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# Dr.

YK Lee

MECH300G

Mechanical Vibration
Vibration of Continuous media

Textbook: Chap 8
1

Dr. YK Lee

MECH300G

## Vibration of Continuous media

(Distributed Parameter Systems)
Strings, rods and beams:
distributed mass and stiffness

## Extending previous section to

DOF
Textbook: Chap 8
2

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MECH300G

Introduction
It is difficult (or time-consuming) to identify
discrete masses, dampers and springs in
continuous systems
They are systems of infinite degree of freedom.
If they are modeled as discrete systems, the
equations are ordinary differential equations
(ODE)
If they are modeled as continuous systems, the
equations are partial differential equations (PDE),
which are more accurate but harder to solve
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Introduction
The frequency equation of a continuous
system (for natural frequencies) is a
transcendental equation
Yields infinite number of natural
frequencies and natural modes
Need to apply boundary conditions to find
the natural frequencies, unlike discrete
systems.

Dr. YK Lee

MECH300G

## The string/cable equation

f(x,t)

y
x

Start by considering a
uniform string stretched
between two fixed
boundaries
Assume constant, axial
tension in string
Let a distributed force
f(x,t) act along the
string

http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/Demos/HangChain/HangChain.html
http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/Demos/string/Fixed.html
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## Examine a small element of string

2

f (x,t)

y
x

2
1

w(x,t)

1
x1

m a
2 w( x, t )
Fy = x t 2 =
1 sin 1 + 2 sin 2 + f ( x, t )x

x2 = x1 +x

## Force balance on an infinitesimal element

Now linearize the sine with the small angle
approximate sinx = tanx = slope of the string= w
x

Dr. YK Lee

MECH300G

EOM Linearization
2 sin 2 1 sin 1 + f ( x, t )x
2 w( x, t )
w( x, t )
w( x, t )
x

+ f ( x, t )x =
2
x x 2
x x1
t

## Recall the Taylor series of w/x about x1 :

w
w
w
2
+ O(x ) + K
+ x
=

x x x1
x x2 x x1
w( x, t )
2 w( x, t )
x
x + f ( x, t )x =

2
x
x x
t
1

w( x, t )
2 w( x, t )

+ f ( x, t ) =
x
x
t 2
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Dr. YK Lee

MECH300G

## Free Vibration Equation for String or Cable

Since is constant, and for no external force the equation
of motion becomes:
Wave equation
w( x, t )
2 w( x, t )
=
c
,
2
2
t
x
2

c=

, wave speed
cf. Eq. (8.9)

## Second order in time and second order in space, therefore

4 constants of integration. Two from initial conditions:
w( x,0) = w0 ( x), wt ( x,0) = w& 0 ( x) at t = 0
w(0, t ) = w(l, t ) = 0,

t >0

## And two from boundary conditions:

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Physical quantities

## Deflection is w(x,t) in the y-direction

The slope of the string is wx(x,t)
The restoring force is wxx(x,t)
The velocity is wt(x,t)
The acceleration is wtt(x,t)
at any point x along the string at time t
Note that the above applies to cables as well as strings

Dr. YK Lee

MECH300G

The solution
wn ( x, t ) = cn sin n ct sin n x + d n cos n ct sin n x
n
n
n
n
= cn sin(
ct ) sin(
x) + d n cos(
ct ) sin(
x)
l
l
l
l

n
n
n
n
w( x, t ) = cn sin(
ct ) sin(
x) + d n cos(
ct ) sin(
x)
l
l
l
l
n =1

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## Mode shape (Normal mode, Eigenfunction)

wn ( x, t ) = cn sin(

w0 ( x) = sin

n
n
n
n
ct ) sin(
x) + d n cos(
ct ) sin(
x)
l
l
l
l

## x, which is the first eigenfunction (n = 1)

l
cn = 0, n

2
n
d n = sin( x) sin(
x)dx = 0, n = 2,3K
l0
l
l
l

d1 = 1
w( x, t ) = sin(

nc
n =
l
11

c
x) cos t
l
l

## = Called the 1st mode of vibration

Or 1st harmonic or 1st normal mode
vibration in the first mode shape

= N-th frequency

Dr. YK Lee

MECH300G

## Plots of mode shapes

n
sin
x
2

n=1

n=3

0.5

X 1, x
X 2, x
0

0.5

1.5

X 3, x

0.5

nodes
1
x

n=2
See the animation: http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/Demos/string/Fixed.html
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## Example: Piano wire

L=1.4 m, =11.1x104 N, m=110 grams
Compute the first natural frequency.
= 110 g per 1.4 m = 0.0786 kg/m
c

11.1 104 N
1 =
=
=
l 1.4 1.4 0.0786 kg/m
= 2666.69 rad/s or 424 Hz

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## Bending vibrations of a beam

(Transverse vibration)

w (x,t)
f (x,t)

h1
x

h2
dx

E = Youngs modulus
I ( x) = cross - sect. area moment of

2 w( x, t )
M ( x, t ) = EI ( x)
x 2

14

M(x,t)
w(x,t)
V(x,t)

V(x,t)+Vx(x,t)dx

A(x)= h1h2

bending stiffness = EI ( x)

M(x,t)+Mx(x,t)dx

f(x,t)

x +dx

## Next sum forces in the y - direction (up, down)

Sum moments about the point Q
Use the moment given from
stenght of materials
Assume sides do not bend
(no shear deformation)

Dr. YK Lee

MECH300G

## Summing forces and moments

F

m a

V ( x , t )
2 w( x, t )

dx V ( x, t ) + f ( x, t )dx = A( x)dx
V ( x, t ) +
x
t 2

M ( x , t )
V ( x , t )

dx M ( x, t ) + V ( x, t ) +
dx dx
M ( x, t ) +

x
x

dx
I
+ f ( x, t )dx
=0
0
2
M ( x , t )

V ( x , t ) f ( x , t )
2

+
(
)
=0
dx + V ( x, t ) dx +
dx

x
x

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V ( x, t ) =

M ( x , t )
x

## Substitute into force balance equation yields:

2 M ( x, t )
2 w( x, t )
dx + f ( x, t )dx = A( x)dx

2
x
t 2

2 w( x, t ) 2
A( x)
+ 2
2
t
x

2 w( x, t )
EI ( x)
= f ( x, t )
2
x

## Assume constant stiffness to get:

2 w( x, t ) 2 4 w( x, t )
EI
c

c
+
=
0
,
=
t 2
x 4
A

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Dr. YK Lee

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## Spatial equation (BVP)

X ( x) X ( x) = 0.
c
2

A 2

Define = =
EI
c
Let X ( x) = Aex to get :
X ( x) = a1 sin x + a2 cos x + a3 sinh x + a4 cosh x
4

## Apply boundary conditions to get 3

constants and the characteristic equation
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## Eigenvalues & eigenfunctions

Solve numerically (fsolve in Matlab) to obtain solution to
transcendental equation tan l = tanh l
1l = 3.926602 2 l = 7.068583 3l = 10.210176
4 l = 13.351768 5l = 16.493361
K
n >5
(4n + 1)
nl =
4

A 2

4
= =
EI
c
2

cosh n l cos n l

## (sinh n lx sin n lx) cosh n lx + cos n lx

X n ( x ) = ( a4 ) n
sinh n l sin n l

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Mode shapes
X n, x

cosh n
sinh n

cos n
. sinh n. x
sin n

sin n. x

cosh n. x

cos n. x

1.5

Mode 3

Mode 2

0.5
X 3.926602 , x
0

X 7.068583 , x
X 10.210176 , x

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.5

1

1.5

2
x

19

Mode 1

Dr. YK Lee

MECH300G

## Natural Freq of the Euler-Bournoulli Beam

n = ( nl ) 2

20

EI
l 4

Dr. YK Lee

MECH300G

Rayleighs Method
Consider the beam shown below.

1 l 2
1 l 2
T = w& dm = w& A( x )dx
2 0
2 0

Kinetic energy
Assuming w(x,t)=W(x)cos
t, maximum
2
l
KE: Tmax = 0 A(x )W 2 (x )dx
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Rayleighs Method
Ignoring work done by shear forces, potential
energy:

2w
w
1 l
V = Md where M ( x, t ) = EI ( x ) 2 ( x, t ) and =
x
x
2 0

Thus

1 l w w
1 l w
V = EI 2 2 dx = EI 2 dx
2 0 x x
2 0 x
2

## Max value of w(x,t) is W(x). Hence

W (x )
1 l
dx
= EI ( x )
2
0
2
x
2

Vmax

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Rayleighs Method
Equating Tmax to Vmax, Rayleighs quotient
2
2
l
d W (x )
dx
EI (x )
R( ) = 2 =

dx 2

A(W ( x ))2 dx

## For a stepped beam,

R( ) = =
2

E1 I1

l1

d W
2
dx
2

l1

dx + E2 I 2
0

l2

l2

d W
2
dx
2

dx + L

A1 W dx + A2 W 2 dx + ...
0

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## Continuous theory: 1l = 1.875104

27

( nl ) 2
fn =
2

EI
1 3.515 EI
=
l 4 2 l 2

Dr. YK Lee

MECH300G

Example 8.12
Find the fundamental frequency of transverse
vibration of the nonuniform cantilever beam
shown below, using the deflection shape

W(x)=(1-x/l)2

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Solution
hx
A( x ) =
l

## Cross sectional area

Moment of inertia

1 hx
I (x ) =
12 l

Rayleighs quotient
h 3 x 3 2

E
dx
3 2

2
2
0
l
l
12
Eh
Eh

R ( ) = 2 =
= 2.5 4 or = 1.5811
4
l
l 4
l hx
x
0 l 1 l dx
Eh 2
l

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## Example of String Vibration

Musical instruments

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Dr. YK Lee

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## String Excitation Sources: Plucked String

(harp, guitar, mandolin)

31

http://www.mandolincafe.com/archives/briefhistory.html

Dr. YK Lee

MECH300G

## String Excitation Sources: Plucked String

- Plucking a string provides it with an initial energy
displacement (potential energy)
- The shape of the string before its release completely defines
the harmonic signature of the resulting motion
- A string plucked at 1/n-th the distance from one end will not
have energy at the n-th partial and its integer multiples
- The strength of excitation of the n-th vibrational mode is
inversely proportional to the square of the mode number

Ex 8.1, p.508
w(x,t)

h
L

32

w( x, t ) =
x

8 h x
ct 1
3x
3ct

sin
cos
sin
cos

+
L

L
L 9
L
L
2

Dr. YK Lee

MECH300G

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## String Excitation Sources: Struck String

- A struck string is given an initial velocity distribution (kinetic
energy)
- A string struck at 1/n-th the distance from one end will not
have energy at the n-th partial and its integer multiples
- The harmonic amplitudes in the vibration spectrum of a
struck string fall off less rapidly with frequency than those of
plucked strings.
- Light hammers (mass much less than the mass of the
string) result in little spectral drop-off with frequency. Heavier
hammers produce a drop-off roughly proportional to the
inverse of the mode number

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## String Excitation Sources: Bowed String

(violin family: violin, viola, cello and ??)

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Dr. YK Lee

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## String Excitation Source: Bowed String

- Stick-slip mechanism: During the greater part of each vibration, the
string is stuck to the bow and is carried with it in its motion. Then the
string suddenly detaches itself and moves rapidly backward until it is caught
again by the moving bow: key force-dry friction force
- Beginning and end of the slipping are triggered by the arrival of the
propagating bend or kink
- The string's vertical motion at any one point is given by a sawtooth pattern
- Round trip time depends only on the string length and the wave velocity
- Bowing near the string end requires greater force and produces a louder,
brighter sound than bowing farther from the end
- Amplitude of vibration can be increased either by increasing the bow
speed or by bowing closer to the bridge
Hall, Musical Acoustics, HKUST LIB ML3805 H153

http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/~jw/Bows.html
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## Frequency of Piano Keys

Middle C = 261.63 Hz
http://www.vibrationdata.com/piano.htm
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SPM-like bio-sensing

## 1981 Scanning Probe Microscopy invented by

Binnig and Rohrer; cantilevers use to image
atomic structure, magnetic properties of
atoms and biological molecules
1986 Binnig and Rohrer awarded Nobel Prize
~1996 Cantilevers use as biological sensors
begins

http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/288/5464/316
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Biochemo-optomechanical chip

http://web.mac.com/majumdargroup/iWeb/Site/Biosensing.html
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## Vibration of Tacoma Bridge as a Cable

Start of construction = 23 Nov 1938
Opened for traffic
Collapse of bridge

= 1 Jul 1940
= 7 Nov 1940

## L = 2800 ft = span between towers

h = 232 ft = maximum sag of cables
b = 39 ft = wdith between cables
d = 17 in = diameter of cable
h/L = 0.0823 = 1/12 = sag-to-span ratio
b/L = 0.0139 = 1/72 = width-to-span ratio
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## wf = 4300 lb/ft = floor weight/ft along the bridge

wg = 323 lb/ft = girder weight/cable/ft
wc = /4 (17/12)2* 0.082*490= 632 lb/ft of cable
wt = 4300/2 + 320+632 = 3105 lb/ft = total weight carried per cable
= wt/g = 3105/32.2 = 96.4 lb*ft2*s2
T
42

6 lb
=
total
tension
at
the
tower
=
13.8210
0

Dr. YK Lee

MECH300G

## Vibration of Tacoma Bridge as a Cable

n T
n
13.1
fn =
=
10 6
2 L 2 2800 96.4
= 0.0658n Hz = 3.95n cpm
4 cpm

f1 ~ 4cpm, f2 ~ 8cpm:
consistent with Prof F.B. Farquharsons report about Tacoma bridge
cpm = cycle per minute, 1 cpm = 60 Hz
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## Mass moment of inertia:

2
2
mb
4320
(
39
)
J for the floor =
=

= 17,000
12
32.2
12
2

955 39
2

= 22,400
J for the girders plus cables
32.2 2

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## The girder & the floor are both open sections

Torsional stiffness Kg Kf very small
Consider a pair of cables spaced b ft apart & under tension T:
For 3 consecutive stations: i-1, i, i+1

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## If the cross section at i has a small roation ,

yi = x = (b/2), the vertical component of T is
b
Tb
F = 2T = 2T =
x
2x
The torque of the cable is Fb = Tb2/x
Torsional stiffness = Torque per unit length of the cable
Tb2 = 13.11106 392 = 19,900 106 lb*ft2
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2
2
J 2 =K 2
t
x
J
L=0
K

sin

J
L = , 2 ,K, n
K

f2 =

47

Freq equation

1
L

K
J

39,400
J
= 2800
10 3
2 = L
19,900
K
= 3.94 s