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# Pre-Lecture Video: Shaft Manufacture

ENS3116/ENS5114

## Dr. Ferdinando Guzzomi

f.guzzomi@ecu.edu.au
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Recap: Fatigue
Endurance Strength
Equations to estimate a steels endurance
limit based on the ultimate tensile
strength:

Fatigue Strength, Sf
Log(Sf)

Sut

Se
Low Cycle

High Cycle
Number of stress cycles, N
Log(N)
103

S e' 0.5Sut

106

Sf a N

Sf
N

1/ b

## Calculates: Mean Fatigue Strength Sf for

given cycles, N [For high-cycle: 103 N 106]

( f Sut ) 2
a
Se

## Calculates: Cycles N, for given Mean Fatigue

Strength Sf (or Reversed stress a)
[For high-cycle: 103 N 106]

1 f Sut
b log
3 Se

## Recap Fatigue: Factors Affecting Fatigue Life

S-N curves are generated using ideal test samples. There are a number of factors that
affect the endurance strength of the actual part.

S e k a kb k c k d k e k f S

'
e
Endurance
limit of test
specimen

Endurance
limit of part
Surface factor

Size factor
Temperature factor
Reliability factor
Miscellaneous effects factor
Image Source: http://www.accutektesting.com/testing-services/mechanical-testing/rotating-beam/

20 MPa

60 MPa

Kf

## maximum stress in notched specimen

stress in notch free specimen

Different materials show different sensitivities to the stresses raised by notches. Often the
fatigue stress concentration factor is displayed in terms of a Notch Sensitivity q, that
incorporates the stress concentration factors Kf and Kt (not ALL materials are notch sensitive).

Where:

K f 1
Kt 1

Rearranged:

K f 1 q( Kt 1)

Note: Kt is a theoretical stress concentration factor that estimates the maximum stress at a
notch based on a components nominal stress (without a notch).

## Recap Fatigue: Stress-Concentration and Notch Sensitivity

An example from Shigley textbook that shows
the geometric stress concentration factor (Kt)
for a shouldered shaft under torsion.

## An example from Shigley textbook that

shows the notch sensitivity (q) for materials
under reversed torsion.

## Recap Fatigue: Fluctuating Stress

Mean Stress

max min
2

Stress Range

r max min
Alternating Stress

Stress Ratio : R

min
max

Amplitude Ratio : A

a
m

max min
2

## Note: R=-1 for a completely reversed

stress state with zero mean stress

## Recap Fatigue: Modified Goodman Model

The relationship between mean and
alternating stresses and failure is:

Se Sut n

Alternating Stress

Note: Se ka kb kc kd ke k f Se'

a
Sy

## Sut : Ultimate Tensile Strength

S e : Endurance Strength
Yield (Langer)
Failure Line

a : Alternating Stress
m : Mean Stress
n : Safety Factor

a m

Sy

Se
Modified Goodman
Failure Line

Sy
n

Se
n

Modified
Goodman
Design Line

## Safe Design Area

Compression

Tension

Syc

S yc
n

Mean Stress

S yt
n

S ut
n

Note: Any operating point below the Goodman or Langer lines should have infinite life.

Syt

## Shaft Design: Shafts and Shaft Components

The following considerations should be made when
examining shaft design:
o Material selection
o Geometric layout
o Stress and strength
Static
Fatigue
o Deflection and rigidity
Bending deflection
Torsional deflection
Slope at bearings and shaft-supports
o Vibration due to natural frequency.

## A complete shaft design has interdependence on the

design of individual machine components/elements.

## Shaft Design: Shaft Materials

Shaft deflection is a function of material stiffness (Modulus of
Elasticity). This is constant for steels, thus shaft rigidity is governed
by shaft geometric dimensions.

## Material and treatment choice affects shaft strength, which resists

applied stresses. Many shafts are manufactured from low carbon,
cold-drawn or hot-rolled steel (such as 1020 to 1050 steels).
Shaft production quantities may also affect material selection:
Low quantities: Low carbon steel alloys are desirable for easier and faster
machining processes
High quantities: Hot or cold forming, or casting are typical applied for a
range of material alloys, where machine elements can be
integral

## Shaft Design: Shaft Layout

Shaft layout must accommodate the machine
elements by providing radial, axial and/or torsional
location.
The layout simply comprises of a stepped cylinder.
These steps are known as shoulders and provide
excellent axial location of machine elements to
General shaft layout considerations when
designing shafts:
Axial Layout of Components

## Providing Torque Transmission

Assembly and Disassembly

## Shaft Layout: Axial Layout and Axial Support

General shaft layout considerations when designing shafts:

## Axial Layout of Components

Should aim to support load-carrying components between bearings and not have them
cantilevered
Pulleys and sprockets should be mounted outboard (cantilevered) for easy belt and chain
installation
Typically 2 bearings are sufficient for most shaft support
Design the shaft as short as possible (within reason)

## Locate load-carrying components near bearings

Different shoulder types can be used based on the axial load
o

## Near-zero axial load: Press fits, setscrews, pins, etc

Low axial load: Retaining rings in grooves, sleeves, clamp-on collars, etc.

It is best to have one bearing resist the axial load (in both directions or a single direction)
Image Source: Shigleys Mechanical Engineering Design

## Shaft Layout: Torque Transmission and Assembly

Providing Torque Transmission

## Shafts must provide torque transmission between the

shaft and machine elements. Methods include:
o Keys

Key

Round key

Pin

Pin

Tapered Pin

Roll-pin

o Splines
o Setscrews
o Pins
o Press fits or shrink fits
o Tapered fits

## Some torque transmission components are designed

to fail for unexpected loads, thus protecting expensive
machine elements.
Splines are suitable for high torque applications and
also allow for axial motion whilst transmitting torque.

Image Source: Shigleys Mechanical Engineering Design and http://www.popularhotrodding.com and http://www.globalindustrial.com

## Shaft Layout: Assembly and Disassembly

Assembly and Disassembly

Generally have the largest shaft diameter in the centre and then progressively smaller
diameter towards the ends.
Use a retaining ring, sleeve or locknut in order to have a shoulder on both sides of a shaft
element.
Design the shaft such that machine elements only
press along a short length of the shaft.
the housing to access retaining rings, bearing pullers
etc. for assembly and disassembly.

## Shaft Design: Misc. Shaft Components

Shafts comprise of various miscellaneous components to complete
their design, where such components include:

Setscrews
Setscrews rely on compression to generate clamping forces,
dissimilar to bolts that rely on tension. A setscrew in a collar provides
a holding power which can resist axial and torsional loads (your
textbook provides a table of holding power for various setscrews
sizes).

## Keys and Pins

Keys and pins are used to secure rotating elements to the shaft. Keys
provide only torque transmission between the shaft and shaft element,
whilst pins provide both torque and thrust transfer (your textbook
provides tables with common key and pin sizes).

Retaining rings
Retaining rings readily replace shaft shoulders or sleeves for axial
location of elements along a shaft. A radial groove cut into the shaft
locates the spring retainer.
Image Source: http://www.globalindustrial.com and training.bsc.com.au

## Worked Example: Shaft Key Design

A heat treated steel shaft has a minimum yield strength of 525MPa and a
diameter of 36mm. The shaft rotates at 600RPM and transmits 30kW
through a gear. Select a key for the gear.
Solution:
2
2
Angular velocity: = =
600 = 62.8/
60
60
Torque: = = (30000)/62.8 = 478Nm
Force: T = = 478/0.018 = 26.6kN
The key shear strength can be determined from the normal yield strength, where the selected key steel
has a yield strength of 450MPa (notably less than the shaft):
= 0.577 = 0.577 450 = 259.7
Shear failure occurs along a-b, hence the shear stress is (for an initial guess of 10mm key):

## . = = 259.7 3 = 86.6 = = 26600 10 = 30.7

Similarly, but checking the crushing resistance of the key by using one-half contact face:

2(26600)
. = = 450 3 = 150 = 2 =
10 = 35.5
Therefore, a 10mm square key must be approx. 36mm long, which is less than the upper limit of 1.5 shaft
diameters (54mm).
Example source: Shigleys Mechanical Engineering Design

## Shaft Design: Shaft Design and Stress

Shaft design considerations:
Critical locations
Shaft stresses
Estimating stress concentrations
Critical locations
Should be identified to base the shaft design calculations i.e.
stress assessment. Typically these locations are at the
o Outer surface (highest stress)
o Axial location where the bending moment is highest
o Section of shaft transmitting torque
o Stress concentration along the shaft
Torsional, bending and axial stresses should be considered for
the stress assessment at the critical location(s).
Image source: www.sportfishermen.com and www.yachtforums.com

## Shaft Design: Shaft Stresses

Shaft stresses
Bending, torsion and axial stresses can be calculated for both mean and alternating components. For a
solid round shaft, the bending and torsion stresses are:
a =
Where,

32
3

m =

32
3

a =

16
3

m =

16
3

## Mm and Ma are the mean and alternating bending moments

Tm and Ta are the mean and alternating torques
Kf and Kfs are the fatigue stress concentration factors for bending and torsion

These stresses can be combined to evaluate the alternating and mean Von Mises stresses:
a =

+ 3 =

32

16
+ 3
3

+ 3 =

32

16
+ 3
3

Finally, these alternating and mean stresses can be combined with the modified Goodman
failure model to solve for either the safety factor or diameter:
1
16 1
1
2 +3( )2 +
=
4(

)
4( )2 +3( )2

3

## Shaft Design: Shaft Static Stresses

Shaft static stresses
The Modified Goodman fatigue failure model does not guard against yield failure. As a
result it is necessary to separately check for first load cycle yield failure. The Von Mises
maximum stress can be evaluated as follows:

max =
=

+ 3 +

( + ) 2
32 3

+3

( + ) 2
16 3

And then this maximum stress can be compared to the material yield strength:

=
max

## Shaft Design: Shaft Design and Stress

Estimating stress concentrations
Fatigue stress analysis is highly dependent on stress concentrations. In the early design
stages, the stress concentrations are not known because the shaft dimensions are yet to
be determined. As a result, first iteration estimates are used for stress concentrations and
then replaced with actual values once the first shaft design iteration is complete.
Stress Concentration, Kt: First estimate

Bending

Torsion

Axial

2.7

2.2

3.0

1.7

1.5

1.9

2.2

3.0

1.7

5.0

3.0

5.0

## Worked Example: Shaft Design

A machined shoulder on a shaft has a small diameter of 28mm and a large diameter of 42mm
and a 2.8mm fillet radius. The shaft undergoes a 142.4Nm bending moment and a 124.3Nm
steady torsion load. The steel shaft has an ultimate strength of 735MPa and a yield strength of
574MPa. For a reliability of 99%, determine the safety factor against fatigue failure and yield.
Solution:
D/d = 42/28 = 1.5 and r/d = 2.8/28 = 0.10, now using these values the stress concentration factors and
notch sensitivity can be found:
, = 1.68,
, = 1.42
= 0.85,
= 0.92
Therefore, stress concentration can be calculated to be:
, = 1 + 0.85 1.68 1 = 1.58
, = 1 + 0.92 1.42 1 = 1.39
Specimen endurance limit is: = 0.5 735 = 367.5
The correction factors are found to be:

= 4.51(735)0.265 = 0.787
= 1.24(28)0.107 = 0.870
= 0.814
= = = 1

Therefore, the corrected endurance limit for the part is: = 0.787 0.870 0.814 367.5 = 205
Example source: Shigleys Mechanical Engineering Design

## Worked Example: Shaft Design

Solution:
For a rotating shaft, the constant bending moment becomes fully reversed:
= 142.4,
= 0,

= 0
= 124.3

Applying the Distortion Energy Theory Goodman failure model, the safety against fatigue is:
1
16 1
1
2 +3( )2 +
=
4(

)
4( )2 +3( )2

3

1
16
1
1
2 +
=
4(1.58(142.4))
3(1.39(124.3))2 = 0.615
3
6
6
(0.028) 205 10
735 10
= 1.62
The yield safety factor is determined using the Von Mises maximum stress:
max =

( + )
32
3

( + )
+ 3 16
3

=

(142.4)
32(1.58)
(0.028)3

574
=
= 4.58
max 125.4

(124.3)
+ 3 16(1.39)
(0.028)3

= 125.4