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Simple Automatic Voltage Stabilizer

Introduction
: There are huge varieties of voltage stabilizers available in the market,
and surely it's not a big deal to procure one, according to the needs. But off course it can be very
amusing to build one at home all by you and see it actually working. The circuit of an Automatic
Voltage Stabilizer (AVS) described in this article is in fact very simple in design, reasonably
precise and will give a good protection to the electronic gadget that is connected to it. It will
particularly guard them against the dangerous high voltages and also from the possible
brownouts (low voltages).The output will stay in the range of 200VAC 255VAC with an input
voltage of 175VAC 280VAC.

How does a Voltage Stabilizer Work?


In one of my previous articles you must have learnt regarding the functioning of an auto
transformer. There we have studied how an auto transformer may be used to
produce voltages higher and lower than the input supply mains AC voltage. An auto transformer
in fact plays the most important part in a voltage stabilizer circuit.
The circuit of a voltage stabilizer basically consists of a voltage sensor. It is configured to detect
the rise or fall of the AC mains voltage to dangerous levels. As soon it senses a risky input
voltage, it immediately energizes therelays connected to it. These relays in turn swaps and
switches the appropriate winding terminals of the auto transformer to correct and stabilize the
output

voltage.

Thus

the

appliance

which

is

connected

to

the

output

of

the

voltage stabilizer circuit always receives a safe, tolerable voltage and is able to function reliably,
irrespective of the fluctuating input voltages.
Lets proceed to know what are the parts required to build it and also its construction details.

Parts Required
: You will require the following parts for the circuit:

Resistor watt, CFR R1 = 2 K 7,

Preset P1 = 10 K Linear,

Transistor T1 = BC 547,

Zener diode Z1 = 3 V / 400 mW,

Diode D1, D2 = 1N4007,

Capacitor = 220uF / 25 V

Relay RL1 = 12 V / DPDT mini (double pole, double throw),

Transformer T1 = 12 0 12 V / 5 amps. T2 = 0 12 volts / 500 mA (input as per


country specifications)

General purpose board = 3" by 3"

Construction Clues
With the help of the given circuit schematic (on the next page) the construction of this simple
AVS circuit may be completed through the following easy steps:

In the given piece of general purpose board, insert the transistor, solder and cut its
leads.

Proceed by fixing and soldering the rest of the associated parts along with the
relay around the transistor.

Interlink all of them as per the circuit schematic.

Finally connect the primary and the secondary wires of the transformer to the
relay contacts as shown in the diagram.

The next page covers the circuit and the construction details of this automatic
voltage stabilizer circuit.

A simple voltage stabilizer circuit to protect your home appliances can be built by using
just a handful of electronic components and a couple of transformers. It will keep the
output within 200 and 250 or 100 and 125 against input extreme variations between 180
and 260 or 90 and 130 volts respectively as per country specifications.

Circuit Description

Th
e functioning of this simple voltage stabilizer circuit may be understood from the following
points:
Referring to the figure, we see that Transistor T1 forms the main active part of the entire circuit.
The voltage from smaller transformer is rectified by D1 and filtered by C1 to produce the
required operating power for the control circuit comprising of transistor T1, preset P1, zener
diode Z1 and the DPDT relay.

The above voltage is also used as the basic reference or the sensing voltage. Because this voltage
will vary proportionately with the applied input voltage variations.
For example, if normally the operating DC voltage is around 12 volts, an increase or decrease of
the input AC mains voltage by say 25 volts would proportionately increase or decrease the DC
volts to 14 or 10 volts respectively.
Preset P1 is set such that the transistor conducts and operates the relay whenever the input AC
mains tends to deviate above the exact normal voltage (110 or 225 volts) and vice versa.
If the input voltage crosses the above limit, T1 conducts and activates the relay. The relay
contacts connect the relevant connections of the power stabilizer transformer to deduct 25 volts
from the input i.e. bring the output to about 205 volts. From here on if the mains voltage keeps
on increasing, the ouput to the appliances will be 25 volts below it. It means, even if the voltage
reaches as high as 260 V, the output will reach only up to260 - 25 = 235 volts.
Exactly opposite will happen in case the input AC drops below the normal level, i.e. in this case
25 volts will be added to the output, and even if the input keeps on dropping and reaches 180
volts, the output will reach only up to 180 + 25 = 205 volts.
The present design is very simple and basic, therefore the stabilization cannot be very precise.
But certainly it will keep the output within 200 and 250 volts against input extreme voltages of
180 to 275 volts (or within 100 and 125 against 90 and 130 volts).

How to Test it?


The completed circuit board of simple voltagestabilizer may be tested in the following method:

For the testing procedure you will require a 0 12 volts universal DC variable
power supply.

You can assume the maximum 12 volts of thepower supply to be equivalent to an


input of approximately 230 VAC. We will take this voltage as the trip or the
change-over voltage of thestabilizer.

Connect the power supply to the supply terminals of the completed circuit board.

Keep the voltage of the power supply to its maximum position of 12 volts.

Carefully adjust the preset so that the relay just gets activated.

Now on decreasing the power supply voltage by 1 volt i.e. to 11 volts should
restore the relay back to its deactivated position.

This concludes the setting of the unit. It should keep the output voltage in
between 200 and 255 volts with extreme input voltages of 175 to 280 volts.

Your voltage stabilizer is now ready and shall protect any domestic electronic appliance
connected at its output.