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CHAPTER.

1
INTRODUCTION

The project work assigned here with us is of building a shearing m/c that is
capable of shearing PVC / plastic / rubber pipes up to 6 mm in dia. Also it is pre-
assigned work to furnish the same m/c along with an automation unit as previously
mentioned.

As simple layout and tricky operational enables this type of m/c to work
practically at low cost, low maintenance, low capital investment in less space. It may
be forecasted that in future this m/c may have its unparallel place in the industry
mentioned previously.

The work is carried out using MDF (Medium Density Fiber) core hardwood
plywood. Also some connecting components like studs are used the plunger is made
up of high density polymer pipe and the core of electromagnetic is made up of again
high density polymer pipe. Rest of the construction is made in MDF sheet cut to
requirement. It can be noticed that in the fabrication of the project many parts are
manufactured other than ferrous material. It is done so because ferrous is conductor of
magnetism and controller be magnetized very easily for avoiding the flux generated
for getting disturb with surrounding material. The mat in surrounding is used the non
ferrous. The only major component is the iron core which is needed to be made up of
ferrous to get attracted to electromagnet when live next part that is fabrication out of
ferrous is stud nut bolt. It is very necessary that for structural support that this part
should be made in strength and support for solving the problem. It has been allowed
to use ferrous material for the same. Also care have been taken to keep this ferrous
material part away from electromagnet as for as possible.
Whenever electromagnet is made live it sucks the iron core in between the
cavity of the Electromagnetic because of high flux generated. This iron core there by
pushes the plunger in the same direction which activates the cutter blade subassembly
forcing the same in the blade subassembly forcing the same in the direction of
material to be cut. This is simple procedure of cutting by this type of m/c.
Another part of the project includes development of automation unit for
running this m/c on automation mode for cutting the mat as per required. This part
include a Microcontroller a motor drives a relay driver etc.
CHAPTER.2

BACKGROUND

As various application for automation & machinery arise,


machinery is developed to meet the needs of the particular application .Recently there
has been an increase in the need for machinery which is small in scale. Small scale &
miniature machinery include the number of moving parts which can breakdown &
lubrication .Problem specific to miniature machinery include the difficulty of
lubrication on a small scale & the difficulty of adapting conventional size machines to
smaller scale. Another need exists for machinery of any size which can exhibit a fine
degree of adjustment. In many control system application accuracy of movement is
crucial & simple on-off control will not suffice. It is also desirable that any machine,
whatever its size, be efficient & require little or no maintenance.
CHAPTER.3
LITERATURE REVIEW

Mr. Scott Michael Golowin, B.S. The Ohio State University 2008 in his research
paper on “Path Actuators for Magnetic Pulse Assisted Forming and Punch-less
Electro-Magnetic Shearing” discussed that Electro Magnetic shearing offers a number
of advantages over traditional methods. It is much less equipment-intensive than laser
cutting or die cutting. It can deal well with very thin materials, whereas very precise
tooling is required to shear thin metals and can be very expensive. Also, there are
opportunities for integrating forming and shearing operations. Despite these
advantages, this method has not been well developed.

The Ohio State University research paper on “Punch-less Electro-Magnetic Shearing


(PEM)” resulted in the following preliminary conclusions. Electromagnetic shearing
capability for sheet metal cutting that should be cost effective and could find wide
application in both small precision applications, such as medical & micro devices, and
could also have significant applications in heavy-duty manufacturing, such as
automotive and truck manufacturing. The process can replace laser cutting of metal,
which involves large amount of capital investment and can also be applied to non-
metal cutting, such as foam. Furthermore, electromagnetic forming and cutting could
be integrated in a single step to save manufacturing cost. The work here will help
develop a new agile sheet metal shearing technique, for shapes not realistic by
conventional methods.
Hans Christian Orsted & Francis Bitter in his paper entitled “Electromagnets: Two
Forces Team Up” discussed that these electromagnets are called “resistive” magnets
because, as in any machine running on normal electricity, the electrons that make up
the current encounter resistance as they bump into atoms and other electrons along
their journey. This inefficiency costs when it comes time to pay the electric bill; in
fact, the Magnet Lab uses about 7 percent of the electricity consumed in Tallahassee,
a city of about 160,000 residents! If we didn’t have magnets to operate, our on-site
power source could light up some half-million 100-watt light bulbs – at the same
time! The Mag Lab also uses a considerable amount of water, which is forced through
the holes of the Bitter plates to prevent the magnets from getting too hot. So resistive
magnets eat lots of electricity and drink lots of water, two expensive habits. This is
where superconducting magnets, the next type of temporary magnet we will explore,
offer some advantages.

F. Bioul, R.Rolinsky, N.Van denBogaert, V.Regnier, F.Dupret in their research


paper on” Free surface Shear Flows Induced by alternating electromagnetic forces
Application to liquid bridges in micro-gravity& to floating zone presses” discussed
that besides Joulean heating and free surface deformation caused by the Lorentz force
normal component, an additional effect resulting from the generation of
radiofrequency alternating magnetic fields in the vicinity of electrically conducting
liquid components is the creation of a free surface shear flow. This effect is generally
undesired, but could be used to improve convection control in some applications such
as the Czochralski or Floating Zone semiconductor crystal growth process. The
electromagnetic field distribution in planar and axisymmetric configurations, which
provides equivalent magnetic forces and heat flux to be applied along the conducting
free surface.
J.Rodney Schexnayder in his research paper on “Electromagnetic Machine”
discussed that machinery is developed to meet the needs of the particular application.
Recently there has been an increase in the need for machinery which is small in scale.
Small scale & miniature machinery must be simple & reliable. Another need exists for
machinery of any size which can exhibit a fine degree of adjustment. In many control
system applications accuracy of movement is crucial & simple on-off controls will not
suffice. The machine of any size is efficient & requires little or no maintenance. These
all properties is give up by electromagnetic machine which uses electromagnetic force
to do work & particularly to device which use electromagnetic force to move
magnetically permeable particles, using the movement of those particles to do work.
Object of machine is to use electric current as its power source & provide a machine
with an extremely fine degree of adjustment.

Joseph Henry in his research paper on “Electromagnetism” discussed that an


electromagnet is a large inductor, and resists changes in the current through its
windings. Any sudden changes in the winding current cause large voltage spikes
across the windings. This is because when the magnet is turned on, energy from the
circuit must be stored in the magnetic field, and when it is turned off the energy in the
field is returned to the circuit. If an ordinary switch is used to control the winding
current, this can cause sparks at the terminals of the switch. Large electromagnets are
usually powered by variable current electronic power supplies, controlled by a
microprocessor, which prevent voltage spikes by accomplishing current changes in
gentle ramps. It may take several minutes to energize or deenergize a large magnet.
The factor limiting the strength of electromagnets is the inability to dissipate the
enormous waste heat, so higher fields, up to 90 T, have been obtained from resistive
magnets by pulsing them. The highest magnetic fields of all have been created by
detonating explosives around a pulsed electromagnet as it is turned on. The implosion
compresses the magnetic field to values of around 1000 T for a few microseconds.
Francis Woodward Jessop, of Cleveland, OHIO in his research paper on
“Electromagnetic Metal working Machine” discussed that relates to metal working
machines such as shearing, forming & compressing & more particularly to machines
in which the metal working operation is effected by single stroke get more
maintenance to reduce the prone of this machine an electromagnet is used which gives
significant applications in heavy-duty manufacturing & forming and cutting could be
integrated in a single step to save manufacturing cost.
CHAPTER.4
SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW

The industrial demands increases day by day toward


the simplification & more innovative creation of work in mass production. For such
type of qualities & flexibility in the manufacture only create by replacing the existing
machinery process layout for such type of machinery which reduce the labor cost
material increases production in sheet & tin plate like plants & pipe industries. The
automatic shearing or electromagnetic shearing process will be one of the feasible
solutions for them.
Electromagnet is used which gives significant applications in
heavy-duty manufacturing & other products but none of this uses the electromagnetic
force in a way which is simple, efficient & controllable to the degree dicer for such
work a simple machine which required only power to operate or produce the emf is
feasible instated of heavy load of electricity given to the machinery for such cutting
work. The advancement in manufacturing process in industry toward the convectional
Processing uses convectional machinery for manufacturing such as hydraulic,
mechanical & Pneumatic type for such machine working principal.
CHAPTER.5
SHEARING MACHINES
Mechanical power shears are self-contained machines with a ram that
moves a non-rotary blade (knife), at a constant rake, past the edge of a fixed blade to
perform shearing or cutoff operations. Shears may be mechanically, hydraulically,
hydra-mechanically, pneumatically, or manually powered and are used to perform
numerous functions such as squaring, cropping, and cutting to length. There are
various types of shearing machine which is used in industries for various purposes
some of main types of shearing machines are classified below.

5.1. MANUAL SHEARING MACHINES:


5.1.1. Foot operated Shearing Machine:
Foot Operated Shearing Machines and Treadle Shearing Machines are
essential in sheet metal industries as they have an edge amongst others on the basis of
adaptable design, stiff construction, and appearance. Such machines are specially
designed for quick and incessant cutting of steel sheets of varied widths and trimming
them in unlimited lengths. They come with some vital features and comprise high
tensile springs for quick return of treadle. They comprise four cutting edged hardened
and ground quality blades. With spring loaded sheet holding device, they are delight
to have and they also contain all steel fabricated construction body.

Figure No. 5.1. Foot operated Shearing Machine


MODEL CTS-0L CTS-1L CTS-2LL CTS-2L

Capacity Width 305 450 610 650


(mm)
Capacity 1.25 1.00 0.90 1.20
Thickness (mm)
Net weight 110 125 150 225
(Kgs.)
Dimensions (m) 0.61x0.6x0.92 0.76 x 0.69 x 0.92 0.92 x 0.69x0.92 1.10x0.69 x 1.00

Shipping 0.39 0.49 0.59 0.76


volume (m3)

Table No.5.1 Specifications of Foot operated Shearing Machine

5.2. HYDRAULIC SHEARING MACHINES:


Hydraulic Shearing Machine has wide applications. This Hydraulic Shearing
Machine inherits all the merits of Hydraulic Shearing Machine, enhanced by new
technology. Compared with other Shearing Machine, Hydraulic Shearing Machine
enjoys many advantages including: more reasonable structure, more compact
appearance, smoother operating, higher efficiency and is easy to operate and maintain.
Hydraulic Shearing Machine has wide adoptability, is an ideal Hydraulic Shearing
Machine for production.

Figure No. 5.2. Hydraulic Shearing Machine


5.2.1 Variable Rake Angle Hydraulic Shearing Machine:
It has Sturdy Welded Frame designed for maximum resistance to deflection &
Moving Beam is overdriven, with two cylinders operating in series for even cutting.
A monoblock DC solenoid valve ensures a smooth reversal hydraulic system & Rake
angle can be varied by pre-selection through a selector switch to permit shearing
higher thickness than normal capacity. Front operated, rake angle adjustment of 0.5 to
2.5 degrees allows the operator to set the optimum rake angle required to produce the
perfect cut with minimum twist and bow & Top beam is guided by four point roller
guides with replaceable hardened liners for minimum wear. The Quick and easy blade
clearance setting by calibrated levers & Individual hydraulic hold downs ensure
perfect cutting. The Shadow line indicator useful for cutting on scribed lines & Safety
finger guard allows the operator to safely cut the material close to the cutting edge
Precise and fast travel motorized back gauge with front readout is standard. It travels
over a range of 800 mm on precision lead screw .The low rake angle, correct knife
clearance and a rigid frame ensure bow free, camber free and twist free shearing.

Figure No.5.3 Variable Rake Angle Hydraulic Shearing Machine

Blade Rake Angle No. of strokes Motor Dimensions (m) Net Weight
MODEL Length Variable Rake Angle (kW) LxWxH (kgs.)
(mm) (Degree) max min

SVR 616 1600 0.5-2.5 12 20 7.5 2.15 x 1.7 x 1.8 4200

SVR 625 2650 0.5-2.5 12 22 11 3.05 x 1.7 x 1.8 5300

SVR 630 3150 0.5-2.5 10 20 11 3.55 x 1.7 x 1.8 6300

SVR 640 4150 0.5-2.5 12 22 15 4.60 x 1.7 x 1.9 8400

Table 5.2 Specifications of Variable Rake Angle Hydraulic Shearing Machine

5.2.2 Hydraulic Guillotine Shearing Machine (overcrank series):-


This machine is known for their modern designs and built to machine
tools standards. They are sturdy machines for robust construction in the design. With
careful attention to lubrication, blade and clutch adjustment they will give years of
trouble free service. Side Frame is of solid steel plates designed for maximum
strength and rigidity. The bed is of box type steel welded construction, additional rids
under the table adds to its strength. The rolling key is in two pieces made of EN-24
which is incorporated in the machine for ensuring easy and efficient working.
Pneumatically operated multi disc, friction clutch can also be offered. Upper Beam
(Cutter) is also of solid steel plates, carrying the upper knife. Its minimum weight
ensures lesser load on the bearings. The upper beam moves in fabric based Bakelite
guide plates to avoid deflections for smooth running and maintains the accurate
straightness of the knife. Steel fabricated spring loaded hold-down is provided for the
gripping of plates by means of plunger for effective gripping. Hydraulic hold-down
can also be provided. Drive is through v-belts on the flywheel and a chain of gears
made of cast iron, hob cut for smooth running and longer life. Constant spring loaded
adjustable brake is provided. In case of pneumatic clutch operated machine brake is
built-in. Single shot lubrication provided oil to all the lubrication points, where
necessary. Automatic Lubrications can be provided as an option. The rigid and
accurate construction of the back gauge provided with the machine ensures
parallelism in the widths of sheets being cut as per IS standards.
Figure No.5.4 Hydraulic Guillotine Shearing Machine

Model LSSCO-1 LSSCO-2 LSSCO-3


Shearing Length
Mm 2000 2500 3100
Shearing Capacity
Mm 8, 10- 13 8, 10- 13 8, 10- 13
Size of Blades
(Blade segments) Mm 1015 x 100 x 22 1270 x 100 x 22 1050 x 100 x 22
Length of cut in
one Stroke Mm 2000 2500 3100
No. of Strokes per
minutes No. 40 40 30
Power Require Hp/rpm 15,20,25/1440 20,25,30/1440 20,25,30/1440

Floor Area L x B Mm 3000 x 2400 x 3000 x 2400 x 4100 x 2600 x


x H approx 2400 2400 2600

Table No.5.3 Specifications of Hydraulic Guillotine Shearing Machine

5.2.3 Hydraulic Guillotine Shearing Machine (undercrank):


It has overall welded structure of the rack and the knife rest & is
equipped with the advanced integrated hydraulic system, which is of good reliability.
Blade gap adjustment is through a hand-wheel, rapid, accurate and convenient.
Rectangular blade, and the four blade cutting edge can all be used, thus to achieve a
long service life. Adjustable shearing angle to reduce the sheet distortion & equipped
with back gauge and digital displayer.

Figure No.5.5 Hydraulic Guillotine Shearing Machine (under crank)

CUTTING BLADE
MODEL CAP. IN STROKE FRONT REAR MOTOR LENGTH LENGTH HEIGHT
M.S. PER GUAGE GUAGE HP/KW x A B
LENGTH x MINUTE WIDTH
THICKNES x THICK
1525 x 2540 1525
MI - 1 1525 x 2 50 500 750 3/2.0 63 x 12
1525 x 2540 1525
MI - 2 1525 x 4 50 500 750 5/3.7 63 x 12
2030 x 3050 1525
MI - 3 2030 x 4 50 600 750 7.5/5.6 63 x 12
2540 x 3050 1525
MI - 4 2540 x 4 50 600 750 10/7.7 75 x 16

Table No.5.4 Specifications of Hydraulic Guillotine Shearing Machine


5.3 MECHANICAL SHEARING MACHINES:
5.3.1 Light Duty Mechanical Guillotine Shear:
This machine has the low cutting angle and inclined shear direction reduces bowing
and twist to a minimum, Blade clearance is easily set by a manually operated quick
set device. It’s an ideal true-cut machining equipment of metal sheet and nonferrous
metal sheet. C.I body Supplied with built in finger guard with four edge blade &
double geared clutch type motor. Driven by motor with electromagnetic brake adopt
small shearing angle & inclined shearing direction blade clearance easily set by
manually operated quick set device.

Figure No.4.6 Light Duty Mechanical Guillotine Shear

MODEL CPS-4H
Capacity Width (mm) 1250
Capacity Thickness in M.S. 18 Gauge (1.20 mm)
Motor 2.0 H.P. Double Geared, Clutch Type
Net / gross weight (Kgs.) 700 / 800
Shipping dimensions (m) 1.63 x 0.88 x 1.18
Shipping volume (m3) 1.70

Table No.5.5 Specifications of Light Duty Mechanical Guillotine Shear


5.3.2 Mechanical Guillotine Shears (Overcrank):
Rigid steel frame of shears are optimally designed to avid weak sections at load
supports and is of interlocked design. The ram is guided throughout its length by
hardened and ground guide ways ensuring proper clearance and clean cut. Spring
loaded mechanical hold-down pads hold the sheets securely to avoid slipping and
bowing result in clean square cut. Hold down units is provided with oversize pads to
avoid impression on sheet metal. Shear is provided with Four Edge, single & segment
ally High Carbon, Chromium Steel Blades suitable for M.S. &.S.S. Cutting and Extra
long life. All bearing parts and guide surfaces are lubricated through centralize hand-
operated lubrication system. This is standard equipment provided on all Shears. Scale
on the back gauge gives instantaneous reading of distance between shear and back
gauge, thus avoiding errors and maintenance encountered in electronic equipment.
Fitted in front of hold-down for operator safety without obstructing viewing.
Electrical System consisting of motor & Control Panel of Starter, Gear and wheel
guard, V-Belts, Hand operated back gauge, Manual Lubrication System, T-slot front
gauge, Front scale gauge, instruction Manual.

Figure No.5.7 Mechanical Guillotine Shears (Overcrank)


MODEL ROC 4/6 ROC 5/6 ROC 6/6 ROC 8/6
Capacity in M.S.
Max. Length (mm): 1250 1500 2000 2500
Max. Thickness 6 6 6 6
(mm):
Number of Strokes /
min 50 50 50 50
Motor (HP): 7.5 10 12.5 12.5
Net weight (Kgs.) 3200 3800 5000 6000
Shipping dimensions
(mm) 2250x1450x210 2550x1500x2100 2800x1600x2100 3300x1600x2100
0
Shipping volume(m3) 6.90 8.10 9.40 11.10

Table No.5.6 Specifications of Mechanical Guillotine Shears (Overcrank)

5.3.3 Mechanical Guillotine Shears under Crank:


Rigid steel frame of shears are optimally designed to avid weak sections at load
supports and is of interlocked design. The ram is guided throughout its length by
hardened and ground guide ways ensuring proper clearance and clean cut.

Spring loaded mechanical hold-down pads hold the sheets


securely to avoid slipping and bowing result in clean square cut. Hold down units is
provided with oversize pads to avoid impression on sheet metal. Shears are provided
with Four Edge, single & segment ally High Carbon, Chromium Steel Blades suitable
for M.S. &.S.S. Cutting and Extra long life. All bearing parts and guide surfaces are
lubricated through centralize hand-operated lubrication system. This is standard
equipment provided on all Shears. Scale on the back gauge gives instantaneous
reading of distance between shear and back gauge, thus avoiding errors and
maintenance encountered in electronic equipment. Fitted in front of hold-down for
operator safety without obstructing viewing. Electrical System consisting of motor &
Control Panel of Starter, Gear and wheel guard, V-Belts, Hand operated back gauge,
Manual Lubrication System, T-slot front gauge, Front scale gauge, instruction manual
Figure No.5.8. Mechanical Guillotine Shears under Crank

MODEL RUC 4/3 RUC 5/3 RUC 6/3


Capacity in M.S. Max.
Length (mm): Max. 1250 1500 2000
Thickness (mm): 3 3 3
Number of Strokes /
min 60 50 50
Motor (HP): 3 3 5
Net / gross wt(Kgs.): 1500 / 1700 1600 / 1800 2200 / 2400
Shipping dimensions
(mm): 2550x1425x1450 2850x1425x1450 3300x1425x1450
Shipping volume (m3): 5.30 5.90 6.80

Table No.5.7. Specifications of Mechanical Guillotine Shears under Crank

5.4 PNEUMATIC SHEARING MACHINES:


The pneumatic snap shears is widely used for cutting squares, bars and other
similar products. The pneumatic cylinders of adequate capacity control shearing and
swiveling applications with precision. Frame of the shears are fabricated with relieved
structural sheet flats that provide ultimate stability and durability. Robust construction
with steel body fully automatic with pneumatic controls capable to cut hot ends
during rolling available in fixed and swiveling type high quality circular blades with
angular edge.

Figure No.5.9 Pneumatic shearing machines

5.4.1Pneumatic foot shear:

Machine has with 52 inch wide maximum shear length Maximum


material thickness: Mild steel - 16 gauge/.060 inch; Stainless steel - 20 gauge/.036
inch Operation capacity of 20 strokes per minute front and back gauge length is 24
inches Shear angle is 1 degree/40 ft. Shear is pneumatic (air powered) .Shear has high
carbon, high chromium blades. Have front support arms with squaring bar shipping
dimensions: 75 inches long x 36 inches wide x 53 inches high, weight is 1588 lbs.
Figure No.5.10 Pneumatic foot shear

5.5 OTHER SHEARING MACHINES:


5.5.1 TSOP Shearing Machine:
Shearing requires proper attention to each individual skin. TSOP
Shearing Machine offers the greatest quality by giving absolute control at the cutting
point. TSOP Shearing Machine adjustments are easy and quick and do not require a
high degree of expertise. It can shear down to 1mm from the skin. It has been
developed and tested in co-operation with highly skilled and experienced furriers until
reaching perfection. It is suitable for all kinds of skins and has been tested. It occupies
very little space and is very easily installed. TSOP Shearing machine offers a great
advantage to the modern furrier enabling you develop your unique shearing designs
and patterns.

Technical Specifications:
1.3 KW Shearing Motor
2 x 0.75 KW Vacuum Motors
380 Volt
Maximum Shearing Width:
Model KA65: 65 cm
Dimensions (cm): KA65: 100 x 100 x 150

Figure No.5.11 TSOP Shearing Machine

5.5.2 Nibbling Shearing machines:


Nibbling machines work on to shearing principles. They use a
relatively small shearing punch; with a particular geometric form (square, rectangular
or round) which shears the required form in a metal sheet with small individual cuts.
Balance may be made between hand-guided nibbling machines, and those with an
automatic relative movement between the tool and work. The application of these
machines is in the small quantity and 'one off' production field, where the provision of
press tools is uneconomic. In particular, nibbling machines provide an economic
solution to work requiring very long edges to be cut. For internal curves, and circular
and straight cuts, rectangular shearing punches are used. Figure 5.12 illustrates a
sheet-metal working centre which is able to perform other sheet-metal operations
besides nibbling. During nibbling, a vertically driven punch shears holes into the 68
metal sheets, which is guided in accordance with the contour required to be cut. The
smaller the advance of the metal sheet (which is moved during each return stroke of
the punch), the nearer Will be the shape of the cut line to the required contour. If the
cut edge produced is to be a functional surface with close dimensional tolerances, then
a finishing cut, using a different
Cutting action (e.g. milling), may be carried out on the same machine. The machine
shown in Figure 5.12 is capable of milling, thread cutting and deep-drawing
operations, in addition to nibbling. With the use of automatically interchangeable
specialized tools, a wide range of sheet-metal working operations (e.g. extruding, the
cutting of vent louvers, etc.) are possible. The movement of the work is under
numerical control.

Figure 5.12 Nibbling Shearing machines


CHAPTER.6

ELECTROMAGNETIC SHEARING MACHINE

6.1 CONTRUCTION:
The electromagnetic shearing machine consist frame on
which mechanical & automation unit are fixed. A machine consist a plunger in which
iron core is fixed which move from electromagnetic core ,at bottom of plunger a high
carbon hard steel tool is fixed for shearing purpose. The plunger assembly is
subtended with the help of rubber stand in such a way that only lower inch portion
allowed inside electromagnet The rubber strap also required to retract the blade also c
stroke is completed. At the bottom of machine feeder & extractor is present which
constitute 2 rollers, the smaller roller is driving roller & the bigger one is driven.
6.2 MAIN COMPONENTS:

Frame: A cast iron square pipe (2cm) is used to construct a frame which is used for
supporting purpose.

MDF sheet :MDF sheet (12mm thick) are used to built up top plat form & bottom
plat form also a supporting column for rollers & pipe.

Iron Core: Iron core (1inch dia. & 4 inch long) is use to cut emf produce by
electromagnet.

Electromagnet core: Electromagnetic core of 20 gauge 1000 turn, insulated copper


wire is used to produce emf ( ) which attract iron core in cavity which helps to control
the motion of plunger.

Plunger: It is the main part of machine which is made up of high density polymer
pipe ( ) on which cutting tool is fitted in y-fork at the bottom.

Cutting Tool: The high carbon hard steel (1mm thick) tool is used for shearing
purpose it is fitted in y-fork with the help of nuts & bolts.

Supporting Column: It is made up of MDF sheet (10cm long& 2cm breath) to avoid
bending of pipe at the time of shearing.

Feeder & Extractor: It consist two rollers this roller carries wooden axis & made of
15mm thick foam sheet. Feeder is used to feed pipe for shearing, & extractor is used
to remove pipe after shearing.

Gearboxes: The two gearboxes are used one for feeder & another for extractor to
control the motion of feeder & extractor.
6.2 ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS:

Transformer: The step-down transformer is used to convert 220volt A.C supply into
12 volt A.C

Microcontroller: Microcontroller (AT89C52 6-12v) flash programmer type is used


to run the automation unit.

Bridge: The Bridge is used to convert A.C supply current to D.C from 12 volt A.C to
12volt D.C volt for microcontroller flash memory program.

L293d IC: It is used to


CHAPTER.7

DESIGN OF MODEL

The design of part model is done in CATIA V5 R17 (Computer Aided Three
Dimensional Interactive Application) which is a multi-platform CAD/CAM/CAE
commercial software suite developed by the French company Dassault Systems IBM.
Written in the C++ programming language, CATIA is the cornerstone of the Dassault
Systems product lifecycle management software suite. The user may create, edit, and
delete end cuts, and the end cut for a beam is integrated in the piece part engine
Translate a Structure Functional Design 2 (SFD) or Ship Structure Detail Design 2
(SDD) feature during the explode mode through piece part process define end cut
graphic replacement in drafting manage different graphic replacements for beam
pillars enhances technological results usage in tooling design.

The mold to cam function is enhanced to permit the creation of a


technological results report. Reporting of die/mold technological results is accessible
via the new command display technological results (available with Prismatic
Machining preparation assistant 2 (MPA) license). Any user of the tooling design 1
product who has an MPA license can benefit from this enhanced reporting command:
Create a report (*.csv) on the technological results existing in a given die define some
in house processes between the design and the manufacturing stage that provide the
user with a powerful tool to control the integrity of the die design and prevents costly
iterations between design and manufacturing Increases design productivity in sheet
metal design .The powerful extrusion explode improvement offers an explode mode,
which allows the user to generate an associative wall on edge. Creating an extrusion
becomes an accelerator of the design and exploding the extrusion allows user to
locally modify design while maintaining associations. Design performance for
innovation increases sales through on the plant, architecture, and construction
industries thanks to new capabilities in terrain modeling .These powerful
improvements include the ability to: Work with meshed surfaces and volumes
including tessellation and multi-slice commands Edit the meshes easily Create and
manage Z-Level curves benefit from dedicated improvements to the building
implantation and enhancements to the graphic performances.
The each part of model is design according initial line diagram from this line diagram
the improved sketch of model is design in the CATIAV5 as per the Following
dimensions:
Top plat form 30×28 cm 12mm thickness
Base plat form 30×28 cm 12mm thickness

Figure No.7.1 Electromagnetic shearing machine

Disc of 18.46 cm & smaller 6.8cm 12mm thick


Supporting column of 10cm height & 2cm breath 12mm thick
Y-fork 10cm × 8cm 6mm thick
Iron core 1inch dia. & 4inch length
Plunger support of elliptical shape
Plunger of 35cm
Electromagnet core at middle
Frame of total height 52 cm
Figure No.7.2 CATIAV5 Design of Mode
Figure No.7.3 CATIAV5 Draft mode
Figure No.7.4 Multi View