Sie sind auf Seite 1von 19

Solar Energy 77 (2004) 231249

www.elsevier.com/locate/solener

Passive cooling of outdoor urban spaces. The role of materials


L. Doulos, M. Santamouris *, I. Livada
Group Building Environmental Studies, Section Applied Physics, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis,
Athens 157 84, Greece
Received 18 September 2003; received in revised form 22 January 2004; accepted 27 January 2004
Available online 4 May 2004
Communicated by: Associate Editor Volker Wittwer

Abstract
This paper presents the results of a comparative study aiming to investigate the suitability of materials used in
outdoor urban spaces in order to contribute to lower ambient temperatures and ght heat island eect. The study
involved in total 93 commonly used pavement materials outdoors and was performed during the whole summer period
of 2001. The thermal performance of the materials was measured in detail using mainly infrared thermography procedures.
The collected data have been extensively analysed using statistical techniques. Comparative studies have been
performed in order to identify the major advantages and disadvantages of the materials studied. Materials have been
classied according to their thermal performance and physical properties into cool and warm materials. The impact
of color, surface roughness and sizing has been analysed as well.
The study can contribute to selection of more appropriate materials for outdoor urban applications, and thus assist
to ght the heat island eect, decrease the electricity consumption of buildings and improve outdoor thermal comfort
conditions.
 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Passive cooling; Pavement materials; Outdoor comfort

1. Introduction
The continuously growing size of the urban environment and the careless development of buildings and
open spaces have a major impact on the urban microclimate. The buildings energy behavior and performance are heavily inuenced by the density of the
building space. The observed heat island eect is
mainly inuenced by urban design, namely the canyon
radiative geometry, anthropogenic heat and the materials street physical properties (Santamouris, 2001; Oke
et al., 1991). The emitted infrared radiation from the

Corresponding author. Tel.: +30-1-727-6934; fax: +30-1729-5282/81.


E-mail address: msantam@cc.uoa.gr (M. Santamouris).

various buildings and street surfaces impinges on the


surroundings surfaces and is entrapped inside the canyon. Besides, the total amount of the absorbed solar
radiation is increased due to multiple reections between
the buildings (Santamouris and Assimakopoulos, 1997).
Also the anthropogenic heat increases the intensity of
the heat island eect through the use of fuels from either mobile or stationary sources. Finally the incident
solar radiation and every available heat form can increase the storage of sensible heat in the citys structure
during the daytime. The stored heat is released into the
urban atmosphere during the night period. Therefore
the total amount of the energy balance is increased and
air temperatures become greater (Santamouris et al.,
1998).
A more positive thermal balance can be achieved by
reducing the thermal gains in the urban environment

0038-092X/$ - see front matter  2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.solener.2004.04.005

232

L. Doulos et al. / Solar Energy 77 (2004) 231249

and in particular by reduction of the absorbed solar


radiation. The role of building materials is decisive for
the reduction of the thermal gains and overheating. The
thermal performance of the building materials is mainly
determined by their optical and thermal characteristics;
the albedo to solar radiation and the emissivity to long
wave radiation are the most signicant factors. The use
of appropriate materials, the so-called cold materials,
can improve thermal comfort conditions during the
summer period. They are characterized by a high
reectivity factor to the short wave radiation and high
emissivity factor to the long wave radiation. They reduce
the amount of solar radiation absorbed by the building
envelopes and urban structures and keep their surfaces
cooler. Respectively, they are good emitters of long wave
radiation and release the energy that has been absorbed
as short wave radiation. Using cold materials in urban
environmental planning contributes to lower surface
temperatures that aect the thermal exchanges with the
air (Akbari et al., 1992, 1997; Bretz and Akbari, 1997).
In this paper, the surface temperature distribution of
the total number of 93 selected materials is presented. A
theoretical analysis is followed aiming at the investigation of the thermal performance of the selected building
materials. Also, a methodology for their classication in
cold materials is been developed. An experimental
campaign was set up at an open space at the National
and Kapodistrian University campus in Athens, during
August 2001. For the theoretical analysis the selected
materials were grouped according to their construction
material, their surface texture and surface color (Table
1). The measurements were obtained through infrared
(IR) thermograph imaging.

2. Materials for pavements and their role in the thermal


balance of the urban environment
The use of appropriate materials to reduce heat island and improve the thermal characteristics of the urban environment has gained increasing interest during
recent years. Many research works have been carried out
to evaluate the possible energy and environmental benets when light colored surfaces are used. Research tries
to investigate the impact of the materials optical and
thermal characteristics on the urban temperature as well
as the possible energy conservation during the summer
period. A detailed guide on light colored surfaces has
been published by US EPA (Akbari et al., 1992). Research shows that important energy gains are possible
when light color surfaces are used in combination with
the plant of new trees.
The use of materials dene the global albedo of the
cities. Typical albedo of European and American cities
are close to 0.150.30. Much higher albedo have been
measured in some North African cities (0.450.6). Taha

(1997) has compiled data given by (Taha, 1994; Kung


et al., 1964; Dabberdt and Davis, 1978; Vukovich, 1983;
Brest, 1987; Coppin et al., 1978; Rouse and Bello, 1979;
Mayer and Noack, 1980; Steyn and Oke, 1980; Aida,
1982; Oguntoyinbo, 1970, 1986) for snow free urban
albedos for several cities and has published the dierence
between the urban and rural albedo. Cantat (1989) has
estimated the albedo of various types of surfaces as well
as their temperature in the major Paris area, It is found
that urban areas have a much lower albedo while the
albedo in Paris is to about 16% lower than in the surrounding rural areas.
Various studies have been performed to understand
better the thermal and optical performance of materials
used for pavements and their impact to the city climate.
Lower surface temperatures contribute to decrease the
temperature of the ambient air as heat convection
intensity from a cooler surface is lower. Such temperature reductions can have signicant impacts on cooling
energy consumption in urban areas, a fact of particular
importance in hot climate cities.
Yap (1975) has reported that systematic urbanrural
dierences of surface emissivity hold the potential to
cause a portion of the heat island. Robinette (Santamouris, 2001) reports relative temperatures of 38 C
over grass, 61 C, over asphalt, and 73 C over articial
turf. Santamouris (2001) reports asphalt temperatures
close to 63 C and white pavements close to 45 C.
Oke et al. (1991) have simulated the eect of the
optical and thermal characteristics of urban materials
to the heat island intensity during the night period. They
report that the role of emissivity is minor. As the emissivity increased from 0.85 to 1.0 there was a slight increase of 0.4 C of DT between the urban and rural
environment for very tight canyons, where there was
almost no change for higher view factors. On the contrary, the eect of the thermal properties of the materials
was found to be much more important. For a at land, it
is found that if the urban admittance was 2200 J/m2 /K,
and the rural one was 800 units lower a heat island
of about 2 C was developed during the night period,
while when the urban admittance was decreased to 600
J/m2 /K, a cool island of over 4 C was formed during
night.
In an other study, Asaeda et al. (1996) have reported
the experimental results of a study where the impact of
various pavement materials used commonly in urban
environments were tested during the summer period.
They found that the surface temperature, heat storage
and its subsequent emission to the atmosphere were
signicantly higher for asphalt than for concrete and
bare soil. At the maximum, asphalt pavement emitted an
additional 150 W per square meter in infrared radiation
and 200 W per square meter in sensible transport compared to a bare soil surface. They also found that the
rate of infrared absorption by the lower atmosphere

L. Doulos et al. / Solar Energy 77 (2004) 231249

233

Table 1
Description of the studied materials (Bl stands for black, Bli for black inlays, Br for brown, Gn for green, Gr for gray, R for red, Wh
for white, Whi for white inlays)
Material
number

Construction
material

Surface color

Surface
texture

Material
number

Construction
material

Surface color

Surface
texture

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47

Mosaic
Mosaic
Mosaic
Mosaic
Mosaic
Mosaic
Mosaic
Mosaic
Concretea
Concretea
Granite
Granite
Concretea
Concretea
Concretea
Concretea
Concretea
Concretea
Granite
Granite
Granite
Granite
Marble
Marble
Marble
Marble
Marble
Marble
Marble
Marble
Marble
Marble
Marble
Marble
Marble
Marble
Marble
Pebble
Pebble
Pebble
Pebble
Pebble
Pebble
Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
Concrete

Green
WhBl
LightBr
Gray
White
Brown
Red
Black
Red
Black
Red
Black
Orange
Brown
Gray
Gray
White
White
White
WhBl
Green
WhGn
White
WhBlR
WhBl
WhBl
White
White
WhBl
White
White
Pink
LightBr
Red
WhBl
DarkGr
Gray
Brown
LightBr
BlBr
LightBr
Red
WhBr
Gray
Gray
Gray
GrayWhi

Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Rough
Smooth
Rough
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Rough
Smooth
Rough
Smooth
Rough
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Smooth
Rough
Rough
Smooth

48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93

Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
Pebble
Pebble
Pebble
Pebble
Asphalt
Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
Pebble
Concrete
Pebble
Pebble
Pave stone
Pave stone
Pave stone
Stone
Stone
Stone
Stone
Stone
Stone
Stone
Stone
Stone
Stone
Stone
Stone
Stone
Stone

BlWhi
WhBli
Black
Black
Red
Red
RedWhi
RedBli
Green
DarkGr
Gray
LightGr
Black
White
White
White
WhWhi
OrWhi
Orange
Orange
OrWhi
Green
Orange
DarkGn
Green
GrWh
WhBlue
WhGnR
White
Red
Gray
Brown
Black
Brown
Gray
Green
Black
Brown
Brown
Green
Brown
Brown
Brown
Brown
Red
Red

Smooth
Smooth
Rough
Smooth
Rough
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Rough
Rough
Smooth
Rough
Rough
Rough
Smooth
Rough
Smooth
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough
Rough

The size of the material tile is 30 cm 30 cm.

over asphalt pavement was greater by 60 W/m2 than that


over the soil surface or concrete pavement. Gustavsson
and Bogren (1991) measured the inuence of road construction on road surface temperature. On a test road,
they had found a nocturnal maximum dierence of 1.5

C between beds consisting of blast furnace slag and


those consisting of gravel.
Berg and Quinn (1978) reported that in mid-summer
white painted roads with an albedo close to 0.55 have
almost the same temperature with the ambient envi-

234

L. Doulos et al. / Solar Energy 77 (2004) 231249

contact thermometer in order to take into account


minor errors associated with reected infrared radiation
and the non-complete knowledge of the materials
emissivity.
The surface temperature measurements were taken
on an hourly basis from 9:00 to 18:00 (local time). The
ambient meteorological conditions, recorded from a
meteorological station at the university campus, were
characterized by high air temperatures, low relative
humidity (Figs. 1 and 2) and clear sky. Wind speed and
direction were also measured. Wind speed was always
low during the experimental period (<2 m/s). Thus, the
eect of wind speed on the temperature of the materials
was almost negligible. The sample materials studied was
selected from a large variety of building materials
commonly used in the urban environments external
surfaces (like building roofs and walls, pavements,
streets, playgrounds, school yards, parking lots, greenways, parks, etc.). The selected sample materials consisted of several dierent construction materials
(concrete, asphalt, marble, granite, pave stone, stone,

ronment, while unpainted roads with albedo close to


0.15 were approximately 11 C warmer than the air.
Taha et al. (1992) have measured the albedo and
surface temperatures of a variety of materials used in
urban structures. They found that white elastomeric
coatings having an albedo of 0.72 were 45 C, than black
coatings with an albedo of 0.08. They also report that a
white surface with an albedo of 0.61 was only 5 C
warmer than ambient air whereas conventional gravel
with an albedo of 0.09 was 30 C warmer than the air.

3. Implementation of the experimental measurements


3.1. Instrumentation and description of the experimental
site
The basic experimental equipment used for the
implementation of the measurements consists of an
infrared camera to measure surface temperatures.
Measurements were also performed by using a precise

Mean hourly ambient temperature

Temperature (C)

34

32

30

28

26
09:00

10:00

11:00

12:00

13:00

14:00

15:00

16:00

17:00

18:00

Time

Fig. 1. Mean hourly ambient temperature within 9:00 to 18:00 of August 2001.

Mean hourly ambient relative humidity

Relative humidity (%)

38

34

30

26

22
09:00

10:00

11:00

12:00

13:00

14:00

15:00

16:00

17:00

18:00

Time

Fig. 2. Mean hourly relative humidity within 9:00 to 18:00 of August 2001.

L. Doulos et al. / Solar Energy 77 (2004) 231249

pebble and mosaic) of dierent surface color materials


(white, gray, black, red, brown and green) and of different surface texture materials (with smooth surfaces,
rough surfaces and anaglyph surfaces with marks and
designs). The tiles had a size of 40 cm 40 cm. In order
to compare the thermal performance of material tiles
made of the same construction material, surface color
and texture but dierent size, a number of some extra
concrete tiles sized 30 cm 30 cm were studied. The
sampling tiles were placed on an especially modulated
platform covering a surface of 40 m2 (Fig. 3). The
platform was horizontal and insulated from below. The
heat transfer eects between the platform and the sample materials were eliminated because of the platforms
insulation.
3.2. Thermograph imaging method
The surface temperatures of the sample materials
were measured with an IR camera, that is an infrared

235

condition monitoring system (AGEMA Thermovision


570, 7.513 lm wavelength). The IR-camera measures
and images the emitted infrared radiation from an object
(Fig. 4). The fact that radiation is a function of the
objects corresponding surface temperature (Plancks
law equation (1)) makes it possible for the thermal
camera to calculate and display this temperature
(Gaussorgues, 1994; Thermovision, 1997). The measured infrared radiation is also function of the objects
emissivity.
Q erT 4

Q is the objects long wave radiated energy (W/m2 ), e is


the objects emissivity that is a function of wavelength,
the direction of observation relative to the surface
and the surface temperature (Gaussorgues, 1994), r is
the StefanBoltzmanns constant (5.67 108 W/m2 /K4 )
and T is the objects surface temperature (K) (Wolfe and
Zissis, 1997).
In the present study, the emissivity values given by
Gaussorgues (1994) and Wolfe and Zissis (1997) have
been used during the experimental procedure. The
emissivity of most of the materials has been also measured using hot plate techniques and no signicant differences have been found. In practice, the emissivity
values for the total number of the studied materials were
close to 0.9. (Fig. 5).

4. An analysis for the study of the thermal performance of


the tested materials

Fig. 3. The site of the experimental campaign with the modulated platform.

Due to lack of uniformity in the surface temperature


distribution at same studied materials, the measured
surface temperatures correspond to the average temperature values of the total horizontal surface. The IR
monitoring system estimated these values automatically.

Fig. 4. Visible and infrared image of selected building materials.

236

L. Doulos et al. / Solar Energy 77 (2004) 231249

Fig. 5. Radiation contributions to the general measurement situation.

The most important reasons for the existence of nonuniform surface temperature distribution are the color
contrast, the surface roughness and the tiles heat
transfer eects (Fig. 6).
The estimated mean hourly surface temperature values for each material tile are given in Table 2 and in

statistical box plots (Figs. 720). Table 2 gives the mean


daily, the absolute maximum and the absolute minimum
surface temperatures for every material tile within 9:00
to 18:00. The box plots (Figs. 720) show the mean daily
surface temperature and the mean daily temperature
range of the material tiles. They are presented separately

Fig. 6. Same examples of material tiles characterized by non-uniform surface temperature distribution due to color contrast
(a), roughness (b) and heat transfer phenomena (the arrows shows the direction of the incident solar radiation) (c).

L. Doulos et al. / Solar Energy 77 (2004) 231249

237

Table 2
Mean daily and absolute maximum surface temperatures during the experimental period of August 2001 within 9:00 to 18:00
Material
number

Mean daily
surface temperature (C)

Absolute
maximum
surface
temperature

Absolute
minimum
surface
temperature

Material
number

Mean daily
surface temperature (C)

Absolute
maximum
surface
temperature

Absolute
minimum
surface
temperature

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47

34.8
35.5
35.5
37.5
33.3
36.9
38.5
42.1
37.8
44.0
40.1
43.9
37.3
39.5
37.6
38.7
33.2
34.5
32.5
35.2
36.2
38.3
33.4
34.1
31.6
32.6
29.7
32.8
34.5
30.1
32.2
38.3
32.4
41.4
37.6
43.1
39.1
40.8
40.6
39.9
38.9
39.5
36.3
38.0
38.7
38.6
37.9

39.5
40.6
40.7
43.3
37.7
42.5
44.8
49.6
43.8
51.6
46.6
51.7
42.7
45.8
43.0
44.6
37.7
39.3
36.8
40.4
41.4
44.3
38.0
38.4
36.1
36.9
33.4
37.2
39.9
34.2
36.6
44.5
37.5
48.3
43.2
50.7
45.7
46.7
46.7
45.8
44.7
45.1
41.1
43.1
44.2
43.8
43.5

23.9
23.7
23.6
24.7
22.2
23.7
24.9
26.1
24.6
27.5
26.7
27.9
25.2
25.5
25.6
25.7
23.1
23.5
22.8
23.7
24.6
25.1
23.4
24.2
22.5
23.2
21.0
23.0
23.7
21.1
22.0
26.1
22.1
28.2
25.6
29.0
26.4
27.4
26.7
26.7
26.1
26.6
24.7
26.0
25.9
26.8
25.1

48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93

41.8
35.2
43.7
44.4
39.9
39.1
37.9
41.1
44.0
45.2
40.6
40.1
46.7
33.9
33.2
34.7
32.6
37.4
38.9
38.9
37.6
38.4
37.3
42.8
37.7
38.1
37.7
36.9
33.6
43.2
42.7
40.6
43.3
40.3
42.4
40.3
41.4
37.8
38.6
38.1
35.4
33.9
35.4
40.5
42.0
42.5

48.1
40.3
50.4
52.0
45.9
45.5
43.7
48.2
50.9
52.7
46.9
46.3
54.0
38.1
37.5
39.2
37.2
42.9
44.9
44.8
43.2
44.3
42.9
50.0
43.7
43.6
43.3
42.0
38.0
49.6
49.2
46.3
50.4
46.9
49.3
47.2
48.2
43.8
45.0
44.3
40.8
38.6
40.8
46.7
48.8
49.2

27.2
23.1
28.9
27.6
26.1
24.8
24.6
25.5
28.9
28.5
26.8
26.0
30.3
23.7
23.1
24.1
21.9
24.4
25.2
25.3
24.7
24.9
24.3
26.6
23.9
25.1
24.5
24.6
23.0
28.8
28.2
27.1
28.5
26.3
28.3
26.0
26.7
24.4
25.1
25.2
23.4
22.5
23.3
27.3
27.9
27.7

for the total number of the materials according to their


construction material (Figs. 714) and their surface
color (Figs. 1520). The lower and upper lines of the box
plots are the minimum and the maximum values of the
corresponding mean hourly surface temperature values.

The line inside the box is the average surface temperature value. The materials with the smallest average surface temperature are presented at the left part of each
graph, while the warmest materials are presented at the
right part. Because of the large number of the studied

238

L. Doulos et al. / Solar Energy 77 (2004) 231249


60
Mean surface temperature

55

Temperature range

Temperature (C)

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
No 5
White

No 1
Green

No 2
White
Black

No 3 Light
Brown

No 6
Brown

No 4 Gray No 7 Red No 8 Black

Surface color

Fig. 7. Mean daily surface temperature and temperature range, within 9:00 to 18:00 for the period of August 2001, for the material tiles
made of mosaic.

60
Mean surface temperature
55
Temperature range

Temperature (C)

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
No 19 White

No 20 WhiteBlack

No 21 Green

No 22 WhiteGreen

No 11 Red

No 12 Black

Surface color

Fig. 8. Mean daily surface temperature and temperature range, within 9:00 to 18:00 for the period of August 2001, for the material tiles
made of granite.

60
Mean surface temperature
55
Temperature range

Temperature (C)

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
No 17
White

No 18
White

No 13
Orange

No 15
Gray

No 9 Red

No 16
Gray

No 14
Brown

No 10
Black

Surface color

Fig. 9. Mean daily surface temperature and temperature range, within 9:00 to 18:00 for the period of August 2001, for the material tiles
made of concrete (30 cm 30 cm).

materials a selection of the most commonly used ones


was done.

The minimum values of the mean daily and the


absolute maximum surface temperatures were observed

L. Doulos et al. / Solar Energy 77 (2004) 231249

239

60
Mean surface temperature

55

Temperature range

Temperature (C)

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
No 64
White

No 61
White

No 49
White

No 44
Gray

No 69
Green

No 66
Orange

No 52
Red

No 71
Dark
Green

No 51
Black

Surface color

Fig. 10. Mean daily surface temperature and temperature range, within 9:00 to 18:00 for the period of August 2001, for the material
tiles made of concrete (40 cm 40 cm).

60

Mean surface temperature


55

Temperature range
50

Temperature (C)

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10

No 27 No 30 No 25 No 31 No 33 No 26 No 28 No 23 No 24 No 29 No 35 No 32 No 37 No 34 No 36
White White White White Light White White White White White White Pink Gray Red Dark
Gray
Black
Brown Black
Black Black Black
Red

Surface color

Fig. 11. Mean daily surface temperature and temperature range, within 9:00 to 18:00 for the period of August 2001, for the material
tiles made of marble.

60
55

Temperature (C)

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
Mean surface temperature
15
Temperature range

10
No 78
Gray

No 77
Red

No 79
Brown

No 60
Black

Surface color

Fig. 12. Mean daily surface temperature and temperature


range, within 9:00 to 18:00 for the period of August 2001, for
the material tiles made of pave stone.

for the white colored material tiles. On the contrary the


maximum corresponding values were noticed in the dark
colored material tiles. Namely, the mean daily surface
temperatures ranged between 29.7 C (for the white
marble tile no. 27) and 46.7 C (for the asphalt tile no.
60). Furthermore the absolute maximum temperatures
varied from 33.4 and 54 C for the same corresponding
materials.
From a rst point of view it seems that from the
white colored materials the ones made of marble presented the lowest value of the mean daily surface temperatures. The observed dierences in the measured
surface temperatures for the white colored materials are
due to the surface texture. In general the smooth surfaced materials present lower surface temperatures than
the ones with rough surface or anaglyph schematics
(Fig. 15).
Continuously, the black colored materials had the
largest surface temperatures from the total number of
the material tiles. The material tile made of asphalt
presented the greatest surface temperature because of its
black and rough surface. Large surface temperatures

240

L. Doulos et al. / Solar Energy 77 (2004) 231249


60
Mean surface temperature

55

Temperature range

Temperature (C)

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
No 76
White

No 43
White
Brown

No 75
White
Gn
Red

No 41
Light
Brown

No 42
Red

No 40
Black
Brown

No 59
Light
Gray

No 58
Gray

No 39 No 38 No 56
Light Brown Green
Brown

No 57
Dark
Gray

Surface color

Fig. 13. Mean daily surface temperature and temperature range, within 9:00 to 18:00 for the period of August 2001, for the material
tiles made of pebble.

60
Mean surface temperature

55

Temperature range

Temperature (C)

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
No 89 No 88 No 90 No 85 No 87 No 86 No 81 No 83 No 91 No 84 No 92 No 82 No 93 No 80
Brown Brown Brown Brown Green Brown Brown Green Brown Black Red Gray Red Black

Surface color

Fig. 14. Mean daily surface temperature and temperature range, within 9:00 to 18:00 for the period of August 2001, for the material
tiles made of stone.

60

60

Mean surface temperature

Mean surface temperature


55

55

Temperature range

50

50

45

45

Temperature (C)

Temperature (C)

Temperature range

40
35
30

40
35
30
25

25

20

20

15

15

10

10
No 27 Marble

No 19 Granite

No 5 Mosaic

No 76 Pebble

No 61 Concrete

Construction material

No 4 Mosaic

No 44
Concrete

No 37 Marble No 58 Pebble No 82 Stone

No 78 Pave
stone

Construction material

Fig. 15. Mean daily surface temperature and temperature


range, within 9:00 to 18:00 for the period of August 2001, for
the white colored material tiles.

Fig. 16. Mean daily surface temperature and temperature


range, within 9:00 to 18:00 for the period of August 2001, for
the gray colored material tiles.

were also observed in tiles made of pebble with dark


gray and dark green surface color (no. 57, 44 C, no. 56,

45.2 C). This was caused by the existing surface


roughness at the pebble tiles (Fig. 17).

L. Doulos et al. / Solar Energy 77 (2004) 231249

241

60
55
50

Temperature (C)

45
40
35
30
25
20

Mean surface temperature


15
Temperature range
10
No 84
Stone

No 8
Mosaic

No 36
Marble

No 80
Stone

No 12
Granite

No 51
Concrete

No 57
Pebble

No 60
Asphalt

Construction material

Fig. 17. Mean daily surface temperature and temperature range, within 9:00 to 18:00 for the period of August 2001, for the black
colored material tiles.

60

Mean surface temperature


55
Temperature range

Temperature (C)

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
No 9
Concrete

No 7 Mosaic

No 42
Pebble

No 11
Granite

No 34
Marble

No 93 Stone No 77 Pave
stone

Construction material

Fig. 18. Mean daily surface temperature and temperature range, within 9:00 to 18:00 for the period of August 2001, for the red colored
material tiles.

60
Mean surface temperature
55
Temperature range

Temperature (C)

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
No 1 Mosaic

No 21 Granite

No 87 Stone

No 69
Concrete

No 83 Stone

No 56 Pebble

Construction material

Fig. 19. Mean daily surface temperature and temperature range, within 9:00 to 18:00 for the period of August 2001, for the green
colored material tiles.

242

L. Doulos et al. / Solar Energy 77 (2004) 231249


60

Mean surface temperature


55
Temperature range

Temperature (C)

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
No 33 Marble

No 3 Mosaic

No 85 Stone

No 66
Concrete

No 79 Pave
stone

No 38 Pebble

Construction material

Fig. 20. Mean daily surface temperature and temperature range, within 9:00 to 18:00 for the period of August 2001, for the brown
colored material tiles.

formed for material tiles made of concrete. Two dierent


groups of concrete tiles were measured and studied with
respect to their size (30 cm 30 cm, 40 cm 40 cm). The
two groups had the same surface color and texture. The
t-test (Livada and Asimakopoulos, 2002) was applied on
the mean daily surface temperatures and it was found
that the surface temperatures were statistical equal
(condence level a 0:05). Table 3 gives the mean daily
surface temperatures of the two groups. From this
comparison, can be assumed that the size of the tiles
does not aect the thermal balance of the studied
materials during the day.
Fig. 21 shows the surface temperature distribution
for a number of representative building materials together with the air temperature during the hot day
period of the 7th August 2001. The selected material
consist of white colored tiles made of marble (no. 27)
and concrete (no. 49) and black colored tiles made of
concrete (no. 51) and asphalt (no. 60). The maximum
dierence (22.5 C) between surface temperatures was

Table 3
Comparison of the measured surface temperatures in the case of
concrete tiles with the two dierent sizes (30 cm 30 cm, 40
cm 40 cm)
Surface color

Surface
texture

Black
Gray
Gray
Red
Orange
White
White

Smooth
Smooth
Rough
Smooth
Smooth
Smooth
Rough

Mean daily surface temperature (C)


(30 30)

(40 40)

44.0
38.7
37.6
37.8
37.3
34.5
33.2

44.4
38.7
38.0
37.9
37.4
33.9
33.2

In order to study the impact of the size of the


building materials on their thermal performance during
the daytime period a comparison analysis was per-

60
55

No 60
Asphalt
(Black)

Temperature (C)

50

No 51
Concrete
(Black)

45
40

No 49
Concrete
(White)

35

No 27
Marble
(White)

30
25

Air
Temperature

20
09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00

Time

Fig. 21. Distribution of surface temperatures within 9:00 to 18:00 of 7th August 2001, between selected material tiles.

L. Doulos et al. / Solar Energy 77 (2004) 231249

observed for the tiles made of marble and the asphalt at


14:00 LT.
It is often that in the urban environment the building
materials are not always chosen according to their surface color. The most commonly used construction
materials are asphalt, concrete, pebble and pave stone.
However, from the experimental procedures it was
found that the thermal performance of these materials is
not satisfactory. Figs. 1517 and 20 show that tiles made
of concrete, pebble and pavestone were warmer than the
other materials. The marble tiles were the coldest from
the total number of the studied materials. Therefore, the
use of materials made of marble in the open urban areas
is thermally more ecient than the use of concrete,
pebble and pave stone materials.

5. A comparative analysis between the surface material


temperatures and the ambient air temperature
The concluding remarks, comparing the material
mean surface temperatures with the mean ambient air
temperature (31.2 C, Fig. 1) during the experimental
time period, are the following:
(A) The majority of the materials studied were
characterized by greater average surface temperatures
than the average air temperature. Only the white colored
tiles made of marble (no. 27 and no. 30) were cooler than
the ambient air. The surface temperatures varied from
29.7 to 30.1 C correspondingly for the two material
tiles.
(B) The warmest (38.1 C) light-colored material tile
was the one made of pebble with white and green surface
color (no. 73). The maximum temperature dierence
between the light colored materials and the ambient air
was estimated equal to 6.9 C.
(C) In the case of the dark colored materials the
maximum temperature dierence was observed for the
one made of asphalt (no. 60) equal to 15.5 C. Besides,
the coldest dark colored material was that made of stone
(no. 84) with average surface temperature of 41.4 C and
a temperature dierence with the ambient air of 10.2 C.

6. Statistical analysis of the material surface temperatures


on a 24-h basis
A further investigation of the thermal performance of
the studied materials is attempted through a statistical
analysis. The analysis was based on a number of measurements performed on a 24-h basis during the period
from 9:00 of 14th August 2001 to 9:00 of 15th August
2001. The 24-h period has been divided in three dierent
subperiods, namely 9:00 to 3:00, 11:00 to 15:00 and
22:00 to 3:00.

243

6.1. Analysis of the mean surface temperature of building


materials within 9:00 to 3:00 (LT)
The total number of the studied building materials
was separated into nine dierent groups with respect to
their construction material. Namely each group was
consisted from material tiles made of the same construction material but dierent surface color. F -ANOVA test (Livada and Asimakopoulos, 2002) of the means
was applied on the mean surface temperatures within
9:00 to 3:00 LT, in order to study the statistical signicant dierences that caused by the dierences in the
surface color.
Table 4 shows that the F -values for each of the
studied group are smaller than the critical values F0:05 at
a condence level of 0.05 (a 0:05). It was found that
the color of the building materials in each group does
not aect the estimated mean surface temperatures.
A similar methodology was applied on the mean
surface temperatures of building materials categorized
into six dierent groups according to their surface color
(Table 5). Namely, in this case the F -values of mean
surface temperatures were estimated for same colored
materials but of dierent construction material.
Similar results were obtained in this case. The mean
surface temperatures of the studied building materials
with the same color but of dierent construction

Table 4
F -ANOVA test of mean surface temperatures for nine groups
of materials, with respect to their construction material and of
dierent color
Building materials

F0:05

Mosaic
Granite
Concrete (30 30)
Concrete (40 40)
Marble
Pave stone
Asphalt
Pebble-gravel
Stone

0.405
0.868
0.604
0.542
1.187
0.119

0.541
0.441

<2.43
<2.30
<2.43
<1.54
<1.73
<3.17

<1.80
<1.80

Table 5
F -ANOVA test of mean surface temperatures for the six groups
of materials, according to their color and of dierent construction material
Material surface color

F0:05

White
Gray
Black
Red
Green
Brown

0.909
0.771
0.393
0.312
0.778
0.519

<1.76
<1.80
<1.93
<1.87
<2.17
<1.93

244

L. Doulos et al. / Solar Energy 77 (2004) 231249

material were found statistically signicant at the condence level of 0.05 (a 0:05).
As a result it could be mentioned that the balance
between the absorbed and the emitted heat during a 24-h
day period appears to be the same for the total number
of the studied materials. However, examining the daily
temperature prole (Figs. 22 and 23) of the materials
with black surface color and with white surface color,
high temperature dierences are observed especially
during midday hours.

Table 6
F -ANOVA test of mean surface temperatures, within 11:00 to
15:00 of 14th August, for nine groups with respect to their
construction material and of dierent color

6.2. Analysis of the mean surface building material


temperatures during the midday hours
In order to investigate the thermal behavior of the
building materials during the day the surface temperatures were studied within the period of 11:00 to 15:00 of
14th August in the daytime. Namely, the mean surface
temperatures and their standard deviation were calculated and the F -ANOVA test was applied on the surface
temperature values considering the two dierent cate-

Building materials

F0:05

Mosaic
Granite
Concrete (30 30)
Concrete (40 40)
Marble
Pave stone
Asphalt
Pebble-gravel
Stone

6.91
10.55
8.61
5.70
15.81
1.013

6.28
5.69

>2.32
>2.62
>2.32
>1.63
>1.86
<3.88

>1.94
>1.94

gories according to their construction material (Table 6)


and surface color (Table 7) (Livada and Asimakopoulos,
2002).
As far as the mean surface temperatures of same
construction materials are concerned, these were found
statistically signicant dierent except for those materi-

60

No 12
Black

55

Temperature (C)

50

No 11 Red

45
40

No 22
White
Green

35
30

No 21
Green

25
20

No 19
White

15
10
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 0

Time

Fig. 22. Distribution of hourly surface temperatures, within 9:00 of 14th August 2001 to 9:00 of 15th August 2001, for material tiles
made of granite.

60
No 51
Black

55

Temperature (C)

50
No 71
Dark
Green

45
40

No 52
Red

35
30

No 44
Gray

25
20

No 61
White

15
10
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 0

Time

Fig. 23. Distribution of hourly surface temperatures, within 9:00 of 14th August 2001 to 9:00 of 15th August 2001, for material tiles
made of concrete.

L. Doulos et al. / Solar Energy 77 (2004) 231249


Table 7
F -ANOVA test of mean surface temperatures, within 11:00 to
15:00 of 14th August, for the six groups of building materials,
according to their color and of dierent construction material
Surface material color

F0:05

White
Gray
Black
Red
Green
Brown

2.16
4.02
2.90
2.50
7.18
4.00

>1.90
>1.94
>2.12
>2.05
>2.44
>2.12

als made of pave stone (Table 6). From the pave stone
material group, only three dierent colors were studied
(red no. 77, gray no. 78 and brown no. 79) where similar mean surface temperatures were measured during
the day (varying from 40.7 to 43.8 C). Furthermore, the
dierences of the mean surface temperatures for the
same colored materials are statistically signicant for
each group (Table 7). As a result both the construction
material and color should be taken into account for the
lowest surface temperatures.
In an attempt to dene cold and warm materials
the multiple statistical test of Tukey and Kramer were
applied on the mean surface temperature values (Livada
and Asimakopoulos, 2002). This was to examine the
signicance of the mean surface temperatures dierences, within the daytime hours, for each pair of the
studied materials.
The Tukey and Kramer test became more reliable
with the performance of the t-test of the mean surface
temperature dierences for all the possible pairs of the
studied building materials as both of these statistical
tests are applied at the same condence level (Livada
and Asimakopoulos, 2002).
The concluding remarks are as follows:
1. For building materials made of mosaic as cold can
be considered the white, the whiteblack, the green
and the brown surface colored materials (no. 5, no.
2, no. 1 and no. 6).
2. For those made of the granite as cold can be considered the white and the whiteblack surface colored
materials (no. 19 and no. 20).
3. For those made of the concrete as cold can be considered all the white colored materials (no. 17, no. 18,
no. 49, no. 61, no. 62, no. 63 and no. 64).
4. For those made of the pebble as cold can be considered the white, the whitebrown and the white
greenred surface colored materials (no. 76, no. 43
and no. 75).
5. For those made of the marble as cold can be considered the white, the brown (beige) and the white
with black shades surface colored materials (no. 27,
no. 33 and no. 29).

245

6. For those made of the stone as cold can be considered the brown surface colored materials (no. 88, no.
89 and no. 90).
The same statistical test was performed between the
dierent colored construction tiles. The corresponding
results are the following:
(A) For black surface colored materials the lowest temperatures were observed at those made of mosaic,
concrete and marble (no. 8, no. 48 and no. 37).
(B) For white surface colored materials the lowest temperatures were observed at those made of mosaic,
concrete, granite, pebble and marble (no. 5, no.
64, no. 19, no. 76 and no. 27).
(C) For gray surface colored materials all of them except for those made of pebble (no. 58) and pave
stone (no. 78) presented low temperatures.
(D) For green surface colored materials the lowest temperatures were observed at those made of mosaic
and granite (no. 1 and no. 21).
(E) For brown surface colored materials the lowest temperatures were observed at those made of mosaic
and stone (no. 6 and no. 89).
From the combination of the above comparisons
turned up seven tiles (Table 8), which can be considered
the tiles with the lowest temperatures.
The same multiply comparison by Tukey and Kramer statistical test was applied for the 21 sampling pairs
of materials that turned up from the above table (Livada
and Asimakopoulos, 2002). The corresponding results
show that the mean surface temperatures for the green
colored mosaic tile, the brown colored mosaic tile and
the brown colored stone tile (marked with * in Table 8)
are statistically signicant higher than the others at a
condence level of 0.05 (a 0:05).
Finally as cold materials can be considered, from
the colder to warmer, the white marble, the white

Table 8
Mean surface temperatures and deviation for cold materials
as they assumed by statistical tests with respect to their construction material and surface color within 11:00 to 15:00 of
14th August
Materialsurface color

Surface temperature (C)

Deviation

Mosaicwhite (no. 5)
Mosaicgreen (no. 1)
Mosaicbrown (no. 6)
Granitewhite (no. 19)
Concrete (40 40) and White
with marble inlay (no. 64)
Marblewhite (no. 27)
Stonebrown (no. 89)

32.32
33.92
34.98
31.46
32.36

5.162
5.812
6.932
5.353
6.523

29.1
33.6

4.625
7.655

246

L. Doulos et al. / Solar Energy 77 (2004) 231249

granite, the white mosaic and nally the white concrete


with marble inlay. In this comparison the surface texture
was not taken into account.
6.3. The impact of the surface texture on the thermal
performance of the materials
In order to investigate the impact of the surface
texture on the mean surface temperatures, 24 dierent
pairs of same colored and construction building materials but of dierent texture were studied for the period
of 11:00 to 15:00 within the 14th August.
The F -test of the variance dierences was applied for
each of the studied pairs in order to dene a proper
equation of t-test of the dierences of the mean values
(Table 9) (Livada and Asimakopoulos, 2002).
The standard deviations for each of the studied pair
of building material were considered statistically significant equal at a condence level of 0.05 (a 0:05).
Afterwards the statistical test of the means (t-test)
was applied for all the samples with the same size and
with statistical equal standard. For all the cases the jtj
values were smaller from the critical value t0:05 at the
0.05 condence level in the two tailed test.

Therefore the materials surface texture does not affect statistically the measured surface temperature during
the daytime (9:00 to 15:00). Cold building materials
can be considered independently of the surface texture.
6.4. Analysis of the mean surface building material
temperatures during the night period
In order to investigate the thermal behavior of the
building materials during the night the surface temperatures were studied within the period of 22:00 of 14th
August to 3:00 of 15th August in the nighttime. Similarly as above, the mean surface temperatures and their
standard deviation were calculated and the F -ANOVA
test was applied, considering the two dierent categories
according to the construction material (Table 10) and
the color (Table 11) (Livada and Asimakopoulos, 2002).
According to the construction material the mean
nocturnal surface temperatures were found statistically
signicant dierent only for marble and stone (condence level a 0:05) (Table 10). According to the same
colored materials, the dierences of the mean surface
temperatures are statistically signicant for every group
(condence level a 0:05) (Table 11).

Table 9
Various material pairs comparison to examine the surface texture impact in the measured surface temperatures
Surface colortexture

Surface mean
temperatures (C)

Concrete (30 cm 30 cm)

Gray, smooth without schematic (no. 15)


Gray, rough without schematic (no. 16)
White, smooth without schematic (no. 17)
White, rough without schematic (no. 18)

36.74
38.44
32.06
33.76

6.97
8.39
5.93
7.25

0.98

Gray, smooth without schematic (no. 44)


Gray, rough without schematic (no. 45)
Red, smooth without schematic (no. 53)
Red, rough without schematic (no. 52)
White, smooth without schematic (no. 62)
White, rough without schematic (no. 61)
White, smooth with inlay (no. 64)
White, rough with schematic (no. 63)
Orange, smooth with schematic and inlay (no. 65)
Orange, rough without schematic (no. 66)
Green, smooth with inlay (no. 72)
Green, rough with schematic (no. 71)
Orange, rough with schematic (no. 70)
Orange, rough without schematic (no. 66)
Black, smooth with schematic (no. 50)
Black, smooth without schematic (no. 51)

38.14
39.2
39.86
40.16
32.88
33.52
32.36
34.36
37.7
39.6
38.66
44.28
37.88
39.6
44.26
46.28

6.70
8.72
11.85
9.99
5.93
6.48
6.52
6.37
9.37
10.94
13.93
17.69
11.56
10.94
12.05
15.86

1.86

White,
White,
White,
White,

31.38
33.76
29.1
32.0

5.78
4.41
4.63
6.31

Concrete (40 cm 40 cm)

Marble

smooth with black shades (no. 25)


rough with black shades (no. 24)
smooth (no. 27)
anaglyph (no. 28)

Deviation

jt-testj

Construction material

1.05

0.144
0.406
1.246
0.943
2.23
0.811
0.855
1.667
1.363

L. Doulos et al. / Solar Energy 77 (2004) 231249


Table 10
F -ANOVA test of mean surface temperatures, within 22:00 of
14th August to 3:00 of 15th August, for nine groups with respect to their construction material and of dierent color
Building materials

F0:05

Mosaic
Granite
Cement (30 30)
Cement (40 40)
Marble
Pave stone
Asphalt
Pebble-gravel
Stone

2.03
0.6
0.71
0.49
4.17
0.149

1.27
5.36

<2.62
<3.08
<2.62
<1.76
>2.05
<4.77

<2.15
>2.10

Table 11
F -ANOVA test of mean surface temperatures, within 22:00 of
14th August to 3:00 of 15th August, for the six groups of
building materials, according to their color and of dierent
construction material
Surface material color

F0:05

White
Gray
Black
Red
Green
Brown

6.71
7.60
14.04
9.54
10.97
11.72

>1.90
>2.05
>2.38
>2.22
>2.49
>2.30

The TukeyKramer test was applied again on the


mean nocturnal surface temperature values for those
materials made of marble and stone. The concluding
remarks are the following:
1. For building materials made of marble, the white
with black and red shades (no. 24) and the white
(no. 28) surface colored materials could be characterized as warm materials, while the light brown (no.
33) surface colored material could be characterized as
cold material.
2. For building materials made of stone, the brown (no.
89, no. 91) and the red (no. 93) surface colored materials could be characterized as warm materials,
while the brown (no. 88) and the red (no. 92) surface
colored materials could be characterized as cold
materials.
As a result it could be mentioned that the construction material determines the thermal balance during the
night (by aecting the emissivity), while the surface color
determines signicant the thermal balance only during
the day (by aecting the albedo).

247

The same statistical test was performed between the


dierent colored construction tiles. The corresponding
results are the following:
(A) For black surface colored materials low temperatures were observed for all the construction materials, except for those made of asphalt (no. 60). The
construction material made of asphalt dened as
the warmest of all.
(B) For white surface colored materials, the rough with
schematics concrete (no. 63) could be characterized
as warm material, and the light brown marble
(no. 33) as cold. The light brown marble was considered in the group with the white surface colored
materials.
(C) For gray surface colored materials, the cement
with the smooth surface (no. 46) and the pave
stone (no. 78) could be characterized as warm
materials. For the rest gray surface colored materials, the mean surface nocturnal temperatures were
similar, so no material could be characterized as
cold.
(D) For green surface colored materials, the pebble (no.
56) could be characterized as warm material.
(E) For brown surface colored materials, the pebble
(no. 38) could be characterized as warm material.
6.5. The impact of the surface texture on the thermal
performance during the night period
In order to investigate the impact of the surface
texture on the mean surface temperatures during the
night, the same pairs (as given in Table 9) of same colored and construction building materials, but of dierent texture, were studied for the period within the 22:00
of 14th August to 3:00 of 15th August.
The F -test of the variance dierences was applied for
each of the studied pairs in order to dene a proper
equation for the t-test of the dierences of the mean
values (Table 12) (Livada and Asimakopoulos, 2002).
The mean nocturnal surface temperature comparison
according to the texture of the materials indicates,
showed in some cases statistically signicant dierences
(condence level a 0:05) (Table 12). In particular, for
both concrete and marble, the dierences were caused
due to the low surface temperatures measured in the
smooth surface materials during the night, while the
corresponding tiles with rough surface had warmer
surface.
Generally the smooth surface materials appear to be
colder than the rough materials during the night. For 24h time period the light brown marble (no. 33) and the
brown stone (no. 90) could be characterized as cold
materials.

248

L. Doulos et al. / Solar Energy 77 (2004) 231249

Table 12
Various material pairs comparison to examine the surface texture impact in the measured nocturnal surface temperatures
Construction material

Surface colortexture

Surface mean
temperatures C

Deviation

jt-testj

Concrete (30 cm 30 cm)

Gray, smooth without schematic (no. 15)


Gray, rough without schematic (no. 16)
White, smooth without schematic (no. 17)
White, rough without schematic (no. 18)

17.87
17.95
17.33
17.93

0.539
0.319
0.578
0.343

0.211

Gray, smooth without schematic (no. 44)


Gray, rough without schematic (no. 45)
Red, smooth without schematic (no. 53)
Red, rough without schematic (no. 52)
White, smooth without schematic (no. 62)
White, rough without schematic (no. 61)
White, smooth with inlay (no. 64)
White, rough with schematic (no. 63)
Orange, smooth with schematic and inlay (no. 65)
Orange, rough without schematic (no. 66)
Green, smooth with inlay (no. 72)
Green, rough with schematic (no. 71)
Orange, rough with schematic (no. 70)
Orange, rough without schematic (no. 66)
Black, smooth with schematic (no. 50)
Black, smooth without schematic (no. 51)

18.22
18.4
17.42
18.51
17.78
18.33
17.08
18.73
17.83
18.2
17.13
17.82
18.02
18.2
18.62
16.85

1.001
0.884
0.57
0.562
0.622
0.503
0.662
0.455
0.707
0.724
0.679
0.718
0.722
0.724
0.822
0.827

White,
White,
White,
White,

15.6
16.93
16.18
18

1.452
0.759
0.722
0.711

Concrete (40 cm 40 cm)

Marble

smooth with black shades (no. 25)


rough with black shades (no. 24)
smooth (no. 27)
anaglyph (no. 28)

7. Conclusions
The materials thermal balance is determined mainly
by their reectivity to solar radiation and their emissivity to the long wave radiation during the daytime. As
the emissivity values for the total number of the studied
materials were close to 0.9, the observed dierences in
the mean daily surface temperatures are mainly caused
by the dierent albedo factors of the total number of the
studied materials. The physical characteristics of the
material tiles that aect their albedo are the color,
the surface texture and the construction material. The
rough and dark colored surfaces tend to absorb more
solar radiation than the smooth, light colored and at

1.531
0.321
2.51
1.27
3.82
0.76
1.43
0.37
3.38
2.19
3.72

surfaces. Therefore the dark colored surfaces are warmer


than the light colored.
From the study of the total number of the pavement
materials according to their surface color material it was
found that the light colored tiles were cooler than the
others. As expected the white colored tiles were the
coldest, while the black colored were the warmest.
Afterwards from the analysis of the building materials
according to their construction material it was found
that tiles made of marble, mosaic and stone were cooler
than the other ones. Besides, from the analysis based on
the material textures, the tiles with smooth and at
surface were cooler than the tiles with rough and anaglyph surface. Finally studying the impact of sizing it

Fig. 24. Denitions of cold and warm materials.

L. Doulos et al. / Solar Energy 77 (2004) 231249

was concluded that for the material tiles with the same
construction material, surface color and texture but
dierent geometry characteristics (surface size and
thickness) the dierences in the surface temperatures are
not statistical signicant during the daytime period. The
observed non-uniform temperature distribution on some
materials surfaces was caused by their surface color
contrast; the surface roughness and the heat transfer
phenomena. Therefore as cold materials can be
characterized those having a smooth and light colored
surface and construction materials made of marble,
mosaic and stone. Similarly as warm materials could
be dened those having a rough and dark colored surface and construction materials made of pebble, pave
stone and asphalt (Fig. 24).
The use of cold materials is important in the urban
environment and especially in cities with hot climate.
The use of cold materials contributes to the reduction
of the air temperature due to heat transfer phenomena.
However warm materials instead of cold are used
to the urban environments structure. This use is caused
either due to economic and esthetic reasons, or by bad
environmental planning. As a result, the temperature in
the urban environment is raised and the demand for
cooling load in the buildings is getting greater.
References
Aida, M., 1982. Urban albedo as a function of the urban
structurea model experiment. Boundary Layer Meteorol.
23, 405413.
Akbari, H., David, S., Dorsano, S., Huang, J., Winnett, S.,
1992. Cooling our Communities. EPA, USA. pp. 4352.
Akbari, H., Bretz, S., Kurn, D.M., Hanford, J., 1997. Peak
power and cooling energy savings of high-albedo roofs.
Energy Build. 25, 117126.
Asaeda, T., Ca, V.T., Wake, A., 1996. Heat storage of
pavement and its eect on the lower atmosphere. Atmos.
Environ. 30 (3), 413427.
Berg, R., Quinn, W., 1978. Use of light colored surface to
reduce seasonal thaw penetration beneath embankments on
permafrost. In: Proceedings of the Second International
Symposium on Cold Regions Engineering. University of
Alaska, pp. 8699.
Brest, C.L., 1987. Seasonal albedo of an urban/rural landscape
from satellite observations. J. Appl. Meteor. 26, 1169.
Bretz, S.E., Akbari, H., 1997. Long-term performance of highalbedo roof coatings. Energy Build. 25, 159167.
Cantat, O., 1989. Contribution a l etude des variations du bilan
d energie en region parisienne. Ph.D. Thesis. University of
Paris Sorbonne, 362 pp.
Coppin, P., Forgan, B., Penney, C., Schwerdtfeger, P., 1978.
Zonal characteristics of urban albedos. Urban Ecol. 3, 365.
Dabberdt, W.F., Davis, P.A., 1978. Determination of energetic
characteristics of urbanrural surfaces in the greater St.
Louis Area. Boundary Layer Meteorol. 14, 105.
Gaussorgues, G., 1994. Infrared Thermography. In: Microwave
Technology Series 5. Chapman & Hall. pp. 3645.

249

Gustavsson, T., Bogren, J., 1991. Infrared thermography in


applied road climatological studies. Int. J. Remote Sensing
12, 18111828.
Kung, E.C., Bryson, R.A., Lenschow, D.H., 1964. Study of a
continental surface albedo on the basis of ight measurements and structure of the earths surface cover over North
America. Mon. Weather Rev. 92, 543.
Livada, I., Asimakopoulos, D., 2002. Introduction to the
Applied Statistics. Simetria Press, Athens.
Mayer, H., Noack, E.M., 1980. Einuss der schneedecke auf die
strahlungsbilanz im grossraum Munchen. Meteorol. Rundsch. 33, 65.
Oguntoyinbo, J.S., 1970. Reection coecient of natural
vegetation crops, and urban surfaces in Nigeria. Quart. J.
Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 96, 430.
Oguntoyinbo, J.S., 1986. Some aspects of the urban climates of
tropical Africa, WMO, pp. 110135.
Oke, T.R, Johnson, G.T., Steyn, D.G., Watson, I.D., 1991.
Simulation of surface urban heat islands under ideal
conditions at nightPart 2: Diagnosis and causation.
Boundary Layer Meteorol. 56, 339358.
Rouse, W.R., Bello, R.L., 1979. Shortwave radiation balance in
an urban aerosol layer. Atmos. Ocean. 17, 157.
Santamouris, M., Assimakopoulos, D.N. (Eds.), 1997. Passive
Cooling of Buildings. James and James Science Publishers,
London.
Santamouris, M. (Ed.), 2001. Energy and Climate in the Urban
Built Environment. James & James Science Publishers,
London.
Santamouris, M., Papanikolaou, N., Georgakis, C., 1998.
Study on the ambient and surface temperature in Omonoia
Square, Athens, Greece. Internal Report, Group Building
Environmental Studies, Physics Department, University of
Athens, Athens, Greece.
Steyn, D.G., Oke, T.R., 1980. Eects of a scrub re on the
surface radiation budget. Weather 35, 212.
Taha, H., Sailor, D., Akbari, H., 1992. High albedo materials
for reducing cooling energy use. Lawrence Berkeley Lab
Rep. 31721, UC-350, Berkeley, CA.
Taha, H., 1994. Aircraft-based albedo measurements over the
South Coast Air Basin. In: Taha, H. (Ed.), Analysis
of Energy Eciency of Air Quality in the South Coast
Air BasinPhase II, Rep. no. LBL-35728, Lawrence
Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley CA, pp. 4359
(Chapter 2).
Taha, H., 1997. Urban climates and heat islands: albedo,
evapotranspiration, and anthropogenic heat. Energy Build.
25, 99103.
Thermovision 570, 1997. Operating Manual. AGEMA Infrared
Systems.
Vukovich, F.M., 1983. An analysis of the ground temperature
and reectivity pattern about St. Louis, Missouri, using
HCMM satellite data. J. Appl. Meteor. 22, 560.
Wolfe, W., Zissis, G., 1997. The Infrared Handbook. IRIA
Series in Infrared & Electro-Optics. Infrared Information
Analysis Center Environmental Research Institute of Michigan a DTIC-sponsored DoD Information Analysis Center,
pp. 1.281.32.
Yap, D., 1975. Seasonal excess urban energy and the nocturnal
heat islandToronto. Arch. Meteorol. Geoph. Bioklima.,
Series B 23, 6880.