDUs fit the size
indicated by the lower layer (at that particular time).

No segmentation or concatenation.
No header added.

125

126

Unacknowledged RLC Entity

Acknowledged Mode

PDCP

RLC Um SAP

Delay tolerant services (www, file transfer)


RRC messages

RLC entity
Transmission buffer

Reassemble

Segmentation /
concatenation

Remove RLC header

Add RLC header

Receive buffer
HARQ reordering

Used for Dedicated or Common channel data

MAC

Loss of packets can be detected and reported


Segmentation / concatenation of transmit data
Received packets are re-ordered and assembled
RLC header includes a sequence number
Retransmission of lost packets (remaining after
the H-ARQ process)

127

128

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The unacknowledged mode RLC entity, shown here, is more complex than the
transparent mode entity.

Acknowledged mode is used for signalling on DTCH and DCCH.

In unacknowledged mode, no retransmission process is used. Data delivery is


therefore not guaranteed. It is therefore most suitable for those processes
where acknowledgement is an intrinsic part of the procedure being carried out
(such as sending a message where a response is always required) or non-error
sensitive data.
The MAC HARQ process will result in packages being received out of
sequence due to the repetition process. These are reordered during the
buffering process at the receiver.
If the HARQ process fails to deliver all of the segments of the RLC SDU, it is
discarded and the loss is reported to the higher layers (but cannot be corrected
for since unacknowledged mode at RLC).

127

128

Acknowledged RLC Entity

AM RLC PDU Format

Am SAP
RLC entity

Transmission buffer

RLC Control
[Status PDU]

packet 1

D/C RF

Retransmission
buffer and mgt

packet 3

SDU Reassembly

Repeated packets
(Resegmented)

Segmentation / concatenation

packet 2

FI

SN

LI

LI

end

whole

start

Remove RLC header

RLC header

Repeated packets

Receive buffer and


HARQ reordering

Tx Acknowledgements

Add RLC header


Rx
acknowledgements

Demultiplex / routing

Logical channels

129

Data

D/C

RLC Data or Control PDU

RF

Resegmentation (whole RLC PDU or a segment)

Polling - request for a Status (Ack/Nack) response

FI

Framing Info (1st and last data are segmented parts of SDUs)

SN

Sequence Number of the PDU

LI

Length Indicator for each data segment section (the last segment
length can be deduced from the total PDU length)

Perfecting Wireless Communications

130

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The entity takes data as RLC SDUs from higher layers, then segments or
concatenates them to form payload units (PUs). The size of the payload unit is
defined by the MAC layer on a dynamic. The entity takes the PUs and adds an
RLC header to them, to make RLC PDUs.

If segmentation is changed for an RLC retransmission, additional header fields


are added to indicate
Last Segment Flag - of the RLC PDU
Segmentation Offset - starting position of the segment within the
original PDU.

The AM RLC entity also takes care of status information for acknowledgement
or negative ack of a PDU.
When data is transmitted using acknowledged mode RLC, the rule is that the
entity transmits a certain number of blocks of data, then waits for an
acknowledgement from the receiver. If blocks were not received, those blocks
are repeated using the ARQ mechanism. So, when an RLC PDU is received
which contains a control message, that information is passed to the
retransmission buffer for checking against its own records.

129

130

Status PDU Format

ARQ Mechanism
RLC Data (SN=0)

D/C CPT ACK_SN NACK_SN

SOstart

SOend

Transmitter sends
numbered blocks

RLC Data (SN=1)

NACK_SN

RLC Data (SN=2)


RLC Data (SN=3)

D/C

RLC Data or Control PDU

CPT

Control PDU Type (Status or reserved)

ACK_SN

Positive ack of all AMD PDUs up to the Sequence Number

NACK_SN

Negative ack of a segment of PDU by Sequence Number)

SOstart

Segment offset (first byte of the PDU to be repeated)

RLC Data (SN=3)

SOend

Segment offset (last byte of the section to be repeated)

RLC Data (SN=4)

NACK_SN

Negative ack of the preceding sections of the AMD PDU

RLC Data (SN=4)


RLC Data (SN=5)
RLC Control
Status (Nack_SN List)

X
X

Some blocks may be


lost after the HARQ process

Receiver tells transmitter


which blocks were lost

Transmitter resends
missing blocks

131

132

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Extension bits which indicate the presence of optional fields are not shown
above.

Some blocks may be lost in the air, or may arrive corrupted (so the receiver
cannot decode them), due to interference.
The Status message ACK_SN is used to tell the transmitter that all blocks have
been received and the next expected sequence number

The ACK_SN indicates a positive acknowledgement of all AMD PDUs up to


(but not including) the sequence number given. This excludes any PDUs
explicitly mentioned by the NACK_SN or included in the Segment Offset
ranges.

Alternatively, NACK_SN LIst defines those which were not received


successfully and contains a list of the start and end of each failure section,
referenced by the Sequence Number. The transmitter reads the ack/nack, and
retransmits any blocks which were not received correctly by the receiver.

By defining the first and last bytes of the negatively acknowledged AMD PDU,
it permits the repeated data to be differently segmented depending on the
length of data to be repeated (and the instantaneous size required by MAC)..

This process can be repeated, until all the blocks have been received and
acknowledged correctly. To stop the process repeating infinitely, the network
can impose a limit to the number of retransmissions, or a time limit - any blocks
not acknowledged when the limit is reached are lost forever.

131

132

The PDCP Layer

PDCP : Packet data convergence protocol

PDCP layer

Supports user-plane services


Transfer of user data
IP Header compression and decompression (ROHC)
Integrity protection of NAS and RRC messages
Encryption of signalling and user data
Maintain 'lossless' data transfer during eNodeB
relocation
(uses the Sequence Number in the PDCP Header)

133

134

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

133

The packet data convergence protocol (PDCP) layer is a layer 2 entity. It is an


access stratum, user plane protocol.
It exists only to transmit user-plane information in the packet-switched domain.
It also serves to handle the compression and decompression of the headers of
the user data it carries. This is necessary because in some cases, the data
header can up to three or four times the size of the payload. Only a single
compression algorithm is defined in E-UTRAN.
Encryption is performed on signalling information (from RRC and NAS) and on
data (user data and application level signalling from SIP and RTCP). This is
notably different from the 2G and 3G architectures.
PDCP also serves to maintain lossless data transfer during cell relocation This
is achieved using PDU sequence numbers, maintained by the PDCP layer.
This is only done when the PDCP layer is attached to an acknowledged-mode
RLC layer.

133

134

PDCP Processing
User Plane
Serving
Gateway

PDCP Packet Processing


Control Plane

Packet routing

PDCP

NAS

User Plane
IP Packet
Header

RRC

PDCP

Compression

Integrity

Ciphering

Ciphering
PDCP PDU

RLC

Control Plane

SN

IP data

RRC Message

Compression

Integrity

Ciphering

Ciphering

Ciphered data

SN

Ciphered data

MAC-I

RLC
RLC

RLC

135

136

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

In the User Plane, ciphering is optional (network dependant), but in the control
plane, both integrity checking and ciphering are mandatory.

As indicated in the diagram, the packet headers may be longer than the IP data
so great efficiency improvements are made by compression of the redundant
parts of this header information

The Header compression is mandatory as a process - but there is a


transparent mode in which the IP headers are not modified. A number of
different compression algorithms are specified each being optimised to the type
of data (IP, TCP/IP, RTP/UDP/IP, ESP/IP)

The PDCP header includes the Sequence Number (SN) for re-ordering of
received data where the mobile is moving between cells
In the Control Plane the Integrity check process adds a Message
Authentication Check (secure checksum), MAC-I

Note that unlike UTRAN, PDCP is used to process RRC and NAS signalling
since PDCP performs integrity checking and ciphering

135

136

Robust Header Compression (ROHC)

ROHC Compression and Feedback

Data headers are large and contain much


redundant (repeating) fields

Application

Compression algorithm may be optimised:

PDCP Tx
RTP packet
(40 bytes)

RTP/UDP/IP stack - for SIP applications (voice,


audio/video streaming)
UDP/IP stack - for TCP, UDP applications
(conversational, streaming)
IP only profile
ESP, Encryption Security Payload
Uncompressed - a transparent mode of operation

PDCP Rx

Initialization and Refresh


(uncompressed - 40 bytes)
Ack

RTP packet
(40 bytes)

Compressed
(6 bytes)
Ack

137

Perfecting Wireless Communications

RTP packet
(40 bytes)

Nack or Static Nack

RTP packet
(40 bytes)

Initialization and Refresh


(40 bytes)

138

Perfecting Wireless Communications


In the initial transmission, the complete header information is transmitted with
no options for reduction in its size. Subsequent transmissions take advantage
of the fact that many of the fields are static (unchanging) or inferred (packet
lengths and checksums). Hence the size of the transmitted header may be
reduced from 40 bytes to 6 bytes.
An Ack is returned to positively acknowledge receipt of the previous packets.
If the dynamic parts of the header are no longer considered to be valid by the
receiving PDCP decoder a Nack is returned. Or if the static parts are no longer
considered valid, the receiver returns a Static Nack. The transmitter resends
the full, uncompressed packets to resynchronise the two PDCP entities.

137

138

Integrity Protection

Generation of MAC-I

Protects signalling traffic against attack

PDCP inserts a Message Authentication Code


(integrity checksum) into most RRC PDUs

IK (from Authentication)

Started by the Security Mode Command


NAS inserts a Message Authentication Code
(integrity checksum) into NAS PDUs

COUNT
(increments)
Message
Direction
(UL / DL)

The receiver ensures the MAC-I value is correct


- if not the message is ignored

Algorithm

MAC-I
(Inserted in PDU)

Fresh
(Random)
139

140

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

NAS messages and most RRC messages include the Integrity protection in
order to protect the signalling communication from spoofing. This is where an
unauthorised person transmits (malicious) messages the mobile or network in
order to disrupt the communication or the entire network.

The Integrity Key, IK is generated along with CK during the Authentication


phase. This is then put into the Integrity Algorithm, to generate the Message
Authentication Code,
MAC-I.

By including an integrity checksum in the messages, the receiver can be


commanded to discard and ignore any messages that do not include a valid
checksum.

Along with IK, the authentication algorithm also uses:


COUNT a counter that is incremented for each message that includes
the integrity protection (so based on the PDCP Sequence Number and
HFN) This prevents replay attack where the same messages are
repeated by a man-in-the-middle

To ensure the security of this system, the Integrity checksum is generated in


complex and constantly changing manner.

Message, the NAS / RRC message to be protected


Direction, 0 or 1 for uplink / downlink messages
Fresh, a random number generated by the RNC and included in the
Security Mode Command as Integrity protection initialisation number
Most RRC messages include Integrity protection (if supported by the network).
NAS messages are integrity protected and then passed via RRC direct transfer
messages so are protected twice.
RRC messages not protected (since they are used before the process has
been established) include System Information, Paging Type 1, RRC
Connection Request/Setup/Setup Complete and Initial Direct Transfer.

139

140

Ciphering

CK
COUNT

Scrambling
Generator

CK
COUNT

Pseudo
random

Scrambling
Generator
Pseudo
random

Data

Layer 3

Data
Secure data
over air

141

142
142

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Ciphering may be a stream cipher (as illustrated) or a block ciphering algorithm


Ciphering in PDCP is performed thus. A ciphering algorithm is initially seeded
with a Cipher Key (CK). This key is secret known only by the mobile and the
network and is produced in the authentication procedure.
The algorithm will then produce a pseudo random sequence of great length
(millions of years) but to ensure that the same section of the sequence is never
re-used, COUNT is used to select different parts of the pseudo random
sequence and is derived from the PDCP sequence number and HFN.
This sequence is then eXclusive ORed with the data to produce a very random
looking stream for transmission over the air interface. It is then not possible for
an interceptor to read the content of the data (or to work backwards to find the
value of CK).
At the receiver the process is identical, the same CK and same COUNT are
used to produce an exactly identical pseudo random sequence that is XORed
with the same (ciphered) data bits. Clear data is produced since XOR function
performed twice undoes the ciphering. This simple XOR function has the
advantage that errors in the received data are not multiplied - 1 error in the
received ciphered data results in only 1 error in the clear data stream.

141

142

RRC Layer Tasks

RRC : Radio resource control

RRC layer

143
143

Perfecting Wireless Communications

System information broadcasting


Paging of idle-mode mobiles
Cell selection and reselection
Establishing and maintaining RRC connection
Management of the radio resources for transfer of
signalling and user data
Transfer of NAS messages
Control of handovers
Measurement reporting
Power control

144

Perfecting Wireless Communications


RRC is the 'big brother' entity which controls all the signalling between the UE
and the network (EPC). The RRC entity controls all the NAS signalling and
mobility of connected UEs. It has control SAPs to all the other E-UTRAN
entities (MAC, RLC, PDCP and the physical layer).

143

144

RRC States

System Information

Sent on BCH transport channel every 40ms

RRC Connected

RRC Connection
(Request from Mobile,
Response to Paging)

Master Information Block


System Information Block 1
Sent every 80ms and defines scheduling of other SI
Sent on DL-SCH

RRC disconnection
(End of service,
Timeout - inactivity)

Other System Information Blocks


Sent on DL-SCH at variable rate
System Information Messages comprise sets of
System Information Blocks

RRC Idle

145

146

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Only two states exist in E-UTRAN (compared with 5 in UTRAN). This is


simpler to maintain accurately at the network and mobile and it is acceptable to
have no standby state since the latency to change from idle to connected is
much reduced.
In the idle state, the mobile will still decode System Information, check for
paging and perform cell reselection as necessary.
In the connected state, user data and signalling can be transferred over the
logical channels. Handovers can be instigated by the network.

145

146

System Information

System Information Content

Network

UE

Master Information Block

80ms

[160ms ]
SIB 2
[320ms]
SIB 3 + SIB 4

SIB 1

SIB 1
System Information
Messages

Master Information Block


Downlink system bandwidth
Number of antennas and reference signal power

Repetition rate
40ms

[640ms]

SIB 5
[640ms]
SIB 6 + SIB 7
147

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Cell access parameters, TA details


Scheduling information for:
SIB 2 - Common and shared channel configuration
SIB 3 - Cell reselection parameters
SIB 4 - Neighbour cell information
SIB 5 - Intra frequency cell reselection
SIB 7, 8 Intra-RAT cell reselection

148

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The Master Information Block appears just as a BCH message in Anite logs
with no specific message name.
Small System Information blocks such as 3 and 4 are combined and sent in as
single System Information message.

147

148

Random Access Procedure

Initial procedure to update mobile timing


synchronisation and transmit power

Provides uplink resource scheduling


Precedes RRC and NAS procedures:
RRC Connection (for Attach, TA update, PS session)
Handover to another EUTRAN cell
In Active state, following long DRX period (for PS
session)

RRC Procedures

149

150

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

149

149

150

Contention based Random Access


Network

Non-contention based Random Access

UE

Network

RA preamble assignment
(Reserved Preamble sequence)

Random Access Preamble


(random identity)
Random Access Response
(random identity, C-RNTI, uplink grant)

RRC message
(C-RNTI)

UE

Random Access Preamble


(random identity)

Uplink Grant gives


resource allocation for
transmission of the
scheduled transmission

Used for Handovers


and continuation of
downlink data transfer

Random Access Response


(random identity, C-RNTI, uplink grant)

RRC message
(Contention Resolution by C-RNTI)
151

152

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The preamble includes a 5 bit random identity used to uniquely identify the
transmitting mobile. The preamble sequence is chosen randomly from the set
broadcasted on the BCH beacon channel.

Used when the mobile already has an RRC connection for Handovers
and resuming downlink transmissions. The mobile is pre-assigned a
preamble sequence so that the random access exchange is reliable.

The Random Access Response is generated by MAC (so is not a layer 3


message).
An early resource allocation is provided in the Random Access Response and
hence minimises the time to establish an RRC connection since this is a major
requirement within E-UTRAN. The Timing alignment (Advance) is also
provided.
The C-RNTI is a temporary identity for an RRC connected mobile within the
cell.
The scheduled transmission for initial access can be an RRC message (RRC
Connection Request) but not a NAS message. For subsequent access it could
be a Service Request or Tracking Area update message etc. It is sent in
Transparent RLC mode.
The response message from the network would include contention resolution to
combat the case where more than one mobile access the network at the same
time. If the identity does not match that of the mobile it will retry the random
access procedure at a later time. Providing it does match, the temporary CRNTI is converted to a permanent identity.
151

152

RRC Connection Establishment


Network

Connections and Bearers

UE

RRC Connection
Logical connection established by UE

Random Access Preamble

Defines the data transfer capabilities for the


application (data rate and error protection)
Established (and changeable) by the network
Has an associated Quality of Service
One RRC connection may carry several radio bearers

Random Access Response


RRC Connection Request
(establish cause)
RRC Connection Setup
(SRB 1 allocation)

EPS Bearer

SRB 1 established
(for RRC signalling)

RRC Connection
Setup Complete
153

154

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The Random Access Response provides the mobile with a temporary C-RNTI,
a temporary identity that is used for signalling identification and addressing for
the following messages.

A radio connection is a single logical connection between the UE and the


network. Each UE in connected mode has a single radio connection. The radio
connection is always initiated by the UE (in the RRC connection establishment
procedure), even in the case of mobile terminated procedures. A radio
connection is static - it stays in place for the lifetime of the connection between
the UE and the network. It can be reconfigured, for example during a handover.

Within the RRC Connection Request, the establishment cause may be (MO
Signalling, MO Data, ...)

There can be several radio bearers per radio connection. Each radio bearer
may support a different application. Each radio bearer can have different
properties, depending on the type of application using that radio bearer, and
the quality of service settings (which may depend on the user's tariff with the
network). A radio bearer is always established by the network.

The RRC Connection Setup message provides the mobile with the Signalling
Radio Bearer SRB 1. This is used for RRC signalling and also may be used for
NAS signalling before Security is set up, thereafter NAS signalling is sent using
SRB 2. This is sent on the PDCCH and addressed to the temp C-RNTI that
was provided to the mobile in the Random Access Response.

Refer also to the section on Session Management below

For SRB 1, the RLC configuration and the logical channels parameters are
specified (though default values may be set).

153

154

EPS Bearer Types

Signalling Radio Bearers

Default EPS Bearer


Always assigned when mobile is registered (Attached)
1 per Packet Data Network
Non-guaranteed bit rate

During RRC Connection setup and re-establishment

Dedicated EPS Bearer

SRB 1 - for High priority DCCH messages


Carries RRC messages
Also NAS messages if SRB 2 is not yet established

Assigned as required for the Packet Data Networks


Defined to match the session QoS

SRB 0 - for RRC CCCH messaging

EPS Bearers have components in S5/8, S1 and


the air interface (Data Radio Bearer)

SRB 2 - for Lower priority DCCH messages


Carries NAS messages
Established after security has been configured

Hence, QoS parameters affecting each link


155

156

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Refer to the Session Management section for details on dedicated bearers.

SRB 0 is used for common signalling so is not assigned to a mobile via


signalling
RRC Connection is the establishment of SRB 1.

155

156

RRC Connection Reconfiguration

RRC Connection Reconfiguration

Modifications are made to the RRC Connection


by the RRC Connection Reconfiguration protocol

Network

Establishment of SRB 2 (for NAS signalling)


Establishment / modification of Data Radio Bearers
Handover between LTE cells

UE

RRC Connection Reconfiguration


(SRB 2 and DRB)

SRB 2 (NAS signalling)


and Default Data Radio
Bearer established

RRC Connection
Reconfiguration Complete

The Reconfiguration message includes (NAS


and then) EPS Session Management message
to define the EPS Bearer
The Data Radio Bearer is one part of the EPS Bearer
157

158

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The reconfiguration procedure may be used to establish, modify, or release


the signalling and user radio bearers.

This illustrates one use of the RRC Connection Reconfiguration


procedure. Several iterations of these Reconfiguration messages are
used during the establishment of a PS data session.

For the Radio Bearers, parameters are set for PDCP (eg header compression)
and RLC (eg ack/unack/transparent mode, polling and retransmission options.
In addition there is configuration of measurement reporting, MAC and Physical
layer parameters

For SRB 2, the RLC configuration and the logical channels parameters
are specified (though default values may be set).

Within the RRC Connection Reconfiguration message may be the Attach


Accept and this encapsulates the Activate Default EPS bearer context request
which starts the EPS bearer.
The Activate Default EPS Bearer context accept may be within the Attach
complete within the RRC Connection reconfiguration complete or within a
separate UL Information Transfer message (possibly depending on timing
within the mobile)
.
This can be used to perform handovers - This would include the Random
access procedure to correct the timing advance for the new cell.

157

158

RRC Connection Reestablishment


Network

RRC Connection Release

UE

Network

Random Access Preamble

UE

RRC connection release

No response
sent from UE

Random Access Response


RRC connection reestablishment request

RRC connection reestablishment

SRB 1 and security


re-established

RRC connection
reestablishment complete
159

160

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

This is used after a temporary loss of communication


It re-establishes SRB1 and security, but it does not resume any other radio
bearers
(If AS security is not yet active then the mobile has to drop to idle and restart
the session)

159

160

RRC Information Transfer Messages

UE capability Enquiry

RRC encapsulates NAS messages

Network

UE

NAS messages may be piggy backed onto an


RRC message
UE capability enquiry

Mobile in
connected mode

RRC Connection Setup Complete


(Attach Request)
UE capability information

or may be sent using an Uplink / Downlink


Information Transfer message
UL Information Transfer
(Authentication Response)
161

162

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications


It is expected that there will be a variety of different services and applications
available for terminal devices - multimedia applications, location based
services, games, internet access, etc. It is also expected that there will be a
varied range of devices available, with different capabilities. So, before a
network can offer a particular service or application to a device, it needs to
know the capabilities of that device.
The UE capability enquiry procedure is used by the network to gather
information about the capabilities of a device. In some situations, the
capabilities of a device may change while the device is in use - for example, a
higher power battery may be installed.
If the Capability of the mobile changes, it has to invoke another RRC
connection to invoke resending the information to the network.
UE Capability Information contents
PDCP - capability
RLC - buffer and window sizes
Transport Channels RF - power class,
Physical channels GERAN support and capability (MS Classmark)
UTRAN support and UE Capability
161

162

EPS Mobility Management

Registration (Attach)
Assignment of the Default EPS Bearer and IP address

EPS Mobility Management

Periodic Updating

Authentication

Control plane functions related to the user and


session management
Control of ciphering and integrity checking
Tracking of mobile location (in idle mode)

163

164

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

163

163

164

MM and RR States

Registration (Attach procedure)


Network
MME

MM
LTE Idle

MM
Inactivity

Fast
transition

UE

MM
Registration

LTE Active

RRC Connection

LTE Detached

Attach Request

Traffic
RRC Idle

Network
Network
eNodeB

De-register
RRC Connected

RRC Connection Setup Complete


(Attach Request)
Authentication
Security

De-registration or
lack of periodic update

Attach Accept

RRC Connection reconfiguration


(Attach Accept)

Attach Complete

RRC Connection reconfiguration complete


(Attach Complete)

Default EPS
Bearer

165

166

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The protocol may vary, NAS messages may be carried by different RRC
messages and some protocols such as Identity and UE Capability exchange
may be included.

At the packet core level:


LTE Detached - the mobile is on but not registered (not yet successful
registered or no suitable networks found)

The mobile is given a default EPS bearer during registration as part of the
always on facility.

LTE Idle - mobile is registered but not active with traffic. The network knows
the mobile position to Tracking Area. Change to LTE active can be performed
very quickly and any EPS bearers that had been established are maintained so
there is no exchange of session parameters (inc QoS parameters).

The attach procedure includes authentication of the mobile by the network and
of the network by the mobile - this is described in detail in later slides
Attach Accept provides the mobile with a (new) GUTI (globally unique
temporary identity) and this identity is used preferentially for all subsequent
communication within this tracking area. The mobile may alternatively be given
an m_tmsi. The Attach Accept may also include a Tracking Area List - a set of
TAs that the mobile is registered with.

LTE Active - mobile is exchanging traffic data and so has an RRC connection.

A default radio bearer is established and provided to the mobile in the Activate
Default EPS Bearer Context Request message which is encapsulated in the
Attach Accept to permit the always on connectivity. This default radio bearer is
allocated to the mobile for the duration of its connection. Also, the mobile is
given an IP address to permit access to the external IP network or IMS domain.

165

166

GUTI Reallocation

De-Registration (Detach procedure)

Network
Network
MME

Periodic update of
the temporary identity
May also provide a
new Tracking Area
Identity list

Network
Network
MME

UE

UE
Random Access procedure

GUTI reallocation command

Detach may also be


initiated by the MME

Detach Request

GUTI reallocation complete


(Detach Accept)

Radio resources released


at both sides

167

168

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

This is equivalent of the TMSI reallocation which most network perform every
24 hours to maintain security by issuing the mobile with a new Globally Unique
Temporary Identity.

Detach Accept is not sent if the mobile is being switched off

The message may also make changes to the list of Tracking Areas to which
the mobile belongs

167

168

Tracking Areas

Tracking Area

Cells are grouped in to Tracking Areas (TA)

The TA list is sent to the mobile in an Attach


Accept and a TA Update Accept message

Tracking Areas do not overlap, but a mobile may


be registered in several TAs

This reduces the number of Tracking Area


Updates the mobile performs

The mobile would be paged in all Tracking Areas

eNodeB

MME
MME

HSS

MME

Tracking Area

169

170

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications


Hence, a Tracking area is similar to a Location Area or Routing Area.
(There is no equivalent of a UTRAN Registration Area.)

169

170

Tracking Area Update


IMS

Tracking Area Update - Idle Mode

P/I/S-CSCF

Network
Network
MME

IP Net

UE
Random Access Procedure

EPC

PDN
Gateway

Serving
Gateway

MME

Signalling is to the
new Tracking Area

HSS

Serving
Gateway

RRC Connection Procedure


TA Update Request
(S-TMSI, Old TAI)

MME

Authentication
Security

eNodeB

eNodeB

eNodeB

Old TA

New TA

TA Update Accept
(new S-TMSI)

May contain a
Tracking Area List

TA Update Complete
171

172

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Control plane signalling for the move to the new Tracking Area is handled by
the MME. Authentication and security functions will be restarted with the new
MME and a new GUTI will be allocated as the identity in the TA. Signalling
may also include an update to the TA list for the mobile (but since the mobile
may be registered in several TAs, the list may not need to be changed. The
HSS is informed of the mobiles change in location

Within the EPC additional communication is performed between the old and the
new Serving gateway and MME
The PDN Gateway is updated with the new Serving Gateway (new TA) and a
new Bearer is created for the mobile to new Serving Gateway (for the always
on connection)
The IMSI and subscription information is sent to the new MME

User Plane data is passed to the new serving gateway since the routing has
been changed.

The HSS database is sent the mobiles new serving MME and IP address

MME - Mobility Management Entity


PDN Gateway - Packet Data Network Gateway
HSS - Home Subscriber Server - Home location register and the Authentication
Centre
CSCF - Call Session Control Function

171

172

Mobility in Active Mode

Handovers

Handover (Packet Switched)

... or from the eNodeB alone for load balancing

Decision made by the eNodeB based on


measurement reports
Make before break so minimal interruption
Packets forwarded to permit data repetition

173

174

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

173

173

174

Handover (within a TA)


IMS

Handover

P/I/S-CSCF

old
eNodeB

IP Net

Handover decision,
resource allocation
by network

PDN
Gateway

EPC

Serving
Gateway

S1

eNodeB

Old cell

Data forwarded to
new eNodeB

MME

Data Packets
forwarded via
X2

Data transfer
continues

eNodeB

new
eNodeB

UE

Measurement Reports

RRC Connection Reconfiguration


RACH synchronisation
Timing Advance for UE
RRC Connection
Reconfiguration Complete

175

176

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

New Cell

If the eNodeBs are in the same network and Tracking Area they can use the
X2 interface to transfer information about the active connection for efficiency.

This would include a synchronisation procedure using a contention free RACH


procedure (or contention based if no dedicated preamble is allocated). The
new eNodeB then supplies the new timing advance via the Uplink Allocation
before the RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete

Very little impact to the MME and Serving GW


User data packets may be forwarded from the old to the new eNodeB to
allow unacknowledged data to be repeated in the new cell.
If the eNodeBs cannot communicate via an X2 interface, the MME serves as a
routing body to transfer information and the data packets between the two
eNodeBs

175

176

Handover and move to new TA


IMS

P/I/S-CSCF

EPC

Handover to 3G

PDN
Gateway

Serving
Gateway

new
NodeB

UE

Handover decision,
resource allocation
by network

HSS

Serving
Gateway

MME

old
eNodeB

IP Net

Data forwarded to
(new) SGSN
MME

Handover Command

Handover to UTRAN Complete


eNodeB

X2

Data transfer
continues

eNodeB

eNodeB

Old TA

New TA

177

178

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Here the eNodeBs are in different Tracking Areas and linked to different
MMEs. Hence, the two MMEs communicate (via the S10 interface) to transfer
information between the two eNodeBs
If there is an X2 interface between the two eNodeBs user data may be
forwarded to the new station.
The PDN Gateway is also informed of the new routing - for user plane data to
the new Serving Gateway.
Following the handover, the mobile would initiate a TA Update and the HSS
would be informed of the new location of the mobile.

177

178

Security - Mobile to Network

IP Multimedia Sub-system (IMS)


Integrity protection for SIP signalling

Evolved Packet Core


Ciphering and Integrity for NAS signalling

Security

E-UTRAN (PDCP)
Ciphering and Integrity for RRC signalling
Ciphering for user plane data (and SIP signalling)

Security keys
Produced during the authentication exchange
Different security keys used for each process

179
179

Perfecting Wireless Communications

180

Perfecting Wireless Communications


NAS messages are encrypted within EPC and then again within PDCP when
encapsulated in an RRC message

179

180

Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA)


Network
MME

Security Keys in EPS

UE

K
USIM/AuC

Initiation by first
NAS message

CK/IK

Attach Request

Mobile/HSS

Authentication Request
(RAND, AUTN)

Verifies RES

Authentication Response
(RES)

KASME

Verification of AUTN
Generate RES

Mobile/MME
KNAS enc

NAS Encryption and


Integrity Protection

KNAS int
Ke NB

Generate Ciphering
and Integrity Keys

Mobile/eNodeB
KUP enc

181

Perfecting Wireless Communications

KRRC enc

KRRC int

RRC Encryption and


Integrity Protection (PDCP)
User Plane encryption

182

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The first NAS message could be an Attach Request or a Service Request

CK and IK are produced during authentication.

AUTN is the authentication token used by the mobile SIM to authenticate the
network

KASME and Ke NB are intermediate keys derived from this during the
Authentication and Key Agreement

The authentication process is fundamentally the same as use in 3G, but is


enhanced over the 2G solution by the addition of the mobile (USIM)
authentication of the network (using the AUTN) and integrity protection.

KNAS enc and NAS int are used for ciphering and integrity checking of NAS
messages
KRRC enc and RRC int are used for ciphering and integrity checking of RRC
messages
KUP enc is used for ciphering of User Plane data

181

182

Security Keys and Information Flow

Security Mode
Network
Network
MME

NAS Messages

NAS

Authentication

KNAS int

Integrity

KNAS enc

Encryption

Security Mode Command


(NAS Security algorithms, KSI)

Encapsulation

KRRC int

Integrity

KRRC enc

Encryption

Start NAS Integrity


Check and Ciphering

User Plane
Data

RRC messages

PDCP

UE

Security Mode Complete

Security Mode Command


(PDCP Security algorithms)
KUP enc

Encryption

Start PDCP Integrity


Check and Ciphering

183

Start NAS Integrity


Check and Ciphering

Start PDCP Integrity


Check and Ciphering

Security Mode Complete

Perfecting Wireless Communications

184

Perfecting Wireless Communications

UEA2 and UIA2, the ciphering and integrity algorithms recently defined as
alternatives in 3G will be used in LTE. AES will also be used.

The KSI (ASME) in the Security Mode command defines the NAS keys to be
used in the selected security algorithms. There are separate keys and also
integrity check parameters for NAS and PDCP security. So NAS COUNT for
ciphering and Integrity checking at NAS level, etc

NAS Security is started by the NAS Security Mode Command / Complete


messages. These are followed by RRC messages to control security at the
PDCP layer.

Most NAS messages are protected by security, the exceptions are the very
early messages exchanged before security is activated.
IDENTITY REQUEST /RESPONSE (if identification is IMSI);
AUTHENTICATION REQUEST/RESPONSE;
DETACH REQUEST;
DETACH ACCEPT (for non switch off);
Integrity and Ciphering algorithms and keys are also derived for use in PDCP
for the security processes that are implemented there.

183

184

EPS Bearer Activation

EPS Session Management (ESM)

EPS Bearers are activated for transfer of user


data

Default EPS Bearer allocated during Attach


(always on)

Further dedicated EPS Bearers may be allocated


subsequently

PDP (IP) address is allocated by the Network


Quality of Service is negotiated

185

186

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

185

Session Management functions


The mobile must previously have done a PS Attach
A different Quality of Service profile may be requested for each EPS Bearer.
E-mail that can tolerate lengthy response times
Interactive applications cannot tolerate delay and demand a very high
level of throughput
Establishment of the EPS bearers is therefore equivalent to establishment of
PDP Context in 2G/3G.
.

185

186

Quality of Service and EPS Bearers

Default EPS Bearer Activation


Network
MME

QoS is defined between the mobile and the PDN


gateway using the concept of an EPS Bearer
Data Radio Bearer (mobile to eNode B)
S1 Bearer (eNode B to Serving Gateway)
S5 Bearer (Serving Gateway to PDN Gateway)

UE

Attach Request
(PDN Connectivity Request)
Attach Accept
(Activate Default EPS
Bearer Context Request)

An EPS bearer is equivalent to a PDP context


Carries Service Data Flows (SDF)
SDF defined by source/destination IP addresses, port
numbers and the application protocol identity
The QoS of all SDFs on an EPS Bearer is identical

Attach Complete
(Activate Default EPS
Bearer Context Accept)

ESM messages within


NAS messages
or separate
(NAS messages within
RRC messages)

187

188

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

A Service Data Flow may correspond to a web, streaming or mailbox server.

If the PDN Connectivity request message is within the NAS Attach Request,
the following EPS Session Management messages will also be within the
Attach messages. Alternatively, all may be separate.

For each EPS bearer there exists a single Quality of Service policy (set of
parameters). So if several service Data Flows exist over the EPS bearer, they
will all adopt the same scheduling algorithm, priority, RLC configuration etc.

The Default EPS bearer provides the mobile with an always on bearer to the
PDN gateway. It may be used for any traffic where a dedicated bearer is not
supplied - however it is not given a guaranteed minimum bit rate and no
admission control.

187

188

Dedicated EPS Bearer Activation


Network
MME

Dedicated EPS Bearer Deactivation


Network
MME

UE

Bearer Resource Modification Request

RRC Connection Reconfiguration


(Activate Dedicated EPS
Bearer Context Request)

UE
May originate from UE

May originate from UE


Bearer Resource Modification Request
EPS Bearer defines
the QoS and
Traffic Flow Template
between UE and PDN

RRC Connection Reconfiguration


(Deactivate Dedicated EPS
Bearer Context Request)

Activate Dedicated EPS


Bearer Context Accept

EPS Bearer(s) are


deactivated

Deactivate Dedicated EPS


Bearer Context Accept

RRC Connection
Reconfiguration Complete
189

190

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The Dedicated EPS bearer provides the mobile with the bearer identity, a traffic
flow template (TFT), the Quality of Service parameters and a linked EPS
bearer identity for the default EPS bearer.

If a single EPS bearer is to be deactivated, the identity of the dedicated bearer


is given. If all bearers are deactivated, the identity is that of the default bearer
(since that identifies the PDN to which the mobile and hence all the dedicated
bearers are connected).

The procedure may be requested by the mobile in which case the reference to
the EPS bearer and traffic flow template are included in the message.
There is also a Modify EPS bearer context request / accept procedure
(These are NAS layer messages so would be encapsulated in a specific RRC
message or the general Information Transfer message.)

189

190

Quality of Service Parameters

QoS Class Identifier

Allocation Retention Priority

QCI

Guaranteed Bit Rate (Voice, streaming)


or Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate (non-real time)
Maximum Bit Rate

Guaranteed
Bit rate

Prio
rity

Delay

GBR

GBR

Bearer Type (guaranteed / aggregate bit rate)


L2 Packet Delay Budget
QoS Class Identifier ...

Service

100

10-2

Conversational speech

150

10-3

Conversational video

50

10-3

Live gaming
Non-conversational video (streaming)

GBR

300

10-6

N-GBR

100

10-6

IMS signalling

300

10-6

Video download, www, e-mail, ftp, file transfer, ...


Voice, video, gaming (non-guaranteed rates)

L2 Packet Loss Rate

GBR

PER

ms

N-GBR

N-GBR

100

10-3

N-GBR

300

10-6

TCP based (www, e-mail, ftp, file transfer, ...

N-GBR

300

10-6

TCP based (www, e-mail, ftp, file transfer, ...

191

192

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Allocation Retention Priority - Sets the priority for allocation (including at


handover) and retention (against pre-emption when the network is busy)

Some of the services are identical, the differences in the QoS is the guarantee
of bit rate and the overall service priority which is used to control the
scheduling prioritisation in the eNodeB

Guaranteed Bit Rate - applies to services which need a minimum continuous


bit rate, Voice, streaming
or Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate - where min bit rate is not relevant such as
web browsing, file transfer, e-mail
Maximum Bit Rate
QoS Class Identifier - used to identify a set of QoS parameters between the
mobile and the network
Bearer Type
L2 Packet Delay Budget - describes the delay thought RLC and MAC layers. It
is most relevant for Guaranteed bit rate services and is used to set the
RLC/MAC HARQ operating parameters
L2 Packet Loss Rate - this links to the RLC/MAC HARQ process

191

192

MO Service Request - RRC establish


Network

UE
Random Access Preamble
Random Access Response
RRC Connection Request

Session Establishment

RRC Connection Setup


(SRB allocation, contention resolution)
RRC Connection Setup Complete
(Service Request)

RRC Connection
Idle to Active Mode
Service Request for
user data or signalling

193

194

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

193

EPS allows the mobile to be always on so there are two methods for session
establishment depending on whether the mobile has an active radio bearer.

The service request procedure is initiated by the mobile to indicate that it has
user data or signalling to transfer.

A Service Request message initiates the procedure in the case that the
mobile does not have an active Radio Bearer and causes a transition
from the idle to active state.

The sequence is applicable for any type of service (speech call, data transfer,
web browsing).
Within the Core network, the EPS bearers and their associated QoS are
preserved even whilst the mobile is Idle, but these radio bearers still have to be
communicated to the mobile once more. This reduces the number and size of
messages required and the time to establish the session (always on).

Alternatively, a Dedicated Bearer activation is used if the mobile is


already in the active state.

Specifically, the RRC Connection Setup message is very small compared with
the equivalent in 3G.

193

194

MO Service Request - Security


Network

MO Service Request - Radio Bearers


UE

Authentication Request

Network
RRC Connection Reconfiguration

Mutual Authentication

Start NAS Integrity


Check and Ciphering

Bearer Resource Modification Request


RRC Connection Reconfiguration
(Activate Dedicated EPS
Bearer Context Request)

Security Mode Complete

Security Mode Command

SRB 2 established

RRC Connection
Reconfiguration Complete

Authentication Response
Security Mode Command

UE

Start PDCP Integrity


Check and Ciphering

EPS Bearer defines


the QoS and
Traffic Flow Template
between UE and PDN

Activate Dedicated EPS


Bearer Context Accept

Security Mode Complete

RRC Connection
Reconfiguration Complete

195

Perfecting Wireless Communications

196

Perfecting Wireless Communications

The KSI (ASME) in the Security Mode command defines the NAS keys to be
used in the selected security algorithms.

If required, additional EPS bearers may be created with any newly requested
QoS settings following this procedure.

Integrity and Ciphering algorithms and keys are also derived for use in PDCP
for the security processes that are implemented there.

The (NAS) Activate dedicated EPS Bearer Context Request is carried by the
RRC Connection Reconfiguration message
The (NAS) Activate dedicated EPS Bearer Context Accept is carried by an
uplink information transfer message (or maybe in the RRC Connection
Reconfiguration Complete)

195

196

Paging for an MT Service Activation


Network

Dedicated Bearer Activation - Active State


Network
Network
MME

UE

UE

Paging

Mobile in Active Mode

Random Access Preamble

RRC Connection Reconfiguration


(Activate Dedicated EPS
Bearer Context Request)

Random Access Response


RRC Connection Request
(Service Request)

Service Request in
response to Paging

RRC Connection
Reconfiguration Complete
(Activate Dedicated EPS
Bearer Context Accept)

RRC Connection Reconfiguration


(SRB allocation, contention resolution)
etc

Service Activation
continues as before
197

198

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Paging message sent on PCCH. DRX and use of paging groups is similar to
3G.

If the mobile is already in the active state, this simpler procedure is used to
start the service (speech call, data transfer, web browsing).

The Paging message is sent on all cells in the Tracking Area to which the
mobile is registered.

A Random Access procedure may be required to update timing etc if after long
DRX gap.
Note that there is no requirement to perform the Authentication process.
Within the Core network, the EPS bearers and their associated QoS are
preserved even whilst the mobile is Idle, but these radio bearers still have to be
communicated to the mobile once more. This reduces the number and size of
messages required and the time to establish the session (always on).
Specifically, the RRC Connection Reconfiguration message is very small
compared with the equivalent in 3G.

197

198

Services

Multimedia telephony (VoIP, video telephony)


Multimedia broadcast and multicast (MBMS)
Push to talk over Cellular (PoC)
Presence

Services
IMS

MGW
MGCF

PSTN

P/I/S-CSCF

IP Net

199

200

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

199

199

200

Voice and Multimedia Telephony

Mobile to mobile IMS multimedia call

Speech is sampled and encapsulated in


RTP/UDP/IP protocols

IMS

P/I/S-CSCF

ROHC header compression greatly reduces the


redundant protocol header size

EPC

PDN
Gateway

The Media Gateway translates the IP data to


64kbps PCM for the telephone network

For a call to another mobile user, the PDN


Gateway transfers the media data to its peer

Signalling

P/I/S-CSCF

Media data

Serving
Gateway

eNodeB

PDN
Gateway

MME

Serving
Gateway

MME

eNodeB

201

202

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications


Establishment of the multimedia session is achieved using SIP signalling.

201

202

Speech Coding

Security in IMS

Narrow band AMR

Wide band AMR

12.2 kbps

23.85 kbps

10.2 kbps

19.85 kbps

7.95 kbps

18.25 kbps

7.4 kbps

15.85 kbps

6.7 kbps

14.25 kbps

5.9 kbps

12.65 kbps

5.15 kbps

8.85 kbps

Lowest Quality

4.75 kbps

6.6 kbps

Silence Indicator

1.8 kbps

1.75 kbps

Highest Quality

IMS Authentication and Key Agreement


Authentication of the mobile (user) and S-CSCF
Defines keys for integrity protection

IMS Security Association


Integrity Protection for SIP signalling between the
mobile and the P-CSCF

203

204

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Narrow Band AMR is 300-3400 Hz so matches the PSTN. Wideband AMR is


50 to 7000Hz and better quality due to the higher sampling rate and data rates
used.
Wideband AMR is used only for mobile to mobile since the PSTN is limited to
3.4kHz so benefit of the improved digital quality of W-AMR would be lost.

203

204

IMS Authentication and Key Agreement


Network

VoIP IMS Call - (Mobile originated)

UE

Network
RRC Connection and
Bearer establishment

Register
(User identity)

Set of codecs

Invite
Sub-set of codecs

401 Unauthorized
(RAND, AUTN)

UE

Verification of AUTN
Generate RES

183 Session Progress


Selected codec
PRACK
200 OK

Verifies RES

Register
(RES)
200 OK

Change of media
or codec

Update
200 OK

Generate Integrity
Key

180 Ringing

205

Perfecting Wireless Communications

206

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Registration links the mobiles SIP URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) to the IP
address.

Within the SIP signalling:


Invite - for initiation of the SIP session to the server and subsequently to modify
the session (adding media streams or changes to addresses/ports). This
contains the mobiles SIP URI (Uniform Resource Identifier). The message
may be sent via a Proxy if the destination IP address is not yet known.

The authentication uses an IMS specific key (rather than the K parameter from
the USIM) combined with the IMS private identity.

The message lists a set of media codecs (for voice or video) supported by the
mobile.
183 Session progress is the SDP response and is used to negotiate a
supported subset of the media codecs declared in the Invite
PRACK is the provisional acknowledgement which may take a different route
now the parties have exchanged addresses details. This contains the chosen
codec.
200 is the standard OK acknowledgement
Ringing is the equivalent of Alerting.
Bye is used to tear down the session at the end.

205

206

Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast

Push to Talk over Cellular (PoC)

Broadcast - received by all users in the area

Synchronised transmissions from several cells

Transmit access discipline


Maximum transmit time
Pre-emption for emergency access

Multicast - received by users who have


subscribed to the service
Soft combining at the mobile

Push to talk but network controls

Streaming - news, weather, adverts


Audio and Video downloading
File downloads - software updates
207

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Not real-time so QoS can permit more latency


and jitter

More efficient in radio and network resources

Network transmissions are unicast (not MBMS)

Relies on Group Management Service


and Presence Service
208

Perfecting Wireless Communications

If the broadcast is made in more than one cell, the transmissions are
synchronised to allow the mobiles to soft combine the signals from several
cells to increase the received quality.

Access discipline would include ensuring that two people do not push the
pressel and transmit simultaneously. It could also include rules for queuing of
requests, priority weighting of the users in the call, round robin type access,
blocking of new additions to the set of users, etc.

Not real time so QoS can permit more latency and jitter
Group Management Service is used to predefine groups of users so that PoC
sessions can be setup quickly
Presence Service is used to determine which users of the above group are
currently involved in the session.

207

208

PoC signalling

Presence
Network

UE a

UE b

Availability of users in a Group


Person
Also current activity, location, time-zone, mood

Talk Burst Request

Talk Burst Taken


Talk Burst Granted

Service
Which services are accessible (PoC, instant
messaging, ...)

RTP Speech Frames

Device
Physical device and connectivity for each service

Talk Burst Release


Talk Burst Idle
Talk Burst Idle
209

210

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

209

210

Reference Material

Specifications

Evolved Packet System - Pierre Lescuyer,


Thierry Lucidarme
LTE and the Evolution to 4G Wireless - Agilent
The UMTS Long Term Evolution: From Theory to
Practice - Stefania Sesia, Issam Toufik, Matthew
Baker
LTE for UMTS: OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based
Radio Access - Harri Holma and Antti Toskala

E-UTRA/E-UTRAN description

TS 36.300

Non-Access Stratum

TS 24.301

Radio Resource Control

TS 36.331

Packet Data Convergence Protocol

TS 36.323

Radio Link Control

TS 36.322

Medium Access Control

TS 36.321

Physical Layer Procedures

TS 36.213

Multiplexing and Channel Coding

TS 36.212

Physical Channels and Modulation

TS 36.211

211

212

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Perfecting Wireless Communications

211

212

Abbreviations
ARQ

Automatic Repeat Request

PUSCH

Physical Uplink Shared CHannel

AS

Access Stratum

QAM

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

BCCH

Broadcast Control Channel

QCI

QoS Class Identifier

BCH

Broadcast Channel

QoS

Quality of Service

CMC

Connection Mobility Control

RA-RNTI

Random Access RNTI

CP

Cyclic Prefix

RAC

Radio Admission Control

C-RNTI

Cell RNTI

RACH

Random Access Channel

CQI

Channel Quality Indicator

RB

Radio Bearer

CRC

Cyclic Redundancy Check

RLC

Radio Link Control

CSG

Closed Subscriber Group

RNC

Radio Network Controller

DCCH

Dedicated Control Channel

RNTI

Radio Network Temporary Identifier

DRB

Data Radio Bearer

ROHC

Robust Header Compression

DTCH

Dedicated Traffic Channel

RRC

Radio Resource Control

ECM

EPS Connection Management

RRM

Radio Resource Management

EMM

EPS Mobility Management

RU

Resource Unit

eNB

E-UTRAN NodeB

S-GW

Serving Gateway

EPC

Evolved Packet Core

S1-MME

S1 for the control plane

EPS

Evolved Packet System

SC-RNTI

System Information Change RNTI

E-UTRA

Evolved UTRA

SI

System Information

E-UTRAN

Evolved UTRAN

SIB

System Information Block

FDD

Frequency Division Duplex

SI-RNTI

System Information RNTI

FDM

Frequency Division Multiplexing

S1-U

S1 for the user plane

HARQ

Hybrid ARQ

SAE

System Architecture Evolution

LTE

Long Term Evolution

SAP

Service Access Point

MAC

Medium Access Control

Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple

MBMS

Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service

SC-FDMA
Access

MCCH

Multicast Control Channel

MCE

Multi-cell/multicast Coordination Entity

MCH

Multicast Channel

MCS

Modulation and Coding Scheme

MIB

Master Information Block

MIMO

Multiple Input Multiple Output

MME

Mobility Management Entity

MTCH

MBMS Traffic Channel

NAS

Non-Access Stratum

OFDM

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

OFDMA

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access

P-GW

PDN Gateway

P-RNTI

Paging RNTI

PAPR

Peak-to-Average Power Ratio

PBCH

Physical Broadcast CHannel

PCCH

Paging Control Channel

PCFICH

Physical Control Format Indicator CHannel

PCH

Paging Channel

PCI

Physical Cell Identifier

PDCCH

Physical Downlink Control CHannel

PDSCH

Physical Downlink Shared CHannel

PDCP

Packet Data Convergence Protocol

PDU

Protocol Data Unit

PHICH

Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator CHannel

PHY

Physical layer

PLMN

Public Land Mobile Network

PMCH

Physical Multicast CHannel

PRACH

Physical Random Access CHannel

PRB

Physical Resource Block

PUCCH

Physical Uplink Control CHannel

SCH

The End

214
214

Synchronization Channel

SDF

Service Data Flow

SDU

Service Data Unit

SFN

System Frame Number

SR

Scheduling Request

SRB

Signalling Radio Bearer

SU

Scheduling Unit

TA

Tracking Area

TB

Transport Block

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol

TDD

Time Division Duplex

TFT

Traffic Flow Template

TM

Transparent Mode

TNL

Transport Network Layer

TTI

Transmission Time Interval

UE

User Equipment

UL

Uplink

UM

Un-acknowledge Mode

UMTS

Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

U-plane

User plane

UTRA

Universal Terrestrial Radio Access

UTRAN

Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network

UpPTS

Uplink Pilot Time Slot

VRB

Virtual Resource Block

X2-C

X2-Control plane

X2-U

X2-User plane

Perfecting Wireless Communications

213

214