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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhmt

metal foams

Huijin Xu, Liang Gong , Shanbo Huang, Minghai Xu

College of Pipeline and Civil Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, China

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 4 April 2014

Received in revised form 27 November 2014

Accepted 5 December 2014

Available online 29 December 2014

Keywords:

Nanouid

Metal foam

Local thermal non-equilibrium

Heat transfer enhancement

a b s t r a c t

Forced convective heat transfer of uid (with nanoparticles) in metal-foam duct is numerically investigated and the velocity and temperature elds are obtained. The effects of some key parameters on ow

and heat transfer of nanouid in porous media are analyzed. For nanouid in porous media, the feasibility

of eld synergy principle on convective heat transfer is examined and the mechanisms for related heat

transfer enhancement are discussed. Results show that both pressure drop and Nu number for nanouid

in metal foams increase with an increase in volume fraction of nanoparticles. But the increasing

amplitude of pressure drop increases while the increasing amplitude of Nu number decreases, which

implies that heat transfer enhancement with nanouid cannot offset pressure drop increase. Field

synergy principle for pure uid convection cannot guide the analysis of the heat transfer enhancement

for nanouid in metal foams, which calls for the modication of existing eld synergy principle.

2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Many basic methods are provided for heat transfer enhancement, such as decreasing thermal boundary layer thickness,

increasing velocity gradient near heat-transfer wall, disrupting

uid ow, increasing velocity from laminar ow to turbulent ow,

increasing extending surface of heated wall and changing physical

properties of surface and uid [15]. These theories have been, are

being and will be used in every aspect in thermal engineering. Taking heat dissipation of electronics as an example, with rapid

increase in heat ux and minimization of device volume, related

thermal performance is being improved from air cooling to liquid

cooling, from passive cooling to active cooling, from large-scale

to mini/micro-scale, and from single-phase to two-phase cooling.

Highly-efcient heat transfer enhancement techniques are

urgently needed in engineering. For the modern heat exchangers,

density of extending surface area on the heat transfer wall is in

the rising trend [6]. Open-celled metal foam is a kind of materials

with sufciently-large surface area density (5007500 m2 m3 [7])

and it is usually sintered on the solid-wall. Additionally, it owns

other thermal advantages, such as high solid thermal conductivity,

strong ow-mixing capability, high porosity and low-density,

which makes it useful in compact heat exchangers and heat sinks,

chemical reformers, solar collectors, and efcient combustor [79].

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: lgong@upc.edu.cn (L. Gong).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2014.12.024

0017-9310/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Growing attention has been paid on the metal foams in both scientic research and industrial applications. Recent applications

include micro-channel condensers with metal-foam in the air side

[1012], at-plate solar water collector with metal-foam block

[13], nned metal-foam heat sinks [14], metal-foam catalyst support [15,16], and so on. The main scientic problem in these applications is related with transport phenomena in metal foams.

Previous transport models of conventional porous media, such as

packed bed, granular media and rocks, are no longer applicable for

metal foams due to the structure and porosity difference between

the conventional porous media (0.1 < e < 0.6) and metal foams

(e > 0.85). For ow in metal foams, Darcy model, Brinkman model

or Forchheimer model may be used for specic velocity range and

viscous effect of impermeable wall [8]. For heat transfer in metal

foams, the local thermal equilibrium (LTE) model or the local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) model may be used in principle. However, the foam solid materials covering copper, aluminum, nickel,

iron and their alloys, own the thermal conductivity range about

10400 W/(m K) while thermal conductivities of the conventional

working uids, water and air, are respectively about 0.026 and

0.6 W/(m K), from which the thermal conductivity difference

between solid and uid is from about 1715,384 times. For the

metal-foam fully lled duct, as a more accurate model, the LTNE

model must be used according to Lee and Vafai [17]. While for the

duct partially lled with metal foams [3,4], due to relatively low

velocity in the foam region, the temperature difference between

solid and uid phases is minimal and the LTE model may be

400

Nomenclature

asf

c

CI

Da

E

f

H

h

hsf

K

k

kd

kf

knfe

ks

kse

L

Nu

p

P

PEC

Pr

qw

Re

T

T fin

u

1

specic heat, J kg K1

inertial constant

Darcy number

dimensionless factor in appendix (ke kd =kse )

friction factor (dp=dx 4H=qu2in )

half height of the channel, m

heat-transfer coefcient, W m2 K1

local convective heat-transfer coefcient, W m2 K1

permeability, m2

thermal conductivity, W m1 K1

dispersion thermal conductivity, W m1 K1

uid thermal conductivity, W m1 K1

effective thermal conductivity of nanouid, W m1 K1

solid thermal conductivity, W m1 K1

effective thermal conductivity of solid, W m1 K1

channel length, m

Nusselt number

pressure, N m2

dimensionless pressure drop

1=3

performance evaluation criteria (Nu=Re Pr f )

Prandtl number

wall heat ux, W m2

Reynolds number (Re q uin 4H=l)

temperature, K

uid inlet temperature, K

velocity at x axis, m s1

implemented to some extent [8,1820]. Xu et al. [8] theoretically

investigated forced convective heat transfer in metal-foam lled

parallel-plate channel and provided the ranges of foam parameters

for saving energy. Lu et al. [18] presented convection heat transfer in

metal foams in theory by treating the micro-structure of metal foam

as the cubic cylinders perpendicular with each other and found that

the thermal performance of metal foams is attractive even though

with simplied model. Lu et al. [19] conducted analytical study on

forced convection in metal-foam tubes and pointed out that metal

foams have great thermal potential. Zhao et al. [20] conducted analytical study on forced convection in metal-foam annuli and found

that the metal-foam double-pipe heat exchanger own more excellent thermal performance compared with the conventional nned

tubular heat exchangers.

Even with attractive thermal performance for metal foams, heat

transfer in metal foams still needs further enhancement by other

assistant methods in some electronics and heat exchangers with

high heat transfer rate. Adding nanoparticles into uid, which

can improve the uid thermal conductivity, is such a direct

method. Nanoparticle based coolant (nanouid) was rst proposed

by Choi et al. [21] in Argonne National Laboratory of USA in the

middle 90s of last Century, after which many investigators

performed various studies on this area. Lazarus Godson et al. [22]

presented the experimental study on the convective heat transfer

of silver-water nanouid in counter-ow heat exchanger from

laminar to turbulent regime. Li and Xuan [23] experimentally

investigated forced convection of Cu-water nanouid in a tube

and presented empirical correlations for laminar and turbulent

ow. Bhadauria and Agarwal [24] presented the analytical and

numerical study on linear and non-linear stability of nanouid

ow and heat transfer in porous media. Dalkilic et al. [25] reviewed

the recent publications from 2003 to 2012 on forced convection of

v

uin

U

V

VOL

x

inlet velocity, m s1

dimensionless x velocity

dimensionless y velocity

dimensionless volume

axial position, m

Greek symbols

c

synergy angle, degree

e

porosity

h

dimensionless temperature

l

dynamic viscosity, kg m1 s1

q

density, kg m3

/

volume fraction

x

pore density, PPI (pores per inch)

Subscripts

b

bulk

d

dispersion

e

effective

f

uid

mf

metal foam

nf

nanouid

np

nanoparticle

ref

reference

s

solid

uid mechanics and indicated that the experimental data for nanouids of nanoparticles within refrigerants is absent due to the difculty in establishing the pressurized test rig. They held that main

reasons for heat transfer enhancement of nanouid are the

increase in thermal conductivity and chaotic movement of

nanoparticles. Xuan and Roetzel [26] classied recent theoretical

models of nanouid into two types: (a) treating nanoparticle and

base-uid as a single-phase ow; (b) treating the nanoparticle

and the base-uid as two different phases. Choi [27] pointed out

that the heat transfer enhancement effect of nanouid is more

obvious compared with other enhancing techniques, but the

understanding for transport mechanisms of nanouid is still poor.

Aiming at combining the ow-mixing capability of 3-D metal

foams with the obvious improvement in uid thermal conductivity

of the ultrane particles, this paper presents a numerical analysis

on the forced convective heat transfer of nanouid in metal-foam

channels with the LTNE model, which can be used in the cooling

of high heat ux electronics with large temperature difference heat

exchangers. The effects of porosity, pore density and volume fraction on the overall heat transfer are analyzed. Effects of nanouid

and metal foam on enhancing convective heat transfer are discussed and the evaluation possibility of eld synergy principle on

this kind of dual heat transfer enhancement is explored.

2. Problem description

The schematic diagram of metal-foam channel for nanouid

forced convection is shown in Fig. 1(a) and the practical structure

of metal foam (copper) is shown Fig. 1(b). The channel height is 2H

and channel length is L. Constant heat ux qw is imposed on the

channel wall, which is dissipated with metal foams. The ultrane

401

qw

uin

Tfin o

qnf

l

l

qnf C I

juj u

u ru rP nf r2 u nf u p

e2

e

K

K

1a

1b

1c

@v

0;

@x

x 0 : u uin ;

Metal foam

qw

L

@T s

0

@x

T f T fin ;

2a

xL:

@u @ v @T f @T s

0

@x @x

@x

@x

2b

y0:

@u

0;

@y

2c

v 0;

y H : u v 0;

@T f @T s

0

@y

@y

knfe kd

@T f

@T s

kse

qw ;

@y

@y

Tf Ts

Tw

2d

transfer performances of nanouid in metal-foam channel are

numerically investigated by using the thermo-physical properties

of nanouid. Integrated values for density, dynamic viscosity,

thermal conductivity and product of density and isobaric heat

capacity of nanouid can be respectively correlated with the

following formulas [2830].

lnf

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of nanouid channel with metal foams and the metalfoam structure.

The nanouid (uid with nanoparticles) with inlet velocity uin

and inlet temperature Tn, ows through the channel, absorbing

heat imposed on the wall. The metal foam is assumed as isotropic

and homogeneous. Flow in metal foam is in the laminar regime.

Thermal radiation in the condition of low-temperature convection

is neglected since the metal foam is large optically thickness with a

short radiation transport mean free path [16].

The momentum equation is established with the Forchheimer

model considering the quadratic term. For energy equation, LTE

model or LTNE model may be used and in this paper the LTNE

model is used for modeling the energy equations, which treats

the temperature of solid phase and that of the uid phase as different. For ow and heat transfer, the governing equations of mass,

momentum and energy conservations are

lf

3b

1 /2:5

knp 2kf 2/kf knp

kf

knp 2kf /kf knp

3c

3d

knf

3a

K, inertial constant CI, nanouid effective thermal conductivity knfe,

solid effective thermal conductivity kse, dispersion thermal conductivity kd, local convective heat transfer coefcient hsf and surface

area density asf, can be found in Xu et al. [8] and Dai et al. [31].

These empirical parameters are obtained based on two basic

morphology parameters for metal foam: porosity and pore density.

And the metal foams considered for the parametric study are

consistent with the commercially available foams. The governing

equations can be normalized with the following qualities

X

hfs

x

y

u

; Y ; U

;

H

H

uin

T fs T fin

;

qw H=kf

Da

K

H

Re

v

uin

qf u2in

l cp;f

qf uin 4H

hsf asf H2

; Pr f

; Nusf

lf

kf

kf

@U

@U

q @P lnf =lf 4e @ 2 U @ 2 U

U

V

e2 f

@X

@Y

qnf @X qnf =qf Re @X 2 @Y 2

e2 C I

UjU

U p j~

qnf =qf Da Re

Da

5a

@V

@V

q @P lnf =lf 4e @ 2 V @ 2 V

U

V

e2 f

@X

@Y

qnf @Y qnf =qf Re @X 2 @Y 2

@ 2 hs

@X

@ 2 hs

@Y 2

!

1.0

e2 C I ~

V p jUjV

qnf =qf Da Re

Da

Nusf

kf

hs hf

kse

0.6

5c

@hf

@hf knfe kd qf cp;f

4

@ 2 hf @ 2 hf

V

@X

@Y

kf

qcp nf Re Pr @X 2 @Y 2

0.4

5d

0.0

-1.0

X 0 : U 1;

hf 0;

H=0.01 m

Re=1500

=0.9

=10 PPI

=0

0.2

4Nusf qf cp;f

hs hf

Re Pr qcp nf

@V

0;

@X

Analytical (Brinkman)[8]

Numerical (Brinkman)

Numerical (Forchheimer)

0.8

5b

402

@h

0

@X

-0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

6a

@U @V @hf @hs

X L=H :

0

@X @X @X

@X

6b

@U

Y0:

0;

@Y

6c

V 0;

Y 1 : U V 0;

@hf @hs

0

@Y

@Y

1;

kf

@Y

kf @Y

hf hs

6d

Normalized governing equations from Eqs. (5a) and (5b) and the

related closure conditions Eqs. (6a)(6d) are numerically solved

with the SIMPLER algorithm [32]. The governing equations can be

treated as convergent when the relative error for pressure drop

and Nu are less than 107. Water is selected as the base uid for

nanoparticles. The density, specic heat capacity at constant pressure, thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity are referred from

the corresponding values of water at 1 atm and 20 C [33]. Foam

morphology parameters fall into the ranges 0.80.95 for porosity

and 560 PPI for pore density. The ratio between axial length of

the channel and the half height is L/H = 10. In the numerical simulation, uid with Al2O3 nanoparticles is used as the working uid.

The values of the above parameters are summarized in Table 1.

Non-uniform grid is employed with ne grid near the heated wall

and the grid-independent solution can be obtained for the grid density 152 62 with both the relative deviations of pressure drop and

Nu less than 0.1% for a denser grid system.

It can be found that the velocity in present numerical solution with

Brinkman model is in accordance with analytical solution in Xu

et al. [8], from which the feasibility of the present numerical

method can be guaranteed. It can also be found that the velocity

eld with Forchheimer model is more homogeneous than the

Brinkman model, which is due to the inertial term in Forchheimer

model for the ow resistance.

It can be expected that the pressure drop of pure uid owing

through metal foams depends on several parameters, such as the

duct scale, porosity, pore density, frontal velocity and uid

thermo-physical properties. While that for nanouid depends on

nanoparticle thermo-physical properties, volume fraction of suspended particles and all the factors above. Pressure drop functions

for this two cases are in the form of Eqs. (7a) and (7b).

dp=dxmf f H; e; x; uin ; qf ; lf

7a

7b

Thus, for the nanouid owing through metal foams, the nanoparticle volume fraction is a most important parameter, the effect of

which on pressure drop is shown in Fig. 3. As can be seen, with

the increase in volume fraction, the pressure drop per unit length

gradually increases and the increasing amplitude for pressure drop

1600

Forchheimer model. The velocity prole of the present numerical

1400

1200

Parameters

Value

Unit

qf

998.21

4184.1

kg m3

cf

1

J kg K1

kg m1 s1

kf

1.0016 103

0.59846

qnp

3970

cnp

765

J kg

knp

400

W m1 K1

C

1

PPI pores per inch

1

lf

T ref

e

x

L=H

20

0.80.98

560

10

W m1 K1

kg m3

1

dp/dx (Pa/m)

Table 1

Values of important parameters in the numerical simulation.

H=0.01 m

Re=1000

=0.9

=10 PPI

1000

800

Al2O3 Particle

TiO3 Particle

600

K1

400

0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

Fig. 3. The effect of nanoparticle volume fraction on the overall pressure drop.

403

(a) fluid

(b) solid

Fig. 4. Dimensionless temperature distribution for uid and solid phases.

2000

hmf f H; e; x; uin ; kf ; ks

8a

8b

=0.9

=10 PPI

1500

=0

=0.05

=0.10

=0.20

H =0.01

Re=1000

ks=400 W/(m K)

Nu

the density of nanouid are increased sharply with the increase in

volume fraction.

Fig. 4 shows dimensionless temperatures of solid and uid for

porosity 0.98. It can be seen that the solid temperature is slightly

higher than the uid temperature. In this case (the foam solid thermal conductivity ks = 400 W/(m K)), the uid thermal conductivity

is 0.59846 W/(m K) and the nanoparticle thermal conductivity is

40 W/(m K), from which the integrated thermal conductivity of

the nanouid is 1.026 W/(m K). Thus, by using highly-conductive

nanoparticles, the thermal conductivity of working uid is obviously increased. In addition, the outlet temperature of uid and

that of solid are both in the fully-developed condition from

Fig. 4(a) and (b).

Similarly, for steady-state heat transfer, the convection heat

transfer coefcient (HTC) of pure uid in metal-foam duct is the

function of channel scale, foam morphology (porosity and pore

density), frontal velocity, uid thermo-physical properties, and

foam solid thermal conductivity. While for the nanouid, corresponding HTC is the function of channel scale, foam morphology

(porosity and pore density), frontal velocity, uid thermo-physical

properties, foam solid thermal conductivity, nanoparticle thermal

conductivity and volume fraction.

1000

500

1

10

X

Fig. 5. The effect of nanoparticle volume fraction on local Nu number along axial

direction.

performance of nanouid forced convection in metal foams are presented and discussed.

Fig. 5 shows the effect of volume fraction of nanoparticles on

the local Nusselt number along the axial direction for different volume fractions. It can be observed that the local Nu along the axial

weakened. With the xed axial position, the local Nu is larger for

a higher volume fraction. For the xed parameters in Fig. 5, the

local Nu number is above 600, which is much higher than the analytical value 8.235 [34] for foam-free channel with pure uid.

When the dimensionless axial position is greater than 7 (X > 7),

the NuX curve is approximately parallel to the horizontal axis,

which means that the convective heat transfer in this range is in

the fully-developed region. Therefore, the entrance length of

metal-foam channel is not as high as that of foam-free channel,

which is attributed to the strong ow-mixing capability of metal

foam. Generally, the role of entrance effect is always included in

heat exchangers and the metal-foam heat exchangers cannot be

very long due to very high pressure loss in metal foams. Thus, all

the thermal analyses include the entrance effect in this paper,

which is convenient for thermal design of metal-foam heat

exchangers.

The effects of metal-foam morphology parameters (porosity

and pore density) on nanouid heat transfer in metal foams are

shown in Fig. 6(a) and (b). It can be clearly seen that Nu of nanouid can be increased by either decreasing porosity or increasing

pore density, which agrees well with the tendency shown Xu

et al. [8]. From Fig. 6(a) and (b), with the same foam morphology

2000

H=0.01 m

Re=1000

=10 PPI

ks=400 W/(m K)

Nu

1500

1000

=0

=0.10

500

0.80

0.85

0.90

0.95

900

with kd but without CI

850

exclude kd and CI

800

750

Nu

404

H =0.01 m

700

650

=10 PPI

=0.9

600

=0.1

ks=400 W/(m K)

500

1000

1500

2000

Re

Fig. 7. The effect of Re on heat transfer with different conditions.

lead to the heat transfer enhancement that is not very strong. However, in high-heat-ux applications [35], even a little heat transfer

augmentation means great signicance for heat dissipation and

thermo-safety.

The effect of Re number on the heat transfer of nanouid is

shown in Fig. 7, including the effects of thermal dispersion and

inertial term. As Re number increases, Nu number of nanouid

gradually increases due to the intensive local convective heat

transfer between solid and uid, which is not consistent with the

NuRe relationship in foam-free channels with pure uid in laminar regime. This is due to the increase in Reynolds number can

enhance the local convective heat transfer between solid and uid

phases. In addition, with the xed Reynolds number, the model

with both thermal dispersion and inertial term owns the highest

Nu number and that excluding thermal dispersion and inertial

term can provide the lowest Nu number. Between the two, the

model with thermal dispersion but without inertial term own

higher Nu number than that with inertial term but without thermal dispersion, which implies that the effect of thermal dispersion

on heat transfer is greater than that of inertial term. This is because

the base uid is water and thermal dispersion in water is very

obvious [36].

(a) porosity

730

800

700

720

H =0.01 m

Re =1000

=0.9

ks=400 W/(m K)

Nu

Nu

=0

=0.2

H=0.01 m

Re=1000

=0.9

=10 PPI

ks=400 W/(m K)

710

600

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

(PPI)

Fig. 6. The effect of metal-foam morphology parameters on heat transfer.

700

0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

405

0.30

H=0.01 m

=10 PPI

ks=400 W/(m K)

0.25

=0.85

=0.95

0.15

0.10

0.05

0

Nu

103

LTE model

LTNE model

Wolfram

Aluminum

Brass

Nickel

Copper

Sliver

Stannum

102

100

101

ks

102

103

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

Fig. 10. Integrated heat transfer performance evaluation criteria as a function of

pumping power.

addition, with a xed pumping power, the PEC for porosity 0.85

is much higher than that for porosity 0.95.

4. Mechanisms for heat transfer enhancement of nanouid in

porous foam

What eld synergy principle reveals is the effect of ow on convective heat transfer. Rather than directing the practical simulation

process, eld synergy principle is a theory based on existing result,

i.e., it is a result rather than an inducement. Nevertheless, this principle has been employed for heat exchanger design, leading to

many successful heat transfer surfaces. It tends to develop unique

structures for generating vortexes or disturbing the boundary layer

to improve the synergy between velocity and temperature gradient

for convective heat transfer. The synergy angle is a vital parameter

for synergy principle, dened as the intersection angle between the

velocity vector and the uid temperature gradient.

cosc

~ rhf j

j~

jU

u rT f j

~

~

juj jrT f j jUj jrhf j

cm arccos

H=0.01 m

Re=1500

=0.9

=10 PPI

=0.05

=0.20

0.20

PEC

transfer for two different nanoparticles (Al2O3 and TiO3). As the

nanoparticle volume fraction increases, Nu number gradually

increases but the increasing amplitude is reduced. This is attributed to that the thermal conductivity increasing amplitude is

decreased with an increase in nanoparticle volume fraction. Due

to thermal conductivity of Al2O3 is higher than that of TiO3, Nu

number of Al2O3 is higher than that of TiO3 as shown in Fig. 8. From

Fig. 8, the maximum heat transfer augmentation of nanouid is

about 3.8% for Al2O3 and 3.0% for TiO3, which is very useful for further improving thermal performance of metal-foam heat exchangers and heat sinks, especially for high-heat-ux applications. In

addition, from Eqs. (3a)(3d), with an increase in volume fraction

of nanoparticles, the viscosity and density of nanouid increases

sharply, but the corresponding increasing rate of nanouid thermal

conductivity is not so much. Therefore, it can be seen from Figs. 3

and 8 that the heat transfer augmentation cannot offset the pressure drop increase for nanouid owing through metal foams.

Fig. 9 presents the comparison between LTE and LTNE models

with Nu as a function of foam solid thermal conductivity for the

xed uid thermophysical properties. It can be seen that the difference between LTE model and LTNE model is mild when foam solid

thermal conductivity is low. As solid thermal conductivity

increases, this difference is enlarged. From Fig. 5, when the solid

thermal conductivity increases, thermal resistance of solid phase

is decreased but the thermal resistance of local convective heat

transfer represented by the parameter Nusf in Eq. (4), is kept constant, which indirectly increase the proportion of local convective

thermal resistance over the total thermal resistance. Therefore,

the difference between LTE and LTNE results is enlarged when the

solid thermal conductivity is increased. When the solid thermal

conductivity is very low, the solid thermal resistance is very large

and the proportion of local convective thermal resistance over the

total thermal resistance can be neglected. In this condition, the heat

transfer results of LTE model and that of the LTNE model are almost

the same. This implies that the LTNE effect in porous media is more

obvious with the increased solid thermal conductivity.

Fig. 10 shows the integrated performance evaluation criteria

(PEC) including the ow and heat transfer as a function of pumping

power for two different porosities. It can be seen from this gure

that PEC sharply decreases for the small pumping power and the

gradient of PEC gradually approaches 0, as the pumping power

increases. This means that the pumping power should be as low

as possible from the viewpoint of maintaining higher PEC. In

R

coscdVOL

VOL

9a

9b

To achieve good synergy between velocity and temperature gradient, the synergy angle should not be close to 90 or 270. The perpendicularity between velocity vector and temperature gradient is

the worst heat transfer case (HTC = 0) while the parallelity between

these two vectors leads to the optimal heat transfer. For the porous

media with high solid thermal conductivity, due to adoption of

LTNE model, two temperatures exists, but only uid temperature

is appropriate for synergy angle. Thus, the case of nanouid owing

through metal foams is very different from that of pure uid in

foam-free channel. Shen and Liu [37] have ever used eld synergy

principle to analyze the convective heat transfer in porous media

under LTE condition, but the relationship between synergy angle

and the heat transfer is not too consistent. The aim of this part is

to analyze the convective heat transfer of nanouid in metal foams

with eld synergy principle and examine whether eld synergy

principle is appropriate for heat transfer enhancement by nanouid

and metal foams.

Fig. 11 shows the synergy angle as a function of pumping power

for two different porosities (0.85 and 0.95). It can be observed that

with the increase in pumping power, the synergy angle sharply

406

90

=0.85

=0.95

85

80

75

70

H =0.01 m

=10 PPI

ks=400 W/(m K)

65

=0.20

60

55

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

Fig. 11. Synergy angle as a function of pumping power.

79

=0

=0.05

=0.10

=0.20

78

77

=0.9

=10 PPI

H =0.01

Re =1000

ks=400 W/(m K)

76

10

20

30

40

5. Conclusions

50

60

(PPI)

Fig. 12. Synergy angle as a function of pore density.

78.10

78.05

Al2O3

TiO3

78.00

H=0.01 m

Re=1000

=0.9

=10 PPI

ks=400 W/(m K)

77.95

77.90

0.00

increases for small pumping power and the slope of synergy angle

gradually approaches zero. For a xed pumping power, the synergy

angle for porosity 0.85 is less than that for porosity 0.95. Overall,

the trend of Fig. 11 is in accordance with eld synergy principle.

Fig. 12 shows the effect of pore density on the synergy principle

for four volume fractions of Al2O3 nanoparticles: / = 0, 0.05, 0.1

and 0.2. For the conditions shown in Fig. 12, the minimum synergy

angle for nanouid ow in metal foams is about 75.3. As the pore

density increases, the synergy angle gradually increases and the

effect of pore density on synergy angle is similar with that on Nusselt number (Fig. 6(b)). This is attributed to that when pore density

is large enough, local convective thermal resistance can be

neglected. From eld synergy principle, heat transfer of this conditions is weakened, which is not in accordance with what reveals in

Fig. 6(b) for heat transfer trend in metal foams. Fig. 13 presents the

effect of volume fraction on the synergy angle. As can be seen, as

the volume fraction increases, the synergy angle slightly decreases.

From eld synergy principle, the heat transfer is weakened with

the increase in volume fraction of nanoparticles and again the

trend in Fig. 13 is also not in accordance with what reveals in Fig. 8.

Heat transfer of nanouid is mainly enhanced by the high thermal conductivity of nanoparticles, while heat transfer of metal

foams is mainly inuenced by the heat conductions of solid and

uid and local convective heat transfer between solid and uid.

Usually, for metal foams with high solid thermal conductivities,

the solid conductive thermal resistance is far less than the uid

conductive thermal resistance, which means that majority part of

heat is transferred through solid ligaments. From the contradiction

between Fig. 11 and Figs. 12 and 13, eld synergy principle can

only partly reveal the essence for combined convection and conduction heat transfer of nanouid in porous media. This means

the conventional eld synergy principle for pure uid owing in

non-porous duct needs modication for effectually explaining the

heat transfer enhancement of nanouid in porous media.

numerically investigated and the effects of various parameters on

thermal performance are analyzed with mechanisms for convective heat transfer enhancement of nanouid in porous foam discussed. The summary is put up below.

(1) Velocity prole of nanouid in metal foam is very uniform

and the LTNE effect of nanouid in metal foam is obvious

when the difference between thermal conductivity of uid

and that of solid is large.

(2) The heat transfer enhancement with nanouid cannot offset

the pressure drop increase, which may be useful in some

high-power electronics calling for strong heat dissipation

ability but regardless of the pumping power. To save the cost

of heat transfer process, future work should be done on the

structure optimization for metal-foam channel and the

micro-mechanism for heat transfer augmentation of

nanouid.

(3) The integrated performance evaluation criteria (PEC)

decreases with the increase in pumping power.

(4) Field synergy principle for convective heat transfer enhancement of pure uid cannot successfully predict the heat

transfer enhancement of nanouid in porous media.

Acknowledgements

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

Foundation of China (No. 51206187 and No. 51406238), partly by

the Foundation for Outstanding Young Scientist in Shandong

Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 14CX02106A and

No. 13CX05023A). Dr. Wenqiang Li is acknowledged for his help

in preparing this paper.

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