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Three Leg Inverter Controlled Three

Phase Induction Motor For Traction


Applications

BY:
K. RAMESH 06M21A0229
P.VINAY KUMAR 06M21A0257
K. SUSHEEL KUMAR 06M21A0251
S.MOHID 06M21A0237

A
PROJECT REPORT
ON
Three Leg Inverter Controlled Three Phase Induction Motor For
Traction Applications
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQURIMENT FOR THE
AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOF TECHNOLOGY
IN
ELECRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
BY
1. K.RAMESH 06M21A0229
2. P.VINAY KUMAR 06M21A0257
3. K.SUSHEEL KUMAR 06M21A0251
4. S.MOHID 06M21A0237
UNDER THE ABLE GUIDENCE OF
INTERNAL GUIDE
RAJESH.B

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering


LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING&TECHNOLOGY
(Affiliated to JNTU-Hyderabad)
Sy No.32. Himayathsagar, R.R.Dist., Hyderabad _500 008
2009-2010

Lords Institute of Engineering And Technology


(Approved to JNTU & approved by AICTE Delhi.)
Sy.No.32, Himayath sagar, R.R.Dist., Hyderabad-500 008.
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS
ENGINEERING
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project work entitled
Three Leg Inverter Controlled Three Phase Induction Motor For
Traction Applications

1. K.RAMESH 06M21A0229
2. P.VINAY KUMAR 06M21A0257
3. K.SUSHEEEL KUMAR 06M21A0251
4. S.MOHID 06M21A0237

In partial fulfillment for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology in


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING of JAWAHALALNEHRU
TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY. During The year 2009-2010 project report has been
approved as it satisfied the Academic requirement in respect of project work prescribed
for The bachelor of engineering degree.

Mr. Rajesh.B Mr.Rajesh.B


Project Guide Head of the Department
EEE

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We express our profound gratitude to Mr. BASHA MOINUDDIN, chairman,


Lords institute of engineering and technology for their kind patronage.

We thank our beloved principal Dr. MAHAMMAD MASOOD for the ample
Facilities made available to proceed with our project work.

We are thankful to Asst. prof B. RAJESH, Head of the department, Electrical


And Electronics department, Lords institute of Engineering & technology for his
Valuable suggestions in accomplishing this project.

I express my sincere thanks and acknowledge with deep sense of gratitude for
the guidance and encouragement rendered by MR.RAJESH.B

Electrical and Electronics department, Lords Institute of Engineering &technology for


sparing his valuable time at every stage. We would like to thank whole heartedly to

Finally, we would like to thank all the people who directly and indirectly co
Operated us in completing our project successfully.
CONTENTS
Page
no.
A. ABSTRACT 1
B. INTRODUCTION 2
- PROJECT OVER VIEW 3
1. POWER CONVERTERS 4
1.0 AC TO DC CONVERTER 5
1.0.1 HALF-WAVE RECTIFICATION 5
1.0.2 FULL-WAVE RECTIFICATION 6
1.1 DC TO DC CONVETER (DC CHOPPER) 9
1.1.1 PRINCIPLE OF STEP DOWN OPERATION 10
1.1.2 PRINCIPLE OF STEP UP OPERATION 12
1.1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF CHOPPER 13
1.2 AC TO AC CONVERTER (AC VOLTAGE REGULATOR) 19
1.2.1 ELECTRO MECHNICAL REGULATORS 20
1.2.2 MAINS REGULATORS 20
1.2.3 AC VOLTAGE STABLISERS 21
1.2.4 DC VOLTAGE STABILIZERS 22
1.2.5 ACTIVE REGULATERS 22
1.3. DC TO AC CONVERTER (INVERTER) 23
1.3.1 TYPES OF INVERTER & WAVE FORMS 23
1.3.2 POWER INVERTERS 25
2. INDUCTION MOTOR 27
2.1 PRINICIPLE OF INDUCTION MOTOR 28
2.2 INDUCTION MOTOR CONSTRUCTION 29
2.3 BASIC INDUCTION MOTOR CONCEPTS 30

2.3.1 THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUCED TORQUE IN AN


INDUCTION MOTOR 30
2.3.2 THE CONCEPT OF ROTOR SLIP 31
2.4 THE EQUVALENT CIRCUIT OF AN INDUCTION MOTOR 32
2.4.1 THE TRANSFOR MODEL OF AN INDUCTION MOTOR 33
2.4.2 THE ROTOR CIRCUIT MODEL 35
2.4.3 THE FINAL EQUVALENT CIRCUIT 37
2.4.4 POWER AND TORQUE IN INDUCTION MOTOR 38
2.5 INDUCTION MOTOR TORQUE SPEED CHRECTERSTICS 40
2.5.1 NO LOAD CONDITION 41
2.5.2 ON LOAD CONDITION 42
2.6 INDUCTION MOTOR ADVANTAGES 46
3. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 47
3.0 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 48
3.1 POWER SUPPLY 49
3.1.0 POWER SUPPLY TYPES 49
3.1.1 BATTERY POWER SUPPLY 49
3.1.2 LINER POER SUPPLY 50
3.1.3 AC/DC SUPPLY 51
3.1.4 SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY 51
3.1.5 PROGRAMMABLE POWER SUPPLY 53
3.1.6 UNINTERRUPTED POWER SUPPLY 54
3.1.7 HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY 55
3.1.8 VOLTAGE MULTIPLIER 55
3.2 POWER SUPPLY APPLICATIONS 56
3.2.1 COMPUTER POWER SUPPLY 56
3.2.2 WELDING POWER SUPPLY 56
3.2.3 AC ADAPTER 57
3.3 MOSFET 58
3.4 MOSFET OPERATING PRINCIPLE 59
4. CIRCUIT OPERATION 61
4.0 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 62
4.1 OPERATION OF THREE LEG INVERTER 63
5. ANALYSIS & RESULTS 66
5.1 MAT LAB MODEL FOR THREE LEG INVERTER WITH
INDUCTION MOTOR LOAD 67
5.2 THREE LEG INVERTER VOLTAGE WAVE FORMS 70
5.3 INDUCTION MOTOR OUT PUT SPEED WAVE FORMS 71
5.4 INDUCTION MTER OUT PUT TORQUE WAVE FORM 72
6. CONCLUSION 73
7. FUTURE SCOPE
7.1 SPACE VECTER MODULATION THREE-LEG VOLTAGE 75
SOURCE INVERTER
8. BIBLOGRAPHY 80
LIST OF FIGURES

PAGE NO

1. HALF WAVE RECTIFIER 5


2. FULL WAVE RECTIFIER 6
3. PRINICIPLE OF STEP UP OPERATION 12
4. CLASS A CHOPPER 13
5. CLASS B CHOPPER 14
6. CLASS C CHOPPER 16
7. CLASS D CHOPPER 17
8. CLASS E CHOPPER 18
9. CUTWAY DIAGRAM OFA TYPICAL LARGE CAGE ROTOR 28
INDUCTION MOTOR
10. SHETCH OF CAGE ROTOR 29
11. THE TRANSFOR MODEL OF AN INDUCTION MOTOR 33
12. INDUCED TORQUE FROM PHYSICAL STAND POINT 41
13. THREE LEG INVERTER CONTROLLED INDUCTION MOTOR 48
14. LINEAR POWER SUPPLY 50
15. SWITCHED MODE POWER SUPPLY 51
16. PROGRAMMABLE POWER SUPPLY 53
17. AC ADAPTER 57
18. MOSFET 58
19. CONSTRUCTION OF MOSFET 59
20. TRGERING PULSES 63
21. MAT LAB MODEL FOR THREE LEG INVERTER
WITH INDUCTION MOTOR LOAD 67
22. THREE LEG INVERTER VOLTAGE WAVE FORMS 70
24. INDUCTION MOTOR OUT PUT SPEEED WAVE FORMS 71
25. INDUCTION MOTOR OUT PUT TORQUE WAVE FORMS 72
26.TOPOLOGY OF A THREE LEG VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER 75
27. REPRESENTATION OF TOPOLOGY IN α, β PLANE 77
28. NON ZERO VOLTAGE VECTORS IN α, β PLANE 78
29. OUT PUT VOLTAGE VECTOR IN THE α, β PLANE 79
LIST OF SYMBOLS

1. VPEAK = PEAK VOLTAGE


2. VAC = AVERAGE DC OUTPUT VOLTAGE
3. VRMS = THE ROOT MEAN SQUARE OF OUTPUT VOLTAGE
4. ID = AVERAGE VALUE OF LOAD CURRENT
5. TON = TIME INTERVAL FOR WHICH SCR CONDUCTION
6. TOFF = TIME INTERVAL FOR WHICH SCR IS OFF
7. T = CHOPPING PERIOD
8. D = DUTY CYCLE
9. NSYN = SYNCHRONOUS SPEED
10. TIND = INDUCED TORQUE
11. eind = INDUCED VOLTAGE
A. ABSTRACT

In modern days the utilization of electric traction systems in light load vehicles
like cars has increased due to the energy conservation and convenient of electric al
energy.
In our project the a five leg inverter out of which three leg inverter is used for
induction motor
Controlled and two leg inverter is used for the compressor the effect of the three leg
inverter is the same.
In conventional petrol and diesel engines when compressor motor runs the torque of
the engine reduces. But in an electric drive are controlled above that the independent
operation of three leg.
B. INTRODUCTION
- PROJECT OVER VIEW:

In recent years growing concerns about environmental issues have demanded


more energy efficient non polluting vehicles.
In our project we have analyzed an inverter which can supply the fuel cell supply to
the induction motor to give out the required the speed and torque as per the drive
applications.
A three leg normal is used and a simulation of its operation is done this project.

Five leg inverter and two leg inverter will not affect the torque of induction motor
which is controlled by three leg inverter independently.
C
HAPTER-1
Power
Converters
1. Power converter can be classified in to six types:

1.0 AC to DC Converter (Controlled Rectifier):


2.0 DC to DC Converter (DC Chopper):
3.0 AC to AC Converter (AC voltage regulator)
4.0 DC to AC Converter (Inverter):

1.0 AC to DC Converter (Controlled rectifier):

A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC) to direct


current (DC), a process known as rectification. Rectifiers have many uses including as
components of power supplies and as detectors of radio signals. Rectifiers may be made
of solid state diodes, vacuum tube diodes, mercury arc valves, and other components.
1.0.1 Half-wave rectification:
In half wave rectification, either the positive or negative half of the AC wave is
passed, while the other half is blocked. Because only one half of the input waveform
reaches the output, it is very inefficient if used for power transfer. Half-wave rectification
can be achieved with a single diode in a one-phase supply, or with three diodes in a three-
phase supply.
The output DC voltage of a half wave rectifier can be calculated with the following two
ideal equations:

1.0.2 Full-wave rectification:


A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to one of constant polarity
(positive or negative) at its output. Full-wave rectification converts both polarities of the
input waveform to DC (direct current), and is more efficient. However, in a circuit with a
non-center tapped transformer, four diodes are required instead of the one needed for
half-wave rectification. (See semiconductors, diode). Four diodes arranged this way are
called a diode bridge or bridge rectifier:

Graetz bridge rectifier: a full-wave rectifier using 4 diodes.


For single-phase AC, if the transformer is center-tapped, then two diodes back-to-back
(i.e. anodes-to-anode or cathode-to-cathode) can form a full-wave rectifier. Twice as
many windings are required on the transformer secondary to obtain the same output
voltage compared to the bridge rectifier above.
3-phase AC input, half & full wave rectified DC output waveforms
For three-phase AC, six diodes are used. Typically there are three pairs of diodes, each
pair, though, is not the same kind of double diode that would be used for a full wave
single-phase rectifier. Instead the pairs are in series (anode to cathode). Typically,
commercially available double diodes have four terminals so the user can configure them
as single-phase split supply use, for half a bridge, or for three-phase use.
Disassembled automobile alternator, showing the six diodes that comprise a full-wave
three-phase bridge rectifier.
Most devices that generate alternating current (such devices are called alternators)
generate three-phase AC. For example, an automobile alternator has six diodes inside it
to function as a full-wave rectifier for battery charging applications.
The average and root-mean-square output voltages of an ideal single phase full wave
rectifier can be calculated as:

Where:
Vdc,Vav - the average or DC output voltage,
Vp - the peak value of half wave,
Vrms - the root-mean-square value of output voltage.
π = ~ 3.14159
e = ~ 2.71828
Peak loss
An aspect of most rectification is a loss from the peak input voltage to the peak output
voltage, caused by the built-in voltage drop across the diodes (around 0.7 V for ordinary
silicon p-n-junction diodes and 0.3 V for Schottky diodes). Half-wave rectification and
full-wave rectification using two separate secondaries will have a peak voltage loss of
one diode drop. Bridge rectification will have a loss of two diode drops. This may
represent significant power loss in very low voltage supplies. In addition, the diodes will
not conduct below this voltage, so the circuit is only passing current through for a portion
of each half-cycle, causing short segments of zero voltage to appear between each
"hump".
Rectifier output smoothing
While half-wave and full-wave rectification suffice to deliver a form of DC
output, neither produces constant-voltage DC. In order to produce steady DC from a
rectified AC supply, a smoothing circuit or filter is required.[1] In its simplest form this
can be just a reservoir capacitor or smoothing capacitor, placed at the DC output of the
rectifier. There will still remain an amount of AC ripple voltage where the voltage is not
completely smoothed.

Sizing of the capacitor represents a tradeoff. For a given load, a larger capacitor
will reduce ripple but will cost more and will create higher peak currents in the
transformer secondary and in the supply feeding it. In extreme cases where many
rectifiers are loaded onto a power distribution circuit, it may prove difficult for the power
distribution authority to maintain a correctly shaped sinusoidal voltage curve.

For a given tolerable ripple the required capacitor size is proportional to the load
current and inversely proportional to the supply frequency and the number of output
peaks of the rectifier per input cycle. The load current and the supply frequency are
generally outside the control of the designer of the rectifier system but the number of
peaks per input cycle can be affected by the choice of rectifier design.
A half-wave rectifier will only give one peak per cycle and for this and other
reasons is only used in very small power supplies. A full wave rectifier achieves two
peaks per cycle and this is the best that can be done with single-phase input. For three-
phase inputs a three-phase bridge will give six peaks per cycle and even higher numbers
of peaks can be achieved by using transformer networks placed before the rectifier to
convert to a higher phase order.
To further reduce this ripple, a capacitor-input filter can be used. This
complements the reservoir capacitor with a choke (inductor) and a second filter capacitor,
so that a steadier DC output can be obtained across the terminals of the filter capacitor.
The choke presents a high impedance to the ripple current.[1]
A more usual alternative to a filter, and essential if the DC load is very demanding of a
smooth supply voltage, is to follow the reservoir capacitor with a voltage regulator. The
reservoir capacitor needs to be large enough to prevent the troughs of the ripple getting
below the voltage the DC is being regulated to. The regulator serves both to remove the
last of the ripple and to deal with variations in supply and load characteristics. It would
be possible to use a smaller reservoir capacitor (these can be large on high-current power
supplies) and then apply some filtering as well as the regulator, but this is not a common
strategy. The extreme of this approach is to dispense with the reservoir capacitor
altogether and put the rectified waveform straight into a choke-input filter. The advantage
of this circuit is that the current waveform is smoother and consequently the rectifier no
longer has to deal with the current as a large current pulse, but instead the current
delivery is spread over the entire cycle. The downside is that the voltage output is much
lower – approximately the average of an AC half-cycle rather than the peak.] Voltage-
doubling rectifiers

1.1. DC to DC Converter (DC Chopper):

Many industrial applications require power from dc voltage sources. Several of these
applications, however, perform better in case these are fed from variable dc voltage
sources.
The conversion of fixed DC voltage to an adjustable DC output voltage, through the use
of semiconductor devices is called chopping. A chopper is a static device that converts
fixed dc input voltage to a variable dc output voltage directly. It is a high speed on/off
semiconductor switch (connects source to the load and disconnects the load from the
source at a fast speed).
The power semiconductor device used for a chopper circuit can be force commutated
thyristor, power BJT, power MOSFET, GTO or IGBT.

A chopper may be thought of as dc equivalent of an ac transformer since they behave in


an identical manner. Like a transformer, a chopper can be used to step down or step up
the fixed dc input voltage.

Chopper systems offer smooth control, high efficiency, fast response and regeneration.

1.1.1 Principle of Step Down operation:

The step down chopper can be described by the following circuit; here a step down
chopper with resistive load is shown.
The thyristor in the circuit acts as a switch. The thyristor can be turned-on or turned-off
as desired. When thyristor is ON, supply voltage appears across the load .When thyristor
is OFF, the voltage across the load will be zero. The output voltage and current
waveforms are shown below.

Now, the various parameters can be assumed as:

Vdc = A verage value of output or load voltage.


I dc = A verage value of output or load current.
tON = Time interval for which SCR conducts.
tOFF = Time interval for which SCR is OFF.
T =t ON+ t OFF= Period of switching or chopping period.
1
f = = Freq. of chopper switching or chopping freq.
T

The average output voltage can be found by


Average Output Voltage
 tON 
Vdc =V  
 tON +tOFF
t 
Vdc =V  ON = V d.
 T
t 
but  ON  =d = duty cycle
 t 

As the duty cycle is always less than 1. So, the output voltage is less than the input
voltage.

1.1.2 Principle of Step Up operation:

The step up choppers are used to obtain output voltage greater than the input voltage. The
basic circuit for step up operation is shown below

I L D
+
+ −

L
C O V
V A O
D
C h o p p e r


The values of L and C are chosen depending upon the requirement of output voltage and
current.
When the chopper is on the inductor is connected across the supply. The current in the
inductor rises or in other words the inductor stores energy.
When the chopper is OFF the inductor current is forced to flow through the diode and the
load. The current tend to decrease as to reverse the polarity of induced emf in the
inductor.
The expression for the output current can be written as:

dI
VO = V + L .i .,e VO >V
dt
We clearly see that the output voltage is greater than the input voltage.

1.1.3 Classification of choppers

Choppers can be classified as:


1.1.3.1 Class A chopper
1.1.3.2 Class B chopper
1.1.3.3 Class C chopper
1.1.3.4 Class D chopper
1.1.3.5 Class E chopper

1.1.3.1Class A chopper: It is a step down chopper in which the average value of output
voltage and current is always positive. A free wheeling diode (FWD) is connected across
the load to prevent the output current being negative. Its region of operation is in the first
quadrant only, so it is also called first-quadrant chopper. The circuit and the waveforms
are shown below.
i0 v0
+

C h o p p e r
L
O v0 V
V A
F W D D

− i0
ig T h y r i s t o r
g a t e p u l s e

t
i0
O u t p u t c u r r e n t

C H O N
t
v F W D C o n d u c t s
0
O u t p u t v o l t a g e

t
tO N
T

1.1.3.2 Class B chopper: In this type the average output voltage is positive but the
average output current is negative. Therefore the class B chopper operates in the second
quadrant. Power flows from the load to the source. It is a step up chopper. It is widely
used for regenerative breaking of DC motors. Its circuit and waveforms are shown below:

D
i0 v0
+
R

V L v0

C h o p p e r
E − i0

ig
T h y r i s t o r
g a t e p u l s e

t
i0 tO F F tO N

T
t
O u t p u t c u r r e n t
Im a x

Im i n D
c o n d uC c h t so p p e r
c o n d u c t s
v 0 O u t p u t v o l t a g e

1.1.3.4 Class C choppers: Class C Chopper is a combination of Class A and Class B


Choppers. For first quadrant operation, CH1 is ON or D2 conducts. For second quadrant
operation, CH2 is ON or D1 conducts. When CH1 is ON, the load current is positive. The
output voltage is equal to ‘V’ & the load receives power from the source. When CH1 is
turned OFF, energy stored in inductance L forces current to flow through the diode D2
and the output voltage is zero. Current continues to flow in positive direction. When CH2
is triggered, the voltage E forces current to flow in opposite direction through L and
CH2 .The output voltage is zero turning OFF CH2, the energy stored in the inductance
drives current through diode D1 and the supply Output voltage is V, the input current
becomes negative and power flows from load to source.
C 1 H D 1
i0 v0
+

V R

C 2 H D L v0
2

C h o p p e r
i0
E

ig 1 G a t e p u l s e
o f C 1H

t
ig 2 G a t e p u l s e
o f C 2H

t
i0
O u t p u t c u r r e n t

D 1 C H1 D 2 C H2 D 1 C H1 D 2 C H2
O N O N O N O N
V 0 O u t p u t v o l t a g e

1.1.3.4 Class D chopper: Class D is a two quadrant chopper. When both CH1 and CH2
are triggered simultaneously, the output voltage = V and output current flows through the
load. When CH1 and CH2 are turned OFF, the load current continues to flow in the same
direction through load, D1 and D2, due to the energy stored in the inductor L. Average
load voltage is positive if chopper ON time is more than the OFF time .Average output
voltage becomes negative if tON < tOFF .Hence the direction of load current is always
positive but load voltage can be positive or negative.
v0
C 1 H D 2

R i0 L E
V
+ v 0 − i0

D 1 C 2 H

ig 1
G a t e p u l s e
o f C1 H

t
ig 2 G a t e p u l s e
o f C2 H
t
i0
O u t p u t c u r r e n t

t
C H1 , C 2H D 1 , D 2 C o n d u c t i n g
O N
v 0 O u t p u t v o l t a g e
V
A v e r v a0 g e
t

1.1.3.5 Class E chopper: Class E is a four quadrant chopper. When CH1 and CH4 are
triggered, output current flows in positive direction through CH1 and CH4, and with
output voltage = V. This gives the first quadrant operation. When both CH1 and CH4 are
OFF, the energy stored in the inductor L drives iO through D2 and D3 in the same
direction, but output voltage vO = -V.
C 1 H D C 3 H D
1 3

i0 R L E
V
+ −
v0
C 2 H D C 4 H D
2 4

v 0

C H2 - D4 C o C n H1 d u c - t sC H4 O N
D 1 - D 4 C o Cn d H4 u c t- s D2 C o n d u c t s

i0

C H3 - C H2 D 2 - O N D 3 C o n d u c t s
C H2 - D4 C oC n H4 d u c- t D2s C o n d u c t s

Control strategies
The output voltage can be controlled by varying the duty cycle. Following are the
methods for varying duty cycle:
Time Ratio Control (TRC)
Current-limit control
Time Ratio Control
In this control scheme, the time ratio is varied. This is realized in two different strategies:

(a.) Constant frequency system: In this scheme the don time is varied keeping the
frequency constant. Variation of on-time means adjustment of pulse width, as this scheme
is also known as pulse-width modulation (PWM).

(b.) Variable frequency system: In this scheme, the chopping frequency is varied and
either on-time or off-time is kept constant.
This scheme is also known as frequency modulation.

Current-limit control
In this control scheme, the on and off of chopper circuit is guided by the previous set
value of load current. These two set values are maximum load current and minimum load
current. When load current reaches the upper limit, chopper is switched off. Now load
current freewheels and begin to decay exponentially. When it falls to lower limit, chopper
is switched on and load current begins to rise. Load current cannot be discontinuous in
this case
Current-limit control involves feedback loop, the trigger circuitry for the chopper is
therefore more complex.

Among the various control schemes the pulse width modulation (PWM) technique is
widely used.

1.2. AC to AC Converter (AC voltage regulator):

Voltage regulator:
A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a
constant voltage level.
It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or passive or active electronic components.
Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages.
With the exception of shunt regulators, all voltage regulators operate by comparing the
actual output voltage to some internal fixed reference voltage. Any difference is
amplified and used to control the regulation element. This forms a negative feedback
servo control loop. If the output voltage is too low, the regulation element is commanded
to produce a higher voltage. If the output voltage is too high, the regulation element is
commanded to produce a lower voltage. In this way, the output voltage is held roughly
constant. The control loop must be carefully designed to produce the desired tradeoff
between stability and speed of response.

1.2.1 Electromechanical regulators ·


1.2.2 Mains regulators ·
1.2.3 AC voltage stabilisers ·
1.2.4 DC voltage stabilisers ·
1.2.5 Active regulators

1.2.1 Electromechanical regulators:


Early automobile generators and alternators had a mechanical voltage regulator using two
or three relays and various resistors to stabilize the generator's output at slightly more
than 6 or 12 V, independent of the engine's rpm or the varying load on the vehicle's
electrical system. More modern designs use solid state technology (transistors) to do the
same.
These regulators operate by controlling the field current reaching the generator (or
alternator) and in this way controlling the output voltage produced by the generator.

1.2.2 Mains regulators:


Electromechanical regulators have also been used to regulate the voltage on AC power
distribution lines. These regulators generally operate by selecting the appropriate tap on a
transformer with multiple taps. If the output voltage is too low, the tap changer switches
connections to produce a higher voltage. If the output voltage is too high, the tap changer
switches connections to produce a lower voltage. The controls provide a deadband
wherein the controller will not act, preventing the controller from constantly hunting
(constantly adjusting the voltage) to reach the desired target voltage.

1.2.3 AC voltage stabilisers


A voltage stabiliser is a type of household mains regulator which uses a continuously
variable autotransformer to maintain an AC output that is as close to the standard or
normal mains voltage as possible, under conditions of fluctuation. It uses a
servomechanism (or negative feedback) to control the position of the tap (or wiper) of the
autotransformer, usually with a motor. An increase in the mains voltage causes the output
to increase, which in turn causes the tap (or wiper) to move in the direction that reduces
the output towards the nominal voltage.

An alternative method is the use of a type of saturating transformer called a Ferro


resonant transformer. These transformers use a tank circuit composed of a high-voltage
resonant winding and a capacitor to produce a nearly constant average output with a
varying input. The Ferro resonant approach is attractive due to its lack of active
components, relying on the square loop saturation characteristics of the tank circuit to
absorb variations in average input voltage. The Ferro resonant output has a high harmonic
content, leading to a distorted output waveform. The Ferro resonant action is a flux
limiter rather than a voltage regulator, but with a fixed supply frequency it can maintain
an almost constant average output voltage even as the input voltage varies.
1.2.4. DC voltage stabilizers:
Many simple DC power supplies regulate the voltage using a shunt regulator such as a
zener diode, avalanche breakdown diode, or voltage regulator tube. Each of these devices
begins conducting at a specified voltage and will conduct as much current as required to
hold its terminal voltage to that specified voltage. The power supply is designed to only
supply a maximum amount of current that is within the safe opera rating capability of the
shunt regulating device (commonly, by using a series resistor). In shunt regulators, the
voltage reference is also the regulating device.
If the stabiliser must provide more power, the shunt regulator output is only used to
provide the standard voltage reference for the electronic device, known as the voltage
stabiliser. The voltage stabiliser is the electronic device, able to deliver much larger
currents on demand.

1.2.5 Active regulators:


Because they (essentially) dump the excess current not needed by the load, shunt
regulators are inefficient and only used for low-power loads. When more power must be
supplied, more sophisticated circuits are used. In general, these can be divided into
several classes:
1.3.DC to AC Converter (Inverter):

Batteries produce power in direct current (DC) form, which can run at very low voltages
but cannot be used to run most modern household appliances. Utility companies and
generators produce sine wave alternating current (AC) power, which is used by most
commonly available appliances today. Inverters take the DC power supplied by a storage
battery bank and electronically convert it to AC power.

An inverter used for backup power in a grid connected home will use grid power to keep
the batteries charged, and when grid power fails, it will switch to drawing power from the
batteries and supplying it to the building electrical system. For a business or home office,
a reliable power source is invaluable for preventing lost data on computer systems. Most
modern inverters also include over voltage and under voltage protection, protecting
sensitive equipment from dangerous power surges as well.

In some areas, grid connected homes can use inverters and alternative energy generators
to sell power back to the utility company. With the inverter attached to solar, wind or
water generators, the inverter can use the utility grid as its battery bank. Utility power
will be used when alternative power sources are insufficient, but when power needs are
low, excess alternative energy can be sent to the utility grid. Sellback power will then be
credited to the user's utility bill.

In a stand-alone renewable power system, whether residential, industrial, marine or RV,


the inverter allows AC electrical appliances to be run from the storage battery bank.
When the battery bank becomes discharged, the inverter can automatically start a
generator to power the system while the batteries recharge.

1.3.1 Types of Inverters & Wave forms:


Inverters, besides coming in a wide variety of power capacities, are distinguished
primarily by the shape of the alternating current wave they produce. The three major
waveforms are square-wave, modified sine-wave and true sine-wave. Square wave
inverters are largely obsolete, as the waveform shape is not well suited for running most
modern appliances, and prices have come down considerably for the superior modified
sine wave and true sine wave types.
Modified Sine Wave Inverters
The least expensive type of modern inverter produces modified sine wave power. The
waveform looks like a stair-step, where the power rises straight from zero to upper peak
voltage, straight back to zero, and straight to lower peak voltage, resting at each point for
a moment.
Modified sine wave inverters will run many household appliances such a televisions,
radios and microwaves with occasional minor electrical "noise" present. Sensitive
equipment like battery chargers, tools with variable speed motors, laser printers and
certain heating controllers (such as those used by Toy stoves) will run erratically or not at
all with modified sine wave power.
For a remote cabin with only the "basics" running on the electrical system, a modified
sine wave inverter is an economical choice. Modified sine wave inverters are also often
well suited for solar-powered RV electrical systems.
True Sine Wave Inverters
The power supplied by utility companies and engine generators is a true sine wave form.
This is the most reliable waveform for household use. True sine wave power passes from
the upper and lower peak voltages in a smooth curved wave, rather than the stair-step of
the modified sine wave.
All appliances and electronic equipment will run as intended when using sine wave
power. True sine wave inverters will produce AC power as good as or better than utility
power, ensuring that even the most sensitive equipment will run properly. While sine
wave inverters are more expensive than modified sine wave models, the quality of their
waveform can be a definite advantage.
For office buildings considering a backup power inverter, a true sine wave model will
allow proper function of all electronic office equipment and fluorescent lighting. For
residential power, anyone using a Toy stove, battery chargers, electric drills, digital clock
radios or other sensitive electronics should consider a true sine wave inverter to ensure
proper function of all household appliances.
1.3.2 Power Inverters:
Various inverters may have different features making them better suited for different
specific applications. Very small inverters are available that connect to a car cigarette
lighter, with a single three-prong AC outlet as the output. Large inverters are generally
designed to be hardwired into a building electrical system. Some inverters offer 240 volt
output, others can be connected to a transformer to provide 240 volt power. The right
inverter for any specific use can be found with the help of an experienced inverter dealer.
Inverter Sizing and Use
When choosing a specific inverter, the inverter's output capacity must be matched to the
size of the electrical loads it will run. By choosing which electrical circuits the inverter
will power (all circuits or only selected "essential" circuits), the power draw of all
electrical loads on each circuit can be added together to arrive at a minimum necessary
inverter capacity. Extremely power hungry appliances such as electric water heaters and
electric clothing dryers should either be replaced with gas-powered energy efficient
models, or be run on non-inverter supplied power.
Inverters have two different capacity ratings. One is the inverter's continuous output
rating. This is the maximum wattage the inverter can output on a long-term basis. The
second rating is the inverter's surge capacity rating. This is the maximum wattage the
inverter can output on a momentary basis. Surge capacity will often be 2x or more in
excess of the continuous rating.
All appliances require more power to start than they use while running. Many appliances,
such as refrigerators and water pumps, will require up to three times as much power to
start as they require while running. The combined starting power required by all inverter
powered appliances must be within the inverter's surge capacity rating.
For home or office (permanent) installation, the inverter is connected between the circuit
breaker panel and the power source. If the inverter is only running certain loads in the
system, those specific circuits will need to be wired to the inverter through a sub-panel.
Different wiring layouts are used depending on whether the inverter is in a remote power
system, a grid backup system or a grid inertia system. Many inverters include built-in
battery charging functions, which is especially useful in grid backup systems.
Most modern inverters are configured to automatically switch between functions and
electrical sources as needed. In a grid backup system, the inverter will switch to
providing battery power within milliseconds of grid power failure. When grid power
returns, it will switch to recharging the batteries until the next time they are needed. In a
stand-alone alternative energy system, the inverter can start the generator automatically
whenever the batteries fall below a set voltage level, and switch back to battery power
when they are recharged. In a utility sellback system, the inverter can be set to send
power to the grid during specific times of day.
CHAPTER-2
INDUCTION MOTOR
2.1 Principle of induction motor:
As a general rule conversion of electrical power into mechanical power takes
place in the rotating part of an electrical motor in dc motors the electrical power is
conducted directly to the armature (i.e., rotating part) through brushes and commutator
(fig.1). hence in this sense, a d.c motor can be called a conduction motor. However, in
a.c. motors, the rotor does not receive electric power by conduction but by induction in
exactly the same way as a secondary of a two winding transformer receive its power,
from the primary, that is why such motors are known as induction motors. In fact an
induction motor can be treated as rotating transformer i.e. one in which primary winding
is stationary but the secondary is free to rotate.

Fig.1.Cutaway diagram of a typical large cage rotor induction motor:


2.2 Induction Motor Construction:
There are basically 2 types of rotor construction:

2.2.1 Squirrel Cage - no windings and no slip rings

2.2.2 Wound rotor - It has 3 phase windings, usually Y connected, and the winding ends
are connected via slip rings.

Wound rotor are known to be more expensive due to its maintenance cost to upkeep the
slip rings, carbon brushes and also rotor windings.
2.3 Basic Induction Motor Concepts

2.3.1 The Development of Induced Torque in an Induction Motor

When current flows in the stator, it will produce a magnetic field in stator as such that Bs
(stator magnetic field) will rotate at a speed:

120 f e
nsync =
P

Where fe is the system frequency in hertz and P is the number of poles in the machine.
This rotating magnetic field Bs passes over the rotor bars and induces a voltage in them.
The voltage induced in the rotor is given by:

eind = (v x B) l

Hence there will be rotor current flow which would be lagging due to the fact that the
rotor has an inductive element. And this rotor current will produce a magnetic field at the
rotor, Br. Hence the interaction between both magnetic field would give torque:

τ ind = kBR × BS

The torque induced would generate acceleration to the rotor, hence the rotor will spin.

However, there is a finite upper limit to the motor’s speed.


If the induction motor’s rotor were the rotor bars would be stationary
turning at synchronous speed relative to the magnetic field

no rotor current no induced voltage

no rotor magnetic field Induced torque = 0

Rotor will slow down due to friction

2.3.2 The Concept of Rotor Slip:

The induced voltage at the rotor bar is dependent upon the relative speed between the
stator magnetic field and the rotor. This can be easily termed as slip speed.

Nslip = Nsyn - Nm

Where Nslip = slip speed of the machine


Nsyn= speed of the magnetic field.
Nm= mechanical shaft speed of the motor.

Apart from that we can describe this relative motion by using the concept of slip:

Slip, s = Nslip/Nsyn * 100 % = Nsync – Nm/ 100%


Slip may also be described in terms of angular velocity, .

ωsync − ωm
s= x100 %
ωsync
Using the ratio of slip, we may also determine the rotor speed:

Nm = (1-s) Nsyn or ωm=ωsyn

The Electrical Frequency on the Rotor


`An induction motor is similar to a rotating transformer where the primary is
similar to the stator and the secondary would be a rotor. But unlike a transformer, the
secondary frequency may not be the same as in the primary.

If the rotor is locked (cannot move), the rotor would have the same frequency as
the stator (refer to transformer concept). Another way to look at it is to see that when the
rotor is locked, rotor speed drops to zero, hence by default, slip is 1. But as the rotor starts
to rotate, the rotor frequency would reduce, and when the rotor turns at synchronous
speed, the frequency on the rotor will be zero.

2.4. The Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Motor:


An induction motor relies for its operation on the induction of voltages and
currents in its rotor circuit from the stator circuit (transformer action). This induction is
essentially a transformer operation, hence the equivalent circuit of an induction motor is
similar to the equivalent circuit of a transformer.
2.4.1 The Transformer Model of an Induction Motor:
A transformer per-phase equivalent circuit, representing the operation of an induction
motor is shown below:

The transformer model or an induction motor, with rotor and stator connected by
an ideal transformer of turns ratio aeff.

As in any transformer, there is certain resistance and self-inductance in the


primary (stator) windings, which must be represented in the equivalent circuit of the
machine. They are - R1 - stator resistance and
X1 – stator leakage reactance
Also, like any transformer with an iron core, the flux in the machine is related to the
integral of the applied voltage E1. The curve of mmf vs flux (magnetization curve) for
this machine is compared to a similar curve for a transformer, as shown below:
The slope of the induction motor’s mmf-flux curve is much shallower than the
curve of a good transformer. This is because there must be an air gap in an induction
motor, which greatly increases the reluctance of the flux path and thus reduces the
coupling between primary and secondary windings. The higher reluctance caused by the
air gap means that a higher magnetizing current is required to obtain a given flux level.
Therefore, the magnetizing reactance Xm in the equivalent circuit will have a much
smaller value than it would in a transformer.

The primary internal stator voltage is E1 is coupled to the secondary ER by an ideal


transformer with an effective turns ratio aeff. The turns ratio for a wound rotor is basically
the ratio of the conductors per phase on the stator to the conductors per phase on the
rotor. It is rather difficult to see a eff clearly in the cage rotor because there are no distinct
windings on the cage rotor.

ER in the rotor produces current flow in the shorted rotor (or secondary) circuit of the
machine.

The primary impedances and the magnetization current of the induction motor are very
similar to the corresponding components in a transformer equivalent circuit.

2.4.2 The Rotor Circuit Model:

When the voltage is applied to the stator windings, a voltage is induced in the rotor
windings. In general, the greater the relative motion between the rotor and the stator
magnetic fields, the greater the resulting rotor voltage and rotor frequency. The largest
relative motion occurs when the rotor is stationary, called the locked-rotor or blocked-
rotor condition, so the largest voltage and rotor frequency are induced in the rotor at that
condition. The smallest voltage and frequency occur when the rotor moves at the same
speed as the stator magnetic field, resulting in no relative motion.

The magnitude and frequency of the voltage induced in the rotor at any speed between
these extremes is directly proportional to the slip of the rotor. Therefore, if the
magnitude of the induced rotor voltage at locked-rotor conditions is called ER0, the
magnitude of the induced voltage at any slip will be given by:

ER = sER0

And the frequency of the induced voltage at any slip is:

fr = sfe
This voltage is induced in a rotor containing both resistance and reactance. The rotor
resistance RR is a constant, independent of slip, while the rotor reactance is affected in a
more complicated way by slip.

The reactance of an induction motor rotor depends on the inductance of the rotor and the
frequency of the voltage and current in the rotor. With a rotor inductance of L R, the rotor
reactance is:

X R = ω r LR = 2π f r LR
Since f r = sf e ,
X R = s2π f e LR = sX R 0

where XR0 is the blocked rotor reactance

The rotor circuit model of an induction motor.


The rotor current flow is:

ER ER ER 0
IR = = =
RR + jX R RR + jsX R 0 RR + jX
s R0

Therefore, the overall rotor impedance talking into account rotor slip would be:

RR
Z R ,eq = + jX R 0
s

And the rotor equivalent circuit using this convention is:

The rotor circuit model with all the frequency (slip) effects concentrated in resistor RR.
In this equivalent circuit, the rotor voltage is a constant ER0 V and the rotor impedance
ZR,eq contains all the effects of varying rotor slip. Based upon the equation above, at low
slips, it can be seen that the rotor resistance is much much bigger in magnitude as
compared to XR0. At high slips, XR0 will be larger as compared to the rotor resistance.

2.4.3 The Final Equivalent Circuit:

To produce the final per-phase equivalent circuit for an induction motor, it is necessary to
refer the rotor part of the model over to the stator side. In an ordinary transformer, the
voltages, currents and impedances on the secondary side can be referred to the primary
by means of the turns ratio of the transformer.

Exactly the same sort of transformation can be done for the induction motor’s rotor
circuit. If the effective turns ratio of an induction motor is a eff , then the transformed rotor
voltage becomes

E1 = E R' = a eff E R0
The rotor current:

IR
I2 =
aeff
And the rotor impedance:

2  RR 
Z 2 = aeff  + jX R 0 
 s 

If we make the following definitions:


R2 = a2eff RR
X2 = a2eff XR0
The final per-phase equivalent circuit is as shown below:

2.4.4 Power and Torque in Induction Motor


Losses and Power-Flow diagram
An induction motor can be basically described as a rotating transformer. Its input
is a 3 phase system of voltages and currents. For an ordinary transformer, the output is
electric power from the secondary windings. The secondary windings in an induction
motor (the rotor) are shorted out, so no electrical output exists from normal induction
motors. Instead, the output is mechanical. The relationship between the input electric
power and the output mechanical power of this motor is shown below:
The input power to an induction motor Pin is in the form of 3-phase electric voltages and
currents. The first losses encountered in the machine are I 2R losses in the stator windings
(the stator copper loss PSCL). Then, some amount of power is lost as hysteresis and eddy
currents in the stator (Pcore). The power remaining at this point is transferred to the rotor
of the machine across the air gap between the stator and rotor. This power is called the air
gap power PAG of the machine. After the power is transferred to the rotor, some of it is
lost as I2R losses (the rotor copper loss PRCL), and the rest is converted from electrical to
mechanical form (Pconv). Finally, friction and windage losses PF&W and stray losses Pmisc
are subtracted. The remaining power is the output of the motor Pout.

The core losses do not always appear in the power-flow diagram at the point
shown in the figure above. Because of the nature of the core losses, where they are
accounted for in the machine is somewhat arbitrary. The core losses of an induction
motor come partially from the stator circuit and partially from the rotor circuit. Since an
induction motor normally operates at a speed near synchronous speed, the relative motion
of the magnetic fields over the rotor surface is quite slow, and the rotor core losses are
very tiny compared to the stator core losses. Since the largest fraction of the core losses
comes from the stator circuit, all the core losses are lumped together at that point on the
diagram. These losses are represented in the induction motor equivalent circuit by the
resistor RC (or the conductance GC). If core losses are just given by a number (X watts)
instead of as a circuit element, they are often lumped together with the mechanical losses
and subtracted at the point on the diagram where the mechanical losses are located.

The higher the speed of an induction motor, the higher the friction, windage, and
stray losses. On the other hand, the higher the speed of the motor (up toNsyn), the lower
its core losses. Therefore, these three categories of losses are sometimes lumped together
and called rotational losses. The total rotational losses of a motor are often considered to
be constant with changing speed, since the component losses change in opposite
directions with a change in speed.

2.5 Induction Motor Torque-Speed Characteristics:


The torque-speed relationship will be examined first from the physical viewpoint
of the motor’s magnetic filed behaviour and then, a general equation for torque as a
function of slip will be derived from the induction motor equivalent circuit.
Induced Torque from a Physical Standpoint

The magnetic fields in an induction The magnetic fields in an induction


motor under light loads motor under heavy loads

2.5.1 No-load Condition:

Assume that the induction rotor is already rotating at no load conditions, hence its
rotating speed is near to synchronous speed. The net magnetic field Bnet is produced by
the magnetization current IM . The magnitude of IM and Bnet is directly proportional to
voltage E1 . If E1 is constant, then Bnet is constant. In an actual machine, E1 varies as the
load changes due to the stator impedances R1 and X1 which cause varying volt drops with
varying loads. However, the volt drop at R1 and X1 is so small, that E1 is assumed to
remain constant throughout.

At no-load, the rotor slip is very small, and so the relative motion between rotor and
magnetic field is very small, and the rotor frequency is also very small. Since the relative
motion is small, the voltage ER induced in the bars of the rotor is very small, and the
resulting current flow IR is also very small. Since the rotor frequency is small, the
reactance of the rotor is nearly zero, and the max rotor current IR is almost in phase with
the rotor voltage ER . The rotor current produces a small magnetic field BR at an angle
slightly greater than 90 degrees behind Bnet. The stator current must be quite large even at
no-load since it must supply most of Bnet .

The induced torque which is keeping the rotor running, is given by:

τ ind = kBR × Bnet

and its magnitude is τ ind = kBR Bnet sin δ

In terms of magnitude, the induced torque will be small due to small rotor magnetic field.

2.5.2 On-load Conditions:


As the motor’s load increases, its slip increases, and the rotor speed falls. Since
the rotor speed is slower, there is now more relative motion between rotor and stator
magnetic fields. Greater relative motion means a stronger rotor voltage ER which in turn
produces a larger rotor current IR . With large rotor current, the rotor magnetic field B R
also increases. However, the angle between rotor current and BR changes as well.

Since the rotor slip is larger, the rotor frequency rises (fr =sfe) and the rotor reactance
increases (ωLR). Therefore, the rotor current now lags further behind the rotor voltage,
and the rotor magnetic field shifts with the current. The rotor current now has increased
compared to no-load and the angle δ has increased. The increase in BR tends to increase
the torque, while the increase in angle δ tends to decrease the torque (τind is proportional
to sin δ, and δ>90º). Since the first effect is larger than the second one, the overall
induced torque increases to supply the motor’s increased load.

As the load on the shaft is increased, the sin δ term decreases more than the BR term
increases (the value is going towards the 0 cross over point for a sine wave). At that
point, a further increase in load decreases τind and the motor stops. This effect is known
as pullout torque.

Modelling the torque-speed characteristics of an induction motor


Looking at the induction motor characteristics, a summary on the behaviour of torque:

Note: τ ind = kBR Bnet sinδ

Rotor magnetic field will increase as the rotor current will increase (provided that the
rotor core is not saturated). Current flow will increase as slip increase (reduction in
velocity)
The net magnetic field density will remain constant since it is proportional to E1 (refer to
equivalent induction motor equivalent circuit). Since E1 is assumed to be constant, hence
Bnet will assume to be constant.
The angle  will increase as slip increases. Hence the sin  value will reduce until as
such that the reduction of sin d will be greater than the increase of BR (pullout torque).
Since  is greater than 90 degrees, as such that:

sin δ = sin (θ r + 90° ) = cosθ r


where:
θr is the angle between ER and IR (note that ER is in phase with Bnet since it is in phase
with Bnet).
Adding the characteristics of all there elements would give the torque speed
characteristics of an induction motor.

cos θR can also be known as the motor power factor where:

Xr sX
θ r = tan −1 = tan −1 o
Rr Rr

The torque speed curve may be divided into 3 regions of operations:

Linear region or low slip region


Moderate slip region located until the pullout torque level.
High slip region

Typical values of pullout torque would be at about 200% to 250% of the rated full load
torque of the induction machine. The starting torque would be about 150% than the rated
full load torque; hence induction motor may be started at full load.
Graphical development of an induction motor
torque-speed characteristics
2.6 Induction motor Advantages:
1. It is very Simple and extremely rugged, almost unbreakable construction(especially
squirrel cage type).

2. It cost is low and it is very reliable.

3. It has sufficiently high efficiency. In normal running condition, no brushes are needed,
hence frictional losses are reduced. It has reasonably good power factor.

4. It requires minimum of maintenance.

5. It starts up from reset and needs no extra starting motor and has not to be
synchronized. Its starting arrangement is simply especially for squirrel cage motor.

6. High power to weight ratio

7. It is Easy to maintain

8. It is Direct connection to AC power source

9. It has High starting torque


CHAPTER-3
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
Circuit diagram:

Fig. Three leg inverter controlled induction motor


3.1. POWER SUPPLY:
3.1.0 Power supply types:
Power supplies for electronic devices can be broadly divided into linear and
switching power supplies. The linear supply is a relatively simple design that becomes
increasingly bulky and heavy for high current devices; voltage regulation in a linear
supply can result in low efficiency. A switched-mode supply of the same rating as a
linear supply will be smaller, is usually more efficient, but will be more complex.

3.1.1 Battery power supply:


A battery is a type of linear power supply that offers benefits that traditional line-
operated power supplies lack: mobility, portability and reliability. A battery consists of
multiple electrochemical cells connected to provide the voltage desired
The most commonly used dry-cell battery is the carbon-zinc dry cell battery. Dry-cell
batteries are made by stacking a carbon plate, a layer of electrolyte paste, and a zinc plate
alternately until the desired total voltage is achieved. The most common dry-cell batteries
have one of the following voltages: 1.5, 3, 6, 9, 22.5, 45, and 90. During the discharge of
a carbon-zinc battery, the zinc metal is converted to a zinc salt in the electrolyte, and
magnesium dioxide is reduced at the carbon electrode. These actions establish a voltage
of approximately 1.5 V.
The lead-acid storage battery may be used. This battery is rechargeable; it consists
of lead and lead/dioxide electrodes which are immersed in sulfuric acid. When fully
charged, this type of battery has a 2.06-2.14 V potential. During discharge, the lead is
converted to lead sulfate and the sulfuric acid is converted to water. When the battery is
charging, the lead sulfate is converted back to lead and lead dioxide.
A nickel-cadmium battery has become more popular in recent years. This battery cell is
completely sealed and rechargeable. The electrolyte is not involved in the electrode
reaction, making the voltage constant over the span of the batteries long service life.
During the charging process, nickel oxide is oxidized to its higher oxidation state and
cadmium oxide is reduced. The nickel-cadmium batteries have many benefits. They can
be stored both charged and uncharged. They have a long service life, high current
availabilities, constant voltage, and the ability to be recharged.
3.1.2 Linear power supply:

A home-made linear power supply (used here to power amateur radio equipment)
An AC powered linear power supply usually uses a transformer to convert the voltage
from the wall outlet (mains) to a different, usually a lower voltage. If it is used to produce
DC, a rectifier is used. A capacitor is used to smooth the pulsating current from the
rectifier. Some small periodic deviations from smooth direct current will remain, which is
known as ripple. These pulsations occur at a frequency related to the AC power
frequency (for example, a multiple of 50 or 60 Hz).
The voltage produced by an unregulated power supply will vary depending on the load
and on variations in the AC supply voltage. For critical electronics applications a linear
regulator will be used to stabilize and adjust the voltage. This regulator will also greatly
reduce the ripple and noise in the output direct current. Linear regulators often provide
current limiting, protecting the power supply and attached circuit from overcurrent.
Adjustable linear power supplies are common laboratory and service shop test equipment,
allowing the output voltage to be set over a wide range. For example, a bench power
supply used by circuit designers may be adjustable up to 30 volts and up to 5 amperes
output. Some can be driven by an external signal, for example, for applications requiring
a pulsed output.
The simplest DC power supply circuit consists of a single diode and resistor in series
with the AC supply. This circuit is common in rechargeable flashlights.
3.1.3 AC/ DC supply:
In the past, mains electricity was supplied as DC in some regions, AC in others. A
simple, cheap linear power supply would run directly from either AC or DC mains, often
without using a transformer. The power supply consisted of a rectifier and a filter
capacitor. The rectifier was essentially a conductor, having no sudden effect when
operating from

3.1.4 Switched-mode power supply:

A computer's switched mode power supply unit.


A switched-mode power supply (SMPS) works on a different principle. AC mains input
is directly rectified without the use of a transformer, to obtain a DC voltage. This voltage
is then sliced into small pieces by a high-speed electronic switch. The size of these slices
grows larger as power output requirements increase.
The input power slicing occurs at a very high speed (typically 10 kHz — 1 MHz). High
frequency and high voltages in this first stage permit much smaller step down
transformers and
smoothing capacitors than are in a linear power supply. After the transformer secondary,
the AC is again rectified to DC. To keep output voltage constant, the power supply needs
a sophisticated feedback controller to monitor current drawn by the load.
Modern switched-mode power supplies often include additional safety features such as
the crowbar circuit to help protect the device and the user from harm In the event that an
abnormal high current power draw is detected, the switched-mode supply can assume this
is a direct short and will shut itself down before damage is done. For decades PC power
supplies have also provided a power good signal to the motherboard which prevents
operation when abnormal supply voltages are present.
Switched mode power supplies have an absolute limit on their minimum current output.
They are only able to output above a certain power level and cannot function below that
point. In a no-load condition the frequency of the power slicing circuit increases to great
speed, causing the isolated transformer to act as a Tesla coil, causing damage due to the
resulting very high voltage power spikes. Switched-mode supplies with protection
circuits may briefly turn on but then shut down when no load has been detected. A very
small low-power dummy load such as a ceramic power resistor or 10-watt light bulb can
be attached to the supply to allow it to run with no primary load attached.
Power factor has become a recent issue of concern for computer manufacturers. Switched
mode power supplies have traditionally been a source of power line harmonics and have a
very poor power factor. Many computer power supplies built in the last few years now
include power factor correction built right into the switched-mode supply, and may
advertise the fact that they offer 1.0 power factor.
By slicing up the sinusoidal AC wave into very small discrete pieces, a portion of unused
alternating current stays in the power line as very small spikes of power that cannot be
utilized by AC motors and results in waste heating of power line transformers. Hundreds
of switched mode power supplies in a building can result in poor power quality for other
customers surrounding that building, and high electric bills for the company if they are
billed according to their power factor in addition to the actual power used. Filtering
capacitor banks may be needed on the building power mains to suppress and absorb these
negative power factor effects

3.1.5 Programmable power supply:

Programmable power supplies


Programmable power supplies are those in which the output voltage can be varied
remotely. One possible option is digital control by a computer interface. Variable
properties include voltage, current, and frequency. This type of supply is composed of a
processor, voltage/current programming circuits, current shunt, and voltage/current read-
back circuits.
Programmable power supplies can furnish DC, AC, or AC with a DC offset. The AC
output can be either single-phase or three-phase. Single-phase is generally used for low-
voltage, while three-phase is more common for high-voltage power supplies.
When choosing a programmable power supply, several specifications should be
considered. For AC supplies, output voltage, voltage accuracy, output frequency, and
output current are important attributes. For DC supplies, output voltage, voltage
accuracy, current, and power are important characteristics. Many special features are also
available, including computer interface, over current protection, over voltage protection,
short circuit protection, and temperature compensation. Programmable power supplies
also come in a variety of forms. Some of those are modular, board-mounted, wall-
mounted, floor-mounted or bench top.
Programmable power supplies are now used in many applications. Some examples
include automated equipment testing, crystal growth monitoring, and differential thermal
analysis.
3.1.6 Uninterruptible power supply:

An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) takes its power from two or more sources
simultaneously. It is usually powered directly from the AC mains, while simultaneously
charging a storage battery. Should there be a dropout or failure of the mains, the battery
instantly takes over so that the load never experiences an interruption. Such a scheme can
supply power as long as the battery charge suffices, e.g., in a computer installation,
giving the operator sufficient time to effect an orderly system shutdown without loss of
data. Other UPS schemes may use an internal combustion engine or turbine to
continuously supply power to a system in parallel with power coming from the AC
mains. The engine-driven generators would normally be idling, but could come to full
power in a matter of a few seconds in order to keep vital equipment running without
interruption. Such a scheme might be found in hospitals or telephone central offices.
3.1.7 High-voltage power supply:
High voltage refers to an output on the order of hundreds or thousands of volts.
High-voltage supplies use a linear setup to produce an output voltage in this range.
Additional features available on high-voltage supplies can include the ability to reverse
the output polarity along with the use of circuit breakers and special connectors intended
to minimize arcing and accidental contact with human hands. Some supplies provide
analog inputs (i.e. 0-10V) that can be used to control the output voltage, effectively
turning them into high-voltage amplifiers albeit with very limited bandwidth.
3.1.8 Voltage multipliers:

Voltage multipliers, as the name implies, are circuits designed to multiply the
input voltage. The input voltage may be doubled (voltage doublers), tripled (voltage
Tripler), quadrupled (voltage quadruple), etc. Voltage multipliers are also power
converters. An AC input is converted to a higher DC output. These circuits allow high
voltages to be obtained using a much lower voltage AC source.
Typically, voltage multipliers are composed of half-wave rectifiers, capacitors,
and diodes. For example, a voltage tripler consists of three half-wave rectifiers, three
capacitors, and three diodes. Full-wave rectifiers may be used in a different configuration
to achieve even higher voltages. Also, both parallel and series configurations are
available. For parallel multipliers, a higher voltage rating is required at each consecutive
multiplication stage, but less capacitance is required. The voltage capability of the
capacitor limits the maximum output voltage.
Voltage multipliers have many applications. For example, voltage multipliers can
be found in everyday items like televisions and photocopiers. Even more applications can
be found in the laboratory, such as cathode ray tubes, oscilloscopes, and photomultiplier
tube.
3.2 Power supply applications:
3.2.1 Computer power supply:
A modern computer power supply is a switch with on and off supply designed to
convert 110-240 V AC power from the mains supply, to several output both positive (and
historically negative) DC voltages in the range + 12V,-12V,+5V,+5VBs and +3.3V. The
first generation of computers power supplies were linear devices, but as cost became a
driving factor, and weight became important, switched mode supplies are almost
universal.
The diverse collection of output voltages also have widely varying current draw
requirements, which are difficult to all be supplied from the same switched-mode source.
Consequently most modern computer power supplies actually consist of several different
switched mode supplies, each producing just one voltage component and each able to
vary its output based on component power requirements, and all are linked together to
shut down as a group in the event of a fault condition.
3.2.2 Welding power supply:
Arc welding uses electricity to melt the surfaces of the metals in order to join
them together through coalescence. The electricity is provided by a welding power
supply, and can either be AC or DC. Arc welding typically requires high currents
typically between 100 and 350 amps. Some types of welding can use as few as 10 amps,
while some applications of spot welding employ currents as high as 60000 amps for an
extremely short time. Older welding power supplies consisted of transformers or engines
driving generators. More recent supplies use semiconductors and microprocessors
reducing their size and weight.
3.2.3 AC adapter:

Switched mode mobile phone charger

A linear or switched-mode power supply (or in some cases just a transformer) that
is built into the top of a plug is known as a "plug pack", "plug-in adapter", "adapter
block", "domestic mains adapter" or just "power adapter". Slang terms include "wall
wart" and "power brick". They are even more diverse than their names; often with either
the same kind of DC plug offering different voltage or polarity, or a different plug
offering the same voltage. "Universal" adapters attempt to replace missing or damaged
ones, using multiple plugs and selectors for different voltages and polarities.
Replacement power supplies must match the voltage of, and supply at least as much
current as, the original power supply.
The least expensive AC units consist solely of a small transformer, while DC
adapters include a few additional diodes. Whether or not a load is connected to the power
adapter, the transformer has a magnetic field continuously present and normally cannot
be completely turned off unless unplugged.
Because they consume standby power, they are sometimes known as "electricity
vampires" and may be plugged into a power strip to allow turning them off. Expensive
switched-mode power supplies can cut off leaky electrolyte-capacitors, use powerless
MOSFETs, and reduce their working frequency to get a gulp of energy once in a while to
power, for example, a clock, which would otherwise need a battery
3.3 MOSFET:
The component that is used as the switch in the inverter unit is the MOSFET
which is a voltage controlled device. They are the power semi conductor devices that
have a fast switching property with a simple drive requirement.

Fig: MOSFET symbol

Vdss= 500 V
Rds (on) = 0.27 ohm
Id= 20 A
This MOSFET provide the designer with the best combination of fast switching,
ruggedixed device design, low on-resistance and cost-effectiveness. This package is
preferred for commercial and industrial applications where higher power levels are to be
handled.
3.4 Mosfet Operating Principle:
Construction

N Channel depletion type N Channel enhancement type

Fig 34: construction of MOSFET

N CHANNEL DEPLETION
The N channel depletion type of MOSFET is constructed with p -Substrate. it has two n
doped regions , which forms the drain and source. It has sio2 insulating layer between the
channel and the metal layer. Thus it has three terminals namely drain source and gate.
When negative voltage applied between the gate and source (VGS) , The positive charge
induced in the channel and the channel is depleted of electrons. Thus there is no flow of
current through this terminal.
When appositive voltage is applied between the gate and source, more electros are
induced in the channel by capacitor action. So there is a flow of current from drain to
source. As the gate source voltage increases, the channel gets wider by accumulation of
more negative charges and resistance to the channel decreases. Thus more current from
drain to source. As there is a current flow through device for zero Gate Source Voltage, it
is called as normally ON MOSFET.
N Channel Enhancement:
The N channel enhancement MOSFET is similar to the depletion type in the
construction except that there is no physical existence of the channel when it is unbiased.
When the positive voltage is applied between the gate and the source, the electron
get accumulated in the channel by capacitive induction in the channel formed out of
electrons allowing the flow of current. This channel gets widened as more positive
voltage is applied between gate and source. There will not be any condition through the
device if the gate source voltage is negative.
Setting VGS to a constant value, varying VDS and nothing the corresponding
changes into give the drain characteristic. VGS ≤0, the device does not conduct drain
current and the device is considered to be in the off state. In this state, the entire voltage
drop across the device i.e., between drain and source.
In the ON state of the device, gate source voltage is positive and the drain current
is increased with the increase in the gate source voltage. It is understood clearly in the
transfer characteristics. As the enhancement type mosfet conduct only after applying
positive gate voltage, it is also called as normally OFF MOSFET. For this reason it
becomes easily controllable and is used in power electronics as a switch.
CHAPTER-4
CIRCUIT OPERATION
4.0 Circuit diagram:
4.1 Operation of Three leg inverter:
FIG 1: GATE PULSES

The figure.1 shows the proposed three-leg integrated inverter for driving three-
phase traction motor. The inverter consists of a dc source, a filter, and three phase legs,
U, V and W for feeding the traction motor. The three legs of the inverter U, V and W
consisting of the switches S1~S6 form a three-phase main inverter. Which through pulse
width modulation provides three sinusoidal currents to the three-phase motor.
When the 230v DC supply is given to the circuit, At any instant, two switches are
conducting in the bridge, one from the upper commutation group and the second from the
lower commutation group the firing of the next switch in a particular group results in the
turning off the switch that is already conducting. This assumption-that there is no overlap
between the two switches in a group is incorrect and will be relaxed later. However, the
analysis without overlap which is simpler, gives an inside into the working of the
converter the switches are numbered in sequence in which they are fired. Thus switch S6
is fired at 60 degrees after the firing of switch S1 and the switch S2 is fired 60 degrees
after the firing of the sixth switch. Each switch conducts for 120 degree and interval
between consecutive firing pulses is 60 degree in steady state. The cycle will repeat for S1
to S6 each switch conducts for 120 degrees.

Initially S6 will be in conduction mode.


S1 AND S6: Were S1 switch will conduct for 1200.During the conduction of S1, S6 will

turn offs at 600.

S1 AND S2: At the time of conduction of S1, S2 will turn on at 600. After 1200 S1 will
be in off position.

S2 AND S3: At the time of conduction of S2, S3 will turn on at 600. After 1200 S2 will
be in off position
S3 AND S4: At the time of conduction of S3, S4 will turn on at 600. After 1200 S3 will
be in off position

S4 AND S5: At the time of conduction of S4, S5 will turn on at 600. After 1200 S4 will
be in off position

S5 AND S6: At the time of conduction of S5, S6 will turn on at 600. After 1200 S5 will
be in off position. This cycle will repeats

The following assumptions are made to simplify the analysis:

• The dc current is constant


• The switch can be modeled as ideal switches with zero impedance when on
(conducting) and with infinite impedance when off (not conducting).

• The ac voltages at the converter bus are sinusoidal and remain constant.
• The output of the three leg inverter is given to the three phase induction motor. The
speed of the induction motor can be controlled by using three leg inverter. When the
supply is given to the induction motor through the inverter the output of the induction
motor is obtained as follows.
CHAPTER-5
ANALYSIS & RESULTS
5.1 Mat Lab Model for Three Leg Inverter with Induction Motor Load:
By using MAT LAB we have simulated the above fig
First we have connected the circuit as shown in the above figure. In this three leg
inverter each leg consists of two MOSFETS. A DC supply of 230v is given to the circuit.
Gate pulses to the mosfets are as shown below.
For S1
Amplitude = 10

Time period (sec) = 0.02

Pulse width (%of period) = 33.33333

Phase delay (sec) = 0.00333

For S2
Amplitude = 10

Time period (sec) = 0.02

Pulse width (%of period) = 33.33333

Phase delay (sec) = 0.00666

For S3
Amplitude = 10

Time period (sec) = 0.02

Pulse width (%of period) = 33.33333

Phase delay (sec) = 0.01

For S4
Amplitude = 10

Time period (sec) = 0.02

Pulse width (%of period) = 33.33333

Phase delay (sec) = 0.01333


For S5
Amplitude = 10

Time period (sec) = 0.02

Pulse width (%of period) = 33.33333

Phase delay (sec) = 0.01666

For S6
Amplitude = 10

Time period (sec) = 0.02

Pulse width (%of period) = 33.33333

Phase delay (sec) = 0.02

As per the above gate pulses given the circuit will operates. The output of the three leg
inverter is given to the induction motor. By connecting Demux we can observe the

speed- torque characteristics and the inverter voltage wave forms.


SIMULATION RESULTS:
5.2 Three Leg Inverter Voltage Wave forms:
5.3 Induction Motor Out Put Speed Wave Form:
5.4 Induction Motor out Put Torque Wave Forms:
CHAPTER-6
CONCLUSION
A soft-switched isolated three leg inverter has been implemented in this project.
The operation, analysis, features and design consideration were illustrated. Simulation
and experimental results prototype was shown as per, and low cost as well as control the
induction motor and accessory power needs, make the proposed three leg inverter very
promising for medium power applications with high power density.
7. FUTURE SCOPE:

7.1 SPACE VECTOR MODULATION FOR THREE-LEG VOLTAGE SOURCE


INVERTERS
THREE-LEG VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER

The topology of a three-leg voltage source inverter is shown in Fig. 6.1. Because

of the constraint that the input lines must never be shorted and the output current must

always be continuous a voltage source inverter can assume only eight distinct topologies.

These topologies are shown on Fig. 6.2. Six out of these eight topologies produce a
nonzero

Output voltage and are known as non-zero switching states and the remaining two

Topologies produce zero

Fig 6.1topology of a three leg voltage source inverter

Voltage space vectors:

Space vector modulation (SVM) for three-leg VSI is based on the representation

Of the three phase quantities as vectors in a two-dimensional plane. This has been

discussed and is illustrated here for the sake of completeness. Considering the topology.
Ffig 6.2 eight switch state topologies of a voltage source inverter

This can be represented in the plane .where voltages Vab,

Vbc, and Vca are three line voltage vectors displaced 120° in space. The effective voltage
vector generated by this topology is represented as V1 (pnn). Here the

notation ‘pnn’ refers to the three legs/phases a,b,c being either connected to the positive

dc rail (p) or to the negative dc rail (n). Thus ‘pnn’ corresponds to ‘phase a’ being

connected to the positive dc rail and phases b and c being connected to the negative dc
rail

Fig 6.3 representation of topology in α, β plane

Proceeding on similar lines the six non-zero voltage vectors (V1 - V6) can be

shown to assume the positions. The tips of these vectors form a regular

hexagon (dotted line in Fig 6.4). We define the area enclosed by two adjacent vectors,
with in the hexagon, as a sector. Thus there are six sectors numbered 1 - 6 in Fig.

Fig 6.4 non zero voltage vectors in α, β plane.

SPACE VECTOR MODULATION

The desired three phase voltages at the output of the inverter could be represented

by an equivalent vector V rotating in the counter clock wise direction as shown in Fig.6.5

The magnitude of this vector is related to the magnitude of the output voltage (Fig.6.6)

and the time this vector takes to complete one revolution is the same as the

fundamental time period of the output voltage.


Fig 6.5 out put voltage vector in the α, β plane

Fig 6.6 out put line voltages in time domain


Regenerative Braking Diagram:

This simple diagram shows how a regenerative braking system is able to recapture some
of the vehicle's kinetic energy and convert it into electricity. This electricity is then used
to recharge the vehicle's batteries.

To learn more about braking systems and related automotive topics, check out the links
on the next page.
BIBLOGRAPHY

THE BIBILOGRAPHY IS USED FOR THE PROJECT “THREE LEG INVERTER


CONTROLLED INDUCTION MOTOR FOR TRACTION APPLICATIONS “ IS AS
FOLLOWS

ARTICLES:
H.SHIMIZU, J.HARADA, C.BLAND, K. KAWAKAMI, AND L. CHAN
“ADVANCED CONCEPTS IN ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN” IEEETRANS IND,
ELECTRON. VOL.44.

BOOKS:
1. POWER ELECTRONICS P.S.BIMBRA &
VEDAM
SUBRAMANYAM
2. POWER ELECTRICAL DRIVES M.D SING & K.B.KHANCHANDANI

WEB SITES:
WWW.SCRIBD.COM
WWW.GOOGLE.COM
WWW.WIKIPEDIA.COM
WWW.HOWSTUFFWORKS.COM