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L7 - Shaft Design

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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hsMyfAjcoZs

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfOOHCTsEng

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iKizLfzz7GM

ENS3116/ENS5114

Advanced Mechanical Design

f.guzzomi@ecu.edu.au

Image Source: http://www.prlog.org/11380026-mechanical-design-services-mechanical-engineering-drawing-services.html

Recap: Fatigue

Endurance Strength

Equations to estimate a steels endurance

limit based on the ultimate tensile

strength:

Fatigue Strength, Sf

Log(Sf)

Sut

Se

Low Cycle

High Cycle

Number of stress cycles, N

Log(N)

103

S e' 0.5Sut

106

Sf a N

Sf

N

1/ b

given cycles, N [For high-cycle: 103 N 106]

( f Sut ) 2

a

Se

Strength Sf (or Reversed stress a)

[For high-cycle: 103 N 106]

1 f Sut

b log

3 Se

S-N curves are generated using ideal test samples. There are a number of factors that

affect the endurance strength of the actual part.

S e k a kb k c k d k e k f S

'

e

Endurance

limit of test

specimen

Endurance

limit of part

Surface factor

Size factor

Load modification

Temperature factor

Reliability factor

Miscellaneous effects factor

Image Source: http://www.accutektesting.com/testing-services/mechanical-testing/rotating-beam/

20 MPa

60 MPa

Kf

stress in notch free specimen

Different materials show different sensitivities to the stresses raised by notches. Often the

fatigue stress concentration factor is displayed in terms of a Notch Sensitivity q, that

incorporates the stress concentration factors Kf and Kt (not ALL materials are notch sensitive).

Where:

K f 1

Kt 1

Rearranged:

K f 1 q( Kt 1)

Note: Kt is a theoretical stress concentration factor that estimates the maximum stress at a

notch based on a components nominal stress (without a notch).

An example from Shigley textbook that shows

the geometric stress concentration factor (Kt)

for a shouldered shaft under torsion.

shows the notch sensitivity (q) for materials

under reversed torsion.

Mean Stress

max min

2

Stress Range

r max min

Alternating Stress

Stress Ratio : R

min

max

Amplitude Ratio : A

a

m

max min

2

stress state with zero mean stress

The relationship between mean and

alternating stresses and failure is:

Se Sut n

Alternating Stress

Note: Se ka kb kc kd ke k f Se'

a

Sy

S e : Endurance Strength

Yield (Langer)

Failure Line

a : Alternating Stress

m : Mean Stress

n : Safety Factor

a m

Sy

Se

Modified Goodman

Failure Line

Sy

n

Se

n

Modified

Goodman

Design Line

Compression

Tension

Syc

S yc

n

Mean Stress

S yt

n

S ut

n

Note: Any operating point below the Goodman or Langer lines should have infinite life.

Syt

The following considerations should be made when

examining shaft design:

o Material selection

o Geometric layout

o Stress and strength

Static

Fatigue

o Deflection and rigidity

Bending deflection

Torsional deflection

Slope at bearings and shaft-supports

Shear deflection due to transverse loading

o Vibration due to natural frequency.

design of individual machine components/elements.

Image Source: http://bode.en.hisupplier.com/product-1001214-steel-shafts.html and http://www.traderscity.com/board/products-1/offers-to-sell-and-export-1/aisi-4140-annealed-steel-shaft-124714/

Shaft deflection is a function of material stiffness (Modulus of

Elasticity). This is constant for steels, thus shaft rigidity is governed

by shaft geometric dimensions.

applied stresses. Many shafts are manufactured from low carbon,

cold-drawn or hot-rolled steel (such as 1020 to 1050 steels).

Shaft production quantities may also affect material selection:

Low quantities: Low carbon steel alloys are desirable for easier and faster

machining processes

High quantities: Hot or cold forming, or casting are typical applied for a

range of material alloys, where machine elements can be

integral

Shaft layout must accommodate the machine

elements by providing radial, axial and/or torsional

location.

The layout simply comprises of a stepped cylinder.

These steps are known as shoulders and provide

excellent axial location of machine elements to

resist thrust loads.

General shaft layout considerations when

designing shafts:

Axial Layout of Components

Supporting Axial Loads

Assembly and Disassembly

General shaft layout considerations when designing shafts:

Should aim to support load-carrying components between bearings and not have them

cantilevered

Pulleys and sprockets should be mounted outboard (cantilevered) for easy belt and chain

installation

Typically 2 bearings are sufficient for most shaft support

Design the shaft as short as possible (within reason)

Different shoulder types can be used based on the axial load

o

Low axial load: Retaining rings in grooves, sleeves, clamp-on collars, etc.

It is best to have one bearing resist the axial load (in both directions or a single direction)

Image Source: Shigleys Mechanical Engineering Design

Providing Torque Transmission

shaft and machine elements. Methods include:

o Keys

Key

Round key

Pin

Pin

Tapered Pin

Roll-pin

o Splines

o Setscrews

o Pins

o Press fits or shrink fits

o Tapered fits

to fail for unexpected loads, thus protecting expensive

machine elements.

Splines are suitable for high torque applications and

also allow for axial motion whilst transmitting torque.

Image Source: Shigleys Mechanical Engineering Design and http://www.popularhotrodding.com and http://www.globalindustrial.com

Assembly and Disassembly

Generally have the largest shaft diameter in the centre and then progressively smaller

diameter towards the ends.

Use a retaining ring, sleeve or locknut in order to have a shoulder on both sides of a shaft

element.

Design the shaft such that machine elements only

press along a short length of the shaft.

Allow access to at least one end of the shaft through

the housing to access retaining rings, bearing pullers

etc. for assembly and disassembly.

Shafts comprise of various miscellaneous components to complete

their design, where such components include:

Setscrews

Setscrews rely on compression to generate clamping forces,

dissimilar to bolts that rely on tension. A setscrew in a collar provides

a holding power which can resist axial and torsional loads (your

textbook provides a table of holding power for various setscrews

sizes).

Keys and pins are used to secure rotating elements to the shaft. Keys

provide only torque transmission between the shaft and shaft element,

whilst pins provide both torque and thrust transfer (your textbook

provides tables with common key and pin sizes).

Retaining rings

Retaining rings readily replace shaft shoulders or sleeves for axial

location of elements along a shaft. A radial groove cut into the shaft

locates the spring retainer.

Image Source: http://www.globalindustrial.com and training.bsc.com.au

A heat treated steel shaft has a minimum yield strength of 525MPa and a

diameter of 36mm. The shaft rotates at 600RPM and transmits 30kW

through a gear. Select a key for the gear.

Solution:

Firstly calculate the load, F:

2

2

Angular velocity: = =

600 = 62.8/

60

60

Torque: = = (30000)/62.8 = 478Nm

Force: T = = 478/0.018 = 26.6kN

The key shear strength can be determined from the normal yield strength, where the selected key steel

has a yield strength of 450MPa (notably less than the shaft):

= 0.577 = 0.577 450 = 259.7

Shear failure occurs along a-b, hence the shear stress is (for an initial guess of 10mm key):

Similarly, but checking the crushing resistance of the key by using one-half contact face:

2(26600)

. = = 450 3 = 150 = 2 =

10 = 35.5

Therefore, a 10mm square key must be approx. 36mm long, which is less than the upper limit of 1.5 shaft

diameters (54mm).

Example source: Shigleys Mechanical Engineering Design

Shaft design considerations:

Critical locations

Shaft stresses

Estimating stress concentrations

Critical locations

Should be identified to base the shaft design calculations i.e.

stress assessment. Typically these locations are at the

o Outer surface (highest stress)

o Axial location where the bending moment is highest

o Section of shaft transmitting torque

o Stress concentration along the shaft

Torsional, bending and axial stresses should be considered for

the stress assessment at the critical location(s).

Image source: www.sportfishermen.com and www.yachtforums.com

Shaft stresses

Bending, torsion and axial stresses can be calculated for both mean and alternating components. For a

solid round shaft, the bending and torsion stresses are:

a =

Where,

32

3

m =

32

3

a =

16

3

m =

16

3

Tm and Ta are the mean and alternating torques

Kf and Kfs are the fatigue stress concentration factors for bending and torsion

These stresses can be combined to evaluate the alternating and mean Von Mises stresses:

a =

+ 3 =

32

16

+ 3

3

+ 3 =

32

16

+ 3

3

Finally, these alternating and mean stresses can be combined with the modified Goodman

failure model to solve for either the safety factor or diameter:

1

16 1

1

2 +3( )2 +

=

4(

)

4( )2 +3( )2

3

Shaft static stresses

The Modified Goodman fatigue failure model does not guard against yield failure. As a

result it is necessary to separately check for first load cycle yield failure. The Von Mises

maximum stress can be evaluated as follows:

max =

=

+ 3 +

( + ) 2

32 3

+3

( + ) 2

16 3

And then this maximum stress can be compared to the material yield strength:

=

max

Estimating stress concentrations

Fatigue stress analysis is highly dependent on stress concentrations. In the early design

stages, the stress concentrations are not known because the shaft dimensions are yet to

be determined. As a result, first iteration estimates are used for stress concentrations and

then replaced with actual values once the first shaft design iteration is complete.

Stress Concentration, Kt: First estimate

Bending

Torsion

Axial

2.7

2.2

3.0

1.7

1.5

1.9

2.2

3.0

1.7

5.0

3.0

5.0

A machined shoulder on a shaft has a small diameter of 28mm and a large diameter of 42mm

and a 2.8mm fillet radius. The shaft undergoes a 142.4Nm bending moment and a 124.3Nm

steady torsion load. The steel shaft has an ultimate strength of 735MPa and a yield strength of

574MPa. For a reliability of 99%, determine the safety factor against fatigue failure and yield.

Solution:

D/d = 42/28 = 1.5 and r/d = 2.8/28 = 0.10, now using these values the stress concentration factors and

notch sensitivity can be found:

, = 1.68,

, = 1.42

= 0.85,

= 0.92

Therefore, stress concentration can be calculated to be:

, = 1 + 0.85 1.68 1 = 1.58

, = 1 + 0.92 1.42 1 = 1.39

Specimen endurance limit is: = 0.5 735 = 367.5

The correction factors are found to be:

= 4.51(735)0.265 = 0.787

= 1.24(28)0.107 = 0.870

= 0.814

= = = 1

Therefore, the corrected endurance limit for the part is: = 0.787 0.870 0.814 367.5 = 205

Example source: Shigleys Mechanical Engineering Design

Solution:

For a rotating shaft, the constant bending moment becomes fully reversed:

= 142.4,

= 0,

= 0

= 124.3

Applying the Distortion Energy Theory Goodman failure model, the safety against fatigue is:

1

16 1

1

2 +3( )2 +

=

4(

)

4( )2 +3( )2

3

1

16

1

1

2 +

=

4(1.58(142.4))

3(1.39(124.3))2 = 0.615

3

6

6

(0.028) 205 10

735 10

= 1.62

The yield safety factor is determined using the Von Mises maximum stress:

max =

( + )

32

3

( + )

+ 3 16

3

=

(142.4)

32(1.58)

(0.028)3

574

=

= 4.58

max 125.4

(124.3)

+ 3 16(1.39)

(0.028)3

= 125.4

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