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PASSAGE
ARTHRITIS - A Holistic Approach
Can Help
Paragraph 1
Mosby's Medical and Nursing Dictionary
defines arthritis as any inflammatory
condition of the joints, characterized by
pain and swelling. The name derives from
the Greek word "arthron" which means
joint and "itis" which means inflammation.
In its various forms arthritis afflicts
millions throughout the world from
juveniles to the elderly.
Paragraph 2
A 2003-2005 National Health Interview
Survey in the United States of America
reported 21.6% of adults have self
reported, doctor diagnosed arthritis. In
Australia it is estimated that by 2020 one
in every five Australians will have
arthritis. To date, despite the expenditure
of an enormous amount of money on
research and the considerable efforts of
scientists throughout the world, a cure for
arthritis has proved elusive.
Paragraph 3
Medical treatments range from simple pain
relievers like Paracetamol, which eases
pain and if taken as recommended has few
side effects, to powerful non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs and
corticosteroids. Such drugs can provide
effective relief from the pain, joint
stiffness and inflammation but do not
result in a permanent cure. Unlike
Paracetamol, these medications taken long
term can have serious side effects and they
must be regularly and carefully monitored.
There may also be contraindications
relating to other medical conditions, use
during pregnancy or lactation and adverse
reactions as a result of allergies.
Paragraph 4
Surgical interventions such as hip and
other joint replacements are usually
performed to relieve severe pain and loss
of function where other non-surgical
treatments are unable to bring sufficient
relief. Such procedures can be highly
effective in enhancing mobility in the
majority of cases. The need for hip
replacement surgery is becoming
increasing common among the elderly as

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longevity increases. For example the 2007
Spring Issue Joint News reports "over the
last ten years, hip replacement surgery has
increased in Australia by 94.1%.
Paragraph 5
Other non-pharmacological treatments
such as physiotherapy, acupuncture,
therapeutic massage and aqua aerobics can
help to relieve some symptoms. There are
also a number of nutritional supplements
that may relieve the inflammation, pain
and slow degeneration of effected joints.
Such supplements are advertised widely
and available from chemists, health food
outlets, and many supermarkets.
However even "natural" products can have
side effects or conflict with other
medication so always check first with your
doctor or pharmacist.
Paragraph 6
In relation of dietary supplements, a
number of studies conclude that Fish Oils
containing omega-3 fatty acids can help
reduce inflammation associated with
osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Research published in a reputable medical
journal also suggests a glucosamine
dietary supplement can slow down the
deterioration of joints associated with
osteoarthritis. As a result selected
hospitals are conducting clinical research
trials to determine the validity of the
research.
Paragraph 7
While there is no "miracle food" that cures
arthritis, general dietary advice
recommends a healthy balanced diet rich
in foods that contain calcium to reduce the
risk of osteoporosis. A wide range of
fresh fruit and vegetables, plenty of fluids,
preferably water and fresh fruit juices
rather than carbonated drinks are
recommended. The intake of alcohol
should preferably be kept to low level.
Paragraph 8
Dieticians also advise arthritis sufferers to
eat fatty fish such as herring, tuna,
mackerel, salmon or sardines at least twice
a week. There is also anecdotal evidence
from people with arthritis that certain
foods impact negatively on their condition.
Keeping a food diary over a period of a
month or more could help individuals
identify any particular foods that appear to
regularly provoke their arthritic symptoms.

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Paragraph 9
It is universally acknowledged that
exercise programs which improve the
fitness of the heart and lungs, correct poor
posture, build muscular strength, increase
joint flexibility and improve balance are
beneficial to people of all ages and can
reduce the pain and stiffness associated
with arthritis. The ancient Chinese martial
art of Tai Chi, in an appropriately
modified style, is a form of exercise which
achieves all this and also enhances both
mental and physical relaxation.
Paragraph 10
Dr Paul Lam, a family physician who lives
in Sydney Australia began to have signs of
arthritis after graduating from medical
school. He took up Tai Chi and found it
improved his arthritis and enabled him to
enjoy his chosen and busy lifestyle. He is
now a highly respected Tai Chi teacher
and practitioner and has created a number
of Tai Chi programs to improve people's
health and well being. Arthritis
Foundations and organisations in the
Britain, America and Australia, New
Zealand support his work. He has
travelled the world to train instructors in
the Tai Chi for Arthritis Program and
produced books, videos and DVDs.
Paragraph 11
The Sun style Tai Chi movements are
fluid, gentle and slow and help reduce the
pain and stiffness associated with arthritic
conditions. The movements incorporate
breathing techniques and place an
emphasis on posture and on the
importance of weight transference which
is an essential component of good balance.
To ensure smoothness and harmony they
require a mental as well as a physical
commitment. People who practice these
movements regularly, either individually
in their homes or with a group in a park or
community hall, report many benefits.
Paragraph 12
In many countries there are government
funded and other support organizations
whose purpose is not only to fund raise for

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further medical research into a cure for
arthritis but also equally to provide
comprehensive advice and assistance for
people living with arthritis. This can
include running education programs and
seminars to provide the public with
reliable and well researched information
and also to providing aids to help in
everyday living. These aids range from
simple devices to assist in opening jars and
cans and to larger equipment to assist with
mobility.
Paragraph 13
Ultimately, to live as full a life as possible
with an arthritic condition, you need to
gain a full understanding of your
condition. This can be achieved by
working with a medical care team who
shares their knowledge, is supportive and
recognizes the contributions you can
make. The best outcomes require a close
partnership between you, your doctor and
any health professionals or practitioners
involved in your treatment
Paragraph 14
A degree of self management has proved
effective in managing arthritic conditions.
This can be achieved in a number of ways.
Keep up to date and enquire about the
latest research results. Learn about and
choose foods that will ensure you have a
healthy well balanced diet. Always take
medicines as directed and do not try any
new natural supplement or medication
without first consulting with your doctor
or pharmacist. Undertake an exercise
regime such as Tai Chi that is suitable to
you and that you can enjoy in the company
of others.
Paragraph 15
Until such time as a cure for all forms of
arthritis becomes a reality, a holistic
approach to the control of arthritis
incorporating many of the treatments,
therapies and concepts outlined in this
article, will help you discover that living
with arthritis does not mean you cannot
have an enjoyable and fulfilling life.

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QUESTIONS: Arthritis

1. Which of the following statements is correct?


a) More adults in Australia have arthritis than in the US
b) More adults in the US have arthritis than in Australia
c) Over 20 % of Australians have arthritis
d) 4 in every hundred people have arthritis
2. According to the article a cure for arthritis is:
a) Much too expensive to justify
b) A major focus for Australian scientists
c) Hard to find
d) Likely within 2 - 3 years
3. Which of the following statements is not reflected in the article?
a) Paracetamol has few side effects
b) Some powerful drugs can provide a permanent cure
c) Pregnancy and lactation contraindicate the use of certain drugs
d) Powerful non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs can provide effective relief from pain, joint
stiffness and inflammation.
4. Which of the following statements is correct?
a) In the US hip replacement surgery has increased by 94.1% in the last decade
b) Such surgery is unsuitable for the elderly
c) Hip replacement surgery usually improves mobility
d) Hip replacement surgery is not expensive and is easily accessible
5. According to the article which one of the following statements is false?
a) Glucosamine dietary supplement is clinically proven
b) Natural products can have side effects
c) A number of nutritional supplements may relieve the inflammation, pain and slow degeneration of
effected joints.
d) Omega-3 fatty acids can help reduce inflammation
6. In paragraph 8 the expression anecdotal evidence can best be described as:
a) A personal observation
b) Scientific investigation
c) An old wives tale
d) None of the above
7. Which of the following statements appear in the article relating to diet?
a) Alcohol in moderation is beneficial
b) Carbonated drinks are recommended
c) Arthritis sufferers indicate that some foods adversely affect their condition
d) Fatty fish such as herring, tuna, mackerel and sword fish must be eaten twice weekly
8. In which paragraph can you find a description a style of Tai Chi which is useful for sufferers
of arthritis?
a) Paragraph 9
b) Paragraph 10
c) Paragraph 11
d) Paragraph 12
9. Which of the following is correct from the articles point of view?
a) The major purpose of Government funded and other support organisations is to raise money for
further medical research
b) Seminars and education programs are run to provide the public with consistent and thoroughly
researched information
c) Simple devices can assist in opening jars and can
d) For optimum results a close relationship between you and medical professionals is essential
10. The article makes the following suggestions
a) Self management is ineffective in managing arthritic conditions
b) Having arthritis does not mean a fulfilling life is impossible
c) There may be a cure for arthritis soon
d) Have a spirit of adventure and try anything new

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Title Arthritis

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Answer Sheet

Question 1 (Para 2)
a) Incorrect
b) Correct: .in the United States of America reported 21.6% of adults have self reported, doctor diagnosed
arthritis. In Australia it is estimated that by 2020 one in every five Australians will have arthritis.
c) Incorrect
d) Incorrect
Question 2 (para 2)
a) Incorrect
b) Incorrect
c) Correct: ..a cure for arthritis has proved elusive. Elusive is synonym for hard to find
d) Incorrect
Question 3 (para 3)
a) Incorrect
b) Correct: powerful non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids. Such drugs can provide effective
relief from the pain, joint stiffness and inflammation but do not result in a permanent cure. I
c) Incorrect
d) Incorrect
Question 4: (para 4)
a) Incorrect
b) Incorrect
c) Correct: .such procedures can be highly effective in enhancing mobility in the majority of cases
d) Incorrect
Question 5 (para 5/6)
a) Correct: False not proven yet
b) Incorrect: True However even "natural" products can have side effects or conflict with other medication
c) Incorrect: True There are also a number of nutritional supplements that may relieve the inflammation, pain and slow
degeneration of effected joints.
d) Incorrect: True Fish Oils containing omega-3 fatty acids can help reduce inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and
rheumatoid arthritis.
Question 6 (para 8)
a) Correct: Key word: There is also anecdotal evidence from people with arthritis
b) Incorrect
c) Incorrect
d) Incorrect
Question 7 (para 8)
a) Incorrect
b) Incorrect
c) Correct: There is also anecdotal evidence from people with arthritis that certain foods impact negatively on their
condition.
d) Incorrect
Question 8
a) Incorrect:
b) Incorrect
c) Correct
d) Incorrect
Question 9 (para 13)
a) Incorrect
b) Incorrect
c) Incorrect
d) Correct: The best outcomes require a close partnership between you, your doctor and any health professionals or
practitioners involved in your treatment
Question 10 (para 15)
a) Incorrect
b) Correct: living with arthritis does not mean you cannot have an enjoyable and fulfilling life.
c) Incorrect
d) Incorrect

This resource was created by OET Online: http://oetonline.com.au

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Medical English Professionals

This resource was created by OET Online: http://oetonline.com.au