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STRUCTURAL
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

-.r,..-'-;;,r&.

Mqon H. Jowod
Nooter Corporation
St. Louis, M issouri

Jomes R. Fqrr
Babcock & Wilco.r Company

Barberton, Ohio

A Wiley-lnterscience Publicqtion

JOHN WILEY & SONS

.r/C*

N*w York

Chichester

Brisbone Toronto

Singopore

To Our Wives,
Dixie and Barbara

Copyright

1984 by

hhn Wilev & Sons, Inc

All righis reserve{]. Publishcd simultaneously in

Canada

Reproduction or transiation ()f any part oi this work


hcyond that permitted by Secton 107 or 108 of ihe
It)?6 linited States Copyrighl Act wrthout lhe permrssron
,,1 rlr .i't)\rfi!hl owner is unl.rwlul Requests iot
| ,"' ,1,,, !,, lrrrhcr infomati,)n sbould be addrcssed lo
L , , I'1 t,.,rlrjitrrl. John Wil'v & Sons, lnc
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PREFACE
We wrote this book to serve three purposes. The first purpose is to provide
structural and mechanical engineers associated with the petrochemical industry
a reference book for the analysis and design of process equipment. The second
is to give graduate engineering students a concise introduction to the theory of
plates and shells and its industrial applications, The third purpose is to aid
process engineers in understanding the background of some of the design equations in the ASME Boiler and hessure Vessel Code. Section VIII.
The topics presented are separated into four parts. Part 1 is intended to
familiarize the designer with some of the common "tools of the hade." Chapter
I details the history ofpressure vessels and various applicable codes from around
the world. Chapter 2 discusses design specifications furnished in purchasing
process equipment as well as in various applicable codes. Chapter 3 establishes
the strength criteria used in different codes and the theoretical background
needed in developing design equations in subsequent chapters. Chapter 4 includes different materials of construction and toughness considerations.
Part 2 is divided into three chapters outlining the basic theory of plates and
shells. Chapter 5 develops the membrane and bending theories of cylindrical
shells. Chapter 6 discusses various approximate theories for analyzing heads and
transition sections, and Chapter 7 derives the equations for circular and rectangular plates subjected to various loading and support conditions. These three
chapters form the basis from which most of the design equations are derived in
the other chapters.
Part 3, which consists of flve chapters, details the design and analysis of
components. Chapters 8 and 9 derive the design equations established by the
ASME Code, VI[-l and -2, for cylindrical shells as well as heads and transition
sections. Chapter 10 discusses gaskets, bolts, and flange design. Chapter ll
presents openings and their reinforcement; Chapter l2 develops design equations

tor support systems.


Part 4 outlines the design and analysisof some specialized process equipment.
Chapter 13 describes the design of flat bottom tanks; Chapter 14 derives the

ftitAct
cquations for analyzing hest transfer equipment. Chapter l5 describes the theory
of thick cylindrical shells in high-pressure applications. Chapter l6 discusses the
stress analysis of tall vessels. Chapter 17 outlines the procedure of the ASME
Code, VI[-l, for designing rectangular presswe vessels.
To simplify the use of this book as a reference, each chapter is written so that
it stands on its own as much as possible. Thus, each chapter with design or other
mathematical equations is written using terminology frequently used in industry
for that particular type of equipment or component discussed in the pertinent
chapter. Accordingly, a summary of nomenclature appears at the end of most of
the chapters in which mathematical expressions are given.
In using this book as a textbook for plates and shells, Chapters 3, 5,6 md7
form the basis for establishing the basic theory. Instructors can select other
chapters to supplement the theory according to the background and needs of the
graduate engineer.

In deriving the background of some of the equations given in the ASME


Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, attention was focused on Section VIII, Divisions

1 and

2. Although these same equations do occur in other sections of the

ASME Code, such as the Power and Heating Boilers, no consideration is given
in this book regarding other sections unless specifically stated'
MAAN JAWAD
JAMES FARR
Saint Louit, Missouri

Barberton, Ohio
September 1983

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We are indebted to many people and organizations for their help in preparing this

book. A special thanks is given to the Nooter Corporation for generous support
rluring the preparation of the manuscript. Also a special thanks is given to the
American Society of Mechanical Engineers for supplying many of the illustrations used in this book and also to the American Petroleum Institute and the
Tubular Exchangers Manufacturers Association.
We also give thanks to Messrs. W. D. Doty, G. Hays, G. G. Karcher, T. W.
[,odes, H. S. Olinger, and R. F. O'Neill for reviewing the manuscript, and to
Mr. W. H. Schawacker for supplying many of the photographs.
We would also like to extend our appreciation to Mrs' Y. Batteast for typing
portions of the manuscript.

M. J.

CONTENTS
PART I

Chopter I

l.l
1.2

BACKGROUND AND BASIC


CONSIDERATIONS
Hisiory ond Orgonizotion of Codes
Use of Process Vessels and Equipment
United
History of Pressure Vessel Codes in the

3
4

States

1.3

Pressure
Organization of the ASME Boiler and

Vessel Code

1.5

for Pressure
Organization of the ANSI B31 Code
Piping
Standards
Some Other Pressure Vessel Codes and

1.6

in tie United States


Worldwide Pressure Vessel Codes

1.4

References

BibliograPhY

Chopter 2
2.1

2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

Selection of Vessel, Specificotions'


Reports, ond Allowoble Slresses
Selection of Vessel
Which Pressure Vessel Code Is Used
Design Specifications and Purchase Orders
Special Design Requlrements
Design RePons and Calculatjons
Materials' SPecifi cations

9
'r0

ll
l3
14
14

l5
l5
t6
16

CONTINT!

2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10

CONTENTS
Dcsign Data tbr Ncw Materials

't7

Factors of Safety

17

Allowable Tensile Stresses in the ASME Code


Allowable Extemal Pressure Stress and Axial
Compressive Stress in the ASME Boiler and Pres-

t7

sure Vessel Code

l9

Allowable Stresses in the ASME Code for Pressure


Piping B31
2.12 Allowable Stress in Other Codes of the World

4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4
4.6
4.7

References

2.11

References

Chopter 3

Strength Theories, Design Criierio, ond


Design Equotions

29

5.1

5.2

Strength Theories

30

3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6

Design Criteria
Design Equations

3l

Chopter 4
4.1

References

Bibliography

43

Moteriqls of Construction

45

Material Selection
4,l.l Corrosion

Ferrous Alloys

46
46
49
52
53
53
3J
56
56
60

Heat Treating of Steels

6l

Brittle Fracture
4.5. I ASME Presssure Vessel Criteria

63
68

4.1.2
4.

4.2

4.3
4.4
4.5

33
33
35
39
42

Force-Stress Expressions

Strength

.3

Material Cost
Nonferrous Alloys
4.2.1 Aluminum Alloys
1

4.2.2 Copper and Copper Alloys


4.2.3 Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys
4.2,4 Titanfum and Zirconium Alloys

PART 2

Chopfer 5

3.1

Stress-Strain Relationships
Strain-Defl ection Equations

Bibliography

22
22

26

'l'heory ol' Brittle Fracture


Hydrostatic Testing
Factors Influencing Brittle Fracture
Hydrogen Embrittlement
Nonmetallic Vessels

5.3

5.4

Chopter
6.

6
I

xlll

70
74
75
76
77
78
79

ANAIYSIS OF COMPONENTS

8l

Slress in Cylindricol Shells

83

Stress Due to Intemal Pressure


84
Discontinuity Analysis
92
5.2.1 Long Cylinders
96
5.2.2 Short Cylinders
lO7
Buckling of Cylindrical Shells
I 14
5.3.1 Uniform Pressure Applied to Sides Only 114
5.3.2 Uniform Pressure Applied to Sides and
Ends
116
5.3.3 Pressure on Ends Only
lr8
Thermal Stress
119
5.4.1 Uniform Change in Temperature
124
5.4.2 Gradient in Axial Direchon
127
5.4.3 Gradient in Radial Direction
r30
Nomenclature
137

References

r38

Bibliography

139

Anolysis of Formed Heods ond Tronsition


Sections

141

Hemispherical Heads
6.1 .
Various Loading Conditions
6.1.2 Discontinuity Analysis
6.1.3 Thermal Stress

142
146
158

6.1.4

159

Buckling Strength

r52

xiv

CONTENTS

xv

CONTENTS

6.2
6.3
6.4

Ellipsoidal Heads
Torispherical Heads
Conical Heads

163

Design of Formed Heods ond Tronsifion


Seclions

243

9.1

Introduction

244

9.2

Chopier 9

167

r68

Stress in Flot Plotes

183

7.1

Introduction

184

7.2
7.3
7.4

Circular Plates

184

Rectangular Plates

193

ASME Equations for Hemispherical Head


Design
ASME Design Equations for Ellipsoidal and
Flanged and Dished Heads
9.3.1 Ellipsoidal and Torispherical Heads
under External Pressure
ASME Equations for Conical Head Design
9.4.1 ASME Simplification of Discontinuity
Analysis due to Intemal Pressure
9.4.2 Conical Shells under External Pressure
9.4.3 ASME Simplification of Discontinuity
Analysis due to External Pressure
Nomenclature

Circular Plates on Elastic Foundation


Nomenclature

197

References

200
201
201

Bibliography

6.4.1

Unbalanced Forces at Cone{o-Cylinder

Junction

6.4.2
6.4.3

Discontinuity Analysis
Cones Under Extemal Pressure
Nomenclature
References

Bibliography

Chopter 7

References

Bibliography

PART 3
Chopter

8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7

DESIGN OF COMPONENTS

169
172

175
178
'r80

t8t

203

9.3

9.4

Chopter

l0

205

ASME Design Equations


Evaluation of Discontinuity Stresses
ASME hocedure for Extemal Pressure Design
Design of Stiffening Rings
Allowable Gaps in Stiffening Rings
Out-of-Roundness of Cylindrical Shells under
External Pressure
Design for Axial Compression
Nomenclature

206
208
218
226
23r

References

235
238
240
240

Bibliography

241

249

255
256
256
26r
261

265
266
267

Bfind Flonges, Cover Ploles, ond Flonges 269

l0.l

Introduction

270

ro.2

Circular Flat Plates and Heads with Uniform


Loading
ASME Code Formula for Circular Flat Heads

274

and Covers

276

r0.3
Design of Cylindricol Shells

247

10,4

Comparison of Theory and ASME Code Formula

for Circular Flat Heads and Covers without


Bolting

10,5
10.6

Contact Facings

278
278
279

1O.7

Gaskets

281

10.7.1 Rubber O-Rings


10.7.2 Metallic O- and C-Rings
10.7.3 Compressed Asbestos Gaskets
10.7.4 Flat Metal Gaskets
10.7.5 Spiral-Wound Gaskets

281

Bolted Flanged Connections

281

282
283
285

CONTENTS

CONTENTS

1O.7.6
10.7.7
10.7.8

Jacketed Gaskets

Metal Ring Gaskets


High-Pressure Gaskets

10.7.9

Lens Ring Gaskets


Delta Gaskets
10.7.1I Double-Cone Gaskets
'10.7.

I0

I0.7. l2 Gasket Design


10.8 Bolting Design
10.9 Blind Flanges
10. 10 Bolted Flanged Connections with Ring-Type
Gaskets

I
10. l2
10. l3
10, l4
l0.l

Reverse Flanges

Full-Face Gasket Flange


Flange Calculation Sheets

FlatFace Flange with Metal-to-Metal Contact


Outside of the Bolt Circle
10.15 Spherically Dished Covers
Nomenclature
References

Bibliography

285
285
285
286
287
288
290

I I.5
I 1.6

Shells

Ligament Efficiency of Openings in


Fatieue Evaluation of Nozzles under Internal

387

Pressure

.7.1

392
394
394

1.7.2

407

292

References

294

Bibliography

415
416
417

Vessel Supports

421

12.1

Introduction

12.2

Skirt and Base Ring Design


12.2.1 Anchor Chair Design
Design of Support Legs
Lug-SupportedVessels
Ring Girders

422
423
434
438
442
443
449
456
456
457

298
307
310

1t.7

Local Stresses in the Shell or Head


Stresses in the Nozzle
Nomenclature
11

Chopter

l2

317

317
324
330
332
332

Extemal Loadings

12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6

Saddle Supports

Nomenclature
References

Bibliography

Chopter I I

Openings, Nozzles, ond Externol


[oodings

ll.l

General

I 1.2

Stresses and Loadings at Openings

I 1.3

Theory of Reinforced Openings


Reinforcement Limits
I I .4.
Reinforcement Rules for ASME.

'|

1.4

Section

335
336
338
343
346
349

PART

Chopter

4
l3

13.1
13.2

I I .4.2 Reinforcement Rules for ASME,


Section

l.4.3

II
I

.4.4

L4.5

VIII, Division I

Reinforcement Rules for ASME,


Section VIII, Division 2
Reinforcement Rules for ANSUASME
831. I
Reinforcement Rules for ANSI/ASME
83 t.3

xvii

379
383

13.3

SPECIAL

459

Flot Bottom Tonks

461

Introduction

462
462
462
470
476
482
487
490
496
496

API 650 Tanks


13.2.1 Roof Design
Shell Design

Annular Plates

API 620 Tanks


13.3. I Allowable Stress Criteria
I

13.4

AND DESIGN OF

EQUIPMENT

13.2.2
13.2.3

359
368

THEORY

3.3.2

Compression Rings

ANSI 896.1 Aluminum Tanks


13.4.

Design Rules

xviii

CONTENTS

coNTENrs

13.5

AWWA Standard D100


References
BibliograPhY

Chopter

14

l4.l
14.2

of Heat Exchangers
TEMA Design of Tubesheets in U-Tube

TYPes

Exchangers

in U-Tube
Theoretical Analysis of Tubesheets
Exchangers

14.4

14.5
14.6

Equations for
Background of the ASME Design
Tubesheets in U-Tube Exchangers
Theoretical Analysis of Fixed Tubesheets

TEMA Fixed Tubesheet Design


l4'6'l Local Equivalent Pressure

l4'6'2
14'6'3

14.7

General Equivalent Pressure

Relationship Between Local and


Equivalent Pressure

15.l
15.2
15.3
15.4

for High

Pressure

Basic Equations
Pres$essing of Solid Wall Vessels
Layered Vessels
Prestressing of Layered Vessels

Nomenclature

Biblio$aphY

Chopter

16

l6.l
16.2
16.3

505
508

Dynamic Analysis from Wind Effects

Toll Vessels
DesignConsiderations
Earthquake Loading

Wind Loading
16.3'1 Bxternal Forces from Wind Loading

Chopter

17,1
17.2
17.3
17.4
17.5

533

541
541

17

17,6
17.7
17.8
17.9

t7.to

543

565
566
567

573
573

References

593
593

Vessels

of Noncirculor Cross Section

Types of Vessels
Rules in Codes

Openings

in

Section

596

Vessels with Noncircular Cross


601

Ligament Efficiency

Openings

for

Constant Diameter
601

Ligament Efficiency for Multidiameter Openings


Subject to Membrane Stress
Ligament Efficiency for Multidiameter Openings
Subject to Bending Stress
Design Methods and Allowable Stresses
Basic Equations
Equations in the ASME Code, VIII-I
Design of Noncircular Vessels in Other Codes
I 7. 10. I Method in Swedish Pressure Vessel

10.2

603
606
610
612
619
626
627

Design by Lloyd's Register of Shipping

630
633
633

APPENDICES

A
B
Appendix C

595
601

Rules
References
Bibliography

Appendix
Appendix

585
588
591

I 7.

558
562
563

581

Loading

Code

547

577

Vessel Under Internal Pressure and Extemal

Bibliography

514
519
523
523
527

538
539

BibliograPhY

Vessels

502

537

References

15

6.3.2

Vessel Under Intemal Pressure Only

16,6 Vessel Under External Pressure Only


16.7 Vessel Under External Pressure and External

501

537

ExPansion Joints

Nomenclature

Chopfer

16.4
16.5

Loading

Heql Tronsfer Equipmeni

14.3

498
499
499

635

Codes

Guide to Various
Sample of Heat Exchanger Speciflcation
Sample of an API Specification

Sheet
Sheet

636

U6
648

II

CONIENTS

D
E
Appendix F

Appendix
Appendix

Sample of a Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet


Sample of Various Materials for Process Equipment

Required Data
Section

Appendix

H
I
J
Appendix K

Appendix
Appendix
Appendix

VIII

for Material Approval in the ASME

Code

Procedure for Providing Data for Code Charts for


Extemal Pressure Design

Corrosion Charts
Various ASME Design Equations
Joint Efficiency Factors
Simplified Curves for Extemal Loading on Cylindrical
Shells

Appendix

INDEX

652
668

Conversion Tables

675

678
683
686
689
698

PART

BACKGROUND

AND BASIC
CONSIDERATIONS

CHAPTER

HISTORY AND
ORGANIZATION OF CODES

-OtD
2

TIMERS [(lop) Courtesy Bobcock & Witcox Compony, (bol|or,) (

iuroly

,",r,,, , ,"r,,,,r,,,1

-Y

HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION OF CODES

I.I

USE OF PROCESS VESSELS AND EQUIPMENT

'I'hroughout the world, the use of process equipment has expanded considerably.
ln the petroleum industry, process vessels are used at all stages of processing oil.
At the beginning of the cycle, they are used to store crude oil Many different
types of these vessels process the crude oil into oil and gasoline for the consurner. The vessels store petroleum at tank farms after processing and, finally,
scrvc to hold the gasoline in service stations fol the consumer's use. The use of
Droccss vessels in the chemical business is equally extensive. Process vessels are
uscd everywhere.
Prcssure vessels are made in all sizes and shapes. The smaller ones may be
no larger than a fraction of an inch in diameter, whereas the larger vessels may
be 150 ft or more in diameter. Some are buried in the ground or deep in the
occan; most are positioned on the ground or supported on platforms; and some
lctually are found in storage tanks and hydraulic units in aircraft
The internal pressure to which process equipment is designed is as varied as
thc size and shape. Intemal pressure may be as low as I in water gage pressure
to as high as 300,000 psi or more. The usual range of pressure for monoblock

construction is about 15 to about 5000 psi, although there are many vessels
designed for pressures below and above that range. The ASME Boiler and
Itcssure Code, Section VIII, Division t*, specifies a range of intemal pressure
liom 15 psi at the bottom to no upper limit; however, at an intemal pressure
abovc 3000 psi, the ASME Code, VIII-I, requires that special design considcrations may be necessary.r However, any pressure vessel that meets all the
rrquircrncnts of the ASME Codc. regardless of the intemal or external design
prcssuro. rnay slill bc acccptcd by thc authorized inspector and stamped by the
nrlrnrllclurcr with thc ASMI'l ('rxlc syrttbol. Some other pressure equlpment,
srrch as Al'l'' sl(nagc t Dks. rrriry bc dcsigned and contain no more intemal
pf('ssur( llriur lhitl gcncrirlc(l l)y lllc sllllic hcird of fluid contained in the tank.

I,2

HISIORY OF PRISSURE VESSET CODES IN THT UNITED STATES

llr( lrlr' lS(X):, ;rrrrl lrrtlv ltX)O\. (\l)losiotls in boilers and pressure
vcsscls rlcrc lr({tr{nt /\ lrrctrllx lrorlt t trplosiott tlrr thc Mississippi River
:,1{rlrlx);rt .\rtlt,ttt,t.t '\1rrrl .'/ lStr5. rcsttllctl itt thc boat's sinking within 20
llrt(,rt1lr

nrnrt(.\,rr,l tlrrr|..rtlr,,l |')l)ilr,(,llr(r\JtoittlllrotrtcaliertheCivilWar.Thistype

r,l r rrtrr,,tr,rlrlrl r.trltttttr'rl un,rl)irl( (l rrrlo tlrc clrr'ly 1900s. In 1905, a destructive
, rlrl,,.r,,rr (,1 .r lr, lrlr( l!,rl(-r rrr ir sllrr'' lltellrly in Brockton, Massachusetts (Fig.
I l r. l rlllrl ''Il rr ,'r'l( . rrrlrrr, rl l l / otlrcls. and did Xi400,000 in property damage

r,\r \'.Alt r,rl, \'lll l,rrrrl VIII .'. rsrrrie(l lo (lcscribc thc ASME Boilcr and I'rcsstrrc
Vi....tl(,trit ,, l',," \'ftl ffl\, r'r l. /,,,'r.vt( V, rfry'.r, and l)ivisitttl2, Alk'r'ttttiK |tttll li'r
'1,' rlL,

/!,11r,,

l,

\, /,

l.l Firerub boiler explosion in sho focrory in Brockron, Md!3ochuseits in 1905. (Courlesy Horrford
St@m Boiler Inrpection ond Insurdn.e Co., Horrford, Cr.)

Fisure

].4

HISIORY AND ORGANT/N rION Of CODTS

Irr l(X)(r, l'r.llre'cx;rkrsi.rr irr . rlrr)c llrel.ry i'l,yrrrr. Massirclrrtsc.s, r.cs.ltcd


injrlry, a|ld cxtcnsivc propcrty darragc. Aticr this accidcnr, the Massa_

irr dcalh,

clrusctt$ governor directed the fbrmation of a Board of Boiler


Rules. The first set
of rules for the design and construction of boilers was approved
in Massachusetts
on August 30, l9O7 . This code was three pages long-!-

In 1911, Colonel E. D. Meier, the president of-the American Society of


Mechanical Engineers, established a committee to write a set of
rules tbr the
design and construction of boilers and pressure vessels. On February
13, 1915,
the first ASME Boiler Code was issuid. It was entitled ,,Boiler
Construction
Code, 1914 Edition." This was the beginning of the various
sechons of the
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which ultimately became
Section 1,
Power Boilers.3
The first ASME Code for pressure vessels was issued as ,,Rules fbr
the
^
construction
ofUnfired Pressure Vessels,', Section VIII, 1925 edition. The rules
applied to vessels over 6 in. in diameter, voiume ove. 1.5 ft3,
and pressure over
30 psi. In December 1931, a Joint API_ASME Committee wis ibrmed
to
develop an unfired pressure vessel code for the petroleum indusiry. .l.he
first
edition was issued in 1934. For the next 17 years,iwo separate unfiied
pre;sure

ORGANIZATION OF THT ANSI 83

sure Vessels, and another new part was issued, which was
Seciion VI II, Division

2, Alternatiye Rules for pressure Vessels.


The ANSUASME Boiler and pressure Vessel Code is issued
by the American
Society of Mechanical Engineers with approval by the American'National
Stan_
dards lnshtute (ANSI) as an ANSI/ASME document.
One or morc sections

of

the ANSI/ASME Boiler and pressure Vessel Code have been


established as the
legal requirements in 47 of the 50 states in the United Str,",
,,",f in all the
prwinces of Canada. Also, in many other countries of the
worlti, the ASME

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is used to construct boilcrs arrc


pressure

vessels.

In the United States most piping systems are built to the ANSI/ASME
Code
P.ressure Piping B3l . There are a number of different
piping couc sectrons
for different types of systems. The piping section that i" ,ir".i tiu.
boiiers in
combination with Section I of the ASME Boiler and pressure
Vcsscl (ixle is the
fo1!-o1er Piping, 831.1.5 The piping secrion thar is olicn uscrt with
!o09
-Cheniical
Section VIII, Division I , is the code for
piant and lretnricLrrrr t{clinery
Piping, 831.3.6
for

CODI] IOR PRISST'RE

PIPINO

cqUipl c|l{ irrrtl ir;lrlielrliorr; olllcrs fctalc lo sl)ccilic Illillcliltls all(l tlrclll{xls l()f
()l
applicatiOn rn(l cot)trol ol cclt'tiprnctrt; lnd tlthcrs rclate ttt care !lnd inspoctioll
'l'hc
boiler
and
relate
to
specifically
tirllowing sections
installed cquipnrctrt.
pressure vessel design and constructlon:

Section
Section

I.

III

Division
Division
Code

Power Boilers (one volume)

1.
2.

Case

N-47
Section IV,
Section

Section

Nuclear Power Plant Components (7 volumes)


Concrete Reactor Vessels dnd Containment (one volume)
Class I Components in Elevated Temperature Service (tn
Nuclear Code Case book)
Heating Boilers (one volume)

VIII

Division
Division

1.
2.

X.

Pressure Vessels (one volume)


Alternative Rules for Pressure Vessels (one volume)
Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels (one volume)

vessel codes existed. In 1951, the last API_ASME Code


;as issued as a separare
document.a In 1952, the two codes were consolidated into one
code_the ASME

Unfired Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII. This continued


until the 196g
edition. At that time, the original code became Section VIII, Oivislon
I pres_

A new edition of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is issued on July
I every three years and new addenda are issued every six months on January I
and July l. A new edition incorporates all the changes made by the addenda to
the previous edition; it does not incorporate, however, anything new beyond that
coniained in the previous addenda except for some editorial corections or a
change in the numbering system. The new edition of the code becomes mandatory when it appears. The addenda are permissive at the date of issuance and
become mandatory six months after that date.
Code CasesT are also issued periodically after each code meeting They
contain permissive rules for materials and special constructions that have not
been sufficiently developed to place them in the code itself. Finally, there are the
Code Interpretations8 which are issued every six months These are in the form
of questions and replies that further explain items in the code that have been
misunderstood.

I.4

ORGANIZATION OF THE ANSI

83I

CODE TOR

PRESSURE PIPING

I,3

ORGANIZATION OF THE ASME BOILER AND

VESSET CODE

PRESSURE

The ASME Boiler ancl pressure Vessel Code is clivided into


many sectrons,
divisions, parts, and subparts. Some ofthese sections relat",u
ro"lrti. tina of

"

In the United States the most frequently used design rules for pressure piping are
the ANSI 83l Code for Pressure Piping. This code is divided into many sections
for different kinds of piping applications Some sections are related to specific
sections of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code as follows:

HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION OF CODES

Power Piping (which is related to Section I)


F.31.2. Fuet Gas Piping (which may be related to Section VIII)
831.3. Chemical Plant an(l Petoleum Refnery Piping (which may be
related to Section VIII)
R31.4. Liquitl Petroleum Transporting Prping (which may be related to
Section VIII)
831.5. Refrigeration Piping (which may be related to Section VIII)
831.7, Nuclear Power Piping (which has been discontinued and incorporated into Section III)
B31,8. Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems (which may be

R!1.1.

related to Section

VIII)

The ANSI B31 Piping Code Committee prepares and issues new editions and
addenda with addenda dates that correspond with the ASME Boiler and Pressure
Vessel Code and addenda. However, the issue dates and mandatory dates do not
always correspond with each other.

I.6

WORLDWIDE PRESSURE VESSEI

CODES

Stanlarh of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, 6th ed.,

Tu_

bular Exchanger Manufacturer's Association, New york.


Standnrds of the Expqnsion Joint Manufacturers Associ(ltion, 4th ed. , Exoan_
sion Joint Manufacturer's Association, New york.

I.6

WORI-DWIDE PRESSURE VESSEL CODES

In addition to the ASME Boiler and

Pressure Vessel Code, which is used


worldwide, many other pressure vessel codes have been legally adopted in
various countries. Difficulty often occurs when vessels are designed in one
colntry, built in another country, and installed in still a different country. With
this worldwide construction this is often the case.
The following list is a partial summary of some of the various codes used in

different countries:

Australia.

I.5

SOME OTHER PRESSURE VESSEL CODES AND STANDARDS IN


THE UNITED STATES

In addition to the ANSVASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the ANSI
B31 Code for Pressure Piping, many other codes and standards are commonly
used for the design of process vessels in the United States. Some of them are:

Australian Code for Boilers and Pressure Vessels, SAA Boiler Code (Series
AS 1200): AS 1210, Unf.red Pressure Vessels and Class 1 H, pressare
Vessels of Advanced Design and Constuction, Standards Association of
Australia.
Belgium.
Code

for

Good Practice

for

the Construction of Pressure Vessels, Belgian

Standard Institute (IBN), Brussels, Belgium,

ANSUAPI Standard 620. "Recommended Rules for Design and Construction


of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks," American Petroleum Institute (API), Washington, D.C.
ANSVAPI Standard 650. "Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage," American
Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C.
ANSI-AWWA Standard D100. "Water Steel Tanks for Water Storage"'
American Water Works Association (AWWA), Denver, Colorado'

ANSVAWWA Standard D101. "Inspecting and Repairing Steel Water Tanks,


Standpipes, Reservoirs, and Elevated Tanks, for Water Storage," American
Water Works Association, Denver, Colorado.
ANSI 896.1. "specification for Welded Aluminum-Alloy Field Erected Storagc Tanks," American National Standards Institute, New York'
lll, (A4. Standartl for Conk ner Assemblies.lor I'P-Gas, 4th ed, Underwlitcrs Laboratories. Nolthbrook, Illinois.

France.
Constructton Code Calculation Rules for Unfred pressure Vessels, Syndicat
National de la Chaudronnerie et de la Tuyauterie Industrie e (SNCT), paris,
France.
Germany.

A.D. Merkblatt Code, Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Koln/Berlin, Federal


Republic of Germany.
haly.
Itqlian Pressure Vessel Code, National Association for Combustion Control
(ANCC), Milan, Iraly.

t0

HISTORY AND ORGANTZATION OF


CODES

BIBTIOGRAPHY

ll

,ltpun.

,lqnnt'st' l)tt,.t,rurt Vt,l;scl Code. Ministry of


Labor, published by
lJoilcr

Associution. Tokyo, Japan.


Juyuu'ts-t' Standarrl, Construction of pressure
Vessels,JIS B
by the Jupan Srandards Association. Tokyo,

8.
Japan

e' 'J' published


"- - g24j,
Y'
Japan.
Jap,ayle High pressure Gas Control Law,
Ministry of International Trade
by rhe rnstitution for
riigi;;Jrr*" c",
1i1,1,".t":,ry.Jibtished

sffi

tngtneering, Tokyo, Japan.

"r

Netherlands.

f,:|;:#i:"*-e

vessets. Dienst voor het stoomwezen,


The Hague, the

Sweden.
Swedish Pressure Vessel Code,-Tryckkarls
kommissioner, the Swedish pres-

sure Vessel Commission, Stockholm,


Sweden.

United Kingdom.

British Code 85.5500, British Standards


Institution, London, England.
More complete details. discussions of
factors of safety. and applications
the codes mentioned are given in
Section 2.7. e summ,lry

which.ar.e appticable for ihe various,.reqrl;il


around the world is given in Appendix

A.

;'r#J

of
of iti. p_ug.upt,
# ,ti .o0., ur.o

REFERENCES

f.
2.

ASME Boiler and pressure Uo*]


ANSVASME BpV-Vm_1, Americar

"aT.:

,:".,,:n. Unr, Division

l,

pressure Vessets,

"R""",*";;;'R';:"i."iiirT"firi,"ffilffi;TiJi:i,*Li.;,
tanks," ANsr,/Apr srd. 620,;.;;;";-;;;;;;
j::::"[iJ:**
i,i.tr"iot", wu,r,ing_
.;:
Apr srandard 620,

l. ASME Boiler and pressure Vesset Code, Section_|, power


Boileru, ANSTASME BPV_I,
nlll*,*n Sociery of Mechanicat Engrneers. New york,
1983.
_
Liq.uids and Gases, 5th ed.,
" lilHy3,::ff '.{iX::#l#f#*y:::k-!y
gmeers and American
^Pa'r:teu!petroleum Institute, New york,

1951.

S,

ASME Code for hessure pipinq BJl.

ol

6.
7'

Mechanicar Engineers,

Niw-york, 73l;;"'0"'ANSL/ASME

B31

l'

American societv

ASME Code for hessure pioins B3l,


g!t:m:cal. ptant and petroleunt Refinery piping,
83t.3. American Siciety of Mechanical ;;C;;,
;u;;"lo.k,r,,*0.
^NSvASME
A_SME Boije-r and hessure vesser
code,
cases, Boirers antr pre,rrrre y$dh,
American

Socicty

of lvlechanicaj En8incers, Ncw -cod?


york,

19g3.

pressure

ASME Boiler and


Vessel Code, _fu terpretations, (isstred every
six months), Amedcan
Society of Mechanial Engineers, New york.

BIBTIOGMPHY
' Steel Tanks for

Liquid Stoege', in Steel plate Engifieerin| Data, Vol.


and Sreel lnslirute, Washingron, D.C.

l,

1976 ed., American

Iron

CHAPTE

SELECTION OF VESSEL,
SPECI FICATIONS, REPORTS,

AND ALLOWABLE STRESSES

l3

l4

SttECTlON OF VESSIL, SPECIFICAIl()N".

2.1

SELECTION OF VTSSI

rtlr",lrr'., nND

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

Although nrlrrly lttr l t. ,,'rrlrl,rt, 1,, llr( \( lL'clion of pressure vessels, the two
basic r.r;rrirr.rrfrrt,, tlr,rt ,rll,, t tlr, ,( [.r lion are safety and economics. Many
it(.Drs i||r. r rr,,rrI r,,l rr,tr,r', rrrrrtcrials' availability, corrosion resistance,
lrltllrrl,, rrr, rrl,tlr r11, . .rr,l rrrrrgnitudes of loadings, location of installation
rr, lr,lprl, ( rnl I,r.r,l'rt' ,"r,t r.rrr'(lrquake loading, location of fabrication_(shoD
"r 1., l,lr t", rrr,,r ,,t \i.,,s(.1 installation, and availability of labor supply at the

\l

rrt, rrr, r, ,r'.rrr1' rrsc of special pressure vessel in the petrochemical and other
rl, , rtr. ;rvrilability of the proper materials is fast becomrng a maJor
1,r,,t,1,,,' I lr(. nrost usual material for vessels is carbon steel. Many other special_
r,,, l r r,rr{ rlls iLre also being used for corrosion resistance or the abilily ro conmln
rrr,lrr

wrthout degradation of the material's properties. Substitution of materials


lent and cladding and coatings are used extensively. The design engineer
rrrrrst lrc in communication with the process engineer in order that all materials
rrsctl will contribute to the overall integrity of the vessel. For those vessels that
rctluire field assentbly in contrast to those that can be built in the shop, proper
(luality assurancc must be established for acceptable welding regardless;f ihe
adverse condilions under which the vessel is made_ provisions must be estab_
lished for ftrrliography, stress relieving, and other operations required in the
.r tlrrrr I

r'. I x (.vl

field.

For thost. vcssels that will operate in climates where low temperatures are
encounlcr((l r)f contain fluids operating irt low temperatures, special care must
be takc rr Ir crrsure impact resistance of the materials at low timperatures. To
ohlirirr tlrs l,r()l)crty, the vessel may require a special high-alloy steel, nonferrous
rrrirlcrirrl, rrr some special heat treatment.

2.?

WHICH PRESSURE VESSEL CODE IS USED?

'l lrc lrrst consideration


must be whether or not there is a pressute vessel law at
llrc lo( irt ion of the installation. If there is, the applicable iodes are stated in the
l:rw. ll thc jurisdiction has adopted the ASME Code, Section VIII, the decision
rrrly bc narowed down to selecting whether Division I or Division 2 is used.
I'here are many opinions regarding the use of Division I versus Division 2,
but the "bottom line" is economics. In the article ,.ASME pressure_Vessel Code:
Which Division to Choose?",r the authors have listed a number of factors for
consideration. Division uses approximate formulas, charts, and graphs in
simple calculations. Division 2, on the other hand, uses a complex methocl of
fbrmulas, charts, and design-by-analysis which must be describcd in ir stress
report. Sometimes so many additional requirements are addcd lo tltc rriuirnum
specifications of a Division I vessel that it might bc rnorc ccorrorrrir.rrl to supply
lu I)ivision 2 vcssel and lake advantage of thc highcr itlL)rvrl)l(. strrsscs.

2.4

2.3

SPECIAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

l5

DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AND PURCHASE ORDERS

Currently, the only pressure vessel code, exclusive of the ASME Code, III-lNB, Nuclear Vessels, which specifically requires formal design specifications as
part of the code requirements is the ASME Code, VIII-2, Alternative Rules for
Pressure Vessels. This code requires a User's Design Specification to be prepared and certified by a registered professional engineer experienced in pressure
vessel design. This certification by the professional engineer is given on the
ASME Manufacturer's Data Report, Form A- 1. The manufacturer is responsible
for retaining the User's Design Specification for five years.
For other codes and standards, design specifications and design requirements
are not well defined. For the ASME Code, VIII-1, there is no specific statement
that any design specifications are required. The only indication of some sort of
design specifications is the list of minimum loadings in UG-22 that is considered
for all construction . Sectron l, Power Eoilers, is less definitive on what loadings
are necessary to consider and what shall be included in a design specification or
purchase order. PG-22 of Section I states that loadings that cause stresses to go
higher than 107o above those stresses caused by internal design pressure shall be
considered. The Manufacturer's Data Report, Form U-1 for the ASME Code,
V I-1, requires many items to be listed, which means that most of the basic
design information must be given in a design specification or purchase order.
Although some codes help the purchaser regarding what data are needed for
inclusion in the design specifications, this is usually done by mutual agreement
between the purchaser and the manufacturer.
"For those process vessels that do not have a "suggested" list of items in design
requirements and specifications as part of code requirements, it is necessary to
establish them in the purchase order or contract agreement. The contract information is supplied by the purchaser or user with the manufacturer's help as to
what is needed and what shall be considered. Some design standards help the
user and manufacturer by offering fill-in forms that specifically list the requirements for designing a process vessel. Design specification forms for a heat
exchanger built to the standards of the Tubular Manufacturers Associationz are
given in Appendix B and lor an API Srandard 650 Storage Tanki are given in
Appendix C. It is always necessary to maintain a document containing design
speciflcations so that a permanent record is kept for reference. Often on a large
process vessel, some loadings from attached or supported equipment are not
known until after the job has started.

2.4

SPECIAL DESIGN REOUIREMENTS

In addition to the standard information required on all units, such as design


pressure, design temperature, geometry, and size, many other items of infbrmation are necessary and must be recorded. The (xrrrosion and erosion amounts arc

16
l,

sfl,tcTtoN Ot Vtssll, st,tctt tcaTtoNs, RfpoRTs, AND AU-OWABLE

lx' *,u,.,,

STRTSSES

r'irlcri.l uld method of protection are to be noted. The


lyl)c (,l lllrirl tlrrrl will lrc t,0|llainctl, such as lethal,
must be noted because ofthe
rcqltitc(l

2.9

ATLOWABLE TENSITE STRESSES IN THE

ASMI

CODE

17

rrrrrl rr srrrtirlrlt.

slx\.ili(.rk.sigrr tlctaiis. Supported position, vertical


or honzontat,

and
s[pl)oll lor.rrtiorrs rlusl bc listed as well as any iocal loads
from supported
crltip,rc,t rrrrtl piping. Site locatiorr is given so that wind, *o*,
una
lcquircntcots ctrn lre determined. Impact loads and cyclic
"u.tnquut"
requirements
are also

may be recertified to an SA or SB specification for an ASME certified vessel.


Depending upon the contract specifications, permissible materials for construction are given in lists such as that shown in Appendix E.

2.7

DESIGN DATA FOR NEW MATERIALS

inclurlcd.

lirr

thc ASME Code, VIII-2, a statement as to whether


or not a tatigue
according.to AD_160 is given. rf u rutilu" analysis
is
:::'.r,:::'.-"111r'llo
rc(lurrc(t. lhe specitlc cycles and loadings will be given.
In addiiion, the design

spccilications state whether or not certain loadings

allowable stresses vary with the type of loadinls.

2.5

ire

sustained or transrent. The

DESIGN REPORTS AND CATCULATIONS

requires a formal design report with rhe assumptions


T:,1YE
,C"1.. .VII.2.
rn.the
User's Design Specification incorporated in the stress analysis calcu_

lations. These calculaiions are prepared and certified by a registered professional


engrneer experienced in pressure vessel design. As with the
Usir,s Design
Specification, the Manufacturer's Design Report is mandatory
and the
certification reported on the Manufactu.".i Datu Repo.t. This is kept
on file by
the manufacturer for five years.
- For vessels not requidng design reports, the manufacturer has available for
the- Authorized Inspector's review those necessary calculations
for satisfying

U-2(g) or other design formulas. The pressure vessel design sheets


should
contain basic design and materials data and at least the basic calculations
of
pressure parts as given in the design formulas and procedures
in the applicable
onT.nd1d_fg. a simple vessel, an example of calculation sheets rs given
:_od^.
D. This example depicts only those calculations that are required
llforilp"yiT
the Authorized Inspector and for construction. Other vessels
may requre
rnuch more extensive calculations depending upon the complexity
and con_

(raclutl

2.6

greements.

2.8

FACTORS OF SAFETY

In order to provide a margin of safety between exact formulas, which are based
on complex theories and various modes of failure , and the actual design formulas
used for setting the minimum required thicknesses and the stress levels, a factor
of safety (FS) is applied to various materials' properties that are used to set the
allowable stress values. The factors of safety are directly related to the theories
and modes of failure, the specific design criteria of each code, and the extent to
x.hich various levels of actual stresses are determined and evaluated.

2.9

ALLOWABTE TENSILE STRESSES IN THE ASME CODE

As previously discussed, the basis for setting the allowable stress values or the
design stress intensity values is directly related to many different factors depending upon the section of the code used. The criteria for setting allowable
tensile stresses for each section of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

MATTRIALS' SPECIFICATIONS

All

crxles itnd standards have materials, specifications


and requirements de_
sclibirrg whirl rrralcrials are permissible. Those
material, tirut *"i"r_rtt"O *itt
ir sp(.( rli( ((xlc arc cither listed or limited
to the ones that have aliowable

stress

vrrlrrts liivcrr. l)upcnding upon the code or standard,


permitted rnatenas tor a
pirrtit rrliu plxt.ss vcsscl are limited. For instan".,
Jin an se or
ljll (lcsif nirrior crr bc uscd in ASME
piersir"

o;i.;";;,

Boiler and

When design data, such as allowable stresses, are requested for a new material,
that is, one not presently in the code, extensive information must be supplied to
the Code Committee for evaluation. The ASME Code Committee lists this
information to develop allowable stresses, strength data, and other required
properties for accepting a new material into the code. Each section of the code
contains an appendix listing these requirements such as the one for the ASME
Code, VIII-I, in Appendix F. The code also provides data to establish extemal
pressure charts for new materials; this is given to those who want to establish
new external pressure charts. The required information is given in Appendix G.
It is the person's responsibility requesting the addirion to supply all the data
needed to establish those properties required in the code.

V"rr"i-Cot

SI) specifications are the same u';;;,


B"rnr,_"_
specifi:]:lil...Y:::,:t
l:,lf ::l',t
flltlotl
rr lltc ASIM
Stirrrtlirltls a On specific instances, certain materiais
that
Itttvc lrt'rr rr.rlrril( r'r'r(r to sonrc other spccification,
such as the DIN standard..

are as follows:
For Section I, Power Boilers, the ASME Code, YIll-l , Pressure Vessels, and
Section III, Division 1, Subsections NC, ND, and NE, except for bolting whose
strength has been enhanced by heat treatment, the factors used to set the allowable tensile stresses are summarized below.
At temperatures in the tensile strength and yield strength range, the least of:

1. j of the specified minimum tensile strength.


2. j of the tensile strength at remperarure.
3. ! of the specified minimum yield strength.

I8

SEI.TCTION

4.

OI

VESSEL, SPECITICATIONS, REPORTS,

AND AttOWABtE

STRESSES

ol thc yicld strength at temperature (except as noted below where 90Zo


is uscd).

r{

At temperatures ip the creep and rupture strength range, the least of:

l,
2.
3.

l00qa of the average stress to produce a creep rate of 0.0l per l000 hours
(l7o in 105 hour).
67Ea of the average stress to produce rupture at the end of 100,000 hours.
80Vo of the rninimum stress to produce rupture at the end of 100,000

hours.
,_

In the temperature range in which tensile strength or yield shength sets the

allowable stresses, higher allowable stresses are permitted for austenitic stainless
steels and nickel-alloy materi-als where gleater deformation is not objectionable.

criterion of I yield strength at lemperature


!9h:l*,the
9oVo,yield strength
at temperature. However, the factor

may be increased to

! spicified minimum
yield strength is still maintained.
For the ASME Code, VIII-I, bolting material whose slrength has been en_
hanced by heat treatment or strain hardening have the addition; criteria of (l) j
of the specified minimum tensile strength and (2) t of the specified minimum
yield strength.
For the ASME Code, VIII-2, and Section III, Division 1, Subsection NB and
NC-3200 of Subsection NC, the factor used to set the design stress intensity
values for all materials except bolting is the least of:

1. i of the specified minimum tensile strength.


2. ] of the tensile strength at remperarure.
3. of the specified minimum yield strength.
4. J of the yielded strength at temperature except as noted in the tbllowing
.2

paragraph.

2.IO

ALLOWABLE EXTERNAI PRESSURE STRESS AND AXIAI.

STRESS

I9

following: (1) | of the specified minimum yield strength and (2) j of the yield
strength at temperature.

For Section IV, Heating Boilers, the criterion for setting the allowable
(1) I /5 of the specified minimum tensile strength.

stresses is much more simple:

2.IO

ALTOWABLE EXTERNAL PRESSURE STRESS AND AXIAL


COMPRESSIVE STRESS IN THE ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE
VESSEL CODE

Within the ASME Boiler Code, simplified methods are given to determine the
maximum allowable external pressure and the maximum allowable axial compressive stress on a cylindrical shell without having to resort to complex analytical solutions. Various geometric values are contained in the geometry chart,
whereas materials' properties are used to develop the materials charts.
Allowable stresses in the materials charts are based on the followine criteria
For cylindrical shells under external pressure, the least of:

l.
2,

33Vo
33Va

of the critical buckling stress with a factor of 807o for tolerance.


of the specified minimum yield strength and yield strength at tem-

perature.

3.
4.
-

67Vo of the average stress to produce a creep rate of 0.01%/1000 hours


(17ol 100,000 hours).
IOOVo

of the allowable stress in tension.

For spheres and spherical portions of heads under extemal pressure, the least

OI:

l.
2.

25Eo
25Va

of the critical buckling stress with a factor of 607o for tolerance.


of the specified minimum yield strength and yield strength at tem-

perature.

Higher design stress intensity values are permitted for austenitic stainless
steels and nickel-alloy materils where greater deformation is not objectionable.
In this_ case, the criterion of J yield strength at temperature may be increased to
as high as 90Vo yield strength at temperature or any value beiween and gOVo
!
yield strength at temperatue depending upon the acceptable amount of deformation. However, the factor of j specified minimum yield strength is still

maintained.
There are two criteria for setting bolting design stress intensity values in the
ASME Code, VIII-2. For design by Appendix 3, the criteria are the same as for
the ASME Code, VI -1, because these values are used for the tlcsign of bolts

for flangjs.

Ior

design by Appendix 4 of the ASMII (ixlc. VIII_2, and by


Division -l , Slbsdition NB ancl NC-32(X) ot' Sutiscc.riirn IrtC. the
crilcria lirr setting bolting design stress intcnsity vitlucs urc thc lesscr of the
Sectirrn

III,

3.

507o of the average stress to produce a creep rate of 0.017o/1000 hours

4.

(17ol100,000 hours).
IOOVo of the allowable stress in tension.

For cylindrical shells under axial compression, the least

l.
2.

ol

of the critical buckling stress with a factor of 5OVo for tolerance.


50Vo of the specified minimum yield strength and yield strength at tem259o

perature.

3.

1007o
(

4.

of the average stress to produce a creep rate of 0.017o/1000 hrs

l7ol 100,000 hours).

ljQVo of the allowable stress in tension.

t)

rrtt|tl

;6 ;5 ;6
-iA-i-l

ltltitll

t-. F- a- tr
\o
\o \o \o
-i -i .l ^'

rl||tl

.i "i -; .-'

Ed

0rt5

tItl

ta
a- cr
\o
\o

.9
o

tt||l

o
@

g
-g

eq

q,

ttltl

g
='

6E <q
c!o

r sgss

s3ss5ss

tF

F:

.oP.ocoto

'\-j'\'\'\

NONa{:

=
o
o

->

ii>;h\>

.:9

o
o
.-o

.E6
!ao

(-)

.o..).o.i66+

:
.\..\-\.\

3Eq

(/)F

i;

20

oo
n=
do

F>

Z.
a

*9.
d':
ov.

5d
3.!
az

.\.\.\.\

.=9

. o6;

?!:
;i
>'<
\:'
6 ri
O.

..'\fra\ot\ooo1

g?
go :is
-9 d*
c3 la
I ."4 .0
F -;
.0.q.i
"

E .i
gv
E u)
v)

5oN

.;T
tE

ir

.9ir^l$;c===-

Eg Et5;;'

:EH3;E6EE
:E!l-.r'!55::E-=
O o o o 6.

P-+tstE333E,
!,
a

eEeEg,:EiEEfEEEE

ao

120

.9* Ea E=
Ee

=g+ ;.:!do0EEEE
.Eo,;
4t4il
Eoo+
'H; i.g i-oi.lR4
I.g PF H i.=.=.r

:, .o

=<
t-.
E;

*s

,. i
.:Y

.g
oo

-{

bo

E(aG6.6*d-EG?q<<<.
d---o

inEG*rj

'-i-

,5

qO

,5

=P
E

F3trF

;d

ctrEEEE2CCCq
E I CCE E E

'

CJ

=r5===S=55-E=g=3
21

22
2.I

STI.TCIION

Ot

VTSSTI-, SPTCIFICATIONS, REPORTS,

AND ALLOWABIE

STRESSES

ALLOWABLE STRESSTS IN THE ASME CODE FOR PRESSURE

2.12

ATLOWABTE STREss IN OTHER CODES OF THE WORI.D

23

Australia

PIPING 83I

'I'hc ullowrrblc sircsscs given in various sections of the ASME


831 Code for
l\'csnulc I'ipirrg urc sinrilar to the corresponding sections of the ASME Boiler
nrtl l\'cssurc Vcssel Code; however, in some sections, the basis is different. In
thc (lxlc lirf Power Piping B31.l, the allowable tensile stresses are set by the
srrrrrc crilcria as used for ASME Code, Section I. In the Code for Chemical plant
rn(l llctrolcum Refinery Piping B31.3, the allowable tensile stresses for other
th n bolting are set on a similar basis as used for ASME Section VIII, Division
l, sxcept a factor of i is substituted for j on the tensile strength. The factor of
i on yield strength is used in both codes. This makes 831.3 in the tensile and
yield strength range is similar to Division 2 and in the creep and rupture strength
range similar to Division 1.

2.12

Association of Australia are called the SAA Standards Series AS 1200. The
factors of safety used to set the allowable stresses for the various sections are:

UTS

rs

AS 1210_1977
Pressure Vessels

1.6*

Class lH-1979
AS 1228-1980
Boilers

2.4

1.5

1.6
na

2.7

1.5

1.5

n
n

Belgium
ALLOWABLE STRESS IN OTHER CODES OF THE WORLD

Throughout the world, various factors of safety are applied to materials' data to
establish allowable shesses for the design of boilers, pressure vessels, and
piping. For the temperature range to that temperature where creep or rupture sets
the allowable stresses, the universal factor for setting allowable stresses is based
on yield strength. In some countries, a factor is applied to sets of data that have
been established from many tests; in others, the data are determined by the low
yield point or the high yield point. In still other countries, the actual data for the
component being designed have its yield strength determined by tests . The actual
data of the part are then factored into the design formulas. Not all countries
choose to use the ultimate tensile strength as a criterion for setting allowable
stresses. When they do, the factor of safety between various countries rs sometimes very different. In order to show these differences, a discussion follows
regarding the allowable stress basis of several different countries.
The ierms, symbols, and definitions used are as follows:

UTS

The rules used for the design of boilers ald pressure vessels set by the Standards

set as follows:

'

Boilers

Liquid gas
Air receivers
Pressure vessels

UTS

ys

3.2
2.7

1.6

1.5

1.6

1.8

Various factors at designer's choice

Czechoslavakia
temperature)
perature)

na :
n:

depend usually upon the codes used. However, the basic allowable smesses are

ultimate tensile strength (either specified minimum or data at design

y5 = yield strength (either specified minimum or data at design temR=


C:

The Belgian rules issued by The Belgian Standards Institute (IBN) permir a
mixture of code rules from various other countries. The allowable stresses

stress to cause rupture

in

100,000 hours

stress to cause total creep or creep rate

not applicable
none or not used

in

Czechoslovakian rules are extensively detailed for all types of vessels with
different allowable stresses used for intemal pressure as compared with extemal
pressure. For the design of boilers and pressure vessels, the allowable stresses
are established by the least of:

100,000 hours

*l.5

at temDerature.

24

SELECTION OF VESSEt, SPECITICATIONS. REPORTS, AND ATIOWABTE STRESSES

2.I2

ALTOWABLE STRESS IN OTHER CODES OF THE WORID

UTS

Intemal pressure----cylinders

wall
wall
Castings

Heated
Unheated

n
n

1.6
1.6

2.0

1.6

l.)

2.0
Extemal pressure-cylinders without stiffening rings
All walls
2.0
2.0
Castings
2.5
2.5

n
n

UTS

ys

n
n
n

2.0
2.5

l.)

1.5

Cast Steel

1.0
1.0
1.25

DIN

1
Tested
DIN2or

1.5

n
n

Aluminum and seamless copper

1.35

DIN

1.7

n
n
n

I
Tested
DIN2or

J.f

1.5

4.0

1.5
1.5

2.5

n
n

F rance

Italy
The French rules for pressure vessel design establish the allowable shesses
depending upon the inspection and the compliance with the SNCT (Syndicat
National de la Chaudronnerie et de la Tuyauterie Industrielle) rules. The allowable stresses are established by the least of:

The Italian rules for boilers and pressure vessels establish the allowable stresses
by the least of the following:
UTS

v,5

SNCT w/insp.
SNCT w/insp.

1.6

and analysis

1.6

Boilers
vessels

1.0

Pressure

2.7

1.6

1.5*

1.6
1.5

1.0
1.0

1.6

2.7

1.6

1.6

1.0

2.4

1.5

1.6

1.0

Not SNCT
w/insp.
Not SNCT
w/o insp.

Japan
1.9

1.6

1.0

Gennany
The three types of pressure vessels recognized by the regulatory agencies in
Germany are fixed pressure vessels, mobile pressure vessels, and boilers. The
allowable stresses are established according to a specific DIN (German Industrial
Standard) certificate or by testing. The allowable stresses are set by various
factors of safety on the yield strength with a constant factor of safety on rupture
as

The Japanese government does not have one group to develop their design
codes. Rather have several different rules for designing boilerJ and pressure
vessels. Although they are published by different groups and generally written
by the different groups, all codes are under the control of the Japanese government. The basis for setting allowable stresses is the least of:

1.6

Boilers

follows:
Pressure vessels

UTS

DIN2orl
Tested

2/(1.6

ys

1.67 av.

- jI

Altemative
n

I .:)

1.5

1.8

1.5

Ll

1.5

pressure

vessels

*1.5 used when YS/IS > 0.85.

'whcrcT:

YS/TS

<

O.7.

1.5

1.0

25 min.

1.5 av.
I .25 min.

Steel (not cast)

DIN

rs

UTS

1.0

26

SETECTION OF VTSSEI, SPTCIFICATIONS, REPORTS,

AND ATTOWABI.E

STRESSES

27

REFERENCES

Sweden

ANSUAPI Standard 650, Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage, 7th ed., American Petroleum
Institute, Washington, D.C., 1980.

The Swedish rules for the design of boilers and pressure vessels set the allowable
stresses using only the yield strength and the rupture strength as follows:

phia, Pa., 1982.

1982 AnnuaL Book of ASTM Standards,

ys

UTS

All

1.5

1.5

Unilctl Kingdom
The British rules for the design of boilers and pressure vessels are collectively
called British Standards. The basis for settine the allowable stresses is the least

of:

UTS

ys

2.7

1.5

I _.'

Carbon steel

2.35

Stainless steel

2.5*

1.5
1.5

l.J

BoilersBS 1113
Pressure vessels

BS 5500
I _J

RTTTR.ENCES

l.

Srrrrlcn, A. M., and J. R. Mase, "ASME Pressure-Vessel Code: Which Division to Choose?",
('hrt\k\tl lit|ineering, January
1982.

ll,

lnrthorlt

lrrllrrrr

oJ

luhular Exchanger Manufacturers.Asroc., 6th ed., Tubular Exchanger Manu-

As$oci0lbn, White Plains, N.Y., 1978.

rl,JJ [l lcnr|t(rrlrtrr.

DIN Standa (Deutsche Normen


(D,VA), Berlin, Gemany.

Afieican Society for Testing and Materials, Philadel-

Dll,lr,

Herausgegeben vom Deutschen Normeruusschu

2f

'Fxy

CHAPTER

l+u)

STRENGTH THEORIES,
DESIGN CRITERIA, AND
DESIGN EQUATIONS

i,=#n(*
r1

"

.,&*)

= -q.C-/afu*razn1
,,'I
i 2 (l -p'J \ayz

^J

t"

a_w

211*u;

a*aY

L.
i

Th6ori6s, riter;o, ond bosic equorions.

29

30

3.I

sTRINGTH THEORIES, DESIGN CRITERIA, AND DISIGN TQUATIONS

STRENGTH THEORIES

ln the design of process vessels and pressure equipment, two basic modes of
failure may be assumed: elastic failure based on the theory of elasticity and
plastic failure based on the theory of plasticity. Except for thick-walled vessels,
elastic failure is usually assumed for the design of pressure vessels. It is considered to occur when the elastic limit of the material is reached. Beyond this limit,
excessive deformation or rupture is expected. These limits are usually measured
in terms of tensile strength, yield strength, and, to some degree, rupture
strength.

Of the many theories developed to predict elastic failure, the three most
commonly used are the maximum principal stress theory, the maximum shear
stress theory, and the distortion energy theory. The maximum (principal) stress
theory considers failure to occur when any one of the three principal stresses has
reached a stress equal to the elastic limit as determined from a uniaxial tension
or compression test. The maximum shear stress theory (also called the Tresca
criterion) considers failure to occur when the maximum shear stress equals the
shear stress at the elastic limit as determined from a pure shear test. The
maximum shear stress is defined as one-halfthe algebraic difference between the
largest and smallest of the three principal stresses. The distortion energy theory
(also called the maximum strain energy theory, the octahedral shear theory, and
the von Mises criterion) considers failure to have occurred when the distortion
energy accumulated in the pad under stress reaches the elastic limit as determined by the distortion energy in a uniaxial tension or compression test.
Engineers have known for some time that the maximum shear stress theory
and the distortion energy theory predict yielding and fatigue failure in ductile
materials better than does the maximum stress theory.r However. the maximum
stress theory is easier to apply, and with an adequate safety factor it gives
satisfactory designs. But where a more exact analysis is desired, the maximum
shear stress theory is used.
Two basic theories of strength are used in the ASME Boiler and hessure
Vessel Code. Section I,2 Section IV,3 the ASME Code, VI[-1, and Section III,
Division 1, Subsections NC,4 ND,5 and NE6 use the maximum stress theory.
Section III, Division l, Subsection NB7 and the optional part of NC, and the
ASME Code, VtrI-2, use the maximum shear stress theory.
In the two sections of the ASME/ANSI Code for Pressure Piping 83l that are
used primarily with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, both ANSI
83 l. l6 and 83 1. 3e use the maximum stress theory. 83 1.3 is unique in that it uses
the maximum stress theory but permits allowable stresses to be established on
the same basis as the ASME Code, VIII-2, which requires use of the maximum
shear stress theory. The other sections of 831 also use the maximum stress
theory. They require that in addition to the stresses caused by intemal and
cxternal pressures, tiose stresses caused by thermal expansion of the piping are
to he considered.

3.2

3.2

DESIGN

CRITERIA

3I

DESIGN CRITERIA

The design criteria for both Sections I and IV basically call for determining the
minimum wall thickness that will keep the basic circumferential stress below an
allowable stress level. Additional rules and charts are included for determining
the minimum thickness of various components. However, in general, a detailed
stress analysis is required only for special designs. Sections I and IV recognize
that local and secondary stresses may exist in some areas of pressure vessels;
design details, however, have been established to keep these stresses at a safe
level with a minimum of stress analysis investigation.
The design criteria of the ASME Code, VI -1, and Section III, Division l,
Subsections NC except NC-3200, ND, and NE, are similar to those for Sections
I and IV except that the ASME Code, VI[-I, and Section III, Division l,
Subsections NC, ND, and NE require cylindrical shell thickness calculations
based on both the circumferential and the longitudinal directions. The minimum
required thickness may be set by stresses in either direction. In addition, the
ASME Code, VIII-1, permits the combination of primary membrane stress and
primary bending stress to go as high as 1.5 S at temperatures where tensile and
yield strength control and 1.25 S at temperatures where creep and rupture
control, where S is the allowable tensile stress values.
The design criteria for the ASME Code, VIII-2, provide formulas and rules
for thd?nore common configurations of shells and formed heads for temperatures
when the allowable stress criteria do not exceed the yield strength and tensile
strength range. Requirements include detailed evaluations of actual stresses in
complex geometries and with unusual loadings, especially if a cyclic loading
condition exists. These calculated stresses are assigned various categories and
subcategories that have different allowable stress values as multipliers of the
basic allowable stress intensity value. The various categories and subcategories
are:

Primary stresses, including general primary membrane stress, local primary


membrane stress, and primary bending stress
Secondary stresses
Peak stresses

Primary stress is caused by loadings that are necessary to satisfy the laws of
equilibrium between applied forces and moments. Primary stesses are not
self-limiting .
Secondary stress is developed by self-constraint of the structure. Its basic
chamcteristic is that it is selfJimiting. That is, rotation and deformation or
deflection take place until the forces and moments are balanced even though
some pennanent geometric changes may have taken place.
Lastly, peak stress is the highest stress condition in a structure and is usually

32

STRTNGTH THEORIIS, DESIGN CRITERIA, AND DESIGN EQUATIONS

due to a stress concentration caused by an abrupt change in geometry. This stress


is important in considering a fatigue failure because of cyclic load application.
In general, thermal stresses are considered only in the secondary and peak
categories. Thermal stresses that cause a distortion of the structure are categorized as secondary stresses; thermal stresses caused by suppression of thermal
expansion, but may not cause distortion, are categorized as peak stresses.
Potential failure modes and the various stress limits categories are related.
Limits on primary stresses are set to prevent deformation and ductile burst. The
primary plus secondary limits are set to prevent plastic deformation leading to
incremental collapse and to validate using an elastic analysis to make a fatigue
analysis. Finally, peak stress limits are set to prevent fatigue failure due to cyclic

loadings.
The basic stress iniensity limits for various categories relating to an analysis
according to the ASME Code, VIII-2, and Section III, Division 1, Subsection
NB, and optional Part NC-3200 of Subsection NC are:
Factor
Based on
Stress Intensity Category

Allowable

Yield

Value

Strength*

3.4

STRESS-STMIN REIATIONSHIPS

3.3

DESIGN EQUATIONS

Once the allowable stresses are set, the basic design equations must be devef
oped. The design of process equipment is based on the assumption that the
material generally behaves elastically at the design pressure and design tem-

perature. Accordingly, most of the equations are derived from the theory of
elasticity and shength of materials basis.

3.4

STRESS-STRAIN RETATIONSHIPS

The stress-strain relationship at any point within a homogeneous, isotropic, and


linearly elastic body that is subjected to a system of forces is obtained from the
theory of elasticity. Referring to Fig. 3.1, the stress-strain relationship is given

by

Factor
Tensile
Strength*

ks,

Local primary membrane


(P")

UKS^

himary membrane plus


primary bending (PM
Primary plus secondary

Pd liks.
1(

(PM+PB+Q)

3s,

s)
s,
25,

-!c

e,-

I
: ;lo,I1-

+s,
^lv

Or, in a different form.

(r+

2(1

Nll, n[(l thc |

| .O.

,\,,,

(lcsiSn strcss intensity valuc fbr Section

III, Division l,

Subsection

i',nrl pIr I {rl S hsr(.li()n NC, and thc ASMts Codc, VIII-2 (psi), S" = yicld strength
't{

,\,

ultirrxrtc k nsil(. slfrJrgth (psi)

tt)(1

Ii^,
" ltl

2(l +

1t)

1t)

i--

(1,+p.)(1

T, :

(3.1)

-zp.)

1.t)

[e,(l

-2tt) [e,(1 -

(l + p)(1 -

+AiiurriflI lhrt

I o)l

tt(o,2(1

o^)J

2(l +
---V- 1t) rn

.t/,- =

liorrs.

url

ploz 'r

ELor-

S-

In the ASME Code, VIII-2, and Section III, Division 1, optional Part NC3200 of Subsection NC, a factor of ft is applied to various loading combinations
somewhat related to whether or not the loading is sustained or transient. The
laotors are k = 1.0 for sustained loads including dead loads and pressure;
k - 1.2 for sustained load plus wind or earthquake loads; t = 1.25 for hydro$tiltic tcsts; and k - 1.15 for pneumatic tests.
'I'hc dcsign criteria for Section III, Division l, Subsection NB, are very
sinrillr lo thoso for the ASME Code, VIII-2, except there is less use of design
lirrrrrrrlrrs, culvcs, tnd tables, and greater use of design by analysis in Section IIL
'l'h(. cfllcgorics ol slrcsses and stress intensity limits are the same in both sec-

(plri).

t.

rs
,DGE

+s"

p(oy + ozl)

ELo,-

er

General primary membrane

(P,)

1.

e,:

Based on

LIL)

[,(1

pc)

+ p,(e, + e,)]

p) +

p.(e"

e")l

- pr,)+p(e.+er)]

(3.2)

34

STRENGTH THIORIES, DTSIGN CRITERIA, AND DESIGN EQUATIONS

t2

3.5

STRAIN-DEFTECTION EQUATIONS

equations reduce to

'

f1--->

@
I
t4

35

e,:

<-f3

1.
E\ox

psr)

t.
q= i\ar-

t"l

Po')
(3.3)

,: Elo' + stl
2(1 + tt)
r"t
f"y = --EOr, in a different form,

o,

3.1 Slrcls rerulianr ot o point wirhin o

EvL\r t trL)

Tn : ;:;---,----.._

where

e,:

axial strain in the.r, y, and z-directions, respectively

=
"y,!, yr,, y- =

axial stress in the .r, y, and z-directions, respeptively

eb ey

oo

re,

o,

rz,

oz

rp

',=76+ iil*
3.5

STRAIN-DEFLECTION EQUATIONS

Figure 3.2 is cross section of a pressure vessel wall. It undergoes an extension


in the niddle surface of o due to stretching plus extension due to bending. The
original length lr at a distance z from the middle surface is given by

t,=adr-1\

shearing strain in the -r, y, and z-directions, respectively


shearing stress in the.r, y, and z -directions, respectively

E = modulus of elasticity of material (psi)


G = shear modulus of material (psi)
1,c

(3.4)

homogeneous, isotropi<, ond linorly eldsri. body.

tL)

p'es

c,:0

F.,

r, = zG;

* *rs
+

lL-

Figure

,1u"

o,:;\1e,
t-

I
(b)

---!
L-p-

poisson's ratio

In most pressure vessel applications, the values of o,, rr,, and r,, are relatively
small compared with o, and or. Hence, they are normally ignored and the

The final length l2 after extension is

tz:

dstt +

.*r(r - 4)
\ r./

whereas strain is given by

,":

lrl,

lt

STRENGTH THEORIES, DESIGN CRITERIA, AND DESIGN TQUATIONS

36

3.5

STRAIN.DEFTECTION

EQUATIONS

37

However, because the quantity dw fdx is smal! compared with unity, the expression above becomes

d2w

X': 77
Hence, Eq. 3.5 may be written

.
a;to
Xt =

d2w

7F

(3.6)

as

*=T+1^+

peo,-,(#. - *fu)l

drr\'l
ldzw,
ot: T7E I + Pew - '\dy,
- It dr') l

(3.7)

*.leb

The shearing strain-displacement relationship can be obtained from Fig. 3 3.


The quantity 7," is shown in Fig. 3'34 and can be expressed as
Fisure

3.2

Cross sction

of o shll woll subieted to strrchine ond bendins lodds'

"l'Y:"loq+a+P

Substituting the values of lr and lz into the above and deleting all small terms
results in

.:

or

(t
l\ : e0,_
_ ,\,:_

i)

is the shearing stress due to in-place forces and d and B are due to
Also, from the figure,
moments.
twisting
where

z. x\

7qry

(d/ d\'ldv
.
d-srna
-__6-:

du

(dD/?x)dx

0a

where 1, is change in curvature. Similarly,


n

ou

IJ-srnP-

r l\

= es - z' xt

-,\4- i)

+
o,: ,-:--Lr"
t-ltti

q- ,--lvt
t- lL-

peo!

z(y"

du
f,t: Ioq, dy-

trt'yt)

(3.5)

l"r*-

z(Xr+

PX')

Nolr llrirl llr(' cx|)tcssirttt f, is related to the deflection by the expression


dzw

=A

and

Substitution of the above two equations into Eq. 3.4 gives

d,

dy

dx2

/
x'=tt+kt"4'hffn

0a

(3.8)

a,

From Fig. 3.30, which represents the middle surface, the rotation is given by
-@w I Ai. The minus sign indicates counterclockwise rotation. As a result of
this rotation, any point at a distance z from the middle surface will have a
deflection of
dw
dx

38

STRENGTH THEORIES, DESIGN CRITERIA, AND DESIGN EQUATIONS

3.6

39

FORCE-STRESS EXPRESSIONS

)2-:----:$y :^'^ rvt - -dx b

^,

And Eq. 3.4 becomes

",=c("*
3.6

-*#)

(3.9)

FORCLSTRESSEXPRESSIONS

The force-stress relationship for the cross section shown in Fig' 3 4a can be
exDressed as

*,= f',,",(r - z\a,


N,=
[n( - )a"

-\
,/./,?-

-z

t,--'-,..'7
t _----,-

|
t

u..-..

n"=[,"(t-i)a"
u,=1,,,\t-z)a'

|_-,
l-_

(3. 10)

z
Figura

tD,

3.3

Shor dolormdliom of

o unit cro$ .ection.

u.=

[".'lt -

z)a"

u,= J",'lr - i)a,

,, = -[ ,,'lt - 1)a"
u*=

Similarly,
D

Hence Eq. 3.8 becomes

[,,",(t-4;,

dte

= -Z--dy

In the majority of cases, the quantity z/r is small with respect to unity and can
thus be dlsregarded. Also, substituting Eqs. 3.7 and 3.9 into 8q 3 10 gives

40

STRENGTH THEORITS, DESIGN CRITERIA, AND DESIGN EQUATIONS

3.6

4l

FORCE.STRESSEXPRESSIONS

,.:&(#.#)
u,=ffi\(*tu.
Eilt l2ll -

,.

(3.1 r)

,*tu)

tL) drw
lt2t ax dy

Example 3.1 Stresses are to be determined at the inside comer of an opening


in a cylindrical shell by applying strain gages at the location. The cylindrical

: 29.9 x 106 psi and p : 0.3. The strain readings


o
from the three gages are ,: +360 x 10-6; ): +180 x l0 and e' =
-230 x 10-6. What are the stresses in the three principal directions at the
shell is carbon steel with

opening?

Solutian.

Using the equations given under Eq. 3.2, the stresses are determined

AS

,/
,oq

o,: ;#1Q60X0.7)
( r.Jrw.+.,
,qq

' -*l(180)(0.7)
",:
t r.JJ(u.+,

0.3(180

230)l

13'630 psi

0.3(360

230t1

9499 O.;

?qo
"'' tr-?10rr0.7)
= (1.3x0.4)"
--""' + 0.3(360 + 180)l :

60

psi

3.2. What are the stresses in the two principal directions of the
cylindrical shell with the o, = gt

Exanple

Et

N. = r
r-lJ' r(0r+
Ft

.--------t (0) + p0r.)

N,}

2(l

lL'

1'u,Et

1t)

Using the simplified equations given under Eq. 3.4, the stresses are

determined

as

/,q,

N, :

l-

Solution.

', =ffioso
o, =ffi{rto

+ 0.3 x

180)

13,6oo psi

+ 0.3 x

360)

9460

psi

42

SIRTNOTH THEORIS, DTSIGN CRITERIA, AND DESIGN EQUATIONS

Problems

3.1

Strain gages are attached to the surface of a tube subiected to internal


pressure. The gages lie along the circumferential and l,ongitudinal axes.
The tube is carbon steel with
= 29.9 106psi, 1.r, 0.3, and the stress
at the surface in the circumferential direction is 17,500 psi. What are the
strain gage readings in the two directions?

Answer:

e,:
i:

*498
+117

x 10-6
x 10-6

In the tube of Problem 3.1, what is the strain in the z -direction? Usins that
answer and the other answers in Problem 3.1, what are the calcrilated
stresses in the three directions?

Anst'er: a" =

17,500 psi

o" = 8,750 psi

o"=o
REFERENCES
Criteria of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for Design by At],',ltsis in Sections
and VIII, Division 2, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New york, 1969.

III

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section

I, Power Boilers, ANSVASME BPV-I,


American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New york, 1983.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sectionly, Heating BoiIeB, ANSVASME BPV-IV,
American Society of Mechanical Enginers, New York, 1983.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division l, Subsection NC, Class 2
Components, ANSUASME BPV-m-I-NC, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New

York, 1983.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section

l,

III, Division Subsection ND, Crllrr.i


Components, ANSL?ASME BPV-III-1-ND, American Society ofMechanical Engineers, New

York. 1983.
ASMII Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division l, Subsection NE, Class MC
(i)tnpt,nt',ttr, ANSTASME BPV- I-l-NE, American Society ofMechanical Engineers,
New
7.

Y,nk, 1983.
ASMIj lllrilcr and

Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1, Subsecrion NB, CIaJJ 1


( t'ntt\'tl' t.t, ANSI/ASME BPV- I-l-NB, American Society ofMechanical Engineers,
New
Y(n

(.

43

BIBTIOGRAPHY

3.2

BIELIOGRAPHY

l()8l

ASMf i ( \nk. li,r I'rcssurc PipingB3l, Power Prping, ANSLIASME

83l.1, Amedcan Society


ol Mrrhfiri(nl li[8inccrs, New York, 1980.
ASMf (irtfc lix Prcssure Piping B3l, Chemical plant and petroleum Rertnery pipin|,
ANSI/AliMll ll I I L Amcr'can Soc'ety of Mechanical Engineers, New york, 19g0.

Brownell, L. E., and E. H. Yoi{Irlg, Process Equipment Design, John Wiley, New york, 1959.
FattWI, J, H., Engineering Design, John Wiley, New York, l9&.

Ha0ey, J. F., Theory and Design of Modern Pressure Vessels,2nd ed., Van Nostrand-Reinhold,
Princeton, N.J.
Seely, F.

B. and J. O. Smith, Advanced Mecfuinics of Makriak,2nded., John Wiley, New york,

1952.

CHAPTE R

MATERIALS OF
CONSTRUCTION

Top: Metologroph of titanium wetd. Boltom:


Tonrolum_ctdd veset (Courtesy of rhe Nooter
Corp., Sr. l"ouis,

44

MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION

46

4.I

MATERIAL SETECTION

The vast majoriry of vessels are constructed of ferrous and nonferrous alloys'
used
Ferrous alloys are defined as those having more than 50Vo iron They are
steels'
low-alloy
and
carbon
include
2,
and
and
VI[-l
in the eSME Code,
steels'
stainless steels, cast iron, wrought iron, and quenched and tempered
zirconium
and
titanium,
nickel,
copper,
aluminum,
include
Nonfenous alloys
The ASTM designates all ferrous alloys by the letter A and all nonferrous alloys
the ASME
by B. ASME uses the prefixes SA and SB, respectively ln most cases
the
ASME
to
unO eSfV specifications are identical. However, vessels built
Code usually refer to the ASME specifications'
Nonmetilic pressure vessels may also be constructed to the ASME Code'
plasRecently, ASME Section X was published to include fiberglass-reinforced
Concrete
46'
tic (FRij vessels. Details of construction are given in Section
rules are
vessels are also being considered by the ASME However, no specific
available at this time.

and
Selecting materials that are adequate for a given process is complicated
depends on many factors such as corrosion, strength, and cost'

4.1.1

Corrosion

Corrosion,whichisdefinedasthedeteriorationofmetalsbychemicalaction'
A
is probably the single most important consideration in selecting materials
sigcan
given
stigtrt ctrange in the chemical composition of a
-environment
in
nifi'cantly cilange the corrosive behavior of a given metal This is illustrated
on
different
effect
their
and
epp""Oi* H, i,trich lists various environments

Fisure

4.1

Cotroded corbon sleel lubesheet. (Courl$y of the Nooter Corp., St. touis, Mo.)

ferrous and nonferrous alloYs.


In a new chemical process, it is prudent to determine the factors that affect
the most
the corrosion and then run tests on various materials in order to select
in "city
exchanger.used
a
heat
suitable one. Figure 4.1 shows an example of
and
the unsteel
carbon
of
water" service. The corroded tubesheet is made
4'2
is a
Fig
in
shown
example
corroded tubes are made of copper' Another
corroslon'
titanium lubesheet after exhibiling crevice
fn nighty corrosive environments, every phase of the pressure. vessel fabri.ution pio""r, rnurt be evaluated for corrosion' Items such as buming' forming'
weldini, stress relieving, and polishing must be.considered Figure 4 3 illuswere left on
trates a"Hastelloy C chu-te with corrosion in which marking Points
the break
along
stress
of
high
points
at
rnu,"tlut Ou.ing h"ut treatment. Conosion
attack
knifeline
shows
tube
20
a
Carpenter
lines can also 6e seen. In Figure 4.4,
acid
hydrofluoric
in
used
tube
a
bayonet
at a plug weld (shown by arrow) in
service.
its
The cleanliness and finish of the inside surface of a pressure vessel before
in
service'
subsequent
preventing
in
opcrltion ilrc vsry imPortant
.c.onoslon
to lts
Many uscrs tcquirc spccial clcaning proccdutcs ol'the insitlc surlace Prior

insl;rllaliott.

Frrruro

4.2

Corroded rirqnaum tubesheet. (Courlesy

ol the Nooler CorP, Sr' touis, Mo

4.I

49

MATERIAT SITECTION

4.1.2

Strenglh

The strength level of a material has a significant influence on its selection for a
given application. This is especially true at elevated temperatures where the
yield and ultimate strength are relatively low and the creep and rupture behavior
may control the allowable stress values. In the ASME Code, VIII-l, the criteria
for allowable stress at elevated temperatures take into account both the creep and
rupture behavior as discussed in Section 2.4. In applying the ASME criteria for
allowable stress as given there, the following procedures are used.
Specified Minimum Yield Stress

In obtaining the minimum yield shess of a given material, test data are plotted
at vadous temperatures as shown in Fig . 4 . 5 . A smooth trend curve is then drawn
though the averages of the data for individual test temperatures. The specified
minimum yield stress curve is obtained by applying to the yield trend curve the
ratio of the specified minimum value, as given in the material specification, to
the trend value of 80"F.

Fisure

4.3

Hosrelloy C chure. (Courtesy o{ the Nooter Corp., Sr. rouk, Mo.)

o
Fisure

48

4.4

200

400

600

800

1000

temperature,"F
Crock in

o Corpenter 20 lube weld. (Court6y of Nooier Corp., Sr. toui., Mo

Figure

4.5

Tensile ond yield 3irengrh.

1200

1400

1600

!0

MATERIATS

OI

CONSTRUCTION

4.I

5l

MATTRIAI. SETECTION

Sptcllled Mlnlnum 'l'ensile Siress

Rupture Slrength

'fhe tensilc trend curve is determined by the same


method as the yield trend curve

Test data are normally plotted as shown in Fig. 4.7. In some cases the data need
to be extended to 100,000 hours and must be done with extreme care to extraD-

including_ th-e,.ratio factor. The specified minimum tensile striss is arbitrarily


taken as I l07o of the tensile trend curve, as illustrated in Example 4. 1

Creep Rate

In order to establish the creep rate of lVo /lffi,O}} hours, data are plotted as
shown in Fig. 4.6. Interpolation and extrapolation may be needed to establish
the creep rate for various temperature levels.

olate accurately.

Example 4.1. A user is requesting code approval for a new material that has
a minimum specified tensile stress of 120 ksi and a minimum specified yield
stress of 60 ksi at room temperature. Tensile and yield values for various heats
and temperatures are shown in Fig. 4.5. Creep and rupture data are given in Figs.
4.6 and 4.7, respectively. What are the allowable stress values at 300 and 1200'F

based on criteria siven

in Section 2.4?

1,000

.0001

Llle llrs.
Figur

,{.6

Crep strengrh.

Figur

4.7

Rupture strengrh.

MATERIATS OF CONSTRUCTION

52

4.2

NONFERROUS ATLOYS

Solution

TqblE 4.1 Approximote Cost of


Mqteriqls Used in Pressure Vesser

Allowable Stress at 300'F

Conslruction

l.

2.
3.
4.

From Fig. 4.5, average tensile stress = 130 ksi.


Tensile stress reduced to minimum : l3O x 120/140: 111 ksi.
Specified minimum tensile stress : 111 x 1.10 : 122 kst.
Maximum stress to be used cannot exceed 120 ksi.
Allowable stress based on tensile stress : 120/4 = 30 ksi.
From Fig. 4.5, average yield sffess : 60 ksi.
Yield stress reduced to minimum : 60 x 60/75: 48 ksi.
Allowable stress based on yield stress : 48 x 6 = 32 ksi.
From Figs. 4.6 and 4.7 it is apparent that creep and rupture are not a
consideration at 300'F.
Therefore, maximum allowable stress at 300"F = 30 ksi

Type

Allowable Stess at 1200"F

1. From Fig. 4.5, average tensile saess : 112 ksi.


Tensile stress reduced to minimum : lI2 x 120/1,4O: 96 ksi.
Specified minimum tensile stress = 96 x 1.1 : 106 ksi, which is less
than maximum allowed of 120 ksi.
Allowable stress based on tensile stress = 106/4 : 26.5 ksr.
2. From Fig. 4.5, average yield shess = 54 ksi.
3.
4.
5.
4. I

.3

Yield stress reduced to minimum = 52 x 6O/7t: 42 ksi.


Allowable stress based on yield stress = 42 x 6 = 28 ksi.
From Fig. 4.6, creep stress for 0.O1Vo rn 1000 hours = 15 ksi.
Allowable stress based on creep = 15 ksi.
From Fig. 4.7. stress to cause rupture at 105 hours = 22 ksi.
Allowable stress based on rupture = 0.67 x 22: 14.7 ksi.
Therefore, maximum allowable stress at 1200"F = 14.7 ksi. I

Moteriol Cost

llt'r'rrrrsc costs of materials vary significantly, the designer must evaluate materiirl (osl vcrsus other facton such as corrosion, expected life of equipment,
Ivrrilirl'ility ol material, replacement cost, and code restrictions on fabrication
rrrrl rr'1ririrs. n summary of the cost of some frequently used materials is given
rn l irlrlt ,l. | . With the large difference in cost, the designer should consider the
lrx l(xs ltfior' 11r sclccting a given material.

Carbon steel

0.30

Low-alloy steel

0.7 5

Stainless steel

0.90-2.50

Aluminum

1.50

Copper, bronze

t.'7 5

Incoloy

4.00

Monel

5.00

Inconel
Hastelloys

15.00

Titanium
Zirconium

20.00

Tantalum

250.00

'As of

4.2

Cost in

Dollars/lb

6.00
15.00

January 1983.

NONFERROUS ATLOYS

The 1983 ASME Section VIII Code, VI[-1, lists five nonfenous alloys for code
construction: aluminum, copper, nickel, titanium, and zirconium. These alloys
are normally used in corrosive environment or elevated temperatures where
ferrous alloys are unsuitable. Nonferrous alloys are nonmagnetic except for
commercially pure nickel which is slightly magnetic.

4.2.1 Aluminum Alloys


Aluminurn alloys have a unique combination of properties that make them usable
in process equipment applications. They are nonmagnetic, light in weight, have
good formability, and have an excellent weight-strength ratio. Aluminum surfaces exposed to the atmosphere form an invisible oxide skin that protects the
rnetal from further oxidation. This characteristic gives aluminum a high resislance lo corroslon.
Aluminum alloys have a systematic numbering system as shown in Table 4.2.
'l he specification number also designates the various product forms. For examplc, SB 209 applies to plate products, and SB 210 applies to drawn seamless tube
lxrtlucts. The first digit of the alloy designation number indicates its major
rllloying element as shown in Table 4.2.
All aluminum alloys are categorized by ASME specification number, alloy

MATERIATS OF CONSTRUCTION

54

Tqble

4.2

Jf

NONIERROUS ATTOYS

Toble

Aluminum Alloy Designotion

4.3

Temper Clossificotion For Aluminum Alloys

EXAMPLE+
C ST'TG
FLITES

(n^|?{ sElra-Ess

NE
fr-Ttta

DEGREE

C@,ITF|OL OF

TE]FER OR TO IENTIFY
A STECIAL s,ET G MECH-

F4t5, A4AS
a $aPEli
cErE EF a |,/17
E(U{A'GF ltE

ffiffi6nE
DIE

TUTO

Fffi'TS

,.ffi"ffi#*EffidF-

2- nLUT
At'tt.ALm
TO.J HT TI]EN

Jfit<,6lLlfY.

3-

"'ffi,#P.*,fffr4ffi..ffisffi*

t' ffi.,,ffi*.ffi.ffi";^318H:" ,oPt-tcar td


'' H&.,ffi'#^E lH,ffia'.nn
5.

6-

9-

SOLUT IO'I HT, ARTIFICIALLY


AoEO. T'/FN COLD IItrT<ED
O- ARTIFICTALLY AGED TTEN

5. tAtN ADV$J'AA IS fl,.l tT ls t^I-lnElr a-E.


7, TLTRA HIgl S'FE 7H FFCENTTE!'' M)' USED
IN ffi.

Annealing.
Consists of heating the material to a given temperature and then slowly
cooling it down. The purpose is to soften the material in order to remove cold

working stress.
Norm.alizing.
Consists of heating rnaterial to a temperature slightly higher than the annealing temperatue and then cooling at a rate that is faster than annealing.
S o lution

H eat Tr eatin g.

Heat heating at a temperature high enough for the alloys to be randomly


dispersed.

Stahilizing.

A low temperature heating to stabilize the property of an alkry

SLUT lc',l HT TIIEN


ART]FICIALLY AGED

a.ffiiig,rri;p:::ffi!*r

fFEATAa-E ILLOY.

designation, and temper designation as shown in Tables 4.2 and 4.3. Some of
the terms in the tables are defined as follows:

#?,'ffif fi? ,HEN NATLTRALLY

"- AGED TO sTAfuE COI'IDIT ION


5- ARTIFICIALLY AGED o/v-Y

COLD V@KEO

Stain Hardening.
Modification of metal structure by cold working resulting in an increase in
strength with a loss in ductility.
Thermal Treating.
Temperature treatment of an alloy to produce a stable temper.

4.2.2

Copper ond Copper Alloys

Most copper alloys are used because of their good corrosion resistance and
machinability. They are also homogeneous as compared with steel or aluminum
and thus not susceptible to heat treatment' Their strength, generally speaking,
may be altered only by cold working. The alioy designation system serves to
identify the type of material as shown in Table 4.4. Alloys 101-199 are normally
a high grade copper with very few alloys added. Alloys 201-299 normally refer
b brass products that are mainly copper and zinc. Alloys 501-665 are bronze
products composed of copper and elements other than zinc. Other properties of
copper alkrys are also sbown in the Table.

E
E
ra ra

MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION

56

Tqble

4.4

Copper AlloYs

Alloy Designation of

301-399
401-499

Copper-zinc-lead alloys (leaded brass)

701J30

U)

U) tan

di\J

\o-

\O
d

\O
@

U) u)

ca
a

\D
\o

T 5
a
-co a':
of
co cD rq

EoS E g,.E$

HFr"
.3;o
.t2 ax

Coppers

601-645
64s-665
666-699

\o

oO

I
I

CoPPers

l0l-199
20tJ99

501-599

Eo

Copper-zinc alloys (brass)


Copper-zinc-tin alloy (tin brass)
Copper-tin alloy (phosphor bronze)
Copper-aluminum alloys (aluminum bronze)

dicc
a\)a

\o

5
Ecco e
ca rq...j
u1 v u) rh a
a

Copper-silicon (silicon brcnze)


Miscellaneous copper alloys

\o

\o

\or

\o

II

U'

rI

IQCQ
.J1 U)

rr
\oi
ir)
aa

+
+
+
a

a@
:
t4

\o

sf

\o

I
|

Copper-nickel alloys
Cold-Worked TemPer Designations

B;=
a. ,B t:

Approximate 9o Reduction
bY

\o

\o

\o

ta)

tt)

C-+
O<f r)
av)

Cold Working
0.9

Qua(er Hard

Half hard

20.7

Three-quarte$ hard

29.4

Hard

31

Extra hard

50.0

Spring
Extra spring

60.5

lv)aa

vt(hu)l

.l
>doF

68.7

<AE

IIi

ao !v Q
6 nG

v v>

'r,

88

Most copper alloys are distinguishable by their color except for Cu-Ni alloys
that tend to lose their color as the amount of Ni is increased

4.2.3

Nickel ond High-Nickel Alloys

Nickel and high-nickel alloys have excellent corrosion and oxidation resistance
that makes thJm ideal for high temperature applications with corrosive environ-

Y
<
6=aa-.i,:,i,9

ments. Products are normally called by their commercial names rather than their
ASME designation number as shown in Table 4 5'

4.2,4

JVCq9vY-ii

flSd

2222222222

Titonium ond Zirconium Alloys

Titanium and zirconium alloys are used in process equipment subjected to severe
environment. In the ASME Code, VIII-1, unalloyed titanium is listed for grades
grades also
I , 2, and 3, and alloyed titanium is listed for grade 7. Two zirconium
705'
alloy
alloyed
and
702
alloy
unalloyed
given in the Code are
The modulus of elasticity for both titanium and zirconium is about half that
ol stccl. Also the coefficient of thermal expansion of both is about half that of
stccl. I'hc dcnsity o1'zirconium is slightly less than stcel' whereas the density of
lilrr|lirrrr is irlrottt 0.5ti lirttcs thltt ol stccl.

9-B
n^:i^
-zF
l= I
v6 Vo zz
z
F
Z\J ZY >v

ccg,,-56
I ; r'i XEE i
da 2e 2a2^::;. F
23888A838:E;8t
z zcz44aa3z4
=e

qq

$na*$qfi
ra33383nltsa
s?

-aEP
3-EE
&

(./t

u)all

$na$$qqqqq
t3,38nA3nn3F^

H5 g
al

E)

o- q
=- *A

q-

EEU*

3 g ? qlnlqq|
$3e
$
AAenE3a

ao

AA

q s$3$$$$$ qq
sAAEn'-n3333a3383
t83

Yq
rarartl

q
3

s$$nHfiH$$+q
nAaeBSaaSSa

n | 3

I'i |:SX
-ii
ocq
tr
ttt ca u)

F-

||

|
|

ra)
v-'

-tY

a-

\o

l(ha

; g nE H

El

e&"

r.)
c.r <l
iisiotidooozx
.J

i\

^r

to

nl

CJ

al

R=

><> )<x

i{

5
C)

gg

a^r'i=-=
O

EEEEtt
giss!ig$gqB
622t2322222

U
O

26

II.

t!

n*i
.i+t-

zzz

,9,

,9

;i

/\/tx
X XE AH O:'

.rrrr{a

ln

EuEt sc ig ig I5

ic

kc

ic Ig Ig

;Qo;FQ;Fe36g.S
JJ.o i6\
d)i dliH
C:F

3g5Eg6s9lsd

59

MATERIATS OF CONSTRUCTION

4.3

4.4

HEAI TREATING OF

STEETS

6I

steels. lhese elements enhance the steel for high temperature applications and

FERROUS ALTOYS

in hydrrigen service.

Iron alloys with carbon content of less than 2qo arc known as steels and those
with more than 27o are known as cast iron. Steels are further divided into those
with carbon content of more than 0.87o, called hypereutectoid steels, and those
with carbon content of less than 0.87o, known as hypoeutectoid steels. Most
steels used in pressure vessel applications have a carbon content of less than
0.47o. Steels with carbon content of over O.4Eo are very brittle and hard to weld.
Cast iron used in pressure vessels dates back to the nineteenth century.
However, because cast iron is very brittle and because it cannot be rolled,
drawn, or welded, its use in pressure vessels presently is limited to complicated
components and configurations. The ASME Code, VIII-I, also imposes limitations on the pressure and temperature ranges and the repair methods.
Steel alloys can be produced with a wide variety of alloying elements. Some
of the common elements and their effect on steel products are shown in Table
4.6. The ASME Code, VIII-1, divides steel alloys into the following categories:

High-Alloy Steels.
These are commonly refened to as stainless steels. They have mainly chromium (over lOVo), nickel, and molybdendm alloys. The basically three types
of stainless steel used in process equipment are as follows:
M artensitic Stainless Steels.

This group includes type 410, which has a low chromium content of slightly
above lTEo. They behave like steel, are magnetic, heat heatable, and difficult
to fabricate.

Feffitic Stainless Steels.


This group includes types 405 and 430. They are magnetic but not heat
treatable.

Carbon Steels.

Aust enitic Staink s s

These are widely used in pressure vessels. They have mainly silicon and
manganese as the main alloying elements and are limited in temperature

This group includes all 200 and 300 series and are chromium-nickel and
chromium-nickel-manganese steels. They arc nonmagnetic and not heat

Ste e ls.

applications to about 1000'F.

heatable.

Low-Allny Steels.
These are essentially cbromium (up

to l07o), Molybdenum, and nickel-alloy

4.6 Effecl of Alloying Elements in Sfeel


Element
Advantases
Element

Tqble

Advantages

Aluminum

Restricts grain growth

Strengtheqs annealed

Chromium

Incrcases resistalca to
corrosion and oxidation
Increases hardenability
Adds strength at high
temperature

steels

MirrUlocsc

Molylrk

rrrrrrr

Counteracts sulfur
brittleness
I ncrcases hardenability
l{ iscs grain-coarsening

carbon steel.

Prevents formation
austenite in high

of

depletion of chomium
in stainless steel during

t(,wirr(l lcnrpcr brittleness


Iinllnrl(cs corrosion
l( sislirtlec

chromium steels

reslstance
Increases hardenability
Strengthens steel

illrrlcrircls tcndency

long heating
Vanadium

The lattice structure of steel varies from one form to another as the temperature
changes. This is illustrated in Fig. 4.8. Between room temperature and 1333"F,
the steel consists of what is known as "ferrite and pearlite." Ferrite is a solid
solution of a small amount of carbon dissolved in iron. Pearlite, which is shown
in Fig. 4.9, is a mixture of ferrite and iron carbide. The carbide is very hard and

Prevents localized

Improves oxidation

l('l|ll)crilturc
(

HEAT TREATING OF STEELS

britde.
In Fig. 4.8 between lines A1 Qower critical ternperature) and A3 (upper critical
temperature) the carbide dissolves more readily into the lattice that is now called
"ferrite and austenite." Austenite is a solid solution of carbon and iron that is
denser than ferrite.
Above line 43 the lattice is uniform in property, with the austenite the main
structure. The actual temperature for this austenite range is a function of the
carbon content of the steel as shown in Fig. 4.8.
With this brief description, we can now discuss various heat treatments of

Toughens steels

Titanium

4.4

Increases hardenability
Rcsists tcmpcring

Normalizing.
This consists of heating the steel to about 100"F above the upper critical line
and tben cooling in still air. The purpose is to homogenize the steel
structurc and oroduce a harder steel than the annealed condition

Ai

MATERIATS

62

Of

CONSTRUCTION

4.5

63

BRITTTE FMCTURE

Posweld Heat Treatingcritical temperature


It
consists of heating to a temperature below the lower
-rJilwelding stress and
and
fabrication
the
f- rft" purp;se of reducing
softening the weld heat-affected zones'
Quenching.
important in e-stablishing
The rate of cooling of steel after heat treating is very
most of their high
obtain
SA-517
as
such
ifr" ft.an"t. of st"eel Some steels
such as
manY.factors
on
cooling.depends
of
Uy qt"*fting. The rate
,t
mass of
and
size
and
"ttgtft
medium'
quenching
of
tlmperature
qu"nittlng

'ri

the part.

-iAiu.,

Tempering.
they are heat
Ouenched steels are very brittle. In order to increase toughness'

;;;;

il"* ;.;d

then cooled to produce the desired propertv of high

strength and good toughness.

PERCENT CARAON OF WEIGHT


Fisure

4.8

lron-iron corbide equilibrium didsrom'

4.5

BRITTTE FRACTURE

Pressure vessel componenllconstructed of ferrous alloys

occasionalllfail:ht-

i*tir;at"d,=A;".-"p:.-Iormalopqr3tingtdlFPeratureatalnressurewell
illiiffi=0.;-;ftJG d*-i i"ir'* $"Jutt! o'"u'' ut to* !;'i-{'n"'1r ioo

uy incorporati4g.ufg1e fracture -coriiiderations at the dsgn


ffilrir;d
.;Oiiticaiion requlreO vaiies from the simplest state-offfi
ffirf
il::* ;;d;dTi;,rt""t"iii.o.pri*tei mathematical analvses Both extremes
;; ;i;ii;,h;;i;isure uessel'designer, and their application ^depends on the

amountofinformationavailableandtherequiredreliabiljtyolaglvencomponent.

Charpy V-Notch Test (Cv)


NORI'ALIZED

ANNEALED
PEARLITE

PEARLITE
Figure

4.9

Parlile 3tructure.

llrrr r'orrrisls ol lreating the steel to about 50'F above the upper critical line
,4, lrrrl tlrlrr ltttttittt cortling slowly. The purpose is to refine the grain and
rtrlttr'r srtllttr'ss

The Cv test is the simplest and most popular method of qualitatively determining

ffi'rrl."--i-Grl^cF*-T
of
9-n:sl:dJp.j"r_Tglllg: lljS

impact teslrn_g
ASTM- A-370_-and consistf
taken from a spbcifib location of a product lorm. l he speclmen ls srucK wlln a
falling weighi(Fig.4.l}b) and the energy required to fracture it at various
tempJratures is recorded. Figure 4.11 shows two typical plots of the temperature
versus absorbed energy. The magnitude of measured energy, shape of energy
curve, and appearance of the cross section of tested specimens are all significant
in evaluating material toughness.

4.5

ffil

fn',n
| '-*nn

(a) srnolno specruel

(b) resr ann*rormeu

BRITTTE FRACTURE

The magnitude of energy level at a given temperature varies with different


steels, as shown in ASTM 4-593. An energy level of 15 ft-lb is considered
adequate for 4-283 steel at room temperature. However, such a level is exceedingly low for .4-387 steels. Recognizing this fact is imperative in specifying
energy requirements for various steels at different temperatures.
The slope of the energy curve in Fig. 4.11 gives the rate of change of steel
toughness with increasing temperature. At the bottom shelf of the curve, the
steel is very brittle as indicated by the cleavage appearance of the tested speci
men. Failure is normally abrupt. At the upper shelf, material fails in shear and
- the cross section has a dull area. Failure bicurs after excessive yielding. [ow]
W,q sharp increase in toughness as the temperaiure increases,

--.r-o"ttgm;f"@Slt
as sho_wnin_Curve,4 qf Fig. 4 1 l. @
-. as-sharu!_!J_ rfrrvx g-rn-\E:-.4.1t. This slight increase in toughness makes the
Cv test impractical to use in high strength steels.
The
of dull and
areas in the cross section of tested
(Fig. 4.10c).

(c) pencert or sxeln rnlctune


AFTEB TESTII'IG.

Fig'rre

,1.10 Chorpy V-notch

spc'men.

nil ductility temperature.


The nil ductility transition (NDT) temperature shown in Fig. 4.11 is of
significant importance when considering low strength steels. This temperature is
below which the fracture appearance of steel changes from part shear to complete cleavage. Thus, this temperature is below which vessels with low strength
steel must not operate without a detailed fracture evaluation.
The Cv tests give a good qualitative indication of fracture hends. TlpylQlot,
however. eive anv coffelation between enersv and stress levels. Such information G-neeh wriirJ i-strisianaiviii is ftooila. roitrti.-iJ*n. other methods
were devised such as the drop weight test {DWT) established by the U.S. Naval

Research. Laboratory

Drup We@ht Test (DWT)

The DWT procedure is given in ASTM E-208 and consists of welding a brittle
bead on a test specimen. The bead is then notched and the specimen impact
l$ted at various temperatures. The NDT temperature is obtained when the
specimen does not break upon impact.
In testing the specimens, deflection can be limited such that the stress at
failure does not exceed the yield value. Thus, a direct correlation is established
between the NDT temperature and yield stress. Such information is used in
constructing the fracture analysis diagram (FAD).

cuRvi(A)

CURVE(s)
Fisure

4.ll

Cv Enrgy tronlilion urye..

Fracture Analysis Diagratn (FAD)


The FAD is one of the earliest applications of brittle fracture rules to fail-safe
designs. The results obtained from the curve are very conservative but require

64

-/

66

MATERIATS OF CONSTRUCTION

the minimum in engineering analysis. A simplified version of the diagram for


low strength steels is shown in Fig. 4.12 and indicates the types of tests required
to construct the diagram.
Point A is obtained from the DWT and it establishes the location of the NDT
temperature with respect to yield stress. The crack arrest temperature (CAT)
curve, developed by the Naval Research Laboratory is obtained by running
explosive tests on sample plates at various temperatures and observing the crack
pattem. From such tests the fracture tear elastic (FTE) point is determined at the
temperature at which the crack pattem changes from bulge and fracture to bulge
and partial fracture, as shown in Fig. 4.12. The fracture tear plastic (FTP) point
is obtained when the crack pattem changes from bulge and partial fracture to
bulge and shear tears. The FTE point also locates the yield stress with respect
to temperature, whereas the FTP point locates the ultimate stress.
Below point A in Fig. 4.12, fracture does not propagate regardless of the
temperatue as long as the stress is below 5-8 ksi. Between points A and other
stress lines are drawn to correlate various stress levels. These lines are obtained
from the Roberson test, which consists of impact testing a specimen that is

4.5

BRITTIT

FRACTURE

67

to a certain level and heated from one side to create a temperature


gradient as shown in Fig. 4.13.
Figure 4.14 shows the complete fracture analysis diagram. The range of flow
sizes at various stress levels has been obtained from experiments as well as
experience. The experiments consisted of using large spheres of good impact
material and replacing portions of them with a notched brittle material. The
spheres were then pressurized to a given stress level at the NDT temperature of
the brittle material. The size of the notch was varied with different stress levels
to obtain the range in the figure.
stressed

mpAcT

ERiP
Figure

0{DT+60"F) (

urd

in Roberrson crock-drrBr bsr.

YIELD

srnEss

lKl

M tet

L_________J

FLAT"

BULGE

&

FRACTIJRE

FRACTURE

Figurc

Diosrom of specimen

DT+120'F)

TEMP+

"

4.13

4.12

lft\

tL)

,BULGE'
&
PARTIAL

"BuLGE"

FRACTURE

TEABS

Frocluro onolFis diogrom.

ls
lz
T
ll

&

SHEAR

riloT
Fisuro

4.14

(NI'I+3o'F)
TEMe-.-

(NDT+60'F)

Generdlizd frocture onolysis d,osrom.

(NDT+r20'F)

MATERIATS OF CONSTRUCTION

4,5

69

BRITTLE FRACTURE

ln using Fig. 4-14, the following limitations must be considered:

1.
2.

It applies only to low carbon steels.


It is valid for thicknesses of less than 2 in. Larger

thicknesses require
special evaluation and it has been proposed that the FTE temperature for
thicknesses over 6 in. should be taken as NDT + 120"F rather than
210"F instead of
NDT + 60'F. The FfP temperature should be NDT
NDT + 120'F. This indicates that for thick sections, Fig. 4.14 is on the
unconservative side and the safe operating temperature should be greater
than those indicated by the figure.

60

50

,4O

":l
Cl

El
El
4l

Example 4.2. A low-carbon steel material with NDT temperature of 15"F is


used in a pressure vessel. What is the rninimum safe operating temperature for

-l
ul
Ft

such material?

o
-1o

-20
-30
-50
-60

Because no stress level is given, the minimum stress is assumed at


yield. Entering Fig. 4.14 at yield stress, the CAT curve is intersected at the FTE
point. Moving vertically, a temperature of NDT + 60"F is obtained. Thus, the
minimum safe opemting temperature is 75'F.
If stress concentrations are assumed in the vessel and the stress level is beyond
yield at some areas, then a conservative design is at the FTP point. In this case,
the safe operating temperature is NDT + 120'F, or 135'F.

Example 4.3. A low-carbon steel vessel with an NDT temperature of -20oF


is to have a start-up temperature of 0'F and a stress level of one-half yield. Is
the start-up iemperature safe?

Solution. From the CAT curve in Fig. 4. 14 the minimum safe temperature is
at NDT + 30" or 1ffF for a stress of one-half yield. Thus, start-up temperature
is on the unsafe side because it is less than 10'F. If start-up temperature is
critical, the shess will have to be decreased or a better impact material selected. I
ASME Pressure Vessel Criterio

The ASME Code, VIII, uses a different approach for preventing brittle fracture
in pressure vessels with carbon steel construction. Division 1 prohibits the use
of some carbon steels below -20'F and requires impact testing of all others that
are subjected to temperatures below -20"F, with some minor exceptions. Division 2 uses a more refined approach that takes into account the effect of
material type, thickness, and temperature. Figure 4.15 is a simplified version of
the code approach. It exempts some tough materials of a given thickness from
impact testing when the service temperature is above a specific value given in

or11+22+3
THICKNESS

the filure.

10

_40

Solution.

4.5.1

30
20

GRoUP

A:

Nonnallzed SA-442 over 1,0 ln.


orinrl ized 5A-516 And sA-662

GRoUP

8:

SA-442 over 1.0 In. I'lhen l{ot Nonnallzed


5A-516 Up To 1,5 In. Thick

GRoUP
GRoUP

Figure,l.l5

C: SA-442 Up To 1.0 In, Thlck


D: All Carbon And Loll Alloy Steels

Not Listed Above.

lmpdci test exemption curvos for some corbon sreels. (Co'rrte.y of the Americon Society of

Mhonicol Ensineers.)

The above approach, although different from the FAD concept, is a practical
tool for preventing brittle fracture without requiring elaborate analysis; it is
based on test data.

The FAD and ASME criteria are applicable to low-carbon steels where the
effect of temperature is prominent. Toughness of higher strength steels or materials such as stainless steels, aluminum, or titanium is independent of temperature. Thus, a different approach based on the mathematical theory of fracture toughness is used in establishing adequate toughness.

4.4. A 3.O-in.-thick pressure vessel is made of SA-533 Gr. B material with an NDT temperature of 0'F. The design temperature is 50"F and the
design membrane sffess is three-fourths of yield. What are the code fracture
requirements of this vessel if it is constructed in accordance with (a) Division I
of Section VIII, (b) Division 2 of Section VIIL
Example

MATTRIALS

Of

CONSTRUCTION

Because the temperature is over -20"F, Division I does not


require any analysis.
(b) From curveD ofFig. 4.15, the minimum temperature that exempts impact
requirements for a 3.0-in.thick vessel is 120'F. Thus a Cy test is manda-

Solulian. (a)

tory. I
4.5.2

4.5

configuration of the body and crack. Thus K1 can be expressed by

&=oF
where F

Theory of Brittle Frocture

Basically the brittle fracture theory assumes that stress at the vicinity of a crack
(Fig. 4. 16) due to a load applied perpendicular to the direction of crack is given
by the following expressions:

. 0 30\
'... . -... ,, I
-stn-stn-l

#(*":)(' srn;
.: #(*":)(' -i,a30\
"
".:

-/

srn

K,

,-/ ,

T4= ./^ |1.0


Sln; cos; cos r,
z
z/
vzTIT\ z

where a,, o],

=
r, 0 =
7ry

Kt

3a\

stress components at a point (ksi)

polar coordinates from tip of crack

fracine toughness factor (ksiV-in)

The fracture toughness factor K1 is a function of applied load as well as the

tft

7l

BRITTTE TRACTURE

(4.l)

crack shape factor.

Unstable crack propagation occurs when the value of K1 reaches a critical


value K1c, which is a function of the properties of the material. Temperature
variation could have a drastic effect on the value of K1c. as is the case with low
strength carbon steels.
Some published K/c values are given in Table 4.7. Experimental determination of the Krc factors is described in ASMT E-399 and is rather costly to
establish.
Values for the crack shape factor F are normally obtained from the theory of
elasticity. Because of the complexity of such analysis, only a few cases are
suited for practical use. Some of them are shown in Table 4.8.
Materials in general lose their toughness as the yield strength increases. One
measure of toughness is the ratio K16 f or. Ratios larger than I .5 indicate tough
materials, whereas lower ratios indicate more brittle materials. A study ofK16/o,
and Eq. 4.1 reveals that the defect factor F has to be very small when o" is high
and K1q is low. In other words, very small defects in high strength materials can
lead to catastrophic failures.

Fracture theory is one the most accurate methods presently available for
evaluating maximum tolerable defect size. The main drawback is the difficult
task of obtaining I</c factors for different materials. Economics might dictate a
simplified approach like FAD or the ASME criteria with a small permissible
defect size rather than a fracture theory approach that might allow a larger
tolerable defect.

Relatiaiship Between

K1g

and Cy

Determination of K1c values is tedious and expensive especially for low strength
Toble

4.7

Some Approximofe

K7a

Volues
JK/c

Material

Figure

4.16

Elostic srres, distribulion neor rhe

tip of

300"F

(ksi\-inJ

-200'F

100"F

A302-Gr. B

25

34

48

,A.5l7-Gr. F

34

44

7'7

A203 Gr. A norm.


A203 Gr. A Q and T

38

50

A.533 Gr. B

35

40

HV-80

55

83

46

78

Tqble

case

l:

4.8

Flovl

Tqble

Shope Foclors for Common Configurolions

Case

in a sheet of inf inlte vrldth.

4.8

Shope Foctors for Comrnon Configurolions (Coniinued)

4: Internal elliptic flow jn a thlck plate

l"
3t . If
F=V

ra

se 5 : Singl e
o

( Ref. 2, p. 49
I

terna

ci rcul

Itl
lll

ar flow in a sheet of finite

u2a' is the ni nor axiiss and "2c"


"

l,ihere
La

Case 2:

.a2

E_
E-'g_
6 E-

edge

Rer'

is the maior

notcn.

wi dth

F=CVir.a

c=1i1'iF+o227+ roa(i)'-zasz(if
+4272

l1'2

tan @wl

\4

t+l

\r /
(

case

( Ref. 2,

Internal clrcular flow in

thick

pl

s0

crack

328

ate.

F=zVT
"a" is radlus'of

XET

6: Elliptlcal surface flow.

F=

where

to

r
F=Fr.L#

Clse 3:

axl

o.ztzo2f or2

"2c" is cra ck length' "a" is crack depth, o ls actual


( Ref.
materlal stress, and oy ls yleld stress.
where

Ref.

3, P. 39 )

31

73

74

MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION

steels. Various methods relating the,K/c factor to the relatively inexpensive Cy


test have been suggested. One empirical method proposed by Rolfer and Barsom
consisted of preparing two equations for correlation purposes. One equation
relates the Cy and K1s values at the transition temperature region, whereas the
other equation is applicable at the upper shelf region. Thus, for the hansition
region,6

Krc:155Cvtl2

(4.2)

whereas for the upper shelf range,

f&Y:4ofQ-o.r)
\ov./
\sr
/

(4.3)

where Cv is in ft-lb, o" in ksi, and K1g in ksivG. Equations 4.2 and 4.3 are for
medium strength steels such as 4.517 Gr. F and 4302 Gr. B.

4.5.3

Hydroslotic Testing

4.5

75

BRITTTE FRACTURE

4.5.4

Foctors lnfluencing Britlle Froclure

Many factors such as torch cutting, arc strikes, and cold forming affect the britde
fracture behavior of metals and should be considered in fabricating pressure
vessels. Torch cutting or beveling of the plate edges may lead to hard and brittle
areas. In cases where this condition is underdesirable the plate should be heated
to minimize this effect. Grinding the edges eliminates the hard surfaces.
Arc strikes can create failure by brittle fracture especially if the strike is made
over a repaired area. It is desirable to grind and repair all arc strikes before
hydrotesting, especially at low temperatures.
Cold forming of thick plates may lead to fracture in areas with stress raisers
or plate scratches. All stress raisers should be ground off to minimize their
effect. Hot-forming substantially improves the situation because it increases the
NDT temperature and thus prevents brittle fracture.

4.5, A titanium pipe (ASTM 8265 Gr. 5) with a 2.375-in. outer


diameter and a 0.154-in. wall thickness has an actual stress of 30 ksi. a vield
stress of 120 ksi, and K1q
40 ksiVin at a given temperature. The pipe
contains a flow of depth 0.05 in. and length 0.25 in., which is similar to case
6 of Table 4.8. What is the maximum internal pressure the pipe can hold?
Example

Hydrostatic testing of a pressure vessel is the best available method for determining maximum tolerable defect size. Thus, if a thick pressure vessel is
hydrotested at a pressure that is 50% greater than the design pressure, the critical
K1 is given by

Eq. 4.1

as

Solutian. From a conventional strength of material analysis, the pressure


K1g

required to yield the pipe is given by Fig. 5.4 as

= oF

'^

Assuming an intemal defect represented by case 3 of Table 4.8, the maximum


K16 immediately after hydrotesting is

Krc:

/ I;\

120(1.88'z

r.88r

1.034':)

r.034,

Using fracture toughness approach, maximum stress is

r.(r\/;J

t.5

a\Rl - Rl)
Rl - Ri

Krc
Maximum defect size

at the design pressure is given by

"',('fu)

"

(,

From case 6 in Table 4.8,

-l1f/

1.12\4;Xo.o5)

or
- - t t<^

Hence, a crack that is discovered after hydrotesting can grow 2.25 times its
original size before causing failure. This fact illustrates the importance ofhydrotesting and is based on a hydrostatic temperature that is the same as the lowest
operating temperature of the vessel.

Hence,

40/0.359

0.359

111.4 ksi

^ tll.4(t.88)2- t.0341 :
maxr:
ll8' r l034':
'l'hcrclirre liacture toughness criteria control the

14Jl(sl

design.

77

NONMETATTIC VESSEIS

MATERIAIS OF CONSTRUCTION

76

to be used
4'6. An A302-B material with a yield stress of 50 ksiofisthe
percent
an
examination
and
15
ftlb
The Cv value is
irl
in the
a
temperature
"".r"1.
indicate
".!*"*
specimens
#"i^il;; .rott ...,i* of tested
Examnle

plarc uncovered an elliptical


transition range. Ultrasomc examination of the
0 25 in deep How safe is
and
long
in
il;;;;d. fit" surface that is 0.375
yield?
is
the vessel if the operating stress I

Solution. From Eq 4'2'

K1g

15(15)0

= t9 ksiVin-

From Table 4.8, case 4,

F=

1C;-Yr Mo Stccl

\/;ajzr

;ts+l;ts,,oI25/orus" - "-"

x So = r:
41 ksi Actual stress :
'l
i.fl*fit"rt it l_es's,rtan the critical brittle stress Therefore' operation of the vessel
is safe unless the defect grows in size l
Hence, from Eq' 4'1,

4.6

o-: 19/0'46:

HYDROGENEMBRITTLEMENT

can embrittle steels


Essentially, the two different methods by which hydrogen
are:

l.

penetrates the steel


Hydrogen decarburization' In this case hydrogen
(Fig'
4 8) to form methstructure
in
the
and combines with the carbides
carbide and
original
the
of
space
in
the
ane gas. This gas accumulates
accelernormally
process
This
cracking'
;;il;t ;p p;";t" that leads to
One
operating
in
ind
ates with an increase rn temperature
-pressure' Here
steels'
Cr-Mo
using
by
is
attack
method of minimizing hydrogen
do not readily combine
the carbides are in solution wiih ttre cr or Mo and
a givn combination
in
used
to
be
steel
of
*ittt th" hyd.og"n. The type
by the Nelson chart
determined
normally
it
p,"ttot"

Hydrogen
Fisure

4.17

,orliol pretlu?c, P.r. i

(Courtesy of the Americon Pelroleum lBrirute.)

of te-perutu."hd

in Fig. 4.17.

2.
-'

Researchers have observed that hydrogen attacks


of a pressure vessel at temperatures below 200'F when
Brinelland higher' The
"Jatuin"r"gions
they have-high hardniss zones in the range o1200
believed that the hydroexact mechanism is not known exactly, but it is
Accordingly,
is attracted to hard regions with higher stressed zones.

Hydrogen

attock.

een

h;-affected zones with a Brinell hardness below


200 to avoid hydrogen attacks at low temperatures'

;;;;;;;q-t"

soft

4.7

iIONMETALLIC VESSETS

Rules for fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) pressure vessels are covered in


Section X of the ASME pressure vessel code. Construction of FPR vessels is
divided into four classes: the contact molding, bag molding, centrifugal casting,

BIBTIOGRAPHY

MATERIATS OF CONSTRUCTION

and fi lament-winding Processes.


In the contact-mol,cling process reinforcements and resins are placed in a cast
mold and cured at room temperature. Vessels constructed by this process are
limited to a design pressure of 150 psi.
In the bag-molding process a pressurized bag is used to compress Prerolled
and heads preforms against an outer heated mold The
fiberglass
"!hnd".t
uessels conjtructed by this process are also limited to 150 psi pressure'
In the centrifugal casting process, the cylindrical sections are formed from
chopped fiberglasi strands and a resin system in a mandrel, which is spun to
oroduce a suitible laminate and heated to cure the resin system Pressure vessels
constructed by this method are also limited to 150 psi design pressure'
In the filamenrwinding process, filaments of glass and resin are wound in a
systematic manner to form various components. The ASME code limits the
pressure range to 1500 psi for filament-wound vessels with cut filaments and to

i000 psi for filament-wound vessels with uncut filaments'


FRi' vessels normally operate at low temperatres. The ASME Code, Section
X, limits the temperature iange between a minimum of -65oF and a maximum
of 150'F. Also, because the modulus of elasticity is about 1 x 103 ksi, special
care must be exercised in designing various components Because of this and
because different fabrication processes produce different strength vessels, the
ASME Code states that in order for a given vessel to be adequate, a prototype

must be cycled 100,000 times between zero and design pressure and then burst
at a Dressure not less than six times the design pressure'

REFERENCES

Pellini, W. S., "Principles of Fracture Safe Design-Part l" ln Pressure Vessels and Piping:
New York' 1972
Design and A'',,lysis, Vol. l, American Society of Mechanical Engineers'
Tetelman.

York,

A. S.,

and

A. J. McEvily, Jr' Fracture of Structural Materidlt, John Wiley ' New

1967.

Rolfe. S. T., and J.


Englewood Cliffs,

N.J.,

Ba$om F/(r cture anal Fatig e Control in Structures' Prentice-Hall'


1977.

Water Reactor
Riccardella, P. C., and T. R. Mager, "Farigue Crack Growth in hessunzed
Society of
Vol
l,
American
ye
and
Analysis,
Disigtl
ssels and Piping:
Vessels" in Pressare
Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1972.
"Fracture Mechanics Technology as Applied toThick-Walled
Vessels" in Pressure vessels and PipitlS: DesiSn and Analysis'
American Society of Mechanical Engineers' New York, 1972

Wessel, E. T., andT.

ttu"t"- pa".*,"

R Magel,

vol l'

Newton, "lnterpretive Repoft on Small-Scale-Test Conelations with


DaA," Welling Rcs\rch Council' Bulletin 265, New York' | 981'

Roberts, R., and

f''

BIBLIOGRAPHY
aM Data, Alrmin'um Association, Washington, D.C., 19'19.
Alner, S. H.,Introduction to Phlsical Metallurgy, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964.

Aluminum Standards

Nichols, R. W -, Pressule Vessel Engineering TechnologJ, Applied Science Publisherc, England,

t91l

Thielsch, H., Defects and Failures in Pressure Vessels akd PipinS, R. E. Krieger, New York,
1965.

PART2
ANALYSIS OF
COMPONENTS

8l

CHAPTER

STRESS IN CYLINDRICAL
SHELLS

Atr'0|t|h,t|.otcy|lndr|co|lh!|hinochomicolP|on|'(cour|g,yofE.|.dUPontdaNomoursondco.)

83

11

5.I

3TR!IS IN CYTINDRICAI gHErrS


STRESS DUE

3,I

STRI3E DUE TO INTTRNAT PRESSURE

85

TO INTERNAL PRESSURE

Thc classic equation for determining stress in a thin cylindrical shell subjected
to pressur-is obtained from Fig. 5.1. Summation of forces perpendicular to
plane ABCD gives

PL.2r:ZoeLt
Figur 5,2

ot= Pr

(s.1)

Also,
dw

where p = gssure
Z = length of cylinder
o, = hoop stress
r = radius
I = thickness

(s.3)

ar

deflection of a cylindncal shell subjected to internal pressure


the.radj4
is
obtained by subsdrudng rhe quantity e6: osf E in6 Eq.
5.i. ilnce for thin

cvllnoers

(s.4)
The stain

ee

is defined

as

where

final length - original length


original length

E = modulus of elasticity

>

Equations 5.1 and 5.4 give accurate results when r/r


10. As r// decreases,
however, a more accurate expression is needed because the stress distribution
through the thickness is not uniform. Recourse is then made to the,.thick
shell,,
theory' first developed by Lame. The derived equations are based on the
forces
and stresses shown in Fig. 5.3. The theory assumes that all shearing
stresses are
zero due to symmetry and thal a plane section that is normal
to thjongitudinal

and from Fig. 5.2,

0=

2t(rIw)-2rr
z1fr

---;-

pressure is applied remains plane after pressurization. In other


-betore
words, e1 is constant at any cross section.
A relationship between oi and_o1 can be obtained by taking a free_body
_.
diagram of ring dr as shown in Fig. 5.30. Summing ior"", ii the vertical
direction and neglecting higher-order tdrms, we then h-ave
axls

(s.2)

ae-

o,

do,

= dr

(5.5)

A second relationship is obtained from Eqs. 3.2, which is written


Flgor.5.l

Frc-body diogrom

ol d rylindricol $ell lubi.ctod to intarnol prerlure.

\.

o,

(l + rr)(1 - 2*rl+(t -

1t)

p,(e,

+ e)l

as

I
I

5.I

86

STRESS DUE

TO INTERNAT PRISSURE

87

-t . *n--t=A
lr'(t - t, - ztt\(Er? - p,r|) + r?r1{o + D(n - p")l
.1

(5.8)

Once w is obtained, the values of o6 and d; are determined from Eqs. 5.2, and
5.3, and 5.6 and expressed for thick cylinders as

_
aa

pr?
_
=

p,r? + (pt

----4rZ

Fisuro

5.3

Cro5s

(1

+pXl-

[er(l-p)+pr(e,+e)]

(s.6)

.r.^ [r(l

:
4:

;r) + g.(e, + e)l


of Eq. 5.6

and

A solution of this equation is

.B

(s.7)

whcre A and B are constants of integration and are determined by first substituting Eq. 5.7 into the first one of Eq. 5.6 and then applying the boundary
conditkrns

at

r, =
r=

extemal pressure
inside radius
outside radius

radius at any point

The distribution given by Eq. 5.9 of the shesses through the thickness of a
cylinder due to iniernal and extemal pressues is shown in Figs. 5.4 and 5.5,

w dzw-r ldw
--- ---'-t
ar -rar - r- = v

o,: -Pi

hoop stress

p, = intemal pressure

p,

Substituting Eqs. 5.2 and 5.3 into the first two expressions
substituting the result into Eq. 5.5 results in

respectively.
A comparison between Eqs. 5.1 and 5.9 is shown in Fig. 5.6. The figure
illustrates the adequacy of Eq. 5. I for r,/4 ratios of less than or equal to 1.1 (or,
conversely, rt/t > lO).
The longitudinal stress in a thick cylinder is obtained by substituting Eqs. 5.2,
5.3, and 5.8 into tle last expression of Eqs. 5.6 to give

oI= EeI+2p(\? - !"31


r;- ri
This equation indicates that

r=

ri

o1 is constant throughout a cross section because r


is constant and r does not appear in the second term. Thus, from Fig. 5.7 the
expression ot can be obtained ftom statics as

rnd

o,

= _p,

ljxorrulon 5.7 then becomes

- ,l

where o; = radial stress

i.rion of o tfiick cylindricol :hell.

(l + p)(1
E

(5.9)

nrl + (n - n)blrl/rz)

tb)

od

o!

p")(r7r3/r2)

4:i,-"

la'

4r?

P"r'z.

,2_.?

(5.10)

With or known, Eq. 5.8 for the deflection of a cylinder can be expressed

as

6=tr,..t!id- f;-Ji \ J' I)

"'=-++r(#)
Ar Inne.

surr.ce

+=t+
)=-t

Ourer

surraco

.Ai

+="#
ft=o

Figurc

5.4

Slrca! dishibdion in

o rfiick cytirder du. to inrornol prcrlur.

Fi9ur6

,,=#e#)

At

fnnersurtace

"r=ffi
ft=o

aroorersurfaca

"r-#ifl
9=_r.o
P"-

Figuro

88

5,5

Strls dithibt ion in

o thick cylin&r due l,o enornol

pr.3sur.

5.6

Comporison ot tornulor for hoop sire33 in

o cylindricol

5hcll.

90

STRESS tN CYr"tNDRtCAt

l(Ptri

+ (h - t',,)rlrl,(l
Lr\r; - ri)

P,,r!,)lt

zr.t)

rt)

SHtrrs
(5. 1 1)

5.I

STRESS DUE

From Lame's equation (see Fig. 5.4)

_rl+
P rl-

ot

The deflection pattem for external and intemal pressures is shown in Fig. 5.8.
Example 5.1. The inside radius of a hydraulic cylinder is 12.0 in. What is the
7500 psi and a6 = 20,000 psi?
required thickness if P

Solulinn.

, = /l

From membrane Eq. 5.1

t=-:

Pr
oo

:
7500

12

20,000

= 4.50 in.

5.2. A cylinder

pressure of 50 psi

psi, 1.r :

r!
+p
loe
--------=

"\ /

5.80 in.

22Eo.

has an inside radius

of 72.0 in. and an internal

. What is the required thickness if the allowable

0.3, and E = 30

Solution. From

r?

Hence, the error of using Eq. 5.1 in this case is

Example

lnternal Pressur

9l

TO INTTRNAI PRESSURT

stress is 1 5 ,000

10o Psi?

membrane Eq. 5.1,

50x72 :

*=!"il+##tdl

15,000

0.24 rn.

From Eq. 5.4,

x 722
30x106x0.24
50

Max.!t At Inner Surlace

w.=E:tfl2:lll
'E(ro"-r;")

0.0360 in.

Using the thick shell theory, we obtain the required thickness from Fig. 5.4

External Pressure

as

')
O.24 in.

and from Fig. 5.8,

*=-& t 'tr'(r - zr) * r,"(r *,., )I


e.r (r;- r,')
.

Max.q At Inner Surrace


Figure

5.8

Rodiol deflftrion du

lo

':
=

w,=-B:dJiJ2:t)

EGTil

inlernol ond exrernol prelsore.

| 2-0.3 \
30 x rgu \tf* - rV1
(5q?2f

0.0305 in.

Examples 5.1 and 5.2 indicate that Eq. 5.1 is adequate when the ratio
sreater than 10.

rlft

is

3TRI3S IN CYIINDRICAI SHETIS

5.2

93

OISCONTINUITYANAIYSIS

Problcms

5,1 A cylinder with an inside diameter of 24 in. is subjected


pressure

to an intemal
of 10,000 psi. Using an allowable stress of 25,000 psi, determine

dx

+ 4!!.|i ax

the required thickness.

Answer:

5.2

t:6.33

dx

A cylinder has an inside diameter of 12 in. and an outside diameter of 18


in. Determine the maximum intemal pressure that can be applied if the
maxirnum allowable stress is 20.000 psi.

Answer: p1 =

5.3

dox
-?t

in.

7690 psi

A cylinder is subjected to an external pressure of 5000 psi and an internal


If 11 = 15 in. and rz = 19 in., what is the maximum
circumferential, longitudinal, and radial stresses? At what location do they

pressure of 2000 psi.

occur?

l{o

Answer:

5.2

o6:

dx

-17,900 psi at inner surface

o,

= -5000

at

psi at outside surface

-9960 psi uniform tkough thickness

(b)
Figore 5.9

DISCONTINUITY ANALYSIS

All the previous equations were based on the assumption that the cylinder is free
to deform under pressure. In practical applications, the cylinder is attached to
end closures that reshain its deformation. Other items such as stiffenirg rings
and internal bulkheads affect the cylinder deformation and introduce local
stesses. These local shesses can be evaluated by a dicontinuity-type analysis
using the general bending theory of thin cylindrical shells. The theory assumes
that the loads are symmetric around the circumference and that the thickness of
the shell is small compared with its radius. It is also assumed that the in-plane
shearing forces and moments are zero. The problem then reduces to that of
solving the forces shown in Fig. 5.9. The relationship between these forces can
be obtained from statics. Hence, from Fig. 5.9,

which indicates that N, must be a constant.


Let

N,:0
Also,

>4=0
d?'+at=r

>4:0

dxr
Similarly,

ff*,ar=o

2M,=o

(s.12)

3TRE5S IN CYIINDRICAT SHETIS

94

5.2

95

DISCONTINUITYANAIYSIS

and the hoop strain as

or

*-a.=o

(s.l3)

ee=

ax

Deleting Q, from F4s. 5.12 and 5.13 gives

-i

(5.18b)

Substituting expressions 5.18a and 5.18b into Eq. 3.11 gives

N, + d2M,
---:--l : r
-r ta-

y,=.Et ;1r,r p,e6)=o


t' - lt-

(5.14)

expressed
This equation has two unknowns, N6 and M,' Both unknowns can be
given
by Eq'
is
w
M'
and
in t".-, of,h" O"flection w. The relationship between

3.1I

du: /w\
|
=
dx lLl\r/

as

",: -r(r,tt. - *t")


Mo=

Also,

-'(#..?)
Et'

D,= rro=E
Because the rate of change of deflection in
symmetry, the above two equations reduce to

(s'15)
(5.19)

(s. 16)

Substituting Eqs. 5.16 and 5.19 into Eq. 5.14 yields

u4*r(*\:-,
r'

and

",:

_*(#)

Me

ax

Lt

4r2D-Jlt

".il
- lL-)
r2t2

(s.20)

(s.17)
the differential equation becomes

'l'hc cxprcssion for No is derived from the axial and hoop strains' In refening to
liil, 5.9, thc uxitl strain is given by

du

\dx+

Defining

no:

= FM,

Pe)

the a-direction is zero due to

-r(**)

".=

Et

Ns:7r-p- ,\es+

(5.l8a)

ffi*oon*=-+

(5.21)

where p is a function of .r.

tTRlSt

96

5.2.1

tN CYUNDRTCAT SHlrtg

5,2
and

Long Cyllndorr

One of the most practical applications of Bq. 5.21 is for long cylinders subjected
io end shears and moments as shown in Fig. 5.10. The force and deformation
distribution at any point r along the cylinder due to O0 and M0 can be obtained

from Eq. 5.21 with P

= 0. Hence,

a.l._,= n"=

.'.'*-"".--",
_ -l
+
^ct=;;7i(Qo

;i+4p.w:o
A solution of this equation can be expressed
'"-

= ::lg
l -:1. **!.gz;it

p*t +
-

LP tl

y-tc-'-e$

L-L.

9r-t* -ff)- _J-.gD

and Me approaches
Thus the constants C1 and C2 must be set to zero

a=,
\L*--?E:p" - '""

Equation 5.22 then becomes

@6

w=

;i = e-tu(q cos B, a

Bmsli

'Ms

as

By observation we can conclude that the deffection due to


zero as .r aplnoaches infinity.
and the solution becomes

-,(#)1."

Hence,

aw

'

i7

DISCONTINUIIY ANAIYSIS

Ca sin

]6rl?tvtobin

Bx

cos F.r)

cos Fx].

(s.22)
By defining

The constants C: and Ct can be evaluated from the boundary conditions

M.

.=o=

Mo=

{*
!*

=
=
Cs =
Ds =

-'e;1.="

e-e(cos Br

sin Br)

e-&(cos Br

sin

pr)

(s.23)

P
"o"
e-tu
P
"in
s-$t

the deflection and its derivatives can be expressed as

, :;fu<oro"*

#=

+ escp)

*1roU""ctu+

S.AP)
(s.24)

t:=$aor"os+zeoD,,)

jour,De'-

enBB,)

Values of Ap,, BB,, CB,, ar]d Dg, are given in Table 5.1.
Using the terminology of Eqs . 5 .23 and 5 .24 , the expressions for M, arfi Q,

Figur.5.l0

are represented by

sTRtss tN CYUNDRtCAt SHEttS

98

Tqblr

5.f

Vqfurr of functiqng Ap* Bp- Cp. Dp,


Bu,

B,
1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

0.0000

0.9976

o.9025

0.9500

0.0475

0.10

0.9907

0.8100

0.9003

0.15

0.9'19'7

0.7224

0.8510

0.0903
0.1286

0.20

0.9651

0.6398

0.8024

o.1627

0.30

0.926'7

0.4888

0.707'7

0.2189

0.40
0.50

0.8784
0.8231

0.3564

0.6174

0.2610

o.2415

0.5323

0.2908

0.55

0.7934
0.7628

0.1903

o.4919

0.3016

0.1431

0.4530

0.3099

0.80
l_00

0.6354

-0.0093
-0.1108

0.3131

o.3223

0.1988

0.3096

1.20

0.3899

0.2807

0.2849

-0. 1716
-0.201l

0.1091

1.40

0.0419

0.2430

1.60

0.1959

0.1234

-0.0059
-0.0376

0.2018

1.80

-o.2077
-0.1985

2.00

0.0667

-0.r794

-0.0166

-0.0563
-0.0658
-0.0493
-0.0283

0.1231

-0.1149
-0.0563
-o.0177

2.50
3.00

-0.0423

3.5

-0.0389
-0.0258
-0.0045

4.0
5.0
6.0

't.o

0.0017

0.0031

0.0024

0.0013

0.0001

0.0007

0.0006

0.0019

fi<zou,ea

M"

-2 oB2.t

qo

-llo

8o"

""

t4o C^b"

E;r'-

0o

zlioB2.r.Br,

Qx

-26.

tito ,

DBx

46 3. 0, A0

282 .D.e o

Ao(2Cax-8Bx)

C-

28'D
-0o

iPo
B

Ne

28. D. eo

E.t.Ao

Qo

Qo

q9
28. r.

z8do ( ABx

^p,

cBr)

zB2.o,t4lrr -cr,

D-

FX

!1.

Qo. CBx

ao ( 2ce

4B3D,aJ

Q6. Bgx

? ttu'-tu''
eo {ABr(
?$ D'ed

2CBx)

DB, -aB")

-8"
" -8." :.t.00(c^
F-3- p'

B6x-

DBx)

tB2. D.

oo ( 2DBr+B

B)(

'clockwise moments and lotation arc positive at point 0. Outward forces and deflections arc
positive at point 0. Me

2eoDB,)

(5.25)

Exarnple 5.3. A long cylindrical shell is subjected to end moment M0. Plot the
value of M, from F, : 0 to p, : 4.0. Also, determine the distance .r at which
thc moment is abort 7Vo of the original applied moment M0.

= tir|..

Fig. 5.11. From Table 5.1 the values of Bx at which M, is equal to

plot of M, is shown in

7Vo

of Mp

are about 2.00.

Bx

2.00

or
2

e
and

.r:
5. 1 and a

zB2.o.to

r.

26.

,F.o

2Bz,D
0

Ne

B3A

t4^

Q, N, w, and d for various boundary condi-

Solution. From Eq. 5.25, M,: MoAs.


The values of Ak are obtained from Table

Qq
2

tlo
---F

Q,=QBMnDy-QoB*)
The relationship between M,,
tions is shown in Table 5.2.

ilo

0.0070

-0.0120

\ax-

0.0491

0.0019
0.0084

_r(+\ =

Vqrious Disconlinuity Funclions

,F;

0.1610

-0.0106
-0.0139
-0.0065
-0.0007

M"=

5.2

DB,

Cp"

0.5083

99

DISCONTINUITYANATYSIS

Toble

0.05

0.60

5,2

1.56\G

The significance of the quantity 1.56Vr . l is apparent from Fig. 5. I 1.

(l)
It shows

r00

3TR!35 lN CYllNORlCAL

Sl{llts

that 0 momcnt epplicd at thc cnd dissipatewery rapidly and reduces as much as
l.56Vrt. This indicates that any other force
94% ofthe original momcnt atr
applied ot that distance x can be analyzed without regard to the applied moment

Mo'

5.2

To find the maximum moment M,, the above equation can be differentiated
with respect to r and equated to zero. Hence,

*,

5.4. A long cylinder is subjected to end shear ps. Plot the value of
M, as a function of C0 from Fx : 0 to Fx = 4.0 and derive the location of the
maximum value of M,.
Example

Solutinn,

't0l

DISCONTINUITYANATYSIS

ff

From Eq. 5.25,

3.e-&

=o=

sinA

ftr-Ou*

sin

Bx

Be-tu

cos Bx)

,'=*o^
Referring to Table 5. 1 for values of D p,, a plot of M,/ (Qo/B) can be constructed
as shown in Fis. 5.11.
and maximum moment is given by

_ o.34Qo

5.5. Determine the expression for the deflection of a long cylinder


with end closures due to intemal pressure p.
Example

For intemal pressrre p, the axial force


force is Ne = pr. Also from Eqs. 3.11 and 5.18,

Solutinn.

it

7'1,

= pr/Z and the hoop

PrEtlw\

r/
z r-F-\"lexr lr-l
==:and

pr=,E' ,(Y*
r - rr'\r

ur,\

Solving for e, and w gives

Pr

''Et2

q
'ry

(l -

2tt)

and

Figura

5.1I

'#('- t)

(l) I

t02

5.2

STNESS IN CYTINDRICAT SHELTS

trlxomple 5.6. A still'cning ring is pllced anrund u cylinder at a distance


rcmoved from the ends us shown in Fig. 5. 12. The cylinder has a radius of 50.0
in., a thickness of 0.25 in., and is subjected to an intemal pressure of 100 psi.
Assuming E
30 106 psi and & = 0.3, find

(a)
(b)

-+rrtr

The discontinuity stress in the shell with the ring assumed to have
infinite rigidity .
The discontinuity stress in the shell and ring if the ring has a thickness
of 0.375 in. and a depth of 4.0 in.

oo

"I
Figuro

5.13

Sign conv6ntion

oi poini 0,

{odo
clockwiss 0 ond i4"

D=

A free-body diagram of the shell-to-ring junction is shown in Fig. 5.13.


Because the ring is assumed to have infinite rigidity, the deflection due to
pressure must be brought back to zero by a force pq. Also, because the slope at
the shell-to-ring junction is zero (due to symmetry), a moment M0 must be
applied at the junction to reduce the slope created by force Qs to zero . From Fig

ore + ,

outword w dnd Q.

oro -

From Eq. 5.15,

Solution.

(a)

r03

DISCONTINUITYANATYSIS

0.00143 E

and from Eq. 5.20,

B=03636
Hence the deflection compatibility equation becomes

5. 13,

Modeflection due to P

deflection due to Qe

deflection due to Mo

The deflection due to P is obtained from Eq. I in Example 5.5, whereas the
deflections due to M0 and Qs are obtained from Eq. 5.24. Hence

The second compatibility equation gives


rotation due to O0

tl(r-E\ -4 +!!=:o
E.r \'
21 2B3D zB'D

rotation due to Me

Qo-ZBUo:g
4" x 3/8" ri

ng

Solving Eqs.

and 2 gives

Mo

321'4 in.Jb/in'

The maximum longitudinal stress is given by

.=N.ry
=

40,900 psi

The maximum hoop moment is given by Eq. 5.17


tigure 5.12

(1)

2'75OQo= -321'39

Me

96.4 in.-lb/in.

as

e)

tTRttt

l0.l

tN cruNDRrcat

sHttls

But because w

t0t

DISCONTINUITY AI,IATYSIE

Due to 00,

Tho hoop force Nc is glvcn by Eq. 5.19 as

-,
"r

!.2

2Qor(r + 2)

'= -

Etw

0=0

0, N6 is equal to zero and the maximum hooP stress is


Due to Mo,

*:T*,",
O)

bdE

w=0
d=0
The deflection comPatibilitY is

The shell deformations are expressed as follows:

Due to R

-1-',
, - p,-'- ='#l'-

i)

",
?Y'oo'

L'=o *-*--

wp

,i( - t) -

wQo*

,*]"' - ,o + *roof^"

#. #=,*#!".'3e#2
Mo

- 4.0@o: -296'8

ilao-

9al"t. = lflp + ilMo

(3)

Sirnilarly,

f0, +

0oJn*

Due to Mo,
Mn

':t9o
-Mo
@
The ring deformations are expressed as follows:
Due to p,

pr(r + d/2\

n=-

0=0

dE

and

2BMs-20=g
Solving Eqs. 3 and 4 yields

Mo
Oo

152'0 in-lb/in.
110.6 lb/in.

(4)

t06

STRESS tN CYUNDRTCAT.

lloop stress in ring

SHfttS

5.2

t07

DISCONTINUITYANATYsIS

whereas away tiom discontinuity

is

pr

2Qor
O,: -- r, ---:--aDa
= 1250 + 7370

Pr

oe:::20'000Psi
Problams

8620 psi

5.4

Maximum longitudinal stress in cylinder is

O'=

Pr . ---A6Mn
-zt -

I-

A long cylindrical shell is welded at one end to a rigid bulkhead such that
the deflection and rotation due to applied pressure are zero. If r = 36 in.,
I = 0.5 in., p : 240 psi. lt: 0.3, and E = 29 x 10" psi, what is the
maximum lonsitudinal stress?

.
Pr -:E- 3Pr
Answet: a= zt
n'T tv3\t _

_ 100x50 x6x t5?


(0.25).
2x

0.25

24,600 psi

Hoop force at discontinuity is

f,.f,

p2)

40,015 psi

The shell in Problem 5.4 is welded to a thin bulkhead such that only the
deflection is zero due to applied pressure. What is the maximum

discontinuity stress?

where

Answeri
w=lt,p-wgo*wyo

Q, *

_ M7,500
E

2238 lb/in.

and hoop stress at discontinuitv is

Short Cylinders

,
0.25

2238

6(0.3

13,300 psi

behavior enables the designer to discard the interaction between applied loads
when they are far apart. As the cylinder gets shorter, the assumption of long
cylinders does not apply and constants C1 and C2 in Eq. 5.8 must be considered.
Consequently, Eqs. 5.23 and 5.24 have to be modified to include the effect of
all four constants. Equation 5.8 may be rewritten in a different form as

w = Ar sin Bx sinh Bx * 42 sin Pt cosh Bx


*A3 cos Bx sinh pt + A4 cos Br cosh B-r

No . 6Me
oe=----1----rT
T-

5.2.2

18,740 psi

It was shown in Eq. 1 of Example 5.3 that the applied edge forces in a long
cylinder dissipate to a small value within a distance of l.56Vrr. This basic

.. = E (0.25)(447 ,sOO/ E)
50
'", -=

uo

=P"(,-E\E \' 21 2B3D 2B2D

0.966Pr
o= Pr
z *;'Fyt - u31

0.252

rsz)

6.26)

and a solution obtained for various boundary conditions.


The most ftequent application of this solution is in the case of edge forces and
deformations as shown in Table 5.3. Many practical problems can be solved
with the aid of Table 5.3 by itself or in conjunction with Table 5.2

1.2

5d

dld

-:-

t>.
:s,1,

+<'
<

:E $16

-i=._, :

Solution:

At.r:0

66aa
".A.E.E
k k,al ,5

_,(*\

'-i- dlu
r s ",>'
dl6 +
riltiril6
+ f,
* >dld
ru,
i -i- ..i..

d.d.&&d.d{d
e.eAP)'eAAe
s.d.&6.{&ds.

iiifriEEE
E5r!666a

c
3

tI ----T,rl

t_,Y
"--l

(t

S r--=-'1
t>-r-rS+

.-=-

s I s 6le --i
dlu if | + -Hlu-+9lri>-s51s
s "i rJlr.r
| r---'J,v
| ."T..v,
dl.:
s
t l-. tTlri :g
dt6, E s'
sls slS-E=;+
I

ht

-,(*\:
\ax- /
_,(*\:o

\ax'/

From Eq. 5.26, the second derivative is given by

R $l* i

r-li- r"-r

ltltllllllllllll

jj :

's":ss)s
dl6
dl6 dl6 dl6
+ + | -:|ys:gvr
u'16
dl6 sl6 dl6 dl6
;s
| + | | dl6
:ss)9;S+
dlu
dlu dlu d'lu
L--;-,!t,: s,
,
P
-l-F.ils
o,l$
l-l$ 'dl.q R '"'",
d

atx:

5ss>":lss:s

>,' _ ,u
L-J
(JlU
s;' >"
)J --.:
dlu

dlddlu F f - S

-,(*\
\dx' /

l+ri

f- -i-.ir
f-"i-clo
dl6<ilr-,
*.. sr tilri
f
,
lcq

=,"

\ax-,/

S .--- '=.ir ,:
d|U } - ":"*

Ec:i

t09

The four boundary conditions are:

1. s
i<'F

(a,

--:- --r

ANALYS|S

Example 5.7. Derive Np for the case of applied bending moment M6 at edge
r = 0 for a short cylinder of length l.

5
,Tlri

dld,-------, -dl6
,-----..-Jr ulu v:{v
UIU :9 dle | +
r $16 +F
:s

otscot{TtNutTY

Z|tte,

cos Bx cosh Bx

Aa sin Bx sinh

42 cos p"r sinh Bx

- A3 sin pr cosh pr

pr)

(l)

whereas the third derivative is expressed as


ca

ac,

aa
ca cc- +
.= .E aa

,1J

u,

. -

cq

,,99

.'
'da6daa

ltlillllllll
.: .l ,i .1 ,1 rt

Z!3lAr(cos px sinh

ail I = a

Substituting Eq.

pr

sin

pt

cosh Bx)

-sin pr sinh pr)


A(sin pr sinh pr + cos pt cosh pr)
.A+(sin pr cosh Bx * cos F-r sinh pv)l
A2(cos Bx cosh Bx

into the first boundary condition gives

.
q,

_M^
2D

B,

Substituting Eq. 2 into the second boundary condition gives

Az: At

-9
.o
q
F

108

and from the third and fourth boundary conditions the relationships

(2)

il0

3TRT33 IN CYIINDRICAI 9HEITS

A3

Mo

Dtr

I.2

ltl

DISCONTINUITY ANAI.YSIS

lsin Pl cos Pl + sinhB/coshB/

\--GF7t:;tnT--

and

e^ =

-M"

/ sin2 61

zaB,

\.l"[tB,

sinh'? B/

-]t"t}

are obtained.

From Eq. 5.19,

N,

Et*
r
Ft

= 1(Ar
+

sin

A3 cos

Using the values of A1, A2,


5.3, Eq. 3 reduces to

N, =

ft

A3,

c, t'r f

sinh

Br sinh Bx +

A+ cos

Fr cosh Fr)

frcos

Bx cosh Bx

(b)

* !v,
ct

!v,\
Lt
,/

free-body diagram of junction a is shown in Fig. 5.140. The


deflection at point A in the thick cylinder due to P is obtained from Table 5.3
by letting Br equal to Bl. Hence,

Solution. A

-r lgtu _- Qu. - Qu\


*o: ifrEV-,"'
c,u c,"u)
For B' = 0.7421, Dt = 0.01145 E, znd Bx = Bl' the following terms are

1.1164
0.5481

0.4568 Ce = 0.6596
U=o.272r yl=0.4006
Vq = 1.4984 V: 0 8707
%=0.5986 V=0.949s

C5

Example 5.8. Determine the maximum shess at point A of the thin cylinder
in Fig. 5.lzla. I*t p' = 9.3.

obtained:

,,

Cr = O.2028 Cz
Ct = 1.5444 Cr

Fx cosh Pr

ZrMoF'( -v,
\

l_*
t-

cos Pv sinh Fx)

or

n, =

"r

Figure 5.1,1

C"

(3)

Aa obtained above and the terminology of Table

"' ;i*; | -sin pr sinh p1 + ::1sin


Lt
r U)15'|
C,

ft * Az sin Fx cosh Fr

Thus the expression for wo due to P is given by

w: toolrn
The deflection compatibility equation at point A is

=6,
or from Tables 5.2 and 5.3 with

r:

0,

tt2

STRESS IN CYI.INDRICAT SHEII.S

5.2

DISCONTINUITY ANALYSIS

t3

Hence, maximum axial stess is

and with B2

144'O2P

nd

D2

0.00145 E, the equation becomes

288'S2Qo

436'59M0

1.0495

2983OQo

"

313 'O7Mo

=ry

=6Q-'?77:\ = 2s.e P psi

Thb circumferential bending moment is given by

or

Mo
5 '2O6Mo

The rotation at point A alue to P is obtained ftom Table 5.3

^=
A
"P

(1)

4'M7Qo: -P

=*n';t'

{wo^
'to

wroy

t'

Hence,

, Mo lrct\ Qo (cs *co\ -Mo ,


E - zp,o,\c, )'- zB?o'\cr' cr,/ = -9244 v6,
Qo

lezt.tu
u' -'

84.53)

2.53 P

No.6Mo
--:' -r ----;-

-t:

OO

| -

Et2l-o.og P -o.27 P\
R \ zBiDz 2giDz /

The rotation compatibility equation at point A is

429.33P -{-

0.08 P

-- Etw
_T
we=

as

or

t')=o =

= drI" =

The circumferential force N6 is given by Eq. 5.19 as

r'
a. \
p //_l:!U
+;Vl
+
2q1Dt\ct ' L1 Lt /
=u4
t,

0.252

2.53 P

.,

0.25

6(0.08_P)

0.25'

17.80 P

Probbms

5.6

-l

or
a1a aa P

896.45M0

436.5980

= -657.r3Mo +

Find the discontinuity stess in the figure shown due to an inlemal pressure
of 375 psi. I*t E 29 x lff psi and p = 9.3.

3l3.wQo

which reduces to
l2'58M0

Solvlng Eqs.

Qo

-3J '48 P

(2)

and 2 yields

Mo

0o

= -0.08

-0.27 P
P

Probbm 5.6

STRESS IN CYTINDRICAT

l4

5.3

SHEtts

5,3

BUCKIING Of CYI.INDRICAL SHELTS

BUCKTING OT CYLINDRICAL SHELLS

as dead
Most cylindrical shells are subjected to various compressive forces such
shells
of
cylindrical
The
behavior
vacuum.
weight, wind loads, earthquakis, and
pressure'
intemal
under
from
those
is
different
undlr ih"se compressive iorces
In most instancei, the difference is due to the buckling phenomena that render
cylindrical shells weaker in compression than in tension'

rvr6" +

Sturm3 used the system of fbrces in Fig. 5.15 to establish the buckling
forces'
characteristics of cylindrical shells subjected to extemal comp-ressive
Using
deflections
and
strains
between
From the figure he derived a relationship
relates
equations
of
system
a
obtained
l,
he
this relatioiship and Eq. 3. 1
.that

r"re

*$oe
r.r"=+

equations for the buckling of cylindrical shells'

Uniform Pressure Applied to Sides Only

lrx +

So'

rvp"

+$ae

@o"

Sox

For this case, the hoop force is

Ne=-Pr+f(x'0)
.x and 0, which expresses the variation ofN0 from
w of the shell is very small,/(x, d) is also
deflection
the
Wtten
tt" an".uge uutue.
stresses are expressed by
shear
and
axial
the
u.ry ,-u- . Similarly,

where/(x, g) is a function of

N,:0+g(ir'0)

Fisuro 5.15

Ne':O+h(x'0)
N'p=0+i(x'0)

..2 :=:;---------;1r"'z[N2,\2 - prti - lt - l]


- 3r \t - lt-)
a * l.+ trlNz[l + (i t)(ztt)]- l}]
AA

n.
Substituting these expressions into the four basic differential equations for the
buckling oi cylindrical shells, and using boundary conditions for simply supoorted J.rds. tire solution for the elastic buckling of a simply supported cylindrical shell due to uniform pressure applied to sides only is given by

c.: rB(!\

.,2:

L2

6.27a)
where N

where P., = buckling


E

Pressure

d-r1

number of lobes as defined in Fig. 5.16

N2

/ = thickness
D" = outside diameter

L2

N2L2
E-r-

"'(?)

--n=

n'r' ,

modulus of elasticitY

K=KtI

+affoo

re+affae

forces and moments to deflections. These equations together with the equilibrium equations determined from Fig. 5.15 result in the four basic differential

5.3.

aSoe

poisson's ratio

l6

STRISS IN CYLINDRICAT SHETLS

5.3

tt7

EUCKUNG OF CYUNDR|CA| SHttrS

/nl

fi"T

$d
\J/
,1,

0r4

Fisure

Cdgor Sitnph Suppodd


Symm.rd.ol Ahour C

Eds6

5.r7

corop,e

0.6

c..n"""" *

rird

4610

-*o.il'Ji'i;

20

40 60 100 m0

r,.",,,.".",,r.,.nry,

edses 3impry supporred;

Symnrri.ol Aboul
Figur. 5.16

F=N2-r*l-t-----L
d- Aa rlt

buckling of cylindrical shells, and using boundary conditions for simply supported ends, the solution for the elastic buckling of a simply supported cylindrical shell due to uniform pressure applied to sides and ends is given by
1tzlt)ta

-r)(2- p)]- 1]
(l P,r\
'{(t - $}tctt
- pl + (1 + ri\
Ltl
t\

{N'?[l +

(^

moment of inertia

only)

+ a + 1 + p}I

E
t

*1;r"u.tr
| \u,
tLL

r\
t

: 4
12

A plot of the ( value in Eq. 5.27a based on the first two terms of expression F
is shown in Fig. 5.17.

5.3.2

= ln, for side pressure

Uniform Pressure Applied to Sides ond Ends

The values of No, N,e, and N6 are the same as those for pressure applied to sides

only. The value of N, is given bY

*^=+rge.ol
Substituting those expressions into the four basic differential equations for the

"=
where

": ",.

^::

^tF

*(;l

(s.27b)

&(Dj)

ll7rl2L\
F

A4 : A?;---------;;--F

'

+ (n'r'/2Lt)

A plot of the K value in Eq. 5.27b using the first two terms of expression F
is shown in Fig. 5.18.

STRESS IN CYLINDRICAT

l8

SHEtts

5.4

THERMAT STRESS

From Fig. 5.18,

5.4

K-

l9

16 and from Eq. 5.28,

P".

P".

= ll3 psi

r6)(2e,ooo,r*,(q#)

THERMAL STRESS

a cylinder is subjected to a uniform change in temperature and is allowed to


deform freely, no thermal stress is produced. Any restraint that prevents free
deformation produces thermal stress. The amount of restraint affects the stress
level. Figure 5.19 illustrates bar restrained in one and then in two directions. In
Fig. 5.19a the bar is fixed in the.r-direction only and is subjected to an increase

If
r l-r

ttr

ttl

20

4610

0* 06 I

vatues of

Fisure 5.lS Collopse coefficienls


supporred; p, : 0.3.1

5.3.3

of round

,10 60

r00

200

cylinders wirh pr$3urs on sides ond ends, edges 3implv

Pressure on Ends OnlY

in temperature. To determine thermal stress, the restraint is first removed and the
bar allowed to deform due to change in temperature. A force F is then applied
to produce the same but opposite deformation. The thermal stress in the bar can
be calculated from the compatibility equation

For this case,

&:5o
Ne=0+f(x'0)
N" = -t' + g(x' 0)

:
6r :

where 6r

No'=O+ h(x'
N'o = 0 +i(x' 0)

0)

values
and the four differential equations are solved for the value of P", For small
as
be
expressed
can
stress
or
of tfr, the critical compressive longitudinal

o,:n':
't\r/

o.6oE(t)

5.9.

Solttlirtlt

tr

2:
t

deformation due to force F

Substituting the values of

o=

(5.28)

A cylindrical shell with r : 30 in is simply supported at the


cntl.. il L : l0 ft and t : A315 in., find the critical buckling pressure for a
: 29 x 10" psi'
runilirlrr applictl pressure to sides and ends. Let E
f,xample

deformation due to temperature

where o =

:
AI :
d

and

E7

-q LTE

in the compatibility equation gives


for a uniaxial

case

(5.29a)

stress (positive values indicate tension)

coefficient of thermal expansion


change of temperature (an increase is taken as positive)

E = modulus of elasticity
q.o

roo

If the same bar is restrained in two directions as shown in Fig. 5.19, the
(lcli)nnations due to 4 and 4, are calculated in the same manner as the uniaxial
tlolirrmation. The two compatibility equations then become

sTRESs IN CYTINDRICAT SHEttS

t20

H
.lN
+&r

\F

ti

fI

\____J.i

l--|

'l*-'-l

l.,l

l2l

THERMAT STRESS

= -l (o""
_,|
a LT = -; (tr, aLT

]--t i
{ li-'

il----------'1--1

\N

5.4

L-,,

L,.

Ut

T----l

'r t

: o' : --tl LTE


'
t- p

is obtained.

l---lr
lll-

I
L

In

triaxial case, the thermal stress can be determined easily from the theory
e: a LT in the first three expressions of Eq. 3.1
results in

L-

rl+
_J

llt

o;- -

of elasticity. Substituting

l*1,*'

o,: ct =

(b)

d = coeff. ol .rp.hsjon
dr- ch.nse 1n tenp. (positlve Hhen tenp. lncre.s.s)
T = Polssot's rrtlo

ATE
= -a
_
", | Zl"

&-6r'+/'6"r=0
&+p8r,-6"r=0

max

Solving the above two simultaneous equations gives

LTE

1A comparison between Eqs.

0:

for a biaxial case

31,400

(5.29b)

tL

5 -29a

nd

5.29b indicates that a higher stress

level is obtained when the number of restraints are increased Hence, for a bar

0.3. a stress increase of 437o results when the number of restraints


5 29b
incrcasus lirrrn one to two. Another interesting feature of Eqs' 5 '29a and
length'
and
of
thickness
is tlrrl thc thormal stress is independent
lirlualion 5.29b oan also be obtained from the theory of elasticity Hence, if
c rv AT is substituted into the first two expressions ofEq (3'3), the fo owing

with

r.r.

tcsttlls:

E La AT

= (28 x

deformation due to force F,

Solution. Weld A is essentially subjected to a uniaxial stress. Hence,

= proisson's ratio
6i", = deformation due to force 4

(5.29c)

psr.

g,

6p,

for a triaxial case

Example 5.10. An intemal stainless steel rod is welded to the inside of a


carbon steel vessel as shown in Fig. 5.20. If the coefficient of thermal expansion
is9.5 10 6 in./in.'F for the rod and 6.7 10-6 in.iin."F for the vessel, what
is the stress in weldA due to a temperature increase of400'F? Use E = 28
106

Figur.5.r9

where

p,rr,)

from which the expression

6t o.llE

(")

Lro)

Fisure 5.20

109(9.s

psi

6.7)(10 9(400)

122

STRESS IN CYLINDRICAT SHELLS

l.)xumple5.ll.Anintcrnu|stuinlcsstrayiswcltlctllrrthcinsitlctr|.acarbtln
stccl vcssel as shown in l'ig 5 2la. ll'the coeflicicnt ol'thermal exprnsion is

5,4

THERMAL STRESS

dellection of tray due to temperature

what
x l0 6 in./in."F for the tray and 6.7 x l0 r' in./in.'F fbr the vessel,
:
x
106
28
E
Use
is the stress in the weld due to temperatunj increase of 400"F?
:
0.3.
psi and pr

g.5

answer can be obtained by assuming the tray attachment to be rigid. Because the weld is subjected to both hoop and axial stresses'
it can be treited as a biaxial condition Hence, from Eq' 5 29b

Solution. A conservative

-(28 x 106)(9.5 o=@

(a,,)(AD(r)

Fl

deflection of shell due to temperature

F,r
+'#tt
- p):

(a,,)(An(r)

Equations (b), (c), and (d) can be written

Ft

F,

-l 4

rrn- tifi

a more accurate result is desired, then a discontinuity-type analysis can be


performed. In referring nFig.5.2lb, and due to symmetry, the equations of
compatibility and equilibrium can be written as

If

From Eq.
From Eq.
From Eq.

Mo

{t)

as

Mo

(2)

Mo-nu
-I
2PrD BD:
Ii+F +4:0

6.7X10-1(400)

_44.800 psi

(3)
(4)

2, \:2FMo
3, n: 2BMo
4, 4: -4FMo

and Eq. 1 becomes

(a) ft=6r
(b) 0r=0
(c) 0z=0
(d) )F=0
From the above four equations, the four unknowns

4,

#]

^l#.

Fz, Ft' and Mo can be

Assuming the thickness of the cylinder is


values, the value of { from Eq. 5 is

obtained.

Equation (a) can be written

as

or o:

-618 lb/in.

1a",

I=

a,,)(Af(r)

(5)

0.1875 in. and using other given

618 psi compression in weld

The value of618 psi is significantly lower than the conservative value of44,800
psi obtained from Eq. 5.29b because of the ffexibility of the cylinder. If the
3.0 in., then Eq. (5) gives
thickness of the cylinder is r

ollMo
fn
\_-/ 'l/-fr
.*F3

n = Zl,20O lb/in. or o:21,2O0

This value indicates that as the cylinder gets thicker, the stress approaches that
of Eq. 5.29b. In fact, if the cylinder is taken as infinitely rigid, then Eq. (1)
becomes

,h--Fz
I

i,o

(a,,XAO(r)

@l
(b)
Fisure 5.21

psi compression in weld

and the equation yields

4:

* H<t -

p.)

(a-XA?.)(r)

-44,800 lbiin. or o = 44,800 psi compression in

the weld, which is the same as that obtained from Eq.

5.29b.

STRESS IN CYIINDRICAI. SHELTS

t24

5.4.1

5.4

t25

THTRMAI. STRESS

M0 can be obtained tiom the second compatibility equation whereby the skrpc
in F\g. 5.22a at the interface is equal to the slope in (b). Or

Uniform Chonge in Temperolure

A unitbrm change of temPerature in a component usually results in a thermal


stress both at and adjacent to the component. The magnitude of the stress is a
function of many factors such as geometry, degree of restriction and temperature
variation. The stress can normally be determined from a free-body diagram of
the various components. The following examples illustrates this point

Mo

_Mo,

__!,

Hs

BD 296: pD- 2B'D


:

0.
and Mo
The circumferential force in the pipe due to I1o is obtained from Eqs. 5. 19 and

5.24:

at 10'F is partly filled with liquid at 40"F and gas at


250"F as shown in Fig. 5.22a. What is the maximum thermal stress if a =
6.5 x 10 6in./in.'F, E = 30 x 106psi, and p = 0.3?
Example

5.12. A pipe

Solution. A solution can be obtained by taking a free-body diagram at the


gas-liquid boundary as shown in Fig. 5.22b. Compatibility at the interface

H: c"
t't':4'
r 2BtD "w
Maximum value of Cp. is obtained from Table 5.1 as 1.0. Hence,

requires that the deflection in (a) equals the deflection in (D). Hence' from Eq.

\)L

N.:

2565

M":

lb/in.

at interface

Also

(axA7i)(r)

M^

H"

ffi* ffi=

t")tAl'ttn *

HN

Mo

rp'o* ,Bo
and

from which
Hn

Max

= @)(Lr1- AAX/)@)(D)

(6.s

144

10-6)(240

30)(6X1.4843f(5366)

o:

t\6<
=
o.rrr-

20.500 psi

The maximum bending moment due to I{0 was derived in Example 5.4

as

lb./in.

"":Y " B'=x


lri
| fieas
I' "--{';"'

Stress due to bending moment at Bx

,=$

'|

i-li

is

6M (o'34H0\ = l2,ooo
o':v:vx
p/
6

lt

--14t"
,--. { ' li

= r/4

Deflection due to flq zt Bx

= n/4 is obtained

from Eqs. 5.23 and 5.24

"o

( 2 )Liquid ll

o.322Ho

2B"D
Hence,

(b)

Figwe 5.22

Ne

827

psi

lblin.

as

sTxEss lN cYllNDRlcAt SHELl"S

t26

827
#+

THERAAAT

STRESS

127

ln the

second compatibility equation the deflection due to temperature plus


moment plus shear is equal to zero. Or

end circumfcrcntial $trcss is

oo=

5.4

^
0.3

12.000

10,200Psi

Thus maxrmum stress occurs al rnterface with magnitude of 20,500

o.$s +

psi. I

and

Example 5.13. Determine the bending stress in a cylinder fixed at one edge
(Fig. 5.23a) due to a uniform rise in temperature of 200"F.

c = 6.5 x

10-6

Mo: (0.039)Qp2D)
: (0.039)(2X0.46941

in./in..F

E:30xl06psi
p=o'3
Solution. Radial deflection of cylinder if
w

:
:

o=

5.4.2 Grsdient

ends are free is

0.039 in.

zB,D

Qo

6M
:+
= 70,800 psi I

in Axiol Direction

deflection due to P,

Hence

BD

738 in.-lb/in.

From Fig. 5.23a the rotation at the end is zero because the cylinder is fixed.

O^

(42.e30)

The stress in a cylinder due to a thermal gradient f, in the axial direption can be
obtained by first subdividing the cylinder into infinitesimal rings of length dr.
Hence, the radial thermal expansion due to 4 in each ring is given by (c)(4)(r).
This expansion can be eliminated by applying an external force
such that

(a)(Afl(r)

M"

#_#:o

E=

deflection due to

",r,

Hence

2PMo

p, = Etan

/1\lMo

and

Hs

-Pr
ae: -l

-taT.

(5.30a)

it, the extemal force


to reduce the deflection to zero must be eliminated by applying an equal
and opposite force in the cylinder. Hence, Eq. 5.21 becomes

Because the cylinder does not have any applied loads on


P, used

(b)
Fisur 5.23

* aB'*:EJ$
{!
tlxfl,)

(5.30b)

Itt

STRTSS rN CYIINDRICAL SHEttS

5.4

THIR

'tAt

STRISS

129

n-T
r =rx

Thc total strcss in thc cylindcr is dctcrmincd from Eqs. 5.30a and 5.30b.

5.14. A vessel that operates at 800oF is supported by an insulated


skirt. The thermal distribution in the skirt is shown in Fig.5.24a.Ifthe top and
bottom of the skirt are assumed fixed with respect to rotation, what is the
maximum stress due to temperature gradient? d = 7 x 10-o in./in.'F, p =
0.3,8= 30 x 106psi.
Example

Solutian, The equation for linear

temperature gradient is

and the circumferential stress due to ring action obtained from Eq. 5.30a is

,,= -u"(T),
E4uation 5.30b gives

T,:4+4 iT*

onfu

The temperature change can be expressed as

(l)

* o.o* =";;(*),

A particular solution takes the form

.="u$(Lf),*",
t-

which upon substituting into the differential equation gives

aodF

t,=#

and cr=9

and w reduces to

w=rq.
Tb=

2odF
From Eq. 5.19

{a)

T
x

",=+:*(T)

'lr

e").

Adding Eqs.

rv=(EJ,

t\

t\
J_/
(d

Fhut. 5.21

(2)

and 2 results in

oe= 0

)x=-sx

which means that for a linear distribution the thermal stress along the skirt is
zeto.
The slope due to axial gradient is given by

dw= rallT"-----=;
- = --:- T,\
dx\r/

gHEtts
3TRr93 lN CYI'INDRlCAt

rt0

be applied at the ends


Bccausc thc cnds arc fixcd against rotation, a momcnt mu$t

I.4

Substituting Eqs. 5.31 and 5.32 into 5.34 gives

to reduce 0 to zero. From Eq. 5 24

lr,

- r^

-Mo

. (r--J",' .

Since B

2.74'1

Mo

106

5.4.3 Grodient in Rodiol

'

in'-lblin'

742

dlt d , .f -E ,, *, ..,-(41\
,kl;ftt,'",t|:
T.;;"tr rt,\i)

,1450 psi

,,=!f",-

tL(oo+

*: jl", -

P(at + o)f +

u=|b,-

p(a,+ os)l+ ar

c)f + ar
uT

o.

32)

(5.33)

as

dww

or

i="

gives

Ea-l_-+ P(r'z
o.
-' = -:-------'-| - tt' r' \16

r?

['" rra,
- ri J.,

[' rrar\
- J,,
/

Frorn Eq. 5.36

oa= t

E<x r +

u'

(rl! :j ['. r,a, -

- ttz I \rj-

ot- =
I de9\
r\a,

r? J,,

""'

rra,

['
J,,"

- rr\/

and from Eq. 5.31 for a cylinder umestrained in the:-direction,

',=6 "=i
+

4l=0

(5.31)

temperature is symwhere aT is the suain due to temPerature change' If the


the radial and hoop
and
zero
are
*i,tt respect to 0, all shearing stresses

ee

(s'37)

Solving the above differential equation and applying the boundary conditions

Direciion

e,:

(5.36)

Solving Eqs. 5.35 and 5.36 for a gives

radial direction
Thermal stress in a cylinder due to a temperature gradierrt in-the
be written as
can
3
Eq'
Hence,
elasticity'
of
can be obtaned from ttre theory

^"iii"
$truins can be exPressed

^,(#)

",- ''='(*\

and

o=

(s.35)

In Section 5. I it was shown that the equilibrium of an element in a cylinder (Fig'


5.3) can be expressed by the equation

u,= -oolff)<n- n
D=

p
do,
t_*to,trdr-oo)

/ do.\
o,: {rs* r\*)-

'"\ , )= B,

0.2142,

|lr

THIRMAT 3TRI33

(5.34)

Ea / 2 r,-,trar_ -\
_-_l_-;__
tl
L- p\ri-rih, ,l
/

From these equations, some cases can be derived.

(s.38)

t32

Cav

STRTSS IN CYTINDRICAL SHTLLS

5.4

2r,, + r, l
ov= o,- -EaT,f
l,
.l
-f. ritl
pLJtr.
|EaT f r"+ 2rt1
ue=u,=.
| - p l-l
LJtro -f riJ l

Llnear'l'hcnnul l)islrihulion

[,irr thin vcssels, a stcady-state condition produces linear thermal dishibution


through the thickness that can be expressed as

rwhere d

Substituting

r'L-J

Cfe

into Eqs. 5.38 gives

EaT, f (r2 r\zrt + r.) 2(r3-rl)-3r"(r2-r!)


' r'(l - 1t\ | -6(ri'r r")
6(ri - r")
EeT f (r2 + r?)(2rt + r") 2\r3 - rl) - 3r"(r'z - r!)l
nr-

'

^
o\r,

- ro)

- EaTt
= C, = ,r,l _
!\r
tL)

(s.40)

for outside surface

for inside surface


(5.41)

EaT
ce: o,: ^Ltt - lL)

rt-:

-l
r-\t
otrr r ro,
- pl L
LAIi I zrt+ ro r"-rl
(l - pll3(r1 + r,) r"- r,l

for inside surface

For thin wall vessels, Eq. 5.40 reduces to

inside wall temperature relative to outside wall temperature.

t33

THERMAI STRESS

Case
\J.J')

Figure 5.25 is a typical plot of o,, ae, and cz. The plot indicates that o, is
relatively small compared with o6 and o,. For all practical purposes, o6 and o.
are equal.

2.

for outside surface

Logarithmic Thermal Distribution

In thick vessels, a steady-state thermal condition gives rise to a logarithmic


temperature distribution that can be expressed as

l"')
t: "/lu
\ln r" - ln r,/
and upon substitution of this expression in Eqs. 5.38 results in

The maximum values of op and ol occur at the inner and outer surfaces. From

8c.5.39.

2(l

"/ffi

#cr.l'-'^?
u?T:,,

z(r

r1, - p,ntro/nL

'(;)l

*('.

#)'(;)]

(s.42)

2Lnk-,t'i,,n/tr)l
r ri-r;
\/,/l

Again disregarding or as being small compared with o6 and o", Eqs. 5.42
have a maximum value

2(r
z(r

of

ErxT f,r 2rl lnt


,lr"\f
- ---------ll
pJ tntro/ rJ

- ri
2,1 .

16

\r, /

EaT I.
/a\l
- t"t-tt"lJ,)L' ;:'l' 'n\-/l

And for thin wall cylinders. Eq. 5.43 reduces to

for inside surface


(s.43)

for outside surface

STRESS tN CYUNDRTCAL SHfl"t"S

t34

tft:
oe:

(r:

o,

I')tt'li
_ tl

EqT

= Z\l _
lD

3.

t35

Example 5.15, A thin cylindrical vessel is heated by ajacket from the outside
such that the temperature distribution is as shown in Fig. 5.26.1f E
27
106
psi, a
9.5 10-b in./in.'F, and p, 0.28, determine (a) maximum thermal
stress using Eq. 5.40 and (b) maximum thermal stress using Eq. 5.41.

lor outslde sunace

which are the same as those for the linear case.


Case

THERMAI. STRTSS

From Eq. 5.38 it can be seen that cr, can also be expressed by Eq. 5.46.

lirr insidc surlace

,zt<l

5.4

Solution. (a)
Complex Thermal Distribution

4:

ln many instances such as transient and upset conditions the temperature distribution through the wall of a vessel cannot be represented by a mathematical
expression. In this case a graphical solution can be obtained from the thermal
stress. From Eq. 5.38

- 700 = -300'F. Hence at inside surface


-(27 x t01(9.5 x tO-ox-300)/2(lJ) - t0\
(t - 0.28)
\3(13 - tO)i
400

55,800 psi

and at outside surface

oe:
--

eq lt-rr,lf.'t'z[,.rrar-!f ,ror-r]
r-

l- *l-rz,- r, 1,

J,,

u=

For a cylinder where the thickness is small compared to the radius, the first
expression in the brackets can be expressed as

2r
I r trilrt2 p --,| IrAr :

-----';-'-------

r; - ri J,,

temperature

10 6)(-300)

(l-028,
,1 _ 92s1

--

'':

(5.44)

distribution through the wall


and
as

2n fiTrdr
I trc-,
---':
rror:
,
-l
27Tr r' J,,

106)(9.5

(-27 x

109(9.5

2(r

x l0 6)(-300)
or2s)

53,400 psi

for outside surface a

= -53,400 psi. I

Example 5.16. A pressure vessel operating at 300'F is subjected to a short


excursion temperature of 600'F. At a given time, the temperature distribution in
/5 45\

one half the mean value of the temperature


distribution from the axis of the vessel to r

However, because the temperature distribution from the axis to | 15 ZrO,


cxpression 5.45 for all practical purposes can be neglected. Hence, oo can be
cxoressed as

Ea

.^ I)
oo: --\1n
I- IL
wncrc

:
f:

4n

(5.46)

mean value of temperature distribution through the wall

bmDerature at desired location

lt3 + 2 x 10
\ :tr: _ rot
\3(13-lo)

= -51,000 psi

ntr; - ril

'l'he second expression can be expressed

(b) For inside surface

Ji: Trdr

mean value of the

(27

Fisure 5.26

3TR!!t

It6

tN CYUNORICAI sHEtLs

t37

NOMIIiICTATURI

thc wall is shown ln Fic..3.27 . Find thc msximum thcrmal stress at that instance.

Lct rr

= 0.3, E = 3dx

psi, and

106

a = 6.0 x

10-6 in./in."F

Solutlon. This problem can be visualized as a biaxial case where the inner
surfacs heats quickly while the rest of the wall remains at 300'F' Using Eq.
5.29b results in

(6 x l0-6x600 - 300x30 x
o:ffi

106)

-77,100 psi

which is extremely high and is based on very limiting assumptions. A more


realistic approach is that based on Eq. 5.46. The mean temperature is obtained
from Fie. 5.27 and tabulated as follows:
Locations as
Ratios of Thickness

Temperature

0
0.1

600

0.2
0.3
0.4

400

Area

53.0
43.0
38.5

460

0.5

370
340
320

0.6

310

0.7

305

33.0
31.5
30.8

0.8
0.9

300

JU.J

300

1.0

300

30.0
30.0

35.5

>355.6

tisur' 5.27
sness occurs at the surface only. Thus at
one-tenth of the thickness inside the surface, the stress is

It is of interest to note that the high


__
t=

(30

10ux9I_!o-1res6 _ 460)
\JJu 'uu''
r-o!3

= -26,700 psi
The high stress at the inner surface indicates that local yielding

I'

And
= 356"F.
From Eq. 5.46, at inner surface,

(30

106)(6.0

NOMENCTATURE

10-6)/?56

600)

-62.700 psi

196x6:0_x 10-6)(356

l-0.3

14,2100 psi

Fl3

= -----=:l2(1 - tt2)

D, = outside diameter

ond Bt outcr surface

_ (30
.,
"

"l'l

3oo)

of cylinder

E = modulus of elasticity
K = constant
L : length of cylinder
M, =

axial bending moment

will occur.

rtt
Mp

ETRI'I

'

IN CYTINDRICAT SHTTT!

hoop bcnding momcnt

p = pressure

t39

IIIIIOORAPHY

yrrl-

2.

American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler ond Prcssure vessel Code, Sdct/.rn
Rules for Constructiotr of Pressure Vessels, Division 1, ANSI/ASME BVP-VI -l,NewYork,

3.

Strum, R. G.,

1980 Edition.

P", = buckling pressure

"A Study of lhe Collapsing Pressue of Thin-Walled Cylinde$," University of

Illinois Bulletin, Vol. XXXIX, No. 12, 1941.

P/ = internal pressure
Po = extemal pressure

O, =

r :
4 :

BIBI-IOGRAPHY

shearing force

The Amedcan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Ptessure Vessel and PipinS DesiSn-Colkcted
Papers 197-1959, New York, 1960.
Baker, E. H., L. Kovalevsky, F. L. Rich, Stn ctarulAnalysis ofShells, Mccraw-Hill, New York,
1912.

radius of cylinder
inside radius

ro = outside

, = thickness of cylinder
T = temperature
AT = iemperature change

p = deflection
c = coefficient

of thermal expansion

=
=

deflection due !o temperature change

longitudinal strain
radial strain

lL

= hoop strain
= rotauon
= proisson's ratio

e0

or

=
=

Oe

Ot

stress

longitudinal stess
radial shess
hoop sftess

REFERENCES

l.

Murphy, G.,

ll4-t2t.

'anced

W., Stesses in Shells, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1960.


Gibron, J. E., Linear Elasrtc Theory oJ Thin SherrJ, Pergamon hess, New York, 1965.
Hefey,I. F -, Theory and Design of Moder PresJrt? y?JtetJ, Van Nostrand-Reinhold, Princton,
Flugge,

radius

Mechanics of Materials, McGEw-Hill, New York, 1946, pp.

N.J.,

1974.

Timosheoko, S., S. woitrowskey-Krieger, frreory of Plates


1959.

4r1d Shelrs,

Mccraw-Hitl, New York,

CHAPTER

ANALYSIS OF FORMED
HEADS AND TRANSITION

sEcTtoNs

Con|co|hrodconsistingof|woeccgn|liccones.(co',rtesyoftheNoolrcorPorgtion,sr.LoUi!,Mlo.)

t4l
r40

142
6,I

6.I

ANAI.YSIS OT TORMTD HEADS ANO TRANSITION SICTIONS

HEMISPHERICALHEADS

eo:

The required thickness of hemispherical heads is determined from a free-body


diagram as shown in Fig. 6.1. Hence

Pm2 = Zmo

1...
ELt

t-

lL)1o4,

HEMISPHERICATHIADS

t43

(6.3)

pa,)

The strain displacement relationship is the same as that derived from cylindrical shells:
w
'f

',

-2t

Pri

(6.1)

and

dw

where

a=
P:
r=
t=

membrane stress
pressure

Hence, expressions 6.2 and 6.3 become

radius

(t

thickness

This equation which assumes uniform stress distribution through the thickis adequate for relatively thin heads. As the thickness increases with
respect to the radius, this assumption becomes invalid. Hence, a more accurate
formulation is needed, which is obtained from the "thick head" equations.
From symmetry, it can be demonstrated that at any point in a hemihead
subjected to uniform pressure,
ness,

QfrQo6)

- vfiWS -

o,

21t'o6

-- o

(6.4)

Figure 6.2 shows an inflnitesimal segment of a spherical head Summation


forces in the radial direction gives

,",= -l(fi)<,'"t

of

(6.s)

Solving Eqs. 6.4 and 6.5, we obtain

, 'r :
ld\l'
rl;
ll+ +(rro,) |
\dr / Lr- qr
I

From Eqs. 3.1,

e,

I.

= E\ot

zlto,)

(t6.2)

Its solution is expressed as

i12

(6.6)

5rThe boundary conditions are given by

o,= -n al r:

ri

and

a,: -n at r:ro
FisiJr 6.1

Solving the boundary conditions forA and B and substituting into Eqs. 6.5 and
6.6, we obtain

l.l{

Al'lAtYlll Ol lOR illD H!AD3 AND TnANSl?lON

6.I

SICTIONS

HIMISPHERICATI{TAD3

[6.-dor
\
'
' d. /

Figure 6.2

Jo/f
I

",:f+('-*)-*('-*
rl\
/

06:

r?P'
oo= -:ll
r; - ri

-lzr'/ -

r3P
-;l=lt
r; - /i \

fisurs 6,3

't\
+:+l
2r./

(6.7a\

Example 6.1. A hemispherical head with r = 15.0 in is subjected to an


internal pressure of 4000 psi. If the allowable stress is 23,000 psi, find the
required thickness from Eqs. 6.1 and 6.7.

Equation 6.7a can be simplified for the following cases:


Case

1.

Internal Pressure Only


max

o.=

_e

or:

max oo
Case 2,

A comparison between Eqs. 6.1 and 6.7 is shown in Fig. 6.3.

Soltttion.

From Eq. 6.1,

,:+

atr=ri
| :?.'?r*
Lzlr; -

')r,]n
ri)l

at

r = ri

(6.7b)

Exlernal Pressure Only

maxot=
rnrxa6=

-P. at r:r
rlk
ot= - 3
ZE:;,

(4000x1s)

1.30 in.

2(23,000)

From Eq. 6.7,

atr=ri

(6.7c)

rln

l.

,11
o.: _-i_-1 | I _r : I
"
ri,- riL zril

6.I

ANAIYSIS OT TORMED HTADS AND TRANSITION STCTIONS

6.1.1

16.31

1.31 in.

147

f :re SrN0
cls:f1 d0
dr - ds .Cos P

2(15t(4000) + 2(23.000X l5 )3
2(23,000) - 4000

I{EMISPHERICAIHEADS

Vorious Looding Conditions

Occasionally, hemispherical heads are subjected to a variety of loadings such as


wind forces, snow and dead loads, and agitator and equipment reactions. The
membrane stresses induced by such loads usually are obtained from "thin shell"
membrane theory that assumes that the loads are carried by membrane action
rather than bending moments.
When referring to Fig. 6.4a, the middle surface of a shell is taken as a surface
of revolution. This is generated by the rotation of a plane curve about an axis
in its plane. This generating curve is called a meridian. An arbitrary point on the
middle surface of the shell is specified by the particular meridian on which it is
found and by giving the value of a second coordinate that varies along the
meridian and is constant on a circle around the shell's axis. Because these circles
are parallel to one another, they are called the "paralled circles."
The definition of r, n, 12, and @ are shown in Fig. 6 4a. The radius 11 is
mcasuretl from point 0, which is the center of curvature of the meridian; 12 is
mcasurctl fiom the z-axis and is normal to the meridian. The parallel circle is
dolincd by r.
lirrrrr lrig. 6.4a,

r=
ds =

12 sin

r, d.6

lrigruc (r.4/r is a free-body diagram of a section of a surface of revolution.


to the tangent at the meridian and simplifying by
th.lctirg lt:rrns of higher order, we obtain
Srrrrrrrrirrg lirrces parallel

-!, gN,pt
t4l,

- r,(q#
\ do

-r,Npcos d +

16',) = g
/

(6.8)

r'r6e+

N@+tl
Noo +

dQ

do

*F

++

ffi
de

do

Figure 6.4

Summation of forces in the direction of parallel circles gives

j6<,N*l

-,,(#*

rlNep cos

* r,',) :0

(6.9)

For the majority of pressure vessel applications, the loads are symmetric with
respect to the axis of revolution. Hence, all derivatives with respect to 0 in
expression 6.8 and 6.9 can be deleted. Shearing stresses due to torsion are small
comDared with other stresses. Thus expression 6.9 can be deleted completely'
Tire last equation of equilibrium is obtained by summing the forces in Fig'
6.4b perpendicular to the middle surface:

,i\12rt

a:*Ut=n

(6.10)

I4g

6,I

ANAI.YSIS OT TORMTD HTADS AND TRANSITION SICTIONS

Substituting oxprcssi()n 6.

l0 into 6.tl

Pasin Q)s\nQdQ

Cl
I

Ar' =

(6.11)

The right-hand side of Eq. 6.11 is equal to the sum of all the N6 forces around
a circle of angle d. Therefore we can solve Nd at any given location { by
summing all forces in the {-direction. Once N6 is obtained, Nd can be determined from expression 6. 10.
For a spherical shell, 11 = 12 = r. Hence, expressions 6.10 and 6.11 can be

and the strain is expressed as

simplified as follows:

Substituting ro

N5

HEADS

I49

'fhc change in r,, is given by

givcs

I fr
No: 12. slnI I r, r2(P, cos {-,,, @, LJ

HEMISPHERICAT

Dcos A

-:=srn @

,r=!1ucos@-wsin@)
=

12 sin

(6.14)

and Eqs. 3.3 into expressions 6.13 and 6.14 gives

N6= P,r
No :

" .l t.ltP, cos @ ^,-,- @ LJ


sln

P6 sin @) sln $ d$ +

I
C
I

(6 12)

(6.15)

The displacement for various loading conditions is derived from Fig .

lt:ucotO6 .5 .

The

total change in length AB is

EtlNe

f"Na)

Equations 6.15 can be solved for the deflections once N, and Nc are established from Eqs. 6. 12. Table 6.1 shows the solution of Eqs. 6. 12 and 6. 15 for
various loading conditions.

u:4ra6
- w d6t
aQ

Example

The strain is therefore

1/do
ea=-l-;--l
\ \aQ

h.__

w\

(6.13)

rr./

6.2.

Solutian.

Determine the forces in a spherical shell due to snow load.

From Fig. 6.6,


P,

-- -P"

cos2 Q

P:P,cosdsind
From Eq. 6.12

rl

+-l
f(-p, "os' S - P" sin2@ cos @) sin A dQ + Cl
sln- q)LJ
I
I
r
-p"rf
=,.'i'
;l l(cos' d + sin'z d) sin 6 cos 0 dO + C

N^' =

)(-

qlJ
-a
-P", lt. ",1 ^l
:rtt}Lts'n-@l+c.l
sm-

.- :
/vr

id0
Fisurs 6.5

-P.r-

sin 0

4rC

As 4 approaches zero, the second expression of Nd approaches infinity unless


C is set to zero.

!l
dl

!l
a

oo-l

;.t'
e

r-;-1

-l
'1

o.

!l

-l+

*il

.lN
'.t

.
+

!'6

!l
!te
.tr

.t

rl

f---l

q.

r^r

le

.f;|*

o
o
o

o!
o

!
,9,/
+
--,{
..l+
+k!
| = | -lc
<f

-i,
+

\j/

{t
.trrr

NI

I
o

@e

-o

l5l
r50

152

6.1

ANAI.YSI! OI TO|.MTD H!ADs AND TRANSITION SICTIONS

HtMllpHlRlcAt

l'llAol ltl

complicated numbr
the comDatibility equations are taken into consideration, a
is
Oifierential equations result' The solution of these equations
P.
symmetric
imoracticat. however, withouisome simplifications. By assuming
only, the differential equations for a spherical shell reduce to

"i.i*oii-*ut
forces

#r.#*rQ-

o(cotz

O+

-#

(6.16)

rt)=Eto

(6.17)

tD=

and

#**Affi-o<""eQ-

Figor 6.6

Thus, for C

-P.;
From Eq. 6.12,

rle: -r.r

Yr=

cos'

q+

-P.r(cos2 Q

EilBRAI{E

FORCES

L)

= -4cosz|
6,

L2

DiscontinuitY AnolYsis

'l'hc rnctnbrane analysis discussed in the previous section fails to Sive adequate
is attached
rcrult$ whon the loais are localized or when the hemispherical section
cases the
these
In
loads'
certain
under
to lnothcr shell that acts differently
is
seen that
6'7
it
In
Figure
the
analysis'
in
hcnding moments must be considered
can be
moments
bending
and
the
membrane
lix u givcn krading condition, the

con$id;rcd us shoin. Proceeding as before where both the free-body forces and

EIIDI NG FORCES
Fig'.rre

6.7

lla

Af{Al,Ygl

ot fotMrD

6.t

HIADI AND TRANIITION SlCrlONS

whcrc 0 is thc anglc of rotation and is given by

^ a ldw
r raQ

in most usual

slope

radial deflection

pressure vessel applications.

Accordingly, the equations reduce to


d2

HIADI ll!

| /d'zo\
EVG)

(6.18)

By a rigorous analysis Gibsont has shown that in Eqs. 6' 16 and 6.17 only the
higher-order terms are significant

HEITATSPHERICAI

r ..,
e

F;lt\

luYA)

The solution of Eq. 6.23 for various common loading conditions is given in

_ -Qrz

do'

(e:
dE'

(6.1e)

Table 6.2.

Example 6.3, Calculate the head discontinuity forces of the head-to-shell


junction shown in Fig. 6.8a. Let p : 3gg psi and /, = 0.3.
(6.20)

",,

Solutian. From Fig. 6.8b and Table 6.1 the

Eliminating 0 from Eqs. 6.19 and 6.20 gives

6o

P12

=(l
(6.2r)

ffi++*o=o

deflection in the head due to

pressure rs

,r) sin

(300x50)'?rl

E(0.50)

where

'-

_o?l

1,050,000

E
/

,\2

,\a=3(l-r1l;/

(6.22)

Tqble

6.2

Approximote Force qnd Deflection funcfions for Sphericol Segments

,//-r-\
I

Hoftflff)--xo
'<l"L/

The solution of Eq. 6.21 can be expressed as

g:

g^o(c1cos A0

+ c, sin,\@ +

e-^o(ct cos,\d

c4 sin

ld)

Once the value of O is determined for a given loading and boundary conditbns, the other quantities can be obtained from

?I

-f

lO

2re-r1sln{o(cosr.r)tio

z16.f.

Vi*e-rYst nqrotocos { ry+nllltto

-?1 e-11cotosi

e-rYsln4ocos

rr+"/+)no

"-rtrtn(rr)ru
"-^t"o,

rr*nrl)no

n (

ry)ro

Nr- -Qcot0
= --9
-do

N"

M^:2(+\
r \dQ/
Mo

pMo

lr

L-rYsi

tT(f""-rt"t
to

n0osi

(ry

) Ho

no" [zr"t no"o"rv

y6-"- r'r" i n1r1*nll


,ao

lzre-

ry

lto

I-,6- rs tiocos{

-rF*""o"""t rv*r+l]J
1; t-z'F^2u-tt"
(6.23)

ry+r/a)

-+ucos0sinrYl,l

rnro"i n (r.r+r/a)l

ro
rT

/-1r,3

\--

"-rt.o"rr\/

It6

6.r

AltlAtYlll Of iotlillo HIAD! At'lD ltAilllTloN slcTloN3

HlMrsPHtRtcat

HtADs lt7

6,"=s#6
,rr: -3#ro
Similarly, the deflection in the shell due to pressure is obtained from Eq.
Examnle 5.5 as

I of

,='#(' _;,tt\

:ffi,,-0.,r,
_

637,500

B=
=

0.1818
E/

n\3

D=-ij:j_=0.0916E
ra\t - u.J-)
and from Table 6.2.

u,":,--#4r"
Figirr 6.8

eo"

aEEm

6rr=yM,

8nd

O.3)(lqoJ

0,"=gfMo

12.038

total deflection of head


From Table 6.2,

6,:Wl^

r.r+4pq *

total deflection of shell

Tr" * Y*" = q# _ ryH" * Yr,

OT

ouo=-2f4

8Ho+Mo=-995.17

(1)

I58

ANAI.YSIS

OI

6.I

FORMED HTADS AND TRANSITION SICTIONS

symrnetry, expressed

Sirnilurly,
rotation of head

HEMISPHIRICAIHEADS

as

ZEa
r,.^,,
f -,,\
tt - p)r'\r; - ri ,,
,,
/
Eu l2r3+rl r"-,,
f,^,,
,-\
06: ao: tt| Tr.dr - r.Tl
.. J,,
I Tr.dr + J\
^l p)r- \r;-ri
/
lr'-r|
O,:-l-ltr-Ar-ltr-Arl

rotation of shell

.. - 165.15.. 60.05..
-579.65..
._-t
uo - E *o:
-E-nrt --iwo
2t9.tt

159

(6.24a)

\6.24b)

6.4. Determine the circumferential thermal stress on the inside surface of a hemispherical head subjected to an inside temperature of 600'F and
varying linearly to a temperature of 400"F at the outside surface. Let 11 :30in.,
12
40 in.,E
30 106psi, o 7.0 10-6in./in.'F, and g, 6.3.
Example

rlo

= -0

818 Mo

and from Eq. 1,

Mo

179'4 lb-in'/in

Solution. The temperature distribution

across the thickness can be expressed

AS

and

Ilo =

r=6oo_

146.8 lb/in.

From Table 6.2, N0 at discontinuity is

N.:

)A2

2tH" +':::-M^ +

Ne= -3534 + 1040 +


No = 5006 lb/in'

or

pr

T=1200-2Or

-2

z(r2.o3s)(-146."

?g?qg@-' !9P

The first integral in Eq. 24b gives

f;

7500

r,,a, =
=

and

J*

trzoor,

- zor3tdr

6.O50.000

The second integral is zero because the limits of integration at the inner surface
are both ri. Hence Eq. 6.24b gives

y^=A=7500
Mo

179.4

lb/in.

(30

x
(1

lb-in'lin.

106)(7

x l0 6)

0.3X30t

[2(3ot + (30t..
^-^
ro'o5o'ooo)

tffi

and

Me

6.1,3

Lg_rs

53

'8

lb/in'

= -32,800 psi

Thermol Sfress

'l'hc dcrivation of thermal stress in a spherical segment due to radial distribution


ol ternpcrature can be derived similarly to cylindrical shells (see Section 5.4.3).
Thc meridional and circumferential stresses in a sphere are the same due to

6.1.4

.l
^^^.- (3ofll2oo - ^^
2o(rnj

Buckling Strength

The buckling equations developed by Von Karman and Tsien2 are the basis of
the design equations developed by ASME. Von Karman's equations, which are
substantiated by tests, give a more accurate prediction of buckling strength of

160

6.I

ANAI.YSIS OT FORMTD HTADS ANO TRANSITION SICTIONS

HTMISPHERICAI.HEADS

t6l

splrcricul sccli(nls tlurl thosc dcvclopcd carlicr by l.luggc, Timoshenko, and


others. Von Karrnan antl 'l'sicn took the out-ot-roundness imperfections into
consideration. 'l'hey also used the energy equations as a basis for derivation.

Refering to Fig. 6.9, it can be shown that the strain energy due to the extension
of the sphere is given by

u,:
f fYJ^- r)'sin d/d
' Er'(!\o
\r/ Jo \cos a /
Similarly, the strain energy due to bending is expressed

,, _ Lr"l-l;
,fcos0 d0 ,\') , /sin 0
-_,/,\ T I(p srn
-., Ql--U7:
_ -ll+l
tz
\r/ Jo
@d@
lcos

The potential energy of the external pressure

-rB

U1: Prit I
JO

P sin'?dcan 0

as

.\,1 .,

A
--tlld6 /

(6.2s)

\srn

6.26)
Such an expression can be written as

p is given by

tan O) cos Q

Figure 6.9

dg

o:alr-c,1"-4)l
L
\ p'/l

(6.27)

(6.30)

where 0 is the slope and is related to the deflection by

The total energy of the system is the sum of Eqs. 6.25, 6.26, and 6.27 . Hence

U=Ut+U2+Ur

a: , fu @ - o) dO

(6.31)

JO

(6.28)

From Eqs. 6.30 and 6.31 the value of C, can be determined to be


Equation 6.28 can be simplified by assuming B to be small. By neglecting terms

^46
wt
-;F

of higher order and expanding the sine and cosine functions in a power series,
liq. 6.28 becomes

(6.32)

Substituting Eq. 6.30 into 6.29, the energy expression becomes

U E(t/rt rp (0.
,^,
- 6'\6d6
-:-# 4 Jo|
Tr"

It / 14\ / _ Ci Ci\ Et, ^,^, pBo


_-:
"" B2ct _,_L c
ir-al
in' l+186lCl
7-i) - l8tP-ci-pc'
\bur/ \

.ry rUffi-'l . G- 'flaoo


+PrQz@-Q)dQ

This expression can be minimized by taking its derivative with respect to Cr and
equating the derivative to zero. This gives

or 4 /a\f-. ..ls\t/r /.^6, _^\trlr),]


a = ros \;/L'zr - 63\i)F - lot7 * 'o)'p-l

(6.29)

'l'hc solution of Eq. 6.29 is obtained by the Raleigh-Ritz method by finding an

where

cxprcssion of the deflection that satisfies the boundary condition

0:0
s:B

at 4:0
at Q=B

o:'
and D is obtained from Eq. 6.32.

Pr

(6'33)

I62

ANAI,YSIS

Of fORMTD HEADS AND TRANSITION

6.2

SICTIONS

A plot ol l!. 6..|.1 is shown in lrig. 6. l(). 'l'hc nrinirnum value ol ljq. 6.33
crn bc lirund by taking thc derivittivc with respect to B and equating the result

dil'lerentiation results in an expression whose minimum value is

(o zero:

or 4/D\l
Et 5\r/l

fi = o.rtt

+ (3/280)t6/r),
+ t24/3st(6/tP

(6.34)

which is shown as a dashed line in Fig. 6.10. This figure illushates the effect
of 6/t on the buckling shength of spherical sections. The minimum value of
buckling strength is obtained from the figure as

!=o.z+
tt

at 9:9.35
t

The value of 0-24 can be reduced if the strain energy due to membrane stress
before buckling is considered. Therefore, if Eq. 6.25 is modified to include this
strain energy and if the revised expression is substituted into Eq. 6.29, the

1.2

\l

1.1

--\

t,

o.8

,l

ff:

o.tzs

(6.35)

Dxample 6.5. What is the required thickness of a hemispherical head subjected to an external pressure of 15 psi? Let r : 96 in., E : 27 x l0o psi, and
factor of safety (FS) = 10.

Solution.

From Eq. 6.35, with o",

(FS)o and

o:

Pr/Zt

(,t)'"''(;) : ' '*

.15

5\

o.6
o.5

(15X96)110)

20

0.25(27

,r

o.7

o.3

of

'#;*

t,

o9

o.4

Experimental values have shown that the minimum value obtained is of the order

t.o

('R
Et

r63

ETTIPSOIDAL HTADS

106)

0.45 in.

,7

6.2

EttIPSOIDAt HTADS

The governing equations for the design of ellipsoidal and torispherical heads are
obtained from expressions 6. l0 and 6. I l. For internal pressure, P.
P, P6
O,
and the two equations give4

(\

o.2
El tve op,i

,ro:

o.1

.o

64.rc

(6.36)
14

18

Ne: +Prz=j;-

%
Fisure 6.10

We can write Eqs. 6.36 in terms of the major and minor radii a and b. Using

l6tl

ANAl,Ytlt Ol lOt,UlD HtADt AND TRANSII|ON SICTIONS

6.2

rruPsotDAt

HEADS

where

{|,(tl -, - * ,1'"(i.
-y, - *,(t)
G=

ffi''r)"
,j

\/l

[(a/ br2

1] cos2 7

At any given point on the ellipse given by.re and y6, the angle
Irom

fisure

6.ll

A plot of Eq. 6.37 in Fig. 6. 12 shows that for ellipsoidal heads with a/, rarios
over 1.4, the hoop stress at d = 90'is in compression. The curves indicate that
this compressive force increases as the head gets shallower. Design of heads
based on these high compressive membrane forces iends to give ulhaconservative answers. This is because discontinuity forces tend to lower the
maximum compressive sFess which results in more realistic desims. The ASME
Code uses such an approach in the design of elliptic and torisfherical heads.

a2b2

''

sin2 Q

b2 cosz E1zlz

n2
1a2 5i1z Q

b2 cos2 qlrlz

100 psi.

at6=9A'.

I
^, -Po'
^62 @rJfI? AT brrxf, O,7t

,, _ Po' b' -

6.6. A2; I ellipsoidal head is subjected to an intemal pressure of


If a = 48 in. and r = 0.5 in., detemine the hoop and meridional stress

Example

Expressions 6.36 then become

(a2

- b2) sin2 E
2b2 (a2 sin2 6 i b2 cos2 q1r/z

Sol.ntion. With d

,l
n;t

n W'(Fcosv)

GIu'- ulc'- l]

90', Eq. 6.37 becomes

nr=t

The radial deflection rll and meridional deflection ll due to intemal Dressure

Pa'

(6.37)

are given by

D^2

can be obtained

"i"Q=ffi

Ellipsoi&l heod.

the notations of Fig. 6.11, we then obtain

(az

ryEq

24oo lb/in.

and

%=r#

48oo psi

166

6.3

ANATYSIS OF TORMED HEADS AND TRANSITION STCTIONS

6.3

TORISPHTRICAI.

HEADS

167

TORISPHERICALHEADS

In formulating the discontinuity equations for torispherical heads at the cylinder


junction, two assumptions must be made. First, the ratio a// must be over 30.
Second, all deflections dissipate rapidly away from the junction. With these two
assumptions (known as Geckeler's approximations), the discontinuity analysis
of a torispherical head near a cylinder junction is similar to that for a cylindrical
shell. Hence, the governing equations are (see Section 5.2.1)

elo
zlq

-!

4Baw

(6.38)

where

B=
Equation 6.38 is similar to Eq. 5.21 for cylindrical shells except that in Eq.
6.38 the quantity p is a function of 12 that is variable along the meridian. This
requires numerical integration of all moment, force, deflection, and slope expressions at angles less than @ : 9g'.
If a discontinuity force is applied at the edge as shown in Fig. 6. 13, Eq. 6.3g
yields the following values.3

.:#rru,n,-FoB^Md.

n = Gr"^n, + zBoDe,Mi

u,
h/.
Fis'rr 6.12

7,

z1,f;c

*r=ffi<-oupo+
Similarly,

Me

FoBp,Mo)

^oo

Ap"Mo)

t&10

No=+(2br-ar)
zo=

/lno.|r4Rl

-ffitz

24,

482)

-4800 lb/in.

and

4Rfn

o' = -(rf
= -9600

psi

Fisuro 6.13

(6 3e)

I6E

ANATYIIT OI IORMTD HTADS AND TRANSITION STCTIONS

whcrc AA = ., rr'(cos ps +
Be, = e &(cos Bs Cs = s-8" t.,t P
Dp" = a-Fs rin B"

6.4

rh=

.Rt - u\
\l--a-

p=

poisson's ratio

6.4

sin Bs)

CON|CAT

HEADS

t69

The forces and deflections obtained from Eq. 6.40 due to some typical loading

conditions are shown in Table 6.3.

sin Bs)

Exampfe

6.7. A conical

shell with d : 45" and base diamerer of g


P Find the expressions for N6 and N".

subjected to an intemal pressure

Solutinn. For intemal

pressure, N"

and lr'e

6.40,
Ne

Ps tan

= p. Therefore, from

ft

is

Eq.

6r

CONICAL HEADS

The sfress distribution in a conical head can be obtained from Eqs. 6.


6.11. From Fig. 6.14 with d constant,

l0

p-

and

(1)

cos a

r=ssind

Also

/t=o
P

Redefining N4 as N, and p4 as p", Eq. 6.10 becomes


Na
and Eq.

6.l1

.2

N"=;*d,;+c

12= stard
at

p,s tan d

s=0

N"=0

becomes

Hence

rv"

+ I ,0,- o,tan d)r dr

(6.40)

c= 0
Ps tan

a'

and

Pr

lV":;-:
zcosa
6,4,1

Unbolonced Forces ot Cone-to-Cylinder Junction

Thejunction of cones-to-cylinders must always be considered as part of the cone


design because of the large stresses that occur there. By referring to Fig. 6.15,
the force 1{, at point 0 was found in Example 6.7 to be
PR
Fisure 6.1,{

2 cos

c!

6.4

CONICAT HEADS

t7l

+
od
I
I

-o

d
.
Ao

o
(J
6t
,
AIFr

I
.t.
olsr
AI

NI

:+!

\nP
at4
Etr
r--:---r
ilN

d.

'I

o
itl
E

v;

*"

lo

Ol

-l

l6
old
IE
;lo
ol

t
;l
olN

N I
.l
olq

a,

olp
'l'

""1-

o
lt

o
o
o
o
p

-3
"i

|
I

-o

d
c
a

^" ? |

(i
rlt

o
F

I
N |
old
(JI
tF
. lo)
of

Fo

-o
ld
(/lla
.1.^
alN
I
ilo

f'

d
o
u
o
E
N le
6 | .

drN

(b)
Figure 6.15

r:J
- ot-o
ltld
olN
OIF
Qti
Ull
, tP

".li

Sumrnation of vertical forces at point 0 gives


2zrRV

PnR2

or

z@@

=PR
2

Since V is the resultant of components N" and

A, it follows

force with magnitude

..
,=
170

PR t^n d
2

that 11 is an inward

172

ANALYSI3

O'

TORM!O HIAOS AND TRANSITION SCCTIONS

This tbrce H must bc resisted by ring action at the junction The required area
of the ring is given by

.HR
(f

o==

=
ts

PR2 tairr

a'

2o

where A :
P

(6.41)
Nl
@l
Nl
l-l
ttN

required ring area

->l

intemal pressure

NI

R = radius at base of cone

o' =
o

9cl

.-l

.._:-

,4
ol @
ol

.
IE

*'l

e-

one-half the apex angle

lo
' o,lN
N l@
tl.{

61

-l!

i-:-r

allowable compressive stress of ring

6.8.

What is the required area of the compression ring at the conejunction


in Example 6.7? Let P : 20 psi and the allowable stress in
to-cylinder

Example

the ring 10,000 psi.

Solution. From Eq. 6.41,

F^

I .\r
l-->

Fl+

20x48'?x1.00
2x

2.3O in2

10,000
.

o
o

6.4.2

.ol
t

Discontinuity AnolYsis

tN
-->

The derivation of the discontinuity expressions for conical shells is similar to that
for cylinders. The resulting moment and force equations for conical shells are

expressed in the more complicated Bessel function terms. However, approximate solutions for various edge loading conditions can be expressed in simple
form as shown in Table 6.4. In this table,

^t
IJ='-,
' srn 4)

@l
.l
NIS'

!l

N|

qI

0,

IN
-_>

cg

6:

.o *.
=11

173

6.4
t74

CONICAT HEAD5

t/5

ANAIYSIS Of fORMEO HEADS AND TRANSITION STCTIONS


exprcssrons:

f:Hu
F:H(1 -U)
/r\
M: HIiIVZ
\p/

where

H:

Figure 6.16

Pr lan d'
2

c')
i + cos'zc'(6 + cos2 a')
cos2

circumferential
ExamDle 6.9. Calcuiate the maximum longitudinal and
P
pressure
intemal
to
16
due
*"r... i" the cylinder shown in Fig 6'

o'(3 *

cos2

_.u
vz=o*"o"2"';

Solution. From Fig' 6.16


(1)

f+F:H

The maximum longitudinal stress due to M and pressure is expressed


where from Section 6.4.1,

as

* : ?(t t - 4 sss v,,,4 "" "')

Pr tan a'

whereasthemaximumcircumferentialstressduetoMandpressureisgivenby
'l'he deflection compatibility between the cylinder and cone is given by
dclloction of cylinder at junction due to M and

deflection of cone at junction due to M and

(2)

ffi;;#ili;
,"."-"ft

r()trti()n ol cylinder at junction due to M and/

=
f

rrlrlcs

Cones under Exlernol Pressure

to external hydrostatic
The solution of the buckling of a conical section subjected
equation is very
resultant
The
methods
oressure is normally obtained by energy
s Experimental
solution
lhe
for
needed
prociis
the iterativi

Sirrrilutly,

llsirrl

6.4.3

rotation of cone at junction due to M and

(3)

5.2and6.4 and solving Eqs 1,2, and3 result in the following

shells has
the buckling equations of conical and cylindrrcal

of cylindrical
tfti, U*lling of a conicai shell is similar to the buckling
.iro*oiftut"o-paring
equal to
radius
a
and
cone
the
of
length
slant
r-n"fi.-*ift length eq-ual to the
shown that the
,h" un"aog" "radiris of curvature of the cone Research has also
of a cone'
buckling
the
on
influence
qr""tiiy O - Dr/Dr) has a significant

176

6,4

ANAI.YSIS OF fORMtD HTADS AND TRANSITION SICTIONS

Accortlingly, thc buckling oquitti(n ol a cono citrl bc cxpresscd

buckling equation of a cylindrical shell and


is a function of Drf Dz.
A simplified equation for the buckling of a cylindrical shell" is

p is the modified

2.42E

177

becomes

f(l - DtlD)

HEADS

'Ihc magnitude ofthe tunctionl(l - Dtf D) canbe deternrined thetlrctically


Based on this plus the "scatter" band of experimental data, a value of l 0 was
used for the function at Dr/D2 of 1.0 (cylinder). The function changes linearly
to a value of 0.8 for DtfDz of zero (full cone). Thus the buckling equation

as

*,:"('-';)
where

CONTCAT

(t

/2r)25

=6_EfnlL/r,-o.4sen84

(6.42)

ti
The second bracketed expression can be approximated by the quantity
2

r+ND,

For most applications, the second quantity in the bracketed denominator is small
compared with the first one and can thus be neglected' Based on this, the

buckling equation of a cone (Fig. 6.17). may be wrinen

as

Using a factor of safety (FS), the allowable external pressure on a cone is given
by

P,

2.6(t"/D2)25

E-

4, _

a')25(r)15./, _ 4\
tl1,Dt-rDtl21'5rU or/

2.6(cos

!V"'

(6.43)

(FS)(Le/Dz)

P.

allowable external pressure

modulus of elasticity

t"=tcosd
7"=11/2)(t + Dt/D2)
Dl : diameter at small end of cone
D2

diameter at large end of cone

Example 6.10, Design the cone shown in Fig. 6.18 for an extemal pressure
of 15 osi. Let FS = 4.0 and E = 30 x 166 psi.

Solutinn. a' =

Fisure 6.17

30.96" and cos

a' :

,. : T (' *

0.858.

noq)

= 24

3't5 in.

I70

NOMENCI.ATURE

ANATYSIS OT FORMED HEAOS ANO TRANSITION SICTIONS

/)z = diameter at large

Dr

C : modulus of elasticity
L = axial length of cylinder
L":(h/2)(1 +Dt/D2)
/ = axial length of cone
l' : slanted length of cone
M = bending moment in hoop direction
M = bending moment in meridional direction

=60"

Fisur 6.1S

,": o,(wo-1a,ly'

and

a : major radius of ellipse


b : minor radius of ellipse
lt:Et3/12(l-ttz)
/)r : diameter at small end of cone

P :

pressure

force in meridional direction

pressure

Q : shearing force in head


r : radius
rr = radius of curvature as deflned in Fig. 6.4

0.20 in.

NOMENCTATURE

force in hoop direction

axial force in cone

P, = radial pressure
P" = axial pressure in cone
P = meridional pressure

=,,(u?,#i:,'*i"l'

I : """""""': :
cos a'

N, =
N=
N=

P" = allowable extemal


4 = intemal pressure
P, : external pressure

From Eq. 6.43,

end of cone

U.zJ ln.

12 = radius of curvature measured from axis of symmetry

4
r,
s
?
t
t"
v
w

inside radius

outside radius

=
=

distance along the slanted length of cone, measured from apex


temperature
thickness

= tcos a'
= axial deformation

radial deformation

179

I8O
a *

coellicient ol thcfl)lal oxpansion

a = one-half the apex angle of a cone

e=w

for cylinders

7 =7r/2-Q
6 = deflection measured perpendicular to axis of symmetry
A : rotation

^p =\yto=-6i/F
= poisson's ratio
o = stress
o- = critical buckling stress
o, : radial stress
.r, = longitudinal stess in cone
od = hoop stress

meridional sfess

S = angle as defined in Fig. 6.4

R,EFERENCES

t.

BIELIOGRAPHY
Bilfington, D. P., Thin Shell Conctete Structures, Mcclaw-Hill, New York, 1965.
Flugge, W,, Stresses in Shells, Springer-Verlag. New York, 1967.
Timoshenko, S., and S. Woinowsky-Kieger, Theory of Plates and Shells, McGraw-Hill, New

Yo*,
for cones

od

BIBTIOGRAPHY I8I

ANATYSIS OT IORMED HEADS ANO TRANSITION STCTIONS

Gibson, L E., Linear Elastic Theory of Thin SherrJ, Pergamon Press, New York, 1965.
von Kaman, T. and Hsue-Shen Tsien, "The Buckling of Spherical Shells by Extemal
P.essue" in Ptessure Vessel and Piping Detign: Collected Papers 197-1959, Afieican
Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1960.
Coates. W. M., '"The Stale of Shess in Full Heads of Pressure Vessels" in PressureVessel anl

Piping Design: Collected Papers 1927-1959, American Society of Mechanical Engineers,


New York. 1960
Baker, E. H. et al., Srell Arnlysis Manual, NASA CR-912, National Aelonautics and Space
Adminisb"ation. Washingto!, D.C., 1968.
Jawad, M. H., "Design of Conical Shells Under Extemal Loads," Jounal of Pressure Vessel
Technology, Vol. lO2, 1979.
R^etz, R. Y., An Experimental Investigarton of the Strength of Small-Scale Conical Reducer
Sections Between Cylindrical Shells under Extenal Hydrostatic Pressure, V. S. Department of
the Navy, David Taylor Model Basin, Report 1187, February 1959.

1959.

CHAPTE

STRESS

V'nnn^ flot plote3. (Court$y of lhe Nooier CorPorotion, Sr' Louis, Mo

R7

IN FLAT PLATES

t83

l8.l

3TR!SS lN fLAT ptATrS

7.1

7.2

t85

CIRCUI.AR PI.ATES

INTRODUCTION

* very common in grgcesl .quiq-"nt.Qiqrgql


lli:4gl
such
ru\,rr .ucas
areas as
.ts rozztc
nozzle covers, bulk
DulK neads,
heads, and
ani tubesheets,
tuUesilOets, Ttrereas rcefanCular
glles.are used as segnrylq! trays, baffles, and in

-whereas

rectangulir'p."rGffi;i;.

This chapter presenB-6rieTdescription of the theoretical iackground of


circular
and rggjqggkUllates.

The theory of symmetric bending of laterally loaded plates is generally


based
on the following assumptions:

l.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Thickness of plates is significantly smaller than the least lateral dimension of the plate.
Loads are applied perpendicular to the middle surface of the plate.
No forces are imposed in the middle surface.
Lines perpendicular to the middle surface before deformatron remain
perpendicular to the deformed middle surface.
These lines are inexlensible.
These lines remain straight lines.

These assumptions form the basis for developing the bending theory
of plates
and apply to plales where buckiing is not a consideration.

7.2

Fisure 7.1

downward deflections are positive, the relationship becomes

fr

CIRCULAR PLATES

The relationship between the radius of curvature and the deflection


of a circular
plate is obtained from Eq. 3.6 as

1dw

rdr

(7.2)

The moment-curvature relationship is based on Eq. 3.11 and is given by

1 1\
- -r p-l

d,2w

;= 77

Substituting Eqs. 7.1 and 7.2 into this expression gives

M,: -D(+ * L+\


\4r- r dr./
* r/
= D(!+
dr *9\

or in terms of the terminology of Fig. 7.1,

! =d2w :
rn dx,2

-dQ
dr

(7

.t)

'fhc second radius of curvature is also obtained


from Fig. 7.1. Line,4g is the
m(lius of curvature r, of all points at a distance r forming a cone:

sind-at=I
Using the sign convention that clockwise angles and moments are positive
and

\/

(7

.3a)

(7.3b)

Sinilarly,

M,: -D(!+
*
ar
\r

= -o(9

p+\
dr/

dd\

* p-,
ar/I

(7.4)

t86

STRESS

tN r[AT ptAnS

7.2

For a unilorrnly bodcd platc, thc tbrces acting on an clement are shown in
Fig. 1.2u. Taking moments uboul a-n gives

(M,r

d0)

- (". - ff*)<, + dr) d0 + z(u, a,.t) "


/
)n \
/,{.\
+ 7 drl\r + dr) dol+l = o
-lO
4r /
\
\z/

d1w I d2w_--=:
1dw
drr r dr2 12 dr

or
(7

(1

187

Substituting Eqs. 7.3 and 7.4 into 7.6 gives

*(i)

Ttle qvant\ty Mt dr d@/2 is the component of M, perpendicular to axis d to a


shown in Fig. 7.2b.
Disregarding higher-order terms, Eq. 7.5 can be reduced to

M,+#r-M,'rQr:0

CIRCUTAR PTATES

(7.7)

.s)

dlrdld,/,)\1
-:-|_-|r-||:=
drlr dr\ dr / I

as

Similarly, substituting Eqs. 7.3 and 7.4 into Eq. 7.6 gives

d20,ldo o -o
a*-;ar-7: D

.6)

(7.8)
(o+5F dr)

l,lii,rr1= -g

(Mr1!!r
Equations

.7 and 7 -t are the basis differential equations for the bending of

circular plates due to symmetric loading. Equation 7.7 can also be written in
term of the local load as

I d [,d l! d (,a\.ll
drl drlr dr\ dr/l)

(7.e)

Once w is determined from Eqs. 7.7, then the moments are obtained from Eqs.
7 .3 arrd 7.4. The shearing force is determined from Eq. 7.6, and is exDressed
as

o: D(+.!+
- \+\
\ dr- r ar- r'ar/

(7.10)

7.1. Derive the moment expression for a uniformly loaded, simply


supported circular plate of radius a. For g,
0.3, plot the moment diagram and
determine the maximum deflection. rotation. and stress values.
Example

Solution.

From Fig.

.3, the sheat Q at any radius r is givenby 2mQ

or
(b)

tiswe 7.2

Pr

nnz

188

7,2

STRlSl lN rtAT PLATIS

CIRCUI.AR PI.ATES

t89

Hence, the deflection as expressed by Eq. 2 becomes


r4':_

Pra

r2

Pa2 Paa /6 +
13 + p\t_!_t

Zu

sD 4\l+prl8D 64D\t+p_ll 'l

or

o
:, *
'15+u
w: -)-(az
UD'- - ,tll';

Fisure 7.3

\l+p

dltdldw\l

d,l;E(

d, )

dw Pr(,
-^ dr l6D\'

Pr

): b

3+p,.\
l+p')

The maximum deflection occurs in the middle where

Integrating both sides gives

nj*, =_t

^ dw Pr3 Crr
-drl6D2r

r = 0. Hence

Cz

____________:_

,-

o'696!aq

"'-""

(1)

Et3

The maximum rotation occurs at the edge where


and the third integration gives the deflection w as

Pr4

(4)

andwithp=0.30

A second integration gives the expression for the slope that is given by

and with /.r

r = 0 and the slope is zero due to symmetry. Hence,

s^^=

,,=#(T#-')

rr)

-i

-t.os

EtY

The moment expression is obtained by substituting Eq. 3 into Eqs. 7.3 and

a, thc deflection is zero and Eq. 2 gives

(l -

0.30

liom liq. l, f,2: Q.


At r : a, moment M, = 0 and Eg. 7.3 gives

Paz /3
u\
Cr: -8D\l+,,/

r = d. Hence,

^ = -Pat : -3^,
d'8r,(r + p) tP"'

C,rz

w:_L+++C2lnr+,C,
64D4-

(3)

Pa4 15 + u\ 12(l - ,42t


/5 + p,\| _t
|
64D\t + pl = 64 \r + p/
Et3

Paa

dl dw\:5Prl ^
- '"
d,\' d,)

At

and

Therefore, from Eq. 7.7,

At the center of the plate,

'\
- r2l

.a2

.4. Hence

,,=*rt

1t)(a2

u, =
ftbt{z +

p.)

12)

r2(1

(s)

3p.)l

(6)

r90 tliltt

rN trAT

7.2

PtATtt

A plot of Eqs. 5 and 6 for g. = 0.3 is shown in Fig. 7.4. The plot indicats that
the maximum moment occurs in the center and is given by

CIRCUTAR PTATIS

t9l

and

- Pr3
H=-+-+i
-l6D2r

M*=3#

C,r

C,

(2)

At the center of the plate r = 0 and the slope is zero due to symmetry. Hence,
from Eq. (2), C, = 0.
At r = a, the slope is zero and from Eq. 2,

6M

l.24Pa2

T-

I-

Cr= -Pa2
8D

Example

7,2.

Derive the moment expression for a uniformly loaded circular


plate of radius a that is fixed at the edge. For trr, = 0.3 plot the moment diagam
and determine the maximum deflection and stress values.

Also at

r = a, the deflection

is zero and from Eq.

l,

Ct:6

Solution. From Example I,

Pr4 Ctz Lz
.:64D-T-- ^ ,lll /

-f L:

(l)

Hence, Eq. 1 becomes

The maximum

Paa
w='64D&

lt.

2n

pra pa2r2 paa


64D 32D 64D
= L1^z - 'z1z
uD'"
value of deflection occurs at / = 0.

and for

{{'o

Pa4

l2(l -

(3)

tr-z)

P = 0.3,

r,v.*=0.171r9)
\Lt"

00

The moment expression is obtained by substituting Eq. 3 into Eqs. 7.3 and

7.4. Hence,

u,: f,bT

+ p)

r2(3

tL)l

(4)

3p))

(s)

and
I'
h
Figoro

7.4

Momeni diltriburion for simply

suppord plolo.

u, =

llt tt + tLt -

121t

tt2

$iltt

tlit

llaT ptATtt

7.3

PrAlt3

RTCTANOUTAR

azMn
^
Answeri
mo( lr = #
zD\t + l.L)

max 0^ =

.,.
16tl

ffi

aM"

u\r
-_ft 'f

p)

t9g

at center

at edge

max

M, = Mo throughout plate

m^x

M, = Mo throughout

plate

A ctcular plate is fixed at the edge and is at an ambient temperature of


70T. What is the maximum stess if the top surface is heated to a
lemperature of l70T and the bottom surface is cooled to a temperature of
-30T?kta = 9 x 10-6 in./in. T,r:0.5in.,a:60in.,8:30 x

lffpsi,p=9.3.

.
answer.
o

=naLTE
_ 1.,
=

7.3

Determine the maximum moment in the circular plate shown in Fig. 7.6
if a = 4 ir., b = 2 in., p 0.3, and P 100 psi.

7.5

,nomnt

didrihtion tor

Answerz M'

l.
flgure

f,or

38,600 psi

384.6 in.-lb/in.

ft(d plote.

A plot of Eqs. 4 and 5 for p = 0.3 is shown in Fig. 7.5. The plot indicates
the maximum moment occurs at the edge and is given by

tlnt

M,*"= -Paz
Fieur. 7.6

and

6M -0.7
o*,=v_---vSPaz

Problems

7.1

Determine the maximum deflection, slope, and bending moment for a


simply supported plate subjected to edge moment Me.

7.3

RECTANGULAR PTATES

In developing the differential equation for circular plaies, the shearing shess was
ignore.d because the load was symmetric with respect to 0. In rectangular plates
under uniform loads, the shearing stress interacts with the normal shesses in the
.r- and y-directions and thus cannot be ignored. This results in a more complicated differential e4uation than that for circular plates. In addition, the solution
of th differential equation of rectangular plates is more elaborate and involves
the use of Fourier series. Because of this, only the case of a simply supported

Ifi

lnl$ il ftAT ftATtt

7.3

rrctangulsr plate loadcd throughout its surface is discussed here. Nonsymmetric


loadings and boundary conditions other than simply supponed result in quite
complicated solutions that are beyond the scope of this book. The examples
given in this section are intended to give the reader a concept of the general
behavior of rectangular plates and the difference between them and circular

dQ"

an infinitesimal section is removed from a rectangular plate, the forces


acting on it will occur as shown in Fig. 7.7. Summation of forces in the z-axis

q(x, y)dx dy

d,g _ atu,

dy = dy-

If

PIAT!3

19!

(7.12)

W-+-Q'y=o

plates.

srves

RKTANOUTAR

(7

dxdy

.t3\

Similarly, summing moments around the y-axis and deleting all quantities of

Q, dy

(a..

ff *)', -

higher order gives


Qt dx

(a.

ft,,)*

#.ry-e"=o

=0

(7.t4)

do, d2M,

This equation can be reduced to

azM,,
ar-: d* - atfr

q(x,yt+#.#=,

(7

.1,r)
Substituting Eqs.
gives

.13 andT .15

into7.1l

and using

(7.15)

= -MofromEq.3.1l

M"t

Summing mornents around the "r-axis and deleting all quantities of higher order
gives

,
q\x,

d,M, 2d2M*+
y,-r -;z
- -;i

a2M,

ir,

(7.16)

The differential equation relating deflections and applied loads is obtained by


substituting Eq. 3.11 into 7.16 and obtaining

daw-l- 2daw-t 1aw: :-:---:--:-:ak. v\

ax4 dx2dy2 dy4


m,

*$$o'

.17)

- of the bending of a rectangular plate subjected


which is the differential equation
to lateral loads.
For any grven loading and boundary conditions, the deflection p can be
obtained frorn Eq. 7.17. Tlie bending.moments can then be determined ftorn Eq.

3.1I

as

_,(#. _?)
".:

-'(#.,#)

Figwe 7.7

(7

^: o

u*'

!-'Y^

dxdy

(7.18a)
(7.18b)
(7.18c)

Itc filttt tt{ il.tT tta?tl


and tho shcarfng forccs Q, and

7.4
p,

arc determined from Eqs .7 ,12,7 .14,

and3.ll

a8

n.-

"=

-,*(#.?)
-,&(#.?)

comparison of the denominator in parentheses in the expressions for M, and M,


indicates that M) will always give a larger value of M for the given values of a
and b. Accordingly, the maximum value ofM is given by

(7. l9a)

M*=atrffitm@.*)

(7.19b)

M^."==,?'o,==fq!*a\
1r2(1/ffi2 + /25\2\602' 252f
|

Example 7.3. Detennine the maximum moment in a simply suppofied rectangular plate of length a and width D if the applied load is expressed as

I*t a = 6O in., b :
Sohttian,

Assume

25

h.,

0.3.

7/

7.4

0 or

az

Hence, the

12(1/602

+ r/25r,6q25)

CIRCUIAR PLATES ON ETASTIC FOUNDATION

+ l/b\2

Z@) =

M,:dffi"*Y"o"|
Thc maximum value of M, and M, occur when .r

= a/2

'-?"7'[(2])ll'
(x/2\o (x/2\8

y = b/2. A

= _ ? *"r(,) =

-"'

,X

23ft)

and

61,

(x/2)2 , (x/2)6
_ --l?---L-

(x/2\t2

(-1\jx4j'

47W*

/.]|l ..,-,- n!
^'- Tx srn
- -t \ sln

- t
= >. *,-l)ix4i

Ll\xt = Det\x) = S.

aOffilnG,. *) sinr sin|


F)

6sr1r1

=t-E--+o.

Substituting this expression into Eqs. 7.18, gives

u :
'"" = }(FaI7FfV-j

r.

Many tubesheets of heat exchangers are designed as plates on elastic foundation


as discussed in Chapter 14. The solution of the differential equation of a plate
on elastic foundation involves Bessel functions. The four Bessel functions used
in this section are

4o

DFn# +Ilbry't # ('* ?)

Qo

y=

0 at all four

and the deflection expression becomes

,,=

0 and

rrY\

This expression satisfies the boundary conditions of w = O and M


edges. Substituting this expression into Eq. 7.17 gives

= 40.2 in.lb/in.

txl
w=C rr;\rr

in.lb/in.

3.0(0.7)

M,r

to be of the form

"r-= Dr4(1/

145.1

The maximum value of M,o occurs when.r


maximum valae of M, is given by

= qssinTF*T)
eo = 3psi, and p =

IOUNDATION I97

CIRCUIAR PIATIS ON IIASTIC

t+ _

z1i = ar.,k) =z+

1lr,

(r/2)'o
-f?-"'

r^i

a<.t]

.1lr, * ,"5.t,<,t]

r9r ltiltt

ll{ fLaT ptATll

7.4

99/rY * 4(?1r\" - . . .
51'? \2)
31'z \2)
d(6) /r\u + "
_ 4{z\ (x\ _ d(4) /.rY _r
,,
-?tr\r/
- ...
h:-';-\1)

Q\n)=
"t

1 fl,2@)
dzz2\x)
-----:--;-=-zt\x)-axx ax
d'zA(x)L4\x) lfi,l?)
----=-- -x -'--:dx' =
dx
| dZlx)
d2z4@)
-----:--t-=-23\r)-axx ax

--+r\1)

I I l*.......*l
t*t*1-z

TOUNDATTON t99

d2z,k) Zzlx) -| EtG)


- x ---j
axa.x

whcrc

" =- /lY
\z) -

C|RCUIAR PtAftS ON ltAgTrC

"

0.577216

The limits of the Z functions as 'r --> 0 and as x :+ co are given in Table 7' 1'
The table also shows the limits for the first derivatives of Zt tltroryh Zq.
The relations between the various derivatives of the Z functions are as fol-

The force exerted by an elastic foundation on a ciruclar plate due to deflection

of the foundation is expressed

as

P=Kow

lows:
Toble

7.1

where p = foundation load


w = deflection of foundation
Ko = stiffness of foundation

Limits of Zfunctions

Limit

Limit

as

as

Function

.r ---+ 0

Z{x)

1.0

z2@)

--7-

-f

h6)

0.5

r,

h(x)

2t^+

-z

dx

-x'
-:7
lo

1fu(cosr-sinr)

il.(x)

-x

_x2

&(x)

dx

&'(x)

x,

dx
E+(x)
dx

cos K

sin

sin

The differential equation of a circular plate on an elastic foundation can be


obtained by modifying Eq. 7 .7 as

rl,

cos

i,lli,(,#)l=ry

ry'

w=

;!(cosr+sinr)
yx

ft@osi,-

sinrli

I'.1x
=:eXD""'=
!2tx - !2
xn
v86

(7.19)

The solution of this equation is expressed as

-Itr=
nx

modulus of elasticity of foundatior/depth of foundation.

1fu(cosg+sin0

Cfl(ar) 'f

where ":
21
Za :
Ct -

Example

Qa

7.4.

C2Z2@r)

C3Z3(ar)

CaZa@r)

^{EJD
Bessel functions
constants of integration

Detemfne the maximum deflection in a circular plate on an

elastic foundation subjected to a concentrated load F in the center of the plate.

j,t, =
'v26 +i

Solution. From Table 7.1 it is seen that as r approaches infinity, Z


approach infinity. Therefore, Ct and C2 must be set to zero. Thus

w:CtZt(ar)iCaZa(ar\

and Zz also

100

tTmll

rt{

tuT ptaTtt

UEUOORAPHY

and

0
=
-dr

= Ct

Zi@r) +

Ca a

Zi@r)

As r atrrproaches zero, 0 must be zero due to symmetry. But from Table 7. l, Zi


approaches infinity as r approaches zero. Hence, Ca must be set to zero. Thus

w = CzZz(ar)

Mt
M,
My
M,r
P
O

201

= tangential moment in circular plates


= moment in .r-direction of rectangular plates
= moment in y-direction of rectangular plates
= shearing moment
= applied pressure
= Shearing force
applied load

dw

* = CtaZS@r)
d2w ^.f

I
I
jj=c*'lzo{or)--zi@nl
d3w ^"f
I
I
-:zKar)]
7j - Aa'zlozi@r\
Substituting these derivatives into Eq. 7.10 and equating this to F' gives

r
T
t
w

= radius
= temperature
= thickness
= deflection
21 to Za = Bessel functions
= */EJD

poisson's ratio

^F

4azD

REFERENCE

l.

and

Tiomoohenko, S., and S. Woircwsky-l<liege\ Theory of phtes and Shelts, McGmw-Hill,

New Yort, 1959.

'=
and

'fi6t'<*>

BIBTIOGRAPHY
Hetenyr,M., Beams on Etastic Foandation, University of Michigan Prss. Atrn Arbor, Michigan,

F
8rr2D

NOMENCI-ATURE
Et3

;:;:----------;:

tz\t - p-)'

E
Kq

M,

=
=
=
=

modulus of elasticity
stiffness of foundation
modulus of elasticity of foundation/depth of foundation
radial moment in circular plates

1964.

E., Smith, B, L,, aDd Bernhan, W. D., Analyris of plates, Spaftan Books, New
York, 1972.
Szilard, R., Theory and Awlysis of Prorer, hedice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, {.J., 1974.
McFarland, D,

PART3
DESIGN OF
COMPONENTS

203

CHAPTER

DESIGN OF
CYLINDRICAL SHELLS

St tot,,is' Mo
a,' ,'l,rrrr-n rower used by o ferlilizer monufocturer' (Courtesv of lhe Nooter CorPorolion'

205
2tJ4

206

8.I

DlgloN or cyuNDRrcAr. sHEr.rs

Cylindricul vcsscls ure very liequently used in the petrochemical industry. They
a.re easy to fabricate and install and economical to maintain. The required

As the pressure increases above 0.4 S, Division 2 uses plastic analysis (see
Section 15.l) to obtain

thickness is generally controlled by intemal pressure, although in some instances


applied loads and extemal pressure have control. Other factors such as thermal
stress and discontinuity forces may also influence the required thickness.

r
Example

8.I

equation was developed by the ASME Code,

Vltr-l, for deter-

mining the required thickness of a cylinder subjected to intemal pressure. It is


a simplification of Eq. 5.3 and gives accurate results over a wide range of r2/r1.
This equation is expressed as
PR

sE

where

t:

0.6P

8.1.

spot radiographed.

Solution. From Appendix J a value

r = 0.17

pressure

of, = 0.85 is obtained. From Eq. 8.1,

x 25
17,500x.85-0.6x100

-t=-=SE PR0.6p
-

(8.1)

100

in.

Exarnple8.2. A seamless cylindrical

shell with an outside diameter of 30.0 in.

is butt-welded to seamless ellipsoidal heads. The circumferential seams are not


x-rayed. Find the required shell thickness ifthe allowable stress is 15,000 psi and
the intemal design pressure is 250 psi. Use Section XIII, Division 1 rules.

R = inside radius
S

(8.3)

find the required thickness according to Section VIII, Division 1. Assume that
all circumferential and longitudinal seams are double-welded butt joints and are

required thickness

P = inlemal

/R+r\
=ftn \Ri

A pressure vessel with an inside diameter of 50.0 in. is subjected to an intemal pressure of 100 psi. Using an allowable stress of 17,500 psi,

ASME DESIGN EQUATIONS

A simplified

ASMI DESIGN EOUATIONS 207

allowable stress

joint efficiency factor

A comparison of Eqs. 8.1 and 5.9 is shown in Fig. 5.6. It indicates the wide
range of applicability of Eq. 8.1. The ASME Code, Vltr-l, has, however,
limited the use of Eq. 8.1 to t less than or equal toR/2 and pressure less or equal
to 0.0385 S. Various forms of Eq. 8.1 are shown in Appendix I together with
an altemate equation that expresses the thickness in terms of Re rather than R.
The factor E in Eq. 8.1 is an efficiency factor and its magnitude depends on
the extent of radio$aphy performed at the various seams of the cylinder. Appendix J illushates the effect of radiography of various seams on the values of E as
established by the ASME Code, VI[-l.
In Section VIII, Division 2, of the ASME Code, the equation for required
thickness is based on the stress at an average radius. Hence,

Solutinn. From Appendix J, with a value ofE = 1.0 (seamless shell), allowable circumferential stress must be reduced to 8070 since the circumferential
seams are not x-rayed.

From Appendix
is given by

I,

the required thickness equation in terms of outside radius

PR

SE +

O.4P

(15,000

P(R + t/2)

0.31 in.

250 x 15
0.80)(1.0) + (0.4

250)

Probhms

PR
0.5P

(8.2)

8.1

An ASME pressure vessel with an inside diameler of4 ft has a seamless


shell. The head{o-shell seams are partially radiographed. Find the re-

206

DtStON Of CYt"tNORrCAt" SHE|TS

8.2

TVATUATION OF DISCONTINUITY STRISSIS

quircd thickness il'thc alkrwablc stress is 20,()00 psi and the design prcssure i$ 2900 psi.

Answer:

8.2

t:

STRESS

CATEGORIES

3.81 in.

What is the maximum allowable pressure that can be applied to a cylinder


shell with an outside diameter of 6 ft, thickness 1.25 in., and an allowable
stress of 17,500 psi? Let E : 0.85.

PR

SECON DARY

II4ARY

A stress developed by the constraint

Answer: p = 524psi

8.2

of a structure. Secondary stress is


self-limiting, Local yieldinq and
minor distortions can satisfy the

EVATUATION OF DISCONTINUIW STRESSES

In Chapter 5 we showed how stresses are evaluated at different locations due to


thermal and mechanical conditions. The magnitude of these stresses must be
kept below a given allowable shess. This allowable stress is established in the
ASME Code, VIII-2. The designer has to establish first whether the stress is at
a local or a gross shuctual discontinuity, as defined in Fig. 8.1. Next the stress

condltlons l'hich cause the stress to


occur and failure fron one application
of the stress is not to be expected,
Examples of secondary stress are geheral
thermal stress and bendi ng stress

at

gross structural discontinuity.

STRUCTURAL

DISCONTINUITY

stress does not cause any noticeable distortion


and is objectlonable only as a possibl source of a
fatlgue crack or a brlttle fractufe. Examples of peak
stress ar: I ) thernrl stress in austenitic steel
cladding of carbon steel vessels, 2) thermal stress
li the vrall of a vessel caused by a rigid change in
teFperature of the contalned fluid. 3) the stress at
a I ocal structural discontinuity.
Peak

GROSS STRUCTURAL

LOCAL STRUCTURAL

DISCONTINUITY

DISCONTINIJITY

A source of stress or stfain

intensification which affects


a relatively lafge portion of
a s truc ture and has a
slgnlficant effec t on the
overall s tres s or strain
pattern. Exahples of gross
structural d I sconti n ui ti es are
Icad-to-shel'l and flange-to!hcll junctlohs, nozzles, and
.lunctions between shells of
(llfferent d i ameters or

of stress or straln
intenslf{cation which a ffec ts

A source

relati vly small volune of


matrial and does not have a
significant effect on the overall
stress 0r strain pattern or on the
s truc ture as a l1lhole.

Fisure

8.1

Slrucrurol Dirconlinuities (Coortesy ot tho Ameri.on Socisiy

Str$s Colesories (Courr$y of rhe Americon So.iery of rvlehonicdl Ensineer3.)

is categorized as a primary, secondary, or a peak stress as shown in Figs. 8.2


and 8.3. In Fig. 8.4 is a description of the two categories of thermal stress. Once
the stress categories are established, the stresses at a vessel's different locations
can be classified as in Table 8.
Table 8.2 shows the allowable stress for various stress caiegories. Application
of Table 8.2 to various stress categories is given in the following example.

Example
Flsuro

8.2

ol r.te.honicol

Engineers,)

8.3.

8.5. LetR

15,000 Psi,

Calculate the stress at points A, B, and C of the vessel in Fig.


60 in.,
2.0625 in., 11, = 1.9313 in., P
500 psi, .S. =
psi.
= 0.3, Eo = 30 106

L=

2lo

DtslGN

of

8.2

cYLlNDRlCAt SHtLLS

EVAI.UATION OF DISCONTINUITY STRESSES 2I I

TIlE RI4AL STRESS

tRlt4ARY STRtSS

A self-balancing stress produced by a non-uniform


distribution of tenperature or by differing thermal

A stress developed by the lmposed loading


|lhich is necessary to satisfy the la$s of

coefficients of expansion. Thermal stress is developed


in a solid body whenever a volume of material is
prevented from assu'ning the si2e and shaPe that it
normally sho!ld under a chang in tefiperature.

equilibrium, The basic characteristic of


a primary stress is that it is not self_

limiting.

Primary stresses |,lhich considerably

yield strength l,lill result in failure


or at least in gross dlstortlon. A therrial
stress is not classlfied as a primary stress'
exceed the

General thermal stress


BENDING

I'4E14BRANE

as secondary

ls the bending
central
ln
the
staess
portion of a flat head due

An exanple

general prima rY

nn e*'ampte

membaane

of a local

sttess is the
a Shell Produced bY
in
stress
external loadr dnd monent at a
perFanent suppoft or at a

stress is one which is so


distributed ln the structure
that no fe-distributlon of
'load occurs as a result of

membrane

yielding, An exaniPle is the


stress in a circular cYlinder
due to internal Pressure.

noz2le connection.

Figure

8.3

menbrane

tufe distribution in
a cylindrical shell.
2) stress produced bY the
tempe rature dIf ference
tempera

betqeen a nozzle and the

shell to

t,Jhich

it is

From Fig. 8'6 and Eqs. 5.9 and 5' 10,

= 14,300 Psi
o'=0Psi
=

7150 Psi

The stress differences are


14,300 | psi

-7150 | psi

stress

radial tenperature
distribution in a cylindrical shell

produced by the

8.,{

distortion. ExanPl es of
I ocal thefmal stresses a|"e:
I ) stress in a snall hot sPo
in a vessel v/al l.
2) the difference betl/leen th
actual stress and the
equlvalent I i near stress.
3) the thermal stress in a
cladding material.

Ihermdl Stress Cotgori6 (Courr$y of lhe Aftericon Socierv of Mechdnicol Ensineers

or

= | -71501 psi

Hence, maximum stress = 14,300 psi. From Tables 8.1 and 8.2, the maximum
stress for a general primary membrane sffess is

S,

oo

or

attached.

3) the equivalent linear

Eneiners )
Primory Slre$ Cotosoria3 (Courtelv of lt'e Ahericon Socisiv of M3honicol

A.

is associated wi th almost
conpl ete suppression of the
differential expansion and
thus produces no significant

ExamPles of

general thermal stress are:


I ) stress produced bY an axial

Figure

Solution
Point

PririarY

stress.

Local thermal stress uhich

is classified

Point

B.

15,000 psi

>

14,300

Psi

Frcm Fig. 8.7 and Eqs. 5.3 and 5.4'

:
o., :

ae

or

14,800 psi

-500 psi
7150 psi

O.K

Tobb

0.1

Clorrlflcotlon of

Slrun

(Rrforrncr l)

Tobb

8.2

Slreu Cotrgorlrr qnd Llmltr of Strcrr Intrnrlfy (Rrf l)

Sirart
Ee.dlns
!o Pnhe.y or eR0n6.

tt
|
-I--,--.---t----*-1--1
i
I i
tP.
F{ s.) I
T\-/
|
| | i
I
|
| r-.+ - - -;
.-r/'\ I- --lI P. Hr.5 s,) llPr+PD+O+ rs. )
-l-L----T-------r
\__/ l---l\__/
i
r
.- -r- /-\
L__---*f
lP(-PD H1,5 s-)
\--'l

U*

a
----

i
:
I

i
'
:
!
:

----.t

&5iEn load3

lPr +P. +Q +F

Us op.aungloads

H
, s. )

\-/

{av.

&dslull sclio.t

Fisure 8.5

212

213

2ta

Dltloltl Of CYtlNoRlCAt 3H!rr3

8.2

r'" = +e)

EVATUATION OF DISCONTINUIW STRESSES

500

x !'0-x-2 0625
=

7734 in

Also,

Mt=M,+N,e=M,+7734

.-....._"

r,

60 +

rh

60

'#:6l.olt3
=

+!

in.

60.5157 in.

B=
Fisur.8.6

3(1

o,

p')

,,1

h/

oe

Figur 8.2

The stress differences are given by

r0_, = 115,3001 psi

4_r l_2650lpsi
6,_, = l-7650lpsi
Hence, the maximum shess
able sffess of 15,000 psi.

Point
ngure,

15,300 psi, which is about 27o above the allow-

The discontinuity forces at point c are shown in Fig .

g .g

9.8465

o.so35E
= ,^'.!o'1
tz\t - p-),, =

=._"a

n,

From this
Fisure 8.8

lb/in'

215

216

Dt]Ot{ of cful{DflcAt

3H!U.3

8.2

Thc lirst cornputibility cquution is given by


deflction of shell

deflection of head

or
wo

wlsn

wy"

* wql^,"n"n:

wp

w9

wy1l6,

**

It'- =

"

^
ar,

r0.86M,

En

47.3822Q
Eo

and for the head

Et,

Es

N,e 83,991
D,= h

217

m2,987

4A3Mh 6l.t86lM, .

473,213

E6t1r6 Es
^ zA,Q
- 188.022Q
O^=
E,)
' Eoh

N,e _ 366,454
t*" = zB'o,=
k

.""

^
aw"=

o 0s: 2p'D

(l)

where for the shell

Pr?

EVATUATION OF DISCONTINUIW 5TRE55IS

47.3822M,
___Eo

Es

Substituting these values into Eq. 3 gives

. 4''':
zp"D,

4r3'4s69Q

M"+

Eo

and for the head

1'.9521Q= -7733.99

Solving Eqs. 2 and 4 gives

Prl .
|,242.851
we=EA\t
- lt)= E"
*^ =
'

2'QrA

Eoh-

= -262'55 lb/in'
M' : -7221.47 in.-lblin.
Mr: 512.53 in.lb/in.
Q

1155.56650
Eo

2Mhi2 188.o22M, t.454.162


.ur: -EJo
= E, r

totaly =

-E-

The actual forces are shown in Fig. 8.9.

Substituting these values into Eq. 1 gives

M' + r1.1563Q =

l$y

-10,150.55

(2)

The second compatibility equation is obtained from


rotation in shell

rotation in head

or

0N*+

0M"

0ol.*.u

: -Iun- Lal^rc"a

(3)

where for the shell


Fisurs 8.9

(4)

2ll

8.3

DlltoN of cYuNDRtcAt SHttts


noop sress ar point C

=!3y:35,000psi
rs

axial stress at point C

: ff :

axial bending stress at point C


circumferential bending stress at point C

ZSOO

219

cxpresses the basic relationship as

,,: + = i*'(L)'

psi

Defining

: Y = 720 pri
=

ASM PROCEDURE FOR EXTERNAL PRTSSURE DTSIGN

A=

e""

oe x/ tY

220 psi

^: a= ,1;"1

(8.4)

These stresses are divided into two categories in accordance with Table g.2:

l.

Equation 8.4 is plotted as shown in Fig. 8.10. Hence, for any given value ofL,
and, t, a value ofA can be determined from Fig. 8.10.
The allowable compressive stress in the elastic region can be determined from

Local membrane stress (Pr)

D",
o6

35,000 psi

o1 :
a, =

the equation

7500 psi

AEo

-FS

-500 psi

maximum stress difference

35,500 psi
where FS is factor

From Tables 8.1 and 8.2 the maximum allowable local membrane stress
is equal to

1.5S,

2.

22,599

<

35,500

psi

I-acal membrane plus secondary stress (pr

=
ot =

a6

35,220 psi

+ 720

=
:

8220 psi

35,720 psi

maximum stress difference

(D,/'XFS)
In the plastic region, ASME uses quasi-stresFstrain curves similar to those in
Fig. 8.11 to determine plastic buckling. These curves are plotted on log-log
graphs with a factor of safety of two for stress. Because the stress-strain curves
differ for different temperatures, a number of curves for different temperatures
are plotted in Fig. 8.11. Hence, allowable stress is given by

O)

o;: -500+0

-500

psi

(factor I
o=T

From Tables 8.1 and 8.2 the maximum allowable local membrane olus
secondary stress is equal to

3S. = 45,000 psi

8.3

,2AEg

overstressed

220

35,000
7500

of safety and E6 is modulus of elasticity. Or in terms of

Dressure

> 35,720 OK

from chart)(factor of safety of chart)

or

2"8

o=FS

ASME PROCEDURE FOR EXTERNAL PRESSURE DESIGN

A comparison of Figs . 5 . 1 7 and 5 . I 8 indicates that the buckling due to pressure


applied to sides and ends is more critical than the pressure applied to the ends
only. Accordingly, the ASME code, VIII, uses Eq. 5.17 as the basis for design.
This equation is modified to take into consideration nonelastic bucklins and

If

allowable pressure is needed, then

^ zto
-D.

4tB
FS

(D,)

(8.s)

8lolgv:l

$ 33933 BssFF e ?3s


-6

tl

:l

!""

5-

.."

jE
E
E

-8 -6

-6

g;

V
11 -'t

a.>

E.n

\ \

JR
\

5:.

c-

fq

fiA
tt5
5c;
.:.'

-a9

'6

E.E

- s 5F
fl-

q 9

; f :('
+Tet
.:J I
'= bt

\
j6

i;+
;bE

da
oE
5g

220

EE9

39PP9
:*

RFR

4
R

-Fo
g9

'd
aE 8.
i; !a

221

olsloN oF

cYt"rNDRrcAL sHEtrs

8.3

ASME PROCEDURI FOR EXTERNAI" PRESSURE DTSIGN

l.l
P

@"/t)FS

The ASME procedure for the design of cylindrical shells under extemal

----!-

pressure is complicated because of the various parameters that must be considered. A summary ofthe procedure is shown in Fig. 8. 12 as an aid to the designer.

ASME uses a factor of safety of 3.0 for buckling of cylindrical shells subjected
to lateral and end extemal pressures. Hence, for elastic region (D./t > l0),
2AEo

(8.6)

3(D,/t)
and for elastic or plastic region

(D./t ;-

where A = factor

:
D, :
B

r:
For

D,/t

Solution.

6 rn.

4:zzo
t '--

D.

t
Then

outside diameter of cylinder

modulus of elasticity
allowable extemal pressure

p_

values less than 10, ASME uses a variable factor of safety that ranges

ceases to be a consideration and the allowable values in tension and comoression

are about the same . Hence, for D"f

t<

10 the allowable value of P is tfie lower

of the quantities Pr and Pz given below.

D./t < lO,

(2x0.009_l-8..1!Z?

106)

(3)(32u)

(T# - 00833)'
2ol.

I \

(8.7)

ur.r:]in.
6
(b) For a factor of safety 2.0, assume

"= DJr\'- oJ,)

t=

where o = two times the allowable

stress in tension or 0.9 times the yield


of the material, whichever is less.

Note also that for values of

D"/t < 4, the following

equation can be used:

r0.9

psi o.K.

A check is needed to ascertain that buckling is in the elastic rather than the plastic
region. FromFig.8.ll with A = 0.0018, a value of B:2600 psi is obiained
in the elastic region of the curve. Hence, the above solution ;f l0.g DSi is
adequate.

^:
stress

L=1.2s

From Fig. 8.10, factor A = 0.00018. From Fig. 8.11, modulus of elasticity ar
room temperature is 29,000,000 psi. Hence, from Eq. 8.6

thickness of cylinder

from 3.0 for values of D"/t = 10 to a factor of safety of 2.0 for values of
D"/t = 4-O. This reduction occurs because for very thick cylinders, buckling

For

(a) Assume

determined from Fig. 8.10 and is equal to e",

factor determined from Fig. 8.11

=
P=

Eq

Example 8.4. The length of a cylindrical shell is 15 ft, outside diameter l0 ft,
and is constructed of carbon steel with minimum yield strength of 36,000 psi.
The shell is subjected to an extemal pressure of 10 psi. Find (a) the required
thickness using ASME factor of safety and (b) the required thickness using a
factor of safety of 2.0.

lO),

.t4B,t
= 3(D./t)

(E.lr )

\D./t)'

223

0.3125 in.

Then

4=38a
t

8.3
Cd

l.
o

idtrr"

l..r Lhar 4

L./Do

O.O5

2(0.000t_41_ll?9

10.6

"

Returning to Fig. 8.1 1 with A


indicates an elastic behavior.

Coloulot.! A ad u..
rt,r- not.rlol. ofi.r.i, vtLh

I. A lo r.lght off oa .c61.

t. A to l.it, otfroO .col.

106

Oo./t ar

.lO

rrd eD..oi |ot.


l.nE rtir-. I lfl
tE lzchlol ls crd
..cd B

Ext

3.0

O.K.

0.00014, it is seen that the value from the chart

Example 8.5. A cylindrical shell with length 18 ft and an outside diameler 6


ft is constructed of carbon steel with a yield stress of 38,000 psi. Determine the
thickness needed to resist an external pressure of 300 psi.

1.25 in.

L:
4:
D.t z.o

O.l.rmln 2Sl |fl.|-.


St l. ol lor. l. ll.
.tr... fFon 9.$..c1| on C

From Fig. 8.10, factor

st.o

0.00095. From Eq. 8.6 with Eo

2x0.00095x29x106
=
3 x 57.6

I. 2Sl,

psi

ur",:jin.
lo

Solution. It r =
Ia

223

0.00014 and from Eq. 8.6

gF.ot.r. thdr 50 ?

l. L./Do 1... ttrar

DESION

zAEo ASME factor


'p : 3(D"/t) specified factorofofsafety
safety

Aanft.t L 4 oolculolar L lo
l.

I.rom F'ig. 8. 10, factor

loulot. Oo/t

Oo./t,

ASME PROCEDURE FOR EXTERNAI PRESSURE

< O.96U ?

:29 x

106

psi,

320 psi

Now check for plastic region. From Fig. 8.11, factor B


12,000 psi in the
plastic region. Hence, the first of Eq. 8.6 cannot be used. From the second of

Eq.8.6,

P-4x12'oon
,:
3x57n
Try
I. Pol
Figure

224

8.12

The ASME method

r:

278

psi

inadequare

1.375 in. Then

!=sr.o

< Poa ?

for daerminins moximum ollowobte oxternot prssure on cvtinders.

From Fig. 8.11,

and A:o.oo11

226

Dl3tON Of CYUNDR|CAL SHEttS

lJ

'P:
Use

12,400 psi

dx It
don
'=^:"
316 psi O.K.
3 x 52.4 =

r = 1.375 in.

Problems

8.3

The thickness of a l3-ft diameter reactor is 5.50 in. and its effective leneth
is l8 ft. Ifthe design temperature is 900'F, what is the maximum allowa6le
external pressure?

Answer: P =

300 psi

A vessel has a 15-ft outside diameter and effective length of 6 ft. If it is


subjected to 15 psi extemal pressure, what is the required thickness (to the
nearest l/ 16 in.) if the design iemperature is 300'F?

Answer: t = 7/16in.
A jacketed pressure vessel with an intemal diameter of 12 ft is subjectd
to an interni pressure of 400 psi and a jacket pressure of 200 psi . The shell
thickness is controlled by the intemal pressure using an allowable tensile
stress of 15,000 psi at 800T with an E factor of 1.0. Determine the
required stiffener spacing from Figs. 8.10 and 8.11.

E
i

-F
I

'6

.J

Answer: L
8.6

16.2in.

A distillation tower is subjec0ed to a vacuum of 15 psi. lf D" = 9 ft,


t = 0.75 in., and stiffener spacing = 8 ft, what is the maximum permissible lemperature?

Answer: T

8.4

+
I

-J

+l'

E
E

900"F

+
;
+-

DESIGN OF STIFFENING RINGS

i5

a,

,r&
.og

e;

AF

In deriving Eq. 5.17 for the maximum strength of a cylindrical shell under
cxternal pressure, it was assumed that the ends of the shell were simply supF)rted. For this to be true, stiffening rings, flanges, and so on (Fig. 8.13) are
nccded as lines of supports. These supports are assurned to carry all the load that
thc shell carries due !o external pressure. By refering to Figs. 8. 13 and 8.14,
Iotal force in stiffener is
227

DESTON

8,4

Ot CYltNDRtCAt SHfl.tS

DESIGN TOR STIFFENING RINGS

,:4P
FS PP"
2 2(t + A,/L)

':

With a factor of safety (FS) of 3.0 expression 8.5 becomes

-3PD"
a:or,aatra
s

ti ffener

(8.8)

The stiffening ring must also be checked against buckling. The classical expression for the buckling of a ring due to external pressure is
I 2116

U;
E

l1ti I

- A

tf=-:

Di,G

+ A,/L)L

The expression for strain is


Figure

8.I.t

Es

PD.L = 2F

With e", = A, the expression for

I:.

PD"L

The stress in the shaded area of Fie. 8.14 is

o-

I'A,/L)-

L(t +

PD.

2(t + A,/L)

In this equation it is assumed that the area A" of stiffening ring is ,,smeared', over
the total length z.
Using the terminology of Fig. 8.11 and expression 8.5,

'FS

28

12I

D')"A

+ A'/L)L

becomes

DzL\t + A,/L)A

(8.e)

This equation can be used in conjunction with Eq. 8.8 and Fig. 8.10. In doing
so, a hial A, is normally selected and I is calculated from Eq. 8.8. Using the
value ofB, which already incorporates a factor of safety of 3.0, a value ofA is
obtained from Fig. 8.11. With this A, the required moment of inertia is calculaled from expression 8.9
Because the stability of the stiffening ring is essential in calculating the shell
stability, a higher factor of safety is used by ASME in the stiffening ring
calculations as compared with shell calculations. With a factor of safety of 3.5,
exoression 8.9 becomes

.
t:--

DZL(I + A"/L)A

A-

(8.10a)

230

DIS|ON Ot CYUNDRTCAT SHEItS

8,5

The svuilable / obtuined liom Eq. tt. lOa must be lower than the available
tmoment of inertia of the stiffening ring. This inertia is calculated without
considering the contribution of the adjacent cylinder. If the composite 1of the
ring and the effective cylinder are considered, then a penalty of 28Zo is applied
to Eq. 8.10 and a new expession given by

' must be used. The actual


as shown in Fig. 8.15.

Example

shell is constructed of carbon steel with a


yield stress of 38,000 psi and a radius of 36 in. If the stiffeners are spaced at a
4-ft interval, calculate the required shell thickness and the size of stiffening rings
for an external pressure of l0 psi at 100"F.

0.1857 in.

0.67

D--

= tt+

1.09

: r

"
From Fig. 8.11,

l0.4psi

in.2 and I = 0.9622 in.a


/t0x72)

+ l og/4a: z)/u PSr

0.00018.

, _722 x 48(0.18?5 + 1.09/48 x0.00018)

:
:

R = : ----------l4 (u187 5

l*t
r

23I

of3/16 in. and try a 3 x 3 x 3/16 angle stiffening ring.

A,

is calculated from the available rins and shell areas

8,6. A long cylindrical

Solution.

r=;t4J\--.,/4ooo\
,* l:

(8. r0b)

lo.9

RINGS

Hence,

Use a shell thickness

,, _ DzLa + A"/L)

ATIOWABI.E GAPS IN STITFENING

8,5

0.67 in.

OK

AITOWABLE GAPS IN STIFIENING RINGS

From Fig. 8.10,

A=

0.00028

From Fig. 8.11,

21000

psi

Gaps in stiffening rings are normally provided to allow for drainage of vessel
contents or permit piping and other internals to extend through the ring. Examples of various gap arrangements are shown in Fig. 8.16. The maximum allowable gap can be calculated by assuming the distance between points a and b of
Fig. 8. 17 as a simply supported column of length l. The maximum buckling load
that can be applied to this column is given by

lf'I1ol
I'

(8.1

la)

The strength of the column must be equal to or greater than the cylindrical shell.
For large diameter shell the curvature is small and the buckling streneth of the
shell approaches that of a simply supponed flat plate. The riinimuit critical
buckling strength of the simply supported plate abcd (Fig. 8.17) loaded in the

circumferential direction is given by

I'c,
.ing..
Fisure 8.15

4i2Enl ----=4T2EJ
=;r=_ = t'
t-tr - lt-t

(8.1

lb)

By comparing expressions 8. 1la and 8. I lb, it can be concluded that in order


for the column aD to be as strong as the plate, its length must be about one-half

8,5
Grp lnor

ATTOWABTE GAPS IN STIFFENING RINGS

233

to.tc..d I rtm.r

th. hrckn.r. ot rh. $.lt ptlrd

Thii.&iion rha h64 momsnt of i..ni!


rqutrd tor.i^q unl.r rqunmns ot

S]
L.ngth

.r..sd

of.ny g.p in u6eppo.r.d .lt nor o


l.ngrh ol .c ih*. in Fig. UG.29_2

Figure 8.17

that of the plate. Therefore, the maximum gap length must be one-half that of

a buckling lobe length of a cylindrical shell. In referring to Fig. 5.16 the


maximum gap length can be expressed as

-_l

g_;_-;;

_l
Typ.
ot

onttrucrio.

_+

^';
1xa-

_ ttD.

(8.

l2)

ASME has developed curves that are based on Eq. 8.12. These curves are
shown in Fig. 8.18. A comparison, however, between Eq. 8.12 and Fig. 8.18
indicales some differences. These differences are due to the fact that Fig. 5.18,
which is used with Eq. 8.12, is plotted using the first two terms of expression
fl in Eq. 5.27a whereas Fig. 8.18 uses all terms. Therefore, the results of Fig.
8.18 are more accurate.

Tht larion lhatt h!v. mfr@r ot

i...ri. r.qui4d to.

Figur' 8
(Ref. 2).

voriou

nng.

orrongrnenrs oI rrittuning ring. for cyrindri.or vessers

Example
3ubiecd ro exrernor

preasure

with

8.7.

D. =

What is the maximum gap allowed in a stiffening ring of a shell


L : 15.0 ft, and r : 1.0 in.?

7.O ft,

Solution

'-:
t
232

t+

L=
r

a.zs

8.6
lrronr F'ig.

OUI-OF.ROUNDNESS OF CYTINDRICAT. 5HIItS

5.lll, N = 4 and fiom Eq.


G

tl.12,

::+
: o.2oD^
(4X4)

!
G

"":#ii

.s

3,6+Id

*"""p;'L;
d;:;

E3

$-E

";:

;a
s!
5=
E

In the fabrication of cylindrical shells, slight out-of-roundness invariably results.


This is due to forming, welding, or postweld heat-treating operations. Normally,
intemal pressures tend to minimize out-of-roundness, whereas extemal pressures tend to increase it. Because of that, and to prevent failure, extra precautions must be taken in fabricating shells that are subjected to external pressures.

In Fig. 5. 16 it is assumed that the shell is approximated by a series of columns


connected end to end. The length of each column is one-half a lobe length, or
nDo

=_@i
o5

,=
-2N

The slendemess of each column is expressed by the ratio //r where r is the radius
of gyration. Since r is eqtal to t2/\/12 in a shell wall. the equation becomes

t_

r
F

8I 889 S

rTog'reu1lq1 - neurrg epcrng

5.44

N(t/D.)

The eccentricity of each column in expressed by e. If it is assumed that the


eccentricity ratio e/r affects the strength of a column in the same way as the
shell, it can be concluded that

el
rr

for columns

and

------ca-

t/y12
234

OUT.OF-ROUNDNESS OF CYLINDRICAL SHELLS UNDER

bet

-5
;IJ

g gfig

16.8 in.

EXTERNAL PRESSURC

"+r3

8.6

5.44

N(t/D.)

for cylinders

DESION OF CYI.INDRICAI. SHELLS

!:t
where C1

c'

I I

(8. r 3)

N(t/D)

@E
oB

1.57.

length decreases, the value of

/,1
/

increases slightly. Thus, Eq. 8.13 needs


modification to take into account the two extreme cases. Thus. disreeardins the
increase in e/t as L/D. decreases. an empirical equation of the

fo;

9:

..'-

/
/

N(t / D")

/
+ o.ol5N

(8.14)

is found satisfactory. In using the values of C1 and C2 as obtained from tests, the
equation becomes

o,'=8

/t
I

t N(Jf,j- "'"

o,

"1

4ls
il

e/l

Ct

tl

Experiments have shown that for constant tfD, ratios, the value of eft
increases with an increase in Lf D.ratios. This, however, applies only in the case
of intermediate length shells. For this range, Eq. 8.13 was found to give adequate results. As the length gets longer, tests have shown than an increase in
L/D"has no influence on ef t. On the other hand, tests have shown that as the

q QE

*:1 t- .
I

E=

q 66
o o

ct .0

P6

dF

Figure 8.19 is a plot of this equation.

3{

'i

,9d
Example

8.8.

Calculate the maximum out-of-roundness allowed in a cylinder


subjected to extemal pressure with D,
5.0 ft, Z
14.0 ft, and t
0-75 inCompare the result with that obtained from Fig. 8.19.

3.ssps F

tt3R8

rTog rcurralql; lraueqq epnrng

Solution

5.60

D= to
t
237

2il

D|lrol{ o; cYuNDilcAr tH[t3

From Fig, 5.18,

NOMINCIATURI 239

N = 3. From Eq. 8.14,

f nnrr

o,: -0.062510
n/t

-l

"=Lffi)+o'or5(3)J(o7s)
e

For plastic range,

0.39 in.

From Fig. 8.18,

e:

(8.1s)

where B = is obtained from Fig.

ot=

8.ll

using

A = 0.125/(R,/t).

O.53t

Example 8.9. A cylindrical tower is constructed of stainless steel 410 material. Its radius is 6 ft and thickness is 0.5 in. Determine the maximum allowable
compressive stress at room temperature.

0.40 in.

T
Solution

&=3=roo
,

8.7

DESIGN FOR AXIAT COMPRESSION

From Fig. 8. 11,


Eo

For axial compression, Eq. 5.29 rnay be written as

106

o,=fifo.oazs x

psi

29

106)

12,600 psi

or

The allowable strain can be expressed

= 29 x

For elastic region,

.".=*Lo

A:ltEot:99
RJt

u.)

For plastic region,

=W:

o.ooo87

as

and

FS(R,/r)

A large factor of safety is normally used in this expression because a slight


out-of-roundness can significantly reduce the critical sfain. ASME uses an
approximate factor of safety of 10.0. Hence, the expression for allowable compressive stress in the ASME is for elastic range,

= Il,fiX)

psi

<-

use

NOMENCTATURE

A = shain obtained ftom extemal pressure charts


A" =

area

of stiffening ring

210

DtStON

Oi CyUNORtCAt

I = stress magnitude in a cylinder due to external pressure


D, =

outside diameter of cylinder

= joint efficiency

: modulus of elasticity
F : peak stress as denned in Table 8.2
/ = moment of inertia of stiffening ring
E6

1' = combined moment of inertia

of stiffening ring and adjacent shell

L = effective length of shell


P = intemal or extemal pressure
= primary bending stress as defined in Table 8.2
P1 = pnmary local membrane stress as defined in Table 8.2
P- : primary general membrane stress as defined in Table 8.2
P6

Q:

secondary membrane plus bending stress as defined in Table 8.2

R = inside radius of cylinder


R, =

EIBTIOGRAPHY 241

SHH"|"S

outside radius of cylinder

S = allowable tensile shess in the ASME Code, VI[-1


& = alternating stress in the ASME Code, VIII-2
S, : allowable tensile stress in the ASME Code, Vm-2
t : thickness of cylindrical shell

REFERCNCES

ASME Boiler and Pressue Vessel Code, Section Vm, Division 2, Alrs rnative Rules-pressure
Vessels, ANSVASME BPV-Vn-2, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New york,
1980.

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VItr, Division l, prcssure Vesrels,
ANSUASME BPV-Vm-I, American Society of Meahanical EDgineers, New york, 1980.

BIBTIOGRAPHY
Windcnburg, D, F., "Vessels under Extemal Pressure," in Pressure Vessel and Piping Desiqtl:
Collected Papers 1927-1959, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1960.
tk)lt, M., "A Procedule for Determining the Allowable Out-of-Roundness for Vessels under
External Pressure," in Pressure Vessel and Piping Desiqfi: Collected PaPers 1927-1959,
American Society of Mechanical Engineering, New York, 1960.

CHAPTER

DESIGN OF FORMED HEADS


AND TRANSITION SECTIONS

Inside surfoce

of o vessel hecd. (Courtosy of the Nooler Corp.. St. to'rir, Mo.)

243

2U
9.I

9.I

DISION OT IORMED HTADS AND TRANSITION SECTIONS

245

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

A large variety of end closures and transition sections are available to the desisn
engineer. Using one configuration versus another depends on manv factors suih
as method of forrning, material cost, and space
used heads are:

."ihi"tionr.

--r-.

Some frequently

].'
(a)

FLANGED

(b)

Flanged Heads.

HEI.lISPHERICAL

These heads (Fig. 9.1c) are normally found in vessels operating at low
pressures such as gasoline tanks, and boilers. They are also used-in highpressure applications where the diameter is small. Various details for their
design and construction are given by the ASME Code, VI[-l.

Hemispheical Heads.
Generally, the required thickness of hemispherical heads due to a grven
temperature and pressure is one-half that of cylindrical shells with equivalent
diameter and material. Hemiheads (Fig. 9.10) are very economical when
construcied of expensive alloys such as nickel and titanium----either solid or

_1
_T
(c)

(d)

ELLIPTICAL

FLAIIGED

&

DISHED

(TORISPHERIcAL)

clad. In carbon steel, hemiheads are not as economical as flaneed and dished
heads because of the high cost of fabricalion. Hemiheads are iormally fabricated from segmental "gore" sections or by spinning or pressing. Segmental
gore hemiheads are economical in thin, large diameter equipment or thick,
small diameter reactors. Because hemispherical heads are thinner than cylin_

drical shells to which they are attached, the transition area between the head
and shell must be contoured so as to minimize the effect of discontinuity
stress. Figure 9.2 illustrates the hansition requirements in the ASME Code,

vm.

Elliptical and Torispherical (Flanged and Dished) Heads.


These heads are very popular in pressure vessels (Fig. 9.lc and d). Their
thickness is usually the same as the cylinder to which they are attached. This
reduces considerably the weld build-up shown in Fig. 9.2. Thus, because the
required thickness in areas away from the knuckle region is less than the
furnished thickness, the excess can be advantageously used in reinforcing
nozzles in these areas. Many mills can fumish such heads in various di_
amelers and thicknesses that are competitive in price.
In a true elliptical head the radii of curvature vary between a jacent points

along a meridian. To simplify the calculations and fabrication, the ASME


Code established the following various approximations. A 2: 1 elliptical
head can be assumed to consist of a spherically dished head with a radius of
9OVo and a knuckle radius of 17go of the shell diameter to which thev are
attached, as shown in Fig. 9.3. The smallest knuckle radius allowed for a
flanged and dished head is 67o of the shell diameter and a spherical radius
1007o of the shell diameter.

of

(e)

(f)

C0NICAL

Figure

g)

9.1

T0Rl c0lt IcAL

IlISCEL!ANE0Us

commonly usad lormed closurc heods.

Conical and Toriconical Heads.

These heads shown in Fig. 9.1e and are used in hoppers and towers as
bottom end closures or as transition sections between cylinders with different
diameters. The cone-to-cylinder junction must be considered as part of the
cone design due to the high unbalanced forces at the junction. Because of

9,2

lilc

l-

'".ca
<112k,-.hl

<1l2las-.hl

ASME EQUATIONS fOR HEMISPHERICAI HIAD

DISIGN

247

thcse high fbrces, the ASME Code, Vlll-1, limits the apex anglc to a maximum of 30" when the cone is subjected to intemal pressure. Above 30'a
discontinuity analysis is done or a toriconical head used to avoid the unbalanced forces at the junction.

Miscellaneous Heads.
Many chemical processes require unusual vessel configurations. The heads of
such vessels can have an infinite number of contours. One such contour is
shown in Fig. 9. lg. The design of these heads is very complicated and there
are no simple methods of analysis. Experience, proof testing, and sophisticated analyses are generally used to determine required thicknesses.

taper./,

may inctude
the width ol the weld-

9.2

ASME EQUATIONS FOR HEMISPHERICAT HEAD DESIGN

The ASME Code,

VI[-l,

has combined Eqs. 6.1 and 6.7 for internal pressure

into one simplified equation:


PR

2SE

where
{cl
Fisure

Ensi'ieers)
iunction. (Courrety of the Americon Societ}' of ldechonicol

O.zP

(e.1)

required thickness

P = intemal

(dl

9.2 Hod-to{hell

t:

pressure

.lR

inside radius

allowable stress

B = joint efficiency
This equation with E : 1.0 is plotted in Fig. 6.3 and it approximates the more
complicated Eqs. 6.7 over a large range of r'fri- Othet forms of Eq. 9. 1 are
shown in Appendix I.
For external pressure, Eq. 6.35 is taken as the basis for the ASME Code
equations. Defining e". : A, r : R,, and modulus of elasticity as Es, Eq. 6.35
can be written as

{a)

ASiIE

2:1

Es

Head

T
(b)

ASI.IE Flanged

and 0ished

where

A = critical shain
R, = outside radius

Head

fisure 9.3

246

.
"

thickness

0.t25
R"/t

0.125

R"/t

(9.2a)

214

DISION Of FORMED HTADS AND TRANSITION STCTIONS

9,3

The critical strcss in a sphcrical section is given by

lixamplc

9.1.

ASME DESION

EQUATIONS 249

Using the ASME criteria, determine the allowable cxternrl


R, = 60 in. and t : 0.5 in. Use the 300'F line

prcssure on a spherical shell with


P",R.

a*:

in

Fig.8.ll.

Zt

Solution,

From Eq. 9.2a,

or

n rs
A:ffi=0.00r
l

P.,

= 2%

R"/t=4+
R./t

(e.3)

0.001, a plastic behavior exists and Eq. 9.2c must be


From Fig. 8. I 1, with A
used. Hence, from Fig. 8.11

and the allowable pressure is expressed as


zAEo

FS(R,/')
Using factor of safety (FS)

o.0625Eo
(R./ t)'

":*@

(e.2b)

= nt o"

9.3

ASME DESIGN EQUATIONS FOR ELTIPSOIDAI AND FLANGED


AND DISHED HEADS

allowable extemal pressure


modulus of elasticity

as:

P"
Substituting B

11,000 psi

4.0 and substituting Eq. 9.2a into 9.4 gives

The ASME procedure for determining the allowable external pressure for a
spherical section is to detemine fust the A value from Eq. 9 .2a. The allowable
pressure can then be obtained by referring to a stress-strain chart similar to the
one shown in Fig. 8.11. IfA falls in the elastic region, then P is calculated from
84.9.2b. If ,4 falls in the plastic region, however, a value ofB is determined
fust from the chart. The allowable pressure is then calculated from exoression

9.3

and

-p _
where P =
Eq =

(e.4)

o",/2

20-

= FS(&/r)

(e.5)

inl.o Eq. 9.5 gives

B
-p= R./t

(9.2c)

where B = factor determined from Fig. 8.11.


Equations 9.2 form the ASME basis for determining allowable external pressure for sDherical sections.

The general solution of Eq. 6.39 is very cumbersome because 12 is a variable


function. However, the stresses obtained from Eq. 6.39 are important because
they can be added to the membrane stresses of Eq. 6.37 which results in
significantly reducing the total stress at the vicinity of the junction. Therefore,
this equation can be advantageously utilized by the designer in reducing the
required head thickness. The ASME used this fact in developing design parameters for ellipsoidal and torispherical heads.
A study was mader with ellipsoidal heads to determine the effect of the ratio
a/b on the stress level at the head-to-shell junction for a constant ratio 32 of head
thickness t to shell radius r. The study indicated that the point of maximum stress
in the head changes with a change of afb.Forheads shallower than a/b of 2.5,
the maximum stress is in the hoop direction at the outside surface of the knuckle
region and is in compression as shown in Fig. 9.4. For ratios of a fb between 2.5
and 1.2, the maximum stress occurs at the junction and is a hoop tensile stress.
The stiess magnitude for various ratios ofa/b is shown in Fig. 9.4. A simplified
equation used by the ASME Code, VIII-I, approximates the theoretical stress
ratios of Fig. 9.4 for values of af bbetween2.6, which is the maximum allowed
by the code, and 1.0 for a spherical head:

: il'. (-tl]

(e.6)

DISION

Oi TORMID HEADS AND TRANSIIION


___-_

SICTIONS
e

Lh.or.t, loo I vo lLr..


tmot. votu.. etvon bU Eq.{9.O1
lle hooD etre6 of

x- IE
L_4

tl

o*r

tJ

6t
-ti
o ", o.l

1 rffz,tf;r]

:sE
i

l,{oximum ske5s

in ElliFoidol Heo&. (Ref. t, p. l3,t).

'o
.!

A plot of this equation is also shown in Fig. 9.4. The ASME Code uses the K
values given by Eq. 9.6 to determine the required stress ratios needed in obtain_

ing thickness of ellipsoidal heads. This is accomplished by multiplying the


calculated thickness of a cylindrical shell with diameter D by'K valuis. Hince,
for ellipsoidal heads,

0.2P

(e.7)

where t : thickness of ellipsoidal head


P = internal pressure
D = diameter of shell to which head is attached
l< = sfiess intensity factor obtained from Eq. 9.6
S

6il-

t.

'l_
.oo

]a
)to

-l
I

d9

"P

:.{
6i
E5
g

-j :LLi - lts
)o
l

qo-

;i

( to

-l t9
{
-_! .l

l0^

o
o (.l-

-l

.a
'tI IO- li't^
.,lJ

zSE

lrc
do

;-3

ll

-li l
C.

9.4

i-;

iE,6
\.
-:Zt

at6
Fisur

-6

rxo0
-oxl( ;-F

;t$

q-

-E, tt.
o.- o -!
---.'i
a *,-

le nerldlonol EtroBs ot
de eual'oc of knucklo o-eo
I

ttl

,^=

6o
do

//

q-:
do
a
ct

rt

3*3533

ssJ1s ur\oJc 01 sseJ,ls

ur^rr

xour

ci

Jo o|1ou

allowable stress

6 = joint efficiency
For torispherical heads, tests conducted by H<ihnr and others have shown that
the stress at the knuckle area due to internal pressure reaches the yield value long

before the spherical region does. Hrjhn plotted an empirical equation that cor_
relates well with available test data, as shown in Fig. 9.5. To ivaluate Hcihn's

empirical curve, Fig. 9.5 shows anotler curve that indicates the stress rn an

251

DIsION O? TORMID HTADS AND IRANSITION SICTIONS

9.3

equivBlent ellipsoidal head whose thickness is equal to the shell thickness. This
curve indicates that Hrihn's curve is liberal for small values of knuckle to crown
radri r/L. Accordingly, the ASME Code, VIII-I, developed an empirical curve
that parallels both Hdhn's curve for large values of rfL and the ellipsoid curve
for small r/Z ratios, as shown in Fig. 9.5. The ASME curve can be expressed
by the equation

n =)(z

(e.8)

zSE

where r :

O.zP

thickness of torispherical head

10 a -

/r\
\U/

0.442621;l +

'

(9.10)

"'-,(;i]l('";)]'

:
S:

intemal pressure
allowable stress

A plot of Eq. 9.10 is shown in Fig. 9.6.


Example

P=

9,2.

100 psi,

What is the required thickness of a 3

S:

17,500 psi,

E:

:t

head

ifD =

144 in.,

1.0?

allowable stress

Solutian.

(0, *,,;);.,'(,

-,,;)(i) - o 0006

Sglving. for and


_r
fetting or/FS S, the following approximate equarion
obtained and used by the ASME Code, VIII-2:

-t.zent

From Eq. 9.6, with

K:

In practical applications researchers noticed that Eq. 9.9 gave conservafive


results for the majority of head designs but became unconsirvative for laree
ratios of r/t. This ratio was not considered by the ASME in its derivation of E-q.
9.8 because Fig. 9.5 was based on a constant value of r/r. Accordingly, research
was conducted to evaluate the buckling behavior of the knuckle region for heads
with large ratios of //t. The plastic analysis concept was used arid shown2 that
thefollowing equation can adequately predict the behavior of torispherical heads
with large rf t rutios:

nl=

z.z4,,os!) + rs.oszr(r)] r"

L
where t : required torispherical thickness
-L : spherical crown radius

(9.e)

g = joint efficiency
r = knuckle radius

o"/FS

10.26879

253

r = knuckle radius
D = diameter of shell to which head is attached

P = internal pressure
Z = spherical crown radius
M = stress intensity factor obtained from Eq. 9.9
S

Thus the ASME equation for the torispherical heads is given by

PLM

fo.oozw

ASMI DISIGN IOUATIONS

4.ss246(; + 28.e3318G)

a/b =

3,

0.166712

+ (3.0f1

1.83

From Eq. 9.7,


(100x144)(1.83)

2x
=
Example

9.3,

17,500

1.0

0.2

100

0.75 in.

What is the required thickness of a flanged and dished head

D=24O in., L=2AO in.,


P

50 psi?

Solution.

L ..
r

r:

15 in., S:17.500 psi,

E=

1.0,

if

and

9.3

ASMT DESIGN EOUATIONS

l;rrrn Eq.9.tl.

l-

M=zG+vr6)
: 1.75
From Eq. 9.9,

50x240x1.75

t:-

'-2xl7joox1.o-02x50
:
.17

l2:

0.60 in.

Because the thickness is obtained from Eq. 9.9 and because this thickness is
small compared with the diameter of the head, the requirements of Eq. 9. l0 must
be checked.

Etl,plo'dar h.d)

r15
D 240

0.0625

P
;J

50
17,500

0.002857

and from Eq. 9.10,

ln

/r\ :
l;l
\L/

-s.54851

;=

o.oo38e

t
,005

Figure

9.6

Required Thickne.s

of

.01
Formed Heods (Courre.y

.02
of lhe Ane.icon

.03
Sociery

of

.04

0.93 in.

Hence, for this head a minimum thickness of 0.93 is to be

used.

_05

9.3.1

Ellipsoidol ond Torisphericol Heods under Exlernol Pressure

/vtechonicol

Ensineers.)

For extemal pressure, the knuckle area is subjected to a tensile stress. Hence the
critical area that is necessary for consideration under extemal pressure is the

I
254

spherical region. Thus the ASME criteria for all ellipsoidal and torispherical
heads under extemal pressure are the same as those for spherical heads.

116
9.4

DIIIO}I O' IOTMID H!ADs AND TRANSITION

SGCTIONS

9.4

ASME EQUATIONS FOR CONICAL HEAD DESIGN

From Example 6.7 it is seen that the hoop force Np is twice


as large as the
longitudinal force N5 in conical heads subjected to internal pr"rr*".

Code,

Th" ASME

VI[-I,

uses Eq. 1 of Example 6.7 as the basis for establishing


the
required thickness of a conical section subjected to intemal pressure.
The Jqua_

"\

T]

I'

tion is given by

PD
2 cos a(Str'

0.6p)

where P = internal pressure


D = inside diameter of cone at the point of consideration
perpendicular to the longitudinal axis

,S = allowable stress
g = joint efficiency
a = one-half the included

the cone

--+.

l+
I

2raon6

+ilvl_t -nT
r

(e.l l)

I
measured

of

_t_

Solution. From Eq. 9.11,


(2X0.940X20,000

0.49

1.0

in.

ASME Simplificotion

rressur

0.6 x 450)

I
of Discontinuity Anolysis due fo Iniernol

,l

___L
9.7

Discontinuiiy iorcas dus ro internol preslur.

where, in this chapter, a is used rather than

X=

What is the required thickness of a conical head attached to


.
a
"I:TOr"whose inside
cyllnder
diameter is 40.0 in. if the intemal pressure is 450 psi, the
allowable stress is 20,000 psi, E = 1.0, and a
= 20.0?

\l

?
Fig'rr

apex angle of the cone at the center line

257

9.4.

9.4.

ASME EQUATIONS FOR CONICAT HEAD DESIGN

4.559U2 tan

1.316(V

q'

and

X and Y are given by

d
2V) tan a

V and V2 are given as in Example 6.9.


The longitudinal stress in Eq. 9.12 is in tension for all values of a and does
not govem the design criteria. The f term in the circumferential stress expression
in Eq. 9.12 is positive for all practical applications. Hence the quantity a" varies
from a maximum tensile value of Prft to a compressive value that depends on
the angle a. The ASME Code, VIII-I, limits the maximum compressive circumferential stress to a value of Pr/r. Using these criteria, the quintity yl|rt;n
Eq. 9.12 must be limited to a value of 2.0. Values in excess of 2.0 must be
supported by a ring added at the junction. The area of the ring is given by the
and

equatron

The ASME Code, VtrI-1, uses the stress expressions obtained


in Example 6.9
f9r inlernal pressu as the basis for establisiing simplified l.ite.iu
fo, dir"on_
tinuity analysis at the cylinder-to-cone junction. At ihe large end
of
the cone
(Fig,. 9.7) the discontinuity analysis
results in the following i*o.*piessions fo,

me longlrudlnal and hoop stresses in the shell:

tr2 tan q

2)

Y\6rt

(e.13)

A plot of the quantity y shows that it can be approximated by the expression


0.005a as shown in Fig. 9.8. Substituting this value into Eq. 9.13 gives

,=!(o'+x{rz\
""=7(, - rrn

(Y\EIt -

t2tanall
, ['

(9.12)
The ASME Code,
1.5SE and thus

VI[-l,

400

(9.14)

limits the comnressive circumferential stress to

258

9,4

DTSION OF fORMTO I{TADS AND TRANSITION SECTIONS

t.o

o
S

/
X=O.C

t2

6-

,: !(o '-',4)

\-7

'7Li

=,r.5591 'z Lan o\

--2 <=-l---<ly,o.brri
!Y= 1.3t6<,V | -zvz tLonc,.

tO'

30'

40.

9.8

SO.

X ond Y volues for externot prossurc.

<
l.sSE

V7=

:A
t

Prl

1.5

and a stiffening ring is needed for values of


required area of the stiffening ring is

Prl
l_=-=-tl

[ssz,

ran q

zSE

l-

_.:l

XYr/t

t.s

greater than 1.5. The

'l

xt/r,/tl

From Fig. 9.8, it is shown that the quantity X is approximated by 0.012a. Hence
the required area can be expressed as

Equation 9.14 thus becomes

326.6\/F7SE\

^,=G('_ --

"

1t^"

or for the large end of cone,

. P,1 /. A\ t"
o':2sE\'-i)

Prl

tan

af

125

'l

L' d,rtl

2sE

(9.r7)

By assuming that the maximum allowable longitudinal stress is limited to ,St,


the expression

(9.15)

Pr.

SE

where A, = required

(9.16)

Because both expressions include a negative term, the equation for or controls
because X is numerically larger than Z Limiting the maximum compressive
stress to Pr/t, the term in parentheses in the equation for o1 is

o<

=;

area of ring

P = intemal pressure

=
J=

radius of cylinder at large end of cone

t :

joint efficiency

can be substituted into Eq. 9.17 to give for the small end of cone,

^':

allowable stress

A = 326.6\/FEE

a=

259

""=?('- ",4)

Figure

12

DISIGN

liquation 9. l5 is used by thc ASMB Cirde , Vl ll- I , as thc bitsis litr chccking
lllc.ioint bctween the cylinder and the large end of cone due to internal prcssuro.
At thc small end ofthe cone (Fig. 9.7) the circumferential and longitudinal stress
cquations due to internal pressure are

o.e

o.2

ASMT IQUATIONS FOR CONICAL HIAD

one-half the apex angle of cone

where A =

r, =

#('

- *) "" "

*G
radius of cvlinder at the small end of cone

(9.18)

-*"--"W*-ffiUfY6ffiU'iii,aibt

Exanple

9.5.

junctions. Lt S

iio mmnror uapng

Doslgn thc conc ehown in Fig. 9.9 and check the cone-to-shcll
= 20 ksi, E = 1.0, and p = 150 psi.

9,.1

ASrvU IOUAT|ONS fOR CONICAI

HIAD DlllON

261

and the required area

,=ffi(t-1ff)<o.sttt

Solutian. From Eq. 9.11,

=
100)

9.4.2

3.70 in.2

Conicol Shells under Exlernol Pressure

The goveming equation for the design of cones subjected to extemal pressure is
obtained from @. 6.43. Using a factor of safety 3.0, Eq. 6.43 becomes

For the large end,

A=

326.6\m

and from Eq. 9.15 the required area at the large end is

^=ffiffi(r-ff)<os,t
=

P.

=28.28"

0.64 in.2

Es.

ASME Simplificotion
Presgure

A=89

7.71

(9.19)

L"/D,

This equation that expresses the cone in tmrs of an equivalent cylinder of


thickness r" and length tr, is analogous to 84. 6.42 for cylindrical shells. Thus
the ASME Code, VI[-l, applies the same equations for the design of cylin&ical
shells under extemal pressure for the design of cones with applicable values of
t" urd L":

9.4.3

For small end

0.87(t,/D)25

of Discontinuity Anolysis due to Externol

The discontinuity forces due to external lnessurea at the large end of cone are
shown in Fig. 9.10 and expressed as

{irtt*Fisurc 9.9

_:I_

figur. 9.10 DLconrinulty for.e. dua lo cx|lrnol pr!!ure,

262

9.4

DI3ION OI IORMTD HIADS AND NANSTTION STCTIONS

lly limiting the axial stress to an allowable value of SE, the above equation can
bc written for large end of the cone,

u,__p_!t*r{^r,
I
I'''
(e.20)

o'=*'#""1'-i(|*2.4):]

r\
t/
'--&1'-"2)
where X
Y

:
=

:
Q:

N,

9.34

Vz

tan

2.57 (Vy -

tt

where

2V2) tan

axial compressive force = Pr2f2t

+g

maximum compressive stress is given by ar; a conservative maximum allowable


compressive stress value is Pr2/f and thus

E
o.o27a

A stiffening ring is necessary if this quantity is exceeded. The required


the ring is given by

A,: (N,tanr(;;)lt _ (Prz/N,) O

.027

a\/

1f

r2/

t,e
t.6

- Pr. r;N,
1"l/2
t
I'' -

r:;l,t

-N-/ *

(9.22)

/^

"v;/

area

of

_r,,_r,ill.r.-

^t _P,,

or N, s 0, which indicates that at the small end of the cone the axial force N,
must be resisted by a ring with an area for the small end of the cone

(9.23)

In addition to providing the required arca at a cone-to-shell junction, it is

1.1

-./.

x=bs4vzrLno<

t.2
t.o

X:O.O27d

o.8
o.6
o.+
o.2
o

o" =

"o _ N,rr.sEtzn a

z.o

P
SE

and the maximum compressive stress by 4. Limiting the allowable compressive


strcss to -(P/r/r), the first of Eq. 9.22 reduces to

Pr'

'V;=N*-l

la

104

axial force due to wind, dead load, etc.

v-alues of X and I in Eq. 9.20 can be approximated by the expressions in


Fig. 9.11. A comparison of o; and or given by Eq. 9.20 indicates that the

E
J

A:

(9.2r)

At the small end of the cone the stress is eiven bv

lhe

ASMI EQUATIONS TOR CONICAT HEAD DESIGN 263

.7

rrttt'

'.t'

4
o'
Figure

\to.

9.ll

=o. to6
- zvr,'Lonq^

necessary to design the ring at the junction to prevent buckling due to external

pressure. The procedure is similar to that for the design of stiffening rings in
cylindrical shells. A conservative approach used by the ASME Code, Vltr-l, in
designing cylindrical shells under extemal pressure assumes that intermediate
stiffening rings support all the load applied to the shell. Using the same criteria,
the load on the cone in Fig. 9.10 due to extemal pressure can be proportioned
at the large and small end stiffening rings as follows:

f_le. SZ.y

pressure load at large end stiffening ring

20.
o(
X ond Y voluer for externol

pressure load at small end stiffening


pressure.

ZnP (r2

r)(r2

3sina

n"t: O!&i#

- r) cos a

2U

DTSION Of TORMID HIAOS AND TRANSITION SECTIONS

NOMENCLATURI

'Ii)t l l()td itt lirrgc cnd duc ttl axial conrprcssitln, prcssurc
on conc, an<I pressure

Ily using

rr1

on cylinder is

, = +tan q +,

tun

o+

tan 0

(e.26)

which is the required moment of inertia of a cone-to-shell stiffening ring.


For design purposes, the value of A in Eq. 9.26 is obtained from a
stress-strain relationship. This is achieved by considering the stress in the ring

or

+,

thc above equation reduces to


Ar2 A,

!. eliffi*

F = P(M)

= E,A.

(9.24)

as

Fr

where

t,_r2tana, Lt

ri- rl

Total load at small end due to axial compression, pressure on cone, and pressure
on cylinder is

PL,+ 14 - r?
^ Prttan c + -=/"=
^z
=-P
I
br2 t0ll d

-r f,

t?trr ct

F = P(N) + f2 tar, d.

(9.2s)

Applying a factor of safety of two in the foregoing equation and using the
Extemal Pressure Charts in ASME (hat have a factor safety two), a design
criteria can be established as follows:

1.
2.

Calculate

3.

Enter the Extemal Pressure Charts with

f. from Eqs. 9.24 or 9.25.

Establish

a (factor B)

+:3
lrl
O/2 l&Il (t

Use Eq. 9.26 to establish the minimum required moment of inertia. The
ASME allows a 307o increase in value if the composite ring-shell moment of inertia is considered and the equation then becomes

ADZA,
Equations 9.24 and,9.25 establish the maximum applied force at the cone_to_
cylinder junction. The critical buckling stress of a iircular ring is

o"

where A, is the total effective area given by

Lj + e,
A' =
+
+
Lj + e,
A' =
+
+

15.6

3Eol

nr,

for large end of cone

for small end of cone

and calculate the

strain A.

4.

where

rv=?tun o+L:

(9.27)

NOMENCTATURE

A:
At :
,B =

D:
D1 :

strain as obtained from Fig. 8.10


area

of stiffening ring at cone-to-shell junction

stress factor as obtained from

Fig. 8.11

diameter
base diameter at small end

of cone

26

OISION

O' IORMID

l)r

= joint efficiency

base diumeter at large end

of cone

8s = modulus of elasticity

, = head depth
I = moment of inertia
lK : factor for ellipsoidal heads as determined from Eq. 9.6
Z = spherical crown radius of flanged and dished heads
Z' = effective
L" :
=

M=

length of cylindrical shell

effective length of conical section

70

+ Dt/D:.l

factor for flanged and dished heads as obtained from Eq. 9.g

P = pressure
P" = allowable extemal

pressure

It = inside radius
R, =

outside radius

r = knuckle radius
rr : base radius at small end of cone
/2 = base radius at large end of cone
S = allowable stress
r = thickness
t" = effective thickness of conical section

tcos d

a = one-half the cone apex angle


4 : circumferential stress
(,r = longitudinal

stress

REFERENCES

L
2.

Bf

HTAO3 AND TRANSITION SICTIONS

Brownell, L. E., and E.H.Yorlll.g, Process Equipment Design, lolmWiley, New york, 1959.
Shield, R. T., and D. C. Drucker, "Design of Thin-Walled Torispherical and Toriconical
Pressure-Vessel Head,s" in Pressure Vessels anl Pipirrg: Design atd Anatysis-A Decade of
ProSleJr, Ameican Society of Mechaoical E4ineers, 1972.

sf.tooRAPHY

267

.1.

Bourdtnun, l{, C., "Strc$scs al Junction ol Conc and Cylindcr in Tanks with Cono Bottuns or
Ends" in Prc.rsare ye.rszl aul Piping Design: Colkcted papers 1927-,/9Jg, Amcrican Socicty
of Mechanical Engineers, 1960.

4.

Jawad, M. H., "Design of Conical Shells under Extemal Loads,,'


Technology, pp. 230-238. Vol. t02, 1980.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Fliigg, W., Strcrrer ir, S,ells, Springer-Verlag, New

york,

1960.

Jounnl

of pressure Vessel

CHAPTER

IO

BLIND FIANGES, COVER


PLATES,

AND FLANGES

Iypicolflons: r.ody for in.tollins. (Courlesy G+W Tdylor-Bonmy Div., lqylor Forse)

264

269

IO.I

SIIND fLANOTS, COVTR PIATES, AND TLANGES

IO.I

INTRODUCTION

271

INTRODUCTION

One of the more common types of closures for pressure vessels is the unstayed
flat head or cover. This may be either integrally formed with the shell or welded
to the shell, as shown in Fig. 10.1; or it may be attached by bolts or some
quick-opening device as shown in Fig. 10.2. It may be circular, obround,
square, rectangular, or some other shape. Those circular flat heads that are

Fetaining

I
i--l

.--.i.nil

lhl/il

I ll'hl- "*
\i --ltll-llll

rhreaded

-J- - -t+-u(d)

(b)

(a)

Fisur

10,2

Boltd or quick-opnins

flol ho&.

bolted into place utilizing a gasket are called blind flanges. Usually, the blind
flange is bolted to a vessel flange with a gasket between two flanges as shown
in Fig. 10.3. Although flat heads or blind flanges may be either circular or
noncircular, they usually have uniform thickness. In addition to the flat head or
blind flange+ype closures, many large vessels use a circular, spherically dished
cover with a bolting flange, as shown in Fig. 10.4. In all cases, the bolts ofthe
head attach either to a bolting flange on the end of the shell or to a thickened
shell.

In general, "failure" of a bolted flanged joint is due to excessive leakage at


the gasket, with very few failures in the metallic pressure boundary. Occasionally, problems encountered with bolts result from excessive tightening in

't

tI

|-..............

T|-?\

(e)

Figoro

tt

I
Fi
-)-"--w
l0,l

Int srol or wlldd tlct

hods.

I
I

reducing the leakage problem during hydrostatic testing of the assembly. Sometimes excessive stresses in the bolts cause them to break or to stretch until the
closure leaks.
The basic equations used for the design of flat plates and blind flanges in the

ASME Code, VI[-1, are based on a flat plate with uniform thickness and
uniform loading over the entire surface due to pressure. Depending upon the

r0.t

tNTRoDUcTtoN 273

dc(ails of the corner construction shown in Fig. 10.5, various C-factors are used
that require different minimum head thicknesses. The maximum deflection of
the plate is assumed as not more tltan one-half the thickness and all the stresses
are keDt within the elastic limit.

icmkor!!dd
i-- L- _

.tth.^..2t,
_- _^_
r,rf l:l'^ ,.. .,. '

jrr

'hnror75n

,,-,.,.i'i-'::l

|', 1
",+#'
"''^* **'
L",Jr{|c-033D
- -VA ":J^H:"
c'o.r7o,
c. o.r?

#l-r.,
c.o3o

i_4;"
ffi:.,,,M
.' lt M,.,,.:r:1"6;,:
14/4,.1,, l;
rn:-,^.'o.25,,'"' {ll $C.0.10
(rt

Figur.

10.3

lb

ll

0.20
lb.2t

m'n..

Elind flonsG-intesrol flonge conn.cnon.

r*

c' 013
,0,

.WZ

sk.rch.r{.llr)

i.,

lsl

= ?

rr nr..

C-o.20or0.13
l.)

nor r.$ rh.n 1.25 rr

ctrclr..cov.d,c- 033n, cmin. Cov.^, C -033

o.2o

"on-C',cur.r
ir)

ror

ffiSt
t [.\ i

Kiucrh \

lU-\ca,rer
'.1__{|I
! R.d,u'
Loos

F1169.

Typ.

Gastel

-l-1n

c::
@*4

|-1/2A-''--.------.1 +
la 8l+
I
F-l/a

I I

)I dllNni
ll\l

---?,
.#f,

,/-"),

I
T

tI

t2c
tbt

l0-4

272

ll

ll

O.2S

1- h+
C.

o.33

(d)

Sphericolly dishd cove|'s with bolting flonses. (Courte.y Americon Socisry

[nsino6r', ftom Fig. l-6 of rhe ASr{E Code, V

r{lf

rcKl
1t2

Figure

firj'I

c-0,33

I-i.)

of

Mechdn.col

10.5 Un3toyod flor heods dnd covers. (Court6y Americon Sociry of r{honicol Ensineerc,
UG-3,1 of rhe ASME Codo, Vlll-I.)

Fis',r

tom Fis.

274

BTIND FI,ANOTS, COVTR PTATTS, AND fIANGES

IO.2

CIRCULAR FI.AT PLATES AND HEADS WITH UNIFORM

IO.2

CIRCUTAR

TIAT PI.ATTS AND HEADS WITH UNITORM

w^ = 0.0B6#

TOADING
When an exact solution involving a discontinuity analysis at the shell-to-head
juncture is not wanted, flat heads are generally calculated based on the assumption that the edges are simply supported or fully fixed. The true condition lies
somewhere between.
Exact equations for circular plates were developed in Section 7. l. In using
those equations as a basis, the equations below were developed using the head
diameter d instead of the radius term a. The following nomenclature was also
substituted in the equations of Section 7.1:
Poisson's ratio (p = 9.3;
p = pressure loading Qsi)

O'Ilrcf;

(10.1)

w* = 0'0554#

o.3ose(xf

= o.s2s:L
"'"-'E',Tj

for fixed edge

(10.e)

)\2

10.1. Determine the maximum stress in a flat head under internal


of 1000 psi, diameter / = 48 in., and thickness r = 7 in. for both
simple-supported and fixed-edge conditions. Assume carbon steel with
fr = 0.3.
Determine the total loading

0.785 pd2

0.785(1000)(48),

P = 1.809.000 lb
With the edges assumed to be fully-fixpd,
Maximum stress is radial and located at the edge:

o*

= o.zto

f;

Maximum deflection is located at the center and equals

For simple-supported edge use Eq. 10.1:


(10.4)

entire

In actual designs, neither of these edge conditions is likely to be realized. Fully


fixed is very difficult to obtain in any constiruction.

Solutian.
(10.3)

p over the

(10.8)

presswe

Maximum rotation is located at the edge and equals

(10.7)

for simply supported edge

Example
(10.2)

(10.6)

^ . -_ P
OI: OI = U'IJJ'i

o.zs+fi

10.5)

Radial and tangential stress at the center equals

o = o.r88P(;/

Maximum deflection is located at the center and equals

o*

o':

,:

With the edges assumed to be simple-supported,


Maximum stess is located at the center and equals

Tangential stress at edge equals

When the circular flat plate is loaded under uniform pressure


surface, simplified equations of stress are

E' : modulus of elasticity (psi)


d = diameter of head (in.)
T = nominal thickness of head (in.)
P : total presswe load (lb) = 6.7*t Ort

o^

TOADING 275

, : o.:l+!!.ffi :
For fixed edge use Eq. 10.4:

14.550 psi

276

0UND FTANOIS, COVfR ptAT[S, AND ftANOIS

,, =

0.239

-1109-(xx)t
!l--lj-:

tlttzopsi

10.2. For the flat head in Example 10.


the center for both edge conditions.

Example

Solution, For simple-supported edge use Eq.


w=

rr

IO.3

l,

determine the deflection at

10.3.

Determine the minimum required thickness of an integral flat


to 1000 psi, S = 15,000 psi, d = 48 in. with
no corrosion, and no weld joints within the head (E = 1.0). The arrangement
is the same as that given in Fig. 10.5, sketch , - 2, with m : l.O.
head with intemal pressurep equal

rn'

For fixed edge use Eq. 10.5:

Solation. From Fig. 10.5,

, = 0.0136#"

r0.)or24gx4l

0.0057 in.

What is the maximum shess in a simple-supporied flat head whenp


psi, d
24 in., t
0.75 in., and p = 0.3t

Answer:

10.2

o^ :

56

15,840 psi

PR

'l::=---------:
sE - o.6P
15,820 psi

From Fig. 10.5, sketch b

,,

ASME CODE FORMUTA FOR CIRCULAR FLAT HEADS AND

>

1.5

Problems

In the ASME Code, Vm-1,1 and Section I,2 the minimum required thickness of
circular, unstayed flat heads and covers without bolting are calculated by the
lollowine:

10.3 A flat head

t=d

tcp

lsr

:
p:
S

allowable tensile stress (psi)


design pressure (psi)

C = 0.10 through 0.33 depending upon the construction details at the

1.0

in.

1000

15,000x1

7.120 in.

r, must be calculated using Eq. UG-

24

0.6x1000

1.667 in.

2, the rule is for

r.j"

0.25t,

0.25(1.667)

0.417

n.

ACl

is constructed according to Fig. 10.5, sketch d. The diameter


12in., thickness r = l.25in.,E: l.0,andS = 15,000psi. What
is the MAWP (maximum allowable working pressure)?

Ansyer.' MAWP =

(10.10)

E = butt-weld joint efficiency for a joint within the head

Soltrtion. The cylindrical shell thickness


27(c)(1) of the ASME Code, VII-1:

COVERS

wnere

15,000

1000

0.33(l) = 0.j3.

10.4. Determine the minimum corner radius to make Example 10.1


acceptable (valid) to be used.

What is the maximum stress for the conditions in hoblem 10.1 usins the

Answer: c,,," =

m:

Example

simplified equation?

IO.3

0.33

t=48

2, C = 0.33

sketch b

From Eq. (10.10),

Problems

10.1

277

d = effective diameter of head (in.) (see Fig. 10.5)


t = minimum required thickness of flat head (in.)
Example

0.0554* x
r.l toltzt' = u'uzrz

COVTRS

head-to-shell juncture (see Fig. 10.5) and contains a factor to


increase effectively the allowable stress to 1.5 S because the stress
is predominandy a bending stress

10.2:

R09,000x48f

ASME CODT FORMUI.A FOR CTRCUTAR FIAT HEADS AND

1250 psi

10.4 A large flat head is made


examined so that ,E

from pieces that are weldd together and spot


0.85. The corner details are similar to Fig. 10.5,
1.0. The diamet d = 60 in.,,S = 12,500 psi, and

skerch/ with ltt =


the internal pnessure p = 300 psi. What is the minimum required
thickness?

Answer:

t6n

5.792

n.

278

0UND ftaNoEs,

cov[R plarts, AND fl.ANGtS

I0.6

IO.4 COMPARISON OF THEORY AND ASMT CODE FORMULA FOR


CIRCUTAR FLAT HEADS AND COVERS WITHOUT BOLTING
As previously mentioned, the ASME Code formula contains a factor of 1.5
within the C factor to adjust for the permitted higher level of allowable stress
because it is chiefly caused by primary bending stress. If the 1.5 value is
removed from the values of C, the range of C values in the code adjusts to
C = 0.15 to C = 0.5. Rearranging Eqs. 10.8 and 10.9 into the same form as
Eq. 10.10, we see that C : 0.15 through C : 0.5 encompasses the two exhemes from fully fixed edges where C = 0.188 to simply supported edges
where C = 0.309.
The low value of C : 0.15 in the ASME Code is for a special head-to-shell
configuration with an inside comer radius of at least three times the head
thickness. The structural effect of this edge condition results in reducing the
equivalent pressurized diameter on the circular flat head from the normal diameter d to a diameter of 0.893d such that the Eq. 10.9 becomes

o=orssp(o8e'il=r"(il
IO.5

(10.11)

BOLTED FTANGED CONNECTIONS

The most usual type of joint for easy assembly and disassembly used in the
process vessels and piping system is the bolted flanged connection. A convenient
method to design and calculate flanges with ring-type gaskets that are within the
bolt circle was first published by Taylor Forge in 1 937 . 3 These rules were further

developeda and incorporated into the ASME Code,

VI[-l,

some years later.

CONTACT

FACING

279

provcd according to the code the dcsigner should recognizc th t s(nr1c calcu
lltions can be avoided. If the flange is the type described in Appentlix 2 ol thc
ASME Code, the code permits using flanges with recognized standards that
cstablish items such as dimensional standards, materials, and pressure/temperature ratings. The code accepts flanges designed to ANSI 816.5 .,pipe Flanges
and Flanged Fittings,"6 API 605 "Large Diameter Carbon Steel Flanges",T and
ANSI 816.24 "Bronze Flanges and Fittings, 150 and 300 lb,'.8 Several other
standards are not included; however, when the flanges are selected by this
method, no additional calculations are required to satisfy the ASME Code.
When calculations are necessary according to Appendix 2 of the ASME
Code, VIII-I, for a nonstandard design or when it is desired to upgrade a
standard flange, similar design calculations are required for blind flanges (circular flat heads with bolts) and for regular bolted flanges. Although each item is
discussed in geater detail in the following paragraphs, the basic steps in designing a flange are as follows:

l.
2.

Establish design pressure and design temperature.


Select gasket material and dimensions and facing type. Calculate N
and b.

3.
4.
5.
6.

Calculate loads for both gasket seating and operating conditions.


Determine bolting sizes and gasket width check.

7.

Determine required thickness of flange.

Establish flange dimensions (usually using those from a standard flange).


Using loads and dimensions, calculate moments for both qasket seatine
and operating conditions.

These rules, which are still used to calculate this type of flange, are in Appendix
2 Of thE ASME COdC, VIII.1.

10.6

Rules for calculating flat face flanges with metal-to-metal contact outside of
the bolt circle are given in Appendix Y ofthe ASME Code, VI[-1. This design
incorporates a self-energizing-type gasket such as the O-ring gasket. fhe original rules were restricted to analyzing identical pairs of flat face flanges. Current
rules have been improved to permit analysis of both identical and nonidentical
pairs of flanges.
Further development of design rules in the ASME Code, VI[-1,5 came with
the issuance of reverse flange rules that use a ring-type gasket with no additional
contact of the faces. These rules were added to Appendix 2, ASME Code,

For ring+ype gasket design as given in the ASME Code, VI[-I, Appendix 2,
several types of flange facings are used. Some of the more usual types are the

VIII-I.

In addition to these rules for flange design in the code, many designs are used

in which rules are not in the ASME Code. One common type is the full-face
gasket flange. There are many others that may be designed for ASME Code
approval by meeting the requirements of U-2(g) of the ASME Code, VIII_I.
Before any flange design calculations are performed for a vessel to be ap_

CONTACT FACINGS

raised face, the tongue-and-groove, and the

full seal loading is taken by the gasket


in contact with the adjacent face.

the

lapjoint. When these types are used,


because no other part of the face is

In addition to the types of facing where the gasket must carry the seating load,
one type of closure and facing depends upon the adjacent faces to be in contact
with each other, but it does not require a large seating load for initial sealing.
This kind of closure is used on both the ring-type gasket design of Appendix 2
and the flat face flanges with metal-to-metal contact outside the bolt circle as
described in Appendix Y ofthe ASME Code, VIII-1. This construction utilizes
a self-energizing or pressure-actuated O-ring gasket that is internally pressurized
to seal the gasket and does not depend upon initial gasket seating by the bolts
that cause compression of the gasket (Fig. 10.6).
There are also special types of gaskets and facing designs that become self-

10.7 GASKETS

ETIND TTANOES, COVTR PIATIS, AND IIANOES

r0.7

FACING DETAILS
o. Sell

Energizing

gaskets is needed in process equipment. The diverse processes, temperatures, pressures, and corrosion environment require gaskets with
different configurations, materials, and properties. Some of the frequently used
gaskets are:

b.

/'' -)
l\
Cold

tr.t.t

Finbi

Met.llic

ing

4
\T-

l.
t
3.
4.

Ring Joint

,,.-1.n o/y %F*


b=, I
\ -\-l
\-1\__r/T;'l

Groove

Wirh Searing
Nubbin

10.6

Typicol Gocing

d.roil..

sealing frorn the gaskets rotation and deflection that are caused by contact
loading ftom a retaining ring and head closure. Some of these are called the delta
gasket as used in Bridgeman closures, the double cone gasket, and the wedge
gasket. In all these cases, the initial gasket seating load is low. As the pressure
in the vessel is increased, the gasket rotates and deflects into a special facing in
which the sealing load increases as the pressure increases. Care must be taken
with this type of closure because the gasket often "seizes" and it may be difficult
!o get the closure apart. In many instances, the gasket may be silver, gold, or
platinum plated to help prevent the "seizing."

Asbestos

Flat metal
Spiral wound

6.

Jacketed

7.

Metal ring

8.

High-pressure type

Rubber O-Rings

These gaskets shown in Fig. 10.7a are used extensively in low-pressure applications such as storage tanks and air receivers. They are normally confined in a

Ring & Bevel


Cold Water
Finish

Figur.

Rubber O-rings

Metallic O- and C-rings

10.7.

Lap Joint

GASKTTS

A large variety of

O.Rin9

Delta

281

groove to prevent exhusion and their maximum temperature limit is about


250'F. Because the required seating stress is negligible, the number of bolts
needed in the flange is kept to a minimum. A groove finish of 32 rms is usually
specified.

10.7.2 Metollic O- ond C-Rings


The metallic O- and C-Rings in Fig. 10.7b and c have a wide range of applications for both extemal and internal pressures. They have a good springback
characteristic and a low seating stress. The gaskets may be manufactured from
widely selected matbrials compatible with the flange. This eliminates the problem of thermal expansion between the gasket and the flange and increases their
applicable temperatue range.
O- and C-gaskets seals along a contact line. Accordingly, a finish of about
32 rms is needed in the flange seating surface to properly seal the gaskets. In
critical applications a silver plating is specified to help sealing.
The O-rings manufactured in ftree different styles shown in Fig. 10.7c are the
unpressurized, pressurized, and vented types. The unpressurized one is used at
high temperatures whereby the increased pressure from the sealed gas cornpensates for the loss of strength. The vented ring gasket is used at high pressures
for better sealine.

r0.7

EtIND TTANOIS, COVER PIATES, AND TI.ANOES

oAsKtTs

ITil
ll
I

_)l
(a)

(t) sp iru

Rubber O-Ring

tressurized tessurized

I7I Htr

)t
(d)

)t

Asbestos

O- Ring

(e)

Flat Metal
Fisu..

figur. 10.7 lypo6 of oq.kcls.

10.7.4
10.7.3

Compressed Asbestos Goskels

'fhese gaskets in Fig. lD.1d normally consist of 707o asbestos, 2O7o ntbber
hinder, and l0% filler material and curative. They can be cut to fit various shapes
und configurations such as heat exchangers with pass partitions and oval and
square openings. Thicknesses are normally fumished beween fr and i in' and
rcquire a seating surface finish of about 250 rms. Asbestos gaskets are normally

850T. A rule of thumb for determining the adequacy


given
of Nbestos gaskets for a
temperature and pressure is to limit the product
pressure
in psi to about 300,000.
of temperature in T times the
used for tempemtures up to

lO.7 TyF

of solk6b (conrinu.d)

Flqt Melol Goskets

These gaskets (Fig. 10.7a) are made from a wide variety of materials that can
be cut from sheet metal to any desired configuration and width. Some frequently
used gasket materials and their temperature limit are:

Material

Max. Temp. ('F)

Ipad
Aluminum

400

Brass

500

Copper

600

212

2t1

IUttlD

ttaNots, covER ptaTts, AND FtaNors


Materiul

r0.7 oASKETS

Max. Temp. ('F)

Titanium and zirconium

800

Carbon steel

900

Monel

1000

400 series stainless sieel

1200

Nickel

1200

Inconel
300 series stainless steel

1500

Incoloy

1500

Hastelloy

1800

1200

q".9,: need a high searing force for proper seating. Accordingly,


*l
Tt1l
tney are
best-suited for high-pressure applications
.

a finish of about 63 rms.

The seating stirface must have

Srated gaskets require a smaller seating force than flat gaskets


and thus are
in screwed flanges where friction forces are to be miiimized.

used

285

10.7.5 Spirol-Wound Goskels


Spirul-wound gaskets (Fig. l0.1f) are very versatile and used in numerous
npplications. They are especially suited for cyclic conditions where the excellent
npringback makes them ideal for repetitive loading. They:ue manufactured to
I rlcsired width by spiral winding a preshaped metal strip with a filler material
bctween the strips that consists of asbestos or teflon composites. Asbestos-filled
Iuskets are limited to temperatures of 850T, whereas teflon is limited to 500"F.
For most applications spiral-wound gaskets are retained in a groove. In raised
luce flanges, an outer ring is used to prevent the gasket from extruding and the
t:hevrons from excessive deformation. Sometimes an inner ring is also used to
rninimize erosion and to reduce temperature fluctuation in cyclic conditions.
Many factors affect the performance of spiral-wound gaskets such as tightness
of wraps, material of filler and strips, height of strips, diameter of opening, and
surface finish. The gasket seating surface finish is about 125 rms.

10.7.6 Jockeled Goskels


'these gaskets in Fig. 10.79 are normally used for pressures up to 500 psi in large
diameter vessels where flange out-of-roundness and tregularities are large compared with small flanges . They may be purchased as plain or corrugated and they
seal at the inner and outer laps. The outer metal jacket are made from a wide
variety of metals. The filler material is normally made of asbestos, teflon, or
metallic. The asbestos filler limits the temperature application to about 850'F,
whereas the teflon is limited to 500'F. The metallic filler is used at the hish
temperatures. The seating surface finish is about 63 rms.

10.7.7 Metol

Ring Goskets

The metal ring gaskets shown in Fig. l0.1h are used in high-pressure and

Lens

temperature applications. Their small cross-sectional area makes them ideal for
compact flanges. The required high seating stress has the same magnitude as the
pressure stress. The rings are made from many varied materials and are sometimes silver plated to improve sealing. The gasket groove finish is about 63 rms.
|

0.7.8

High-Pressure Goskets

Ins, delta, double-cone, and Bridgeman configurations shown in Fig. 10.7i


comprise the majority of the pressure applications where the seating saess is
Double Cone

Bridgeman

(i) High Pressure


Fisure

10.7 TyF! of golkei!

(conrinud)

required to be low due to physical limitations of bolt spacing and flange width.
They are used extensively in pressure vessels operating above 1000 psi and are
made of softer materials than the seating surfaces to prevent damage to the
flanges or covers. In general, these gaskets are expensive to fabricate and

216

IIIND

COVIR PIATES, AND TTANOES

'IANOIS,
m1lchinc; rcquirc vcry tight k)lerunces; and need very smooth seating
surfaces of
16 rms or better.
gaskets have a large surface that is subjected to
. High-pressure
the vessor
pr:r*t::.
a
free-body
diagram
is
no-ully
n"""rrury
ro
+ccordingly,
ll,.e.rnall
determlne
the additional forces transmitted to the flanges and boltjresulting
from
pressure on the gasket.
The individual design requirements for lens, delta, and double-cone
gasketo
are given in the next three sections.

10.7.9

10.7 oASKETS

l'hc outside thickness of the gasket is established to allow tbr an 0.25 in.
clctrirnce plus 0.0625 in. for a centering ring, ifrequired. The pitch diameter lbr
grskct seating reaction is established as

c=(rD)*1(oo-ro)
3
whcre G = diameier of

gasket reaction.

'the spherical radius of the gasket surface is taken

Lens Ring Goskets

oo

=llr,+

(D),]'/

:
I:

where R

spherical radius of gasket surface (in.)


angle of friction (for mild steel,

it is 20")

l.'rom the geometry, the inside thickness of the flange is calculated from

where OD : outside diameter of ring gasket (in.)


ID = inside diameter of ring gasket (in.)
Aa

as

"p=G/z
sin 0

The lens ring- gaskets in Fig. 10.8 are normally used in small
flanges. Thc

rins. through points a to b, must be equal to or larger


:f:r.-::"j^",:1T19j ttgflanc:
!o pyent crushing of the gasket. Thus knowing
p:
f:_T::i1t-Tl
Ine nslde-dameler"fof the gasket and the required bolt
area, the outside diameter
can be calculated from

287

't=:-+)l
16 -l
where t = inside

actual bolt area of flange

/ODYI

\, i I

thickness of gasket (in.).

The width of gasket seating is normally

(At(1.s)(design bolt stress)

z(GX3)(yield shength of gasket material)


gasket seating width (in.).
Figure 10.8 shows the flange and cover surfaces at the vicinity of the gasket
machined to have a slope of 20'.

where N =

5-

fc

l"r
16

10.7.10 Delto

Goskets

The delta ring gaskets in Fig. 10.9 are extensively used in the United Staies for
high-pressure applications. These gaskets rely on the inside pressure to wedge
them in the gasket groove for sealing and thus do not requhe any initial seating
or bolting shess. The general dimensions that are shown in Fig' 10.9 apply to

rings of all diameters. The pitch diameter G is normally taken

G=ID+0.125
Figur.

10.8 t.n.

so3k6t,

and tlle gasket seating width N is usually equal to 0.125 in.

as

IIINO II.ANOIS,

Figur.

10.7.1|

10.7 oasKlts

COVER PI.AT!S, AND FTANOES

lO.9

Figur6

Dclto go!k6t.

'10.10

Doublo-cono gosk6t.

The seating length N is determined from

Double-ConeGoskets

Double-cone gaskets are very popular in Europe and can be fabricated in


various
slzes. A typical detail is shown in Fig. 10.10. The required cross-sectional

area

is given by

and the pitch diametr G is expressed as

OD

:
ID :

where OD

(cos 60)(aXc)(3)(yield strength of gasket material)

outside diameter of gasket (in.)


inside diameter of gasket (in.)

A, = actual bolt

1tl2

= l:A, + (rD), I
L1r

area

of flange (in.r)

G=OD-0'5N
The height of the gasket is usually set so that the net pressure force does not
exceed the seating force. Thus,

tzxrr(|)<,-

60)

(P)(,r)

290

ITIND IIANOIS, COVTR PI.ATES, AND TIANOES

r0.7 GASKETS

'l'he operating condition exists when the hydrostatic end fbrce from the internal
dcsign pressure tends to open the joint, for the gasket retains enough resiliency
l() keep the joint tight. Loadings and stresses are determined at design pressure
rund design temperature. The loading for the operating condition is

6o)
' ----(rXN)(sin
P

where

I = seating stress of gasket material (psi)


P = internal

10.7.12 Gcsket

W.t: H + n,:f,C'zp + mGp(Zb)

design pressure (psi)

cnaraderistics depend upon the material and the design of the


m and, the minimum design seating sEess )l irre
th: cTk"jjlry and the gasket marerial. flrhou;h-the rn and
y
P^l:':j:o,ro
tactors have been in the ASME Boiler and pressure Vessel
CodJsince the 194i
edition, they are suggested values only and are not mandatory.
The originat
iesting and development of the m and y factors are described
ln an articii Uy
Rossheim and Markle that does not give the underlying background
for the
specific.values. V9ry
changes have been made to ttiese faciors since they
_fu*
were originally published.
the
of many inquiries to the ASME Code Committee regarding the
.A.s
validity of-result
the m and J factors, a large-scale investigation has been undertaken
by the hessure Vessel Research Committeero of the frelding Research
Councit.

!a1f1t.fei1e,_r-fhe
gasKet
rtself.
gasket faclor

As experimental tests progressed, it became obvious that thJrz


and y factors are

t" many items not previously considered. There is a closJ corretation


with the amount of tightening of the bolts, the gasket type, and the
material, for
thel are all related to the leakage rate of the j-oint. "
the_gasket tlpe and material have bCen selected, the effective gasket
.g.nc-e
width for cabulation may be determined. For solid flat metal and for
thJ ring_
type joints' the basic gasket seating width bs is found by the formuras
rn column
I of Table 7-5.2 of the ASME C;de, VI[_l, whereas for all other types of
gaskets' ba is delermined by the formulas in column rI.
The effective gasket
seating width D is found by applying the following rules:
."J1t"9

bo

(10.13)

To avoid crushing the gasket in those bolted flanged connections where the

Design

D=06 when

291

iin.

fbllowine formula:

N^"=ffi

= tbGy

(10.12)

(10.14)

10.5. A

vessel has the following design data: design pressure


psi;
p = 250/U..
design temperature = 250'F; a spiral-wound metal, fiber-filled
gasket
with an inside diameter of 13.75in. and widthN = l.0in.
stainless steel

Example

The gasket factors are m = 3.0 and y = 10,000. Bolts are SA-325 Grade I with
& = Sa 19,200 psi. Is the gasket width sufficiendy wide to keep from crushing out?

Sohttian. Determine the effective gasket seating width as follows: N =


1.0 in., b" : N/2 = 0.5 in., b = 0.5!bo = 0.3535 in., effective gasket diameter ls

= 13.75 + (2 x
G = 15'M3 in.
G

1)

(2 x 0.3535)

Gasket loadings are

b: O.slbo when De )|rn.

With D deiermined the location of the line of gasket load reaction can
be
determined as well as the values of G and h6 for calculating
flange moments.
designing a flange, it is important to recognize that two'desiln
conditions
.ln
cxrst-the gasket seating and the operating conditions. Gasket seattg
condition
cxlsts when an initial load is applied by the bolts to seat the gasket
at ambient
tcmperature with no intemal pressure. The minimum initial
biolt loaO is
W"e

gasket is carrying all the loading, it is recommended that the initial loading does
not exceed the gasket seating stress y. Once the actual bolting areaA, is selecied,
a check may be made to determine the required minimum gasket width by the

H,=
Wa

o.785G2p: 0.785(15.043F(25N1 = 444,1ss


2brGmp = 2(0.3535)r(15.043X3X2500) = 250,600

He

444,1A0

W^z: rbGy = z(0


Since

fi = Sa :

250'600

694'700

3535)(15.043X10'000)

167,100

19,200 psi, W.r sets the bolting arca A^

A^=Y#

36.182in.,

as

292
AD

IUND ftANOrS, COVIR plarrs, AND FtaNots

octuul bolt {reu

width is

10.8 BotT|NG DESTGN 293

36.ti in.2 lbr l6-2-in. diumeter bolts. Minimum gaskct

.. = 36.8( 19.200) :
fl^"
zlq000).(15.0a,

0 748

in

versus

One-inch wide gasket is sufficient to prevent crushing.

I in'

W.z

actual

s,
where & :

=
W.1 =
1Y.r =
S1

Pmblem

: 6.5 and y : 26,000 is used


flat, stainless steel gasket with
'l2 The preliminary gasket
in the vessel described in Example 10.5.
inside
diametef is 12 in. and the gasket width is 1.0 in. whai is the easket

10.5 A solid,

seatine load?

ot

of

W^r
Sa

allowable bolting stress at room temperature (psi)


allowable bolting stress at design temperature (psi)
operating

load: H + H, (see Eq. 10.13)

gasket seating load

From this minimum required bolting a;ea A. the actual bolting area A, is
In order to obtain a bolt loading for calculating moment for gasket
seating, the minimum required bolting area and the actual bolting area are
averaeed as follows:
selected.

Answer:

IO.8

scnting and operating conditions must be examined.


The minimum required bolting area A, is th greater

W,,2

384,000 lb

w:0.5(A.+Ars"
BOTTING DESIGN

In designing bolting for flanges, the initial item is selecting the bolting matenal.
It must be a malerial compatible with the flange material . ihat is there musr nor
,
be any chemical or galvanic action between the bolting and ffange material
that
would cause the bolts to seize in the tkeads. Under certiin circurn'stances,
rt may
be necessary to plate the bolts or to make them from special material
to prot;t
them from the environment. Although it is not neceisary to select a 6olting
material with a tensile shength close to that of the flange material, one should
carefully consider the effects of strain elongation and rehxation of bolting

materials that have a high tensile strength and requte a smaller cross-secdona'i
area.- In addition, when high sFength material is used for the bolting,
care must
be taken not to rcduce the number of required bolts to such a small -number
that
excessive bolt spacing is developed. r I
Wlren the bo_lt spacing exceeds (U + t), secondary flange bending is developed between the bolts to the extent that it affects the ;ormal flange
bending . To
account for this effect, the flange bending moment M0 must be iricreased
by the

Iactor

actual bolt spacing

(10.l5)

where d = nominal diameter of bolts (in.)


t : flange thickness (in.)
To detennine the total required cross-sectional area of bolting, both the gasket

(10.16)

Certain times during the operation of a process vessel the bolts in a bolted
flanged connection are subjected to actual stresses in excess of the allowable
design stresses. This may be especially true during hydrostatic testing. Care
must be taken to enswe that during this testing, no permanent elongation ofthe
bolting has occurred. If so, the bolting may have to be replaced before the vessel
is put into service. Realizing this is especially important if each of two suppliers
provides half of the bolted flanged assembly and one does not know what bolting

is supplied.

Example 10.6. A vessel flange uses 16-2-in. diameter bolts. Flange sfress
calculations indicate that a flange thickness of t : 4.5 in. is adequate. The bolt
circle diameter is C = 22.5 in. Will secondary bending stresses be developed?

Solutian. The maximum permissible bolt spacing without a penalty


(2d + t1 = (2 x 2 + 4.5; = 3.5 in. The actual bolt spacing is

is

rd _ n(22.5\
1V -]6- = +Az n.
Because the actual spacing is less than the rnaximum spacing without a penalty,
no secondary bending shesses are developed.

Example 10.7. Suppose a vessel requires Z-2 j -in. diameter bolts on a flange
that is 5.5 in. thick. What is the madmum bolt circle that will not cause
secondary bending shesses? The minimum bolt spacing for 2 j -in. diameter bolts
is 5i in.

294

lutito ftaNolg, covER ptATEs, AND frANOrS

Solullon, Maximum

IO.9

BI.IND FTANGES

spucing is

(2d

+ t) = (2

><

2i + 5.5; =

19.5 tn.

Diameter of bolt circle is

lo'5 x

n
based on maximum

spacing.

24

80.2 in.

Problems
H

10.6

Sixteen bolts at I l-in. diameter are io be located on a bolt circle of


G = 32 in. The flange is 2+ in. rhick. What is the factor rhat is due to
secondary

fl

ange bending?

Anstrer: l.l2
10.7

The minimum spacing for the wrench to fit I |-in. diameter bolts is 3 | in.
Twelve bolts are to be used on a bolt cide of 15l-in. diameter. What is
the minimum flange thickness that does not cause secondary flange bend-

iog?
1.0 in.

BTIND FTANGES

The minimum required thickness of a cicular, unstayed flat head or blind flange
attachedty bolts and utilizing a ring-type gasket that causes an edge moment is
derived from the assumption that the flat plate is simply suppofted; the gasket
load line G and is loaded by a gasket seating load or a combination of easket
loading and a uniform pressure loading . The combination of these loadingJat the
gasket and at the bolt circle causes an edge moment ofMg/zrG, as shown-in Fig.
10.11. ff the edge moment
is assumed to be equal ta Wh", tlre theoretical
stress at the center of the flat plate is

ffi

_3(3

"
"Sening

trc

Fisurg

lo.l I

loodings on blind flons.

Solving Eq. 10.18 for r gives

Answer:

IO.9

0.3 and E

+ tt)p (GY + 1 /wrrc\


:z F)-"G\-F)

,:oJgll\,

*t'n-LYl',

(10. r9)

This is identical with the equation in the ASME Code, VI[-l, except that the
constants of 0.3 and 1.9 are used in the code instead of the exact constants of
0.31 and 1.91 and the gasket load G is substituted for d. The general ASME
Code equation for circular flat-bolted heads is
(10.20)
For the gasket seating condition, the internal pressure equals zero and the only
load is the gasket seating load W" at ambient temperature with the allowable
tensile stress of S.. The equation for gasket seating condition is

(10'17)

t=G

(10.21)

= weld joint efficiency within the flat plate,

sE:(*rye\-r..(W)

(10.18)

For operating condition the intemal pressure p as well as the gasket loading are
applied. For this condition, Wr : H + Il, at operating temperature with an
allowable tensile stress of S1. The equation for operating condition is

296

t0.9

ITIND ?LANOI3, COVTR PLATIS, AND FTANOTS


| .9W,,1ha;
t=G 0.3p
s"E - -srEcl-

EUND FTANOES

(t0.22')

Figure 10.12 shows a sample calculation of a blind flange.

10.E. Considering the pressure vessel described in Example 10.5,


the vessel is to have one end closed by a blind flange. What is the minimum
required thickness of the blind flange? Design data are the following:
E-xample_

x -crr/. -

41{,12
t. -,51c - d

Design pressure

l.

Design

2. Xc

p = 2500 psi.
temperature = 250'F.

3,

Flange material is SA-105.

Bolting material is SA-325 Gr.

l..iir

OO,

,-'12

dillina.

C.|l.1-+6. 6 l4hlig

.addj.el rfiktid. I

l, l.d.!
'.{ft.d
Ud{ or[.Rin rF..tjrd, l!.G .l $r'l 0..!.
Br b. d.ri..d .nt d.. .rlo'
'.i!lni

No corrosion exists.

Allowable bolt stress


19,200 psi.

at

gasket seating and operating conditions =

Allowable flange sfress at gasket seating and operating conditions =


17,500 psi.

Gasket is spiral-wound metal, fiber


diameter times width N = I in.

filled, stainless steel, 13.75 in. inside

Solution. Following the information calculated in Example 10.5, once

Fisur

10.12

Elind flonge romple colcolorion sh|. (Courrery

G+w roybFBonney

Div., Toylor Forge.)

the

actual bolt area A, is found, the design loading for the gasket seating condition
W, can be determined as:

W:

0.5(A^ + Ar)S,

%=

700,800

0.5(36.2

For operating condition,

36.8X19,200)

t:G

The moment arm is determined from

hc = 0.5(C

fJgt

G) = 0.5(22.5

15.043)

is lll.r =

The minimum required thickness is determined as the greater thickness of


that
dctcrmined for gasket seating load according to Eq. 10.i1 or for operating load
rrccording to Eq. 10.22.
l.i)r gasket seating,

,=

srE-

t = ls.(Ml.
v

3.729 in.

Pxample 10.5, the design loading for operating condition

694,700.

O.3p

_ ll.gwhc ts.o+:{ffi
.__.. I t.9(700.800x3.729) :4.343in.
uV
s,uoi =

-,

|.9W.rhc

s"EGt

rF
17,500

x 1.0

(t7,500

1.0x15.043t

Therefore, the minimum required flange thickness is

5.329

in. I

Problcms

10.8

Suppose the flat head in Example 10.8 is made by butt-welding flat plates

together. The welds are spot examined so that E


minimum required head thickness?

0.85. What is the

Answer: t, n =

5.780 in.

298
10.9

IIIND IIANOIS,

COVER PLATES, AND TLANOES

IO,IO

sOTTED fI.ANGED CONNECTIONS WITH RING.TYPE GASKETS

Suppose the bolt circle diametsr is incrcused ro C


= 24 in. What is thc
minimum required head thickness considering both gasket seating
and

operating conditions?

Answer:

IO.IO

tnn^

5.671 in.

BOTTED FTANGED CONNECTIONS WITH RING-TYPE GASKETS

The design_rules for bolled flanged connections with a ring+ype gasket that is
entirely within a circle enclosed by the bolt holes and with no iontact outside of

, Whn it is necessary
dard flange

to design a bolted flanged connection because no stan_


of the proper size is available, the standard pressure/lemDeraure
ratings are not adequate, or sperial design factors are to be used for the gasket,
the procedure in Appendix 2 of the ASME code is used. The design of nanges,
bolting, and gaskets by the ASME Code rules is essentially a ftal_and-enor
procedure where some dimensions are set and remain fixed, whereas other

dimensions such as the flange thickness are varied. Stresses in the flange and the
hub are calculated. If any of these shesses exceeds the allowable tensile stresses,
a "new" flange thickness is selected and the stresses are recalculated until they

are satisfactory. The trial-and-error method is essentially due to the complei


theory used by Waters, Rossheim, Wesshom, and Williams to solve the problem
in the original development. The WRWW method, which was ultimatelv incor_
porated into the ASME Code in 1940, is ar elastic analysis of the intiraction
between the vessel or pipe, the hub, and the flange ring assembly. The shell and
hub are resolved by a discontinuity analysis that was previously described in
Chapter 5 and the flange ring is considered as a flat plate with ihe center Dart
rcmoved (Fig. I0.13). Interactions of rotations and deflections are oermiited
until lhe balance is obtained.
. The basic assumptions in the analysis are that the flange materials are elastic,
that is, no creep or_ plastic yield at lower temperature ocJurs, the bolt loading
ii
assumed or determined from the gasket factors, and the moments due
to loadinss
are essentially constant across the width ofthe flange. In addition, rotation
of tie

lr

(a)

(l

(l

Moment Loadlng

(b) Direct

Loadlng

t+t-lrr,-ri'r'ro
f+.l

Illll.
l-----v------J
'tt 0z

(c) Combined Loadlng


Figure

'10.13

Flongo loodin$ for alo:ric anolysii.

flat plate is assurned as linear with no dishing effect and superposition is acceptable.
The solution of the complex problem is simplified for code use by cwves,
formulas, and tables that contain constants depending upon the geometry of the
flange assembly. Formulas for various coefficients are given in the code that
permits cornputer programming of the basic equations for rapid solution.
The code designates flanges with ring-type gaskets to be three types for

IO.IO

EIIND FTANOIS, COVER PLATES. AND FTANOTS

BOTTTD TTANGED CONNECTIONS WITH

RING.fiPE GASKETS

301

Bnalysis: intgrsl, loose, und optionul. lntegral means that the pipe, hub, and

ring are one continuous assembly from their original manufacture as eithcr
forging or casting welded together by full penetration welds. lnose means no
attachment of the assembly to the pipe or no ability of the juncture to carry sheafs
and moments other than those required to seal against pressure. These types of
flanges are called slip-on, lap joint, and threaded, and they may or may not havc
hubs. Optional means flange designs that, by construction, are integral, but thc
analysis is permitted by the simpler method for loose-type flanges. Examples of
these various types are depicted in Fig. 10.14.
The calculation of a flange with a ring-typ gasket first involves selecting the
material for the flange, bolts, and gasket in a manner very similar to the blind
flange. Next, the facing and gasket details are set, the loads due to intemal
presswe are determined, and the required bolting area and bolt sizes are selected.
The bolt circle is then decided; and the loads, moment ams, and moments due
to both gasket seating and operatihg conditions are determined as with the blind
flange. By knowing these and the geometry used to determine K and other hub
coefficients, stress calculations are made for both conditions. The longitudinal
hub stress, the radial flange sness, the tangential flange stess, and their various
combinations are comparcd with allowable stresses.
The method of calculation is virtually identical for welding neck flanges and
slip-on or lap-joint flanges except that the axial pressure load is applied at a
slightly different location. For the ring flange design, the tangential flange stress

I
I

F
E-*--'t

tr=
-tr_r

el

\__

d
1+
(.)

(d)

l-T

IT

{-..*,o

is the only one calculated. The minimum required thickness can be directly

9t

determined from

l9lt\
A 9 j 12

12

(s)

tM*

(10.23)

V s-B

,..I

Opii.nrl lYF. Fl.n96.


Th6. M.y b. C.ldl.r..t.r Eirh.. Looro.or Inr.9..t.Typ.

Example 10.9, What is the minimum required thickness of a welding neck


flange as shown in Fig. 10.lzla with the following design data? (Nore.' These data
are the same as those used for the blind flange in Example 10.8. In Fig. 10.15
is a sample calculation of a welding neck flange.
Design pressure, p.
Design temperature

= 2,500 psi.
= 25O"F.

Bolt-up and gasket seating temperature

(i)
=

70'F.

Flange material is SA-105.

Bolting material is SA-325 Grade 1.


Gasket details are spiral-wound metal, fiber filled, stainless steel, inside
diameter is 13,75 in. and width is 1.0 in.
Solutinn

1.

Allowable bolt shess at design and seating temperatufes = S, =


19,200 psi.

(h)

Figur6

(i)
lo.l,t

ASME Cod.,

(k)

(1)

Typer of flonger. (Courl,ely Americon So.ieiy of Mechonicol Engin.rs, from Fig. 2-.1 of the

Vlll-I.)

2.

Allowable flange sfress at design and seating temporatures = S/ =

3.

Gasket dirnensions are

17,500 psi.

b.= N/2 = 0.5in. and b=0.5Vro=0.3535


G = 13.75 + (2 x l) - (2 x 0.3535) = 15.M3 in.

302

BTIND fI.ANOES, COVER PIATES, AND FLANGES

I
'r=

Io-:".

ra't

h= 6'at

I P;Pe s'ze

L. tza

orrron coxorrronr

J7i.^l u."^L azl-1,


l;ber fi//el,s u/eer tt"el
rl t5 t.o. i t" ",tt /e'

13.154

B=

to.7t "

ll

tr

c. 2t,5'

Ac

=,5lc

-6r

= t.1L

- cr

- t71'65

hT

t6- 7"' eot::s Figure

4.

lO.l,C(d)

rc =.5(c

Flons dimBions

ior Ex. 10.9.

Determine bolt loadings and sizing of bolts with


10,000; m=3.0.

y=

, : Xo,, = 2|o5.o43)'z(zsoo) :

= l; b = 0.3535;

srl =

.s(s, + srfq .5 {sr

.5lsi + s,lr.5lsx

+5rl =

444,323

H, = 2btrGmp = 2(0.3535)zr( 15.043X3.0X2500) :250,591


Wa = H + Ho = @44323) + (250,591) = 694,914

13. oO

= 1/3t.+t =

= nbGy : z(0.3535)(15.043X10,000) : 167,060


A. = the greater of W f Sbh : 694,914) /(19,200) = 36.2 in.'z
or W,ef 56" = 067 ,0ffi) /(19,2C0) : 8.7 in.'z
Aa = actual bolt area = 36.8 in.'z 16 bolts at 2-in. diameter
W.: 0.5(A^ + Ar)Sr. = 0.5(36.2 + 36.8X19,200) : 700,800

Z.o

W^z

a.115

'

t0.75 "

lf Lh

i9oc., no..g ro + t .uttipt

.il ..

lr

.6or au.rld

b,

Wo=Wa=694,914
Calculate total flange moment for the design condition.
l6 - 2"toont

Flange Loads

a,

XB'p !{ro.ts)'{zsn) = 226906


He = Hp:250,591
Hr : H - Ho : 1444,3231 - Q26906) = 2r7,4r7

Figuro

lo.l5

r. a41'

CdrvndCrxt.a--

weldins neck flonse sdmple colculotion sheet (Courtesv

G+w

D.+
tt'i..
Tovlor-Bonnev Div

'

Tovlor

Fors..)

Leaer Arms

hp=R+'0.591 = (2.5) + 0.5(3.375) =

4.1875

303

Itll'lD flANOt!, COVIR p[Arr3, Al,tD frANOrs

IO.IO

6) = 0..5(22.5 - 15.043) : j12BS


}r=0.5(R*g1 * ft6):0.5(2.5 + 3.375 + 3.7285)
=
nr;

O..J(C

sx = fMn/ LglB

sa:

x hD = (226,910)(4.1875) = g5g,17g
Mo- Hox hc= Q5O,5g0)(3.7285) : g34,33g
Mr = Hr x h, : (Zt7 ,420)(4.3018) = t,O43,gg}
Mo = Hp

6.

s^=

700,800

Lever Arm

10.

hc=0.5(C-G):3.7285

7.

E.

ft6

(700,800)(3.7285)

2,92g,490.
q}11pe consrants from the ASME Code,
VI[-I, Appendix 2:
A/B

K:
= Q6.s)/(ro.7s) = 2.16s.
i,e..-i 7 i, "s"Ju'i uro-,,
r = 1.35 z = 1.3e y 2.2e
^F,-":" ii :
z.ii."*""^'
go
:3.275
3.375/1.0
=
sr/

h=Vrry'=V@jr1D=3.27s
=

VIII-I, I. = 0.57.
From Fig. 2-7.3, Section WII_I, y
= 0.04.
From Fig. 2-7.6, Section WII-I;y
= 1.g.
e = F/ho= (.57) / (3.27s) = 0.1738
d = (u /v)hoeT = e.s1 / .o4e.279)(t)2
(te

(2.29)(2,928,490) / (4.

+ 1)/T + t3/d =

(1.320)

ZSa

r,

00.7 5)

( 1.

39X 1 5,590)

9140 psi

Allowable stresses

<

1.5Sy: (1.5X17,500)

26,250

>-11,10 pC)

< Sr: 17,500 > 15,590 psi


< Sy: 17,500 > 9140 psi

Solution
Calculate total flange moment for design condition.
Flange Loads

H, = !oB2p = X02l s),(zsn) = 31e,2oo


He

2g5.76

Calculate stresses. Assume a flange thickness

L=

r)Mo/LtzB = <z.uzaf,s:x:rrii;li:..763)(4.s),Oo.7s)

Example 10. 10. What is the minimum required thickness of a ring flange with
the same design data as given in Exarnple 10.9? The inside diameter has been
increased to fit over the outside of the shell to where,B = 12.75 in. The bolt
loadings and bolt size are the same as in Example 10.9. A sample calculation
sheet is shown in Figure 10.16.

1.

1.906

From Fig. 2-7.2, Section

9.

=
Sr =

2,612,930

Use the greater of Md. or M6"g1/S);


Ms

h/lro = 6.2s/3.2t9

Qte

(YMs/t2B)

Sa

!3,s70 q9!

g7:

56

Flange Moment

(t)(2,928,490) / (r.763)(3.37 ra(0.7 s)

Tangential F lang e St e s s

Flange Load

Mon= He

s" = lLsg-Q-pg

Calculate total flange moment for bolt_up


condition.

W:

305

Radial Flange Stress

= Mo + Mc + Mr = 2,928,490

He =

GASKITS

Lon g itudinal H ub Stre s s

4.9613

Flange Moments

Ma"

BOLTID FTANGED CONNECTIONS WITH RING-fiPE

(0.443)

= 250,600
Hr= H - HD= 444,300
Hp

t = 4.5 in.

Lever Arms

ho

1.763

= o.5(C - B) =

0.5(22.5

319,200

12.75)

125,100

4.875 in.

306

BTIND TI.ANOES, COVIR PTATES, AND FI.ANOCS

I
E!"., r

cerrn

zfoo ftL

ssir.l ..:."d

zrooF

{itc

iA- to5

5A'tz6

Itl'lD

stainl?r, jf.el

J(

rv.'

x,

10,10

l'dii<

- 5,cr E i6'Lo6o
25tc^r: ZE O,5

H -efr/!

117., a';,

q.-*.t-h- zto,tq I
tt,-r -i/!- lZ5)132- loorSoo

It

E.5t<

A.

=.rtc

tC.

Answersz design condition is I7,' = 734,599


seating condition is W^,

- ct
ri.l = {.iol6

,14

= rdg

= 934,j21

-8fi - t1a.79t
v.
= 1,028,618

u'

N. - 2,ctz,1r1
- cl - 2,1285
cof.3r^Nri r:^/. rz.o'18
r-- L^z
_b.h

p..hr .ro.c, 2. + ,.,Lnirtr /rdi;;Ec


n h

lvr .!d

'.qe.ri6r

5'|

\J

Figure

10.16

Rins llonse lomple col.ulorion sheet. (Courtsy

hc = 0.5(C

G, = 0.5(22.5

hr = 0.5(ho + hd = g.514.gr1

c+W

r" +-;-

,-,[x=r*
'={ *i.mi

adrd.d6.1.J-}lvib.r-

IO.I

Rules for the design of reverse flanges are given in Appendix 2 of the ASME
Code, VI[-1.5 This type of flange is often used to form a reducing joint. The
solution of the reverse flange is similar to that for the raised-face standard flange
with the ring-type gasket within the bolt circle except for some minor differences. Figure 10.17 shows some loads that are applied in the reverse direction'

Dd.-

Toytor-Bonney Div., Toytor Forge.)

= 3.729 in.
+ 3.729) = 4.302 n.
15.043)

Mo = Ho x h": (319,26)(4.575) = 1,556,000


Mc = He x h6 : Q5O,ffi)(3.729) = %a,5gg
Mr = Hr x h, = (125,1N)(a.302) = 53g.26i

t
3.
4.

= Mo + Mc +

Mr=

3,029,000

Bolt-up moment is the same as in Example 10.9, Muu = 2,613,000.


Shape constants arc K = A/B = 26.5/12.75 = 2.078
From Fig. 2-7 .l of tlrc ASME Code, Ylfi-l, Y = 2.812.
Required thickness is based on design condition as

M*Y _ (3.029,000x2.812)
=

': iE

-1r21x1)@.n

5'8e8

244,rOO ,O

REVERSE FTANGES

Flange Moments

Ma"

tO

,ti = rolb = tt5t6,096

6 tn^tr
tb

REVERSE FTANGES

Suppose a solid flat 2j chrome steel alloy gasket with 13.75 in. inside
diameter and width N = Lin., m = 6.0, and y = 21,800 is used with
the flange in Example 10.9. What are the gasket seating and the
operating loads?

arra

150
= 3.1295

:.51 lD +

9.1

tc @1."9
w =,!l^. + Ats. - 100,oo

- 4t14,tt.

wn-,r.+n- 6,j1,1t{
l.vlt

J1t

-a:j w-,/r q wi/s\-

^-

l'robhm

I r^o
Korrcl foce

raf.l,

G. tr lt +QtD4r .'r<.A,B.ql
roao AxD aott cltcuultoNS

GP.l

tllapsi

li

v f;rldr

IO.I

in

Fisurs 10.17

Rwer$ flonge looding ond

dimen3ions.

308

IUND ftANoxs, covrR puTEs. aND rrANG[S

'lhis muy cuuse sorns ol the moments t0 be applietl in thc opposite direction liom
those loads on a regular flange. However, the analysis is the same after thc
"new" total moment is determined. Again, the moments arc determined for both
the gasket seating condition and the operating condition. In Figure l0.lg is a
sample calculation sheet of a reverse flange.
Additionally, a new term aa is introduced to convert some terms from reqular
flanges io reverse flanges; fra and K are redefined and based on the reverse fl-anse
inside diameter; and a new equation is added to calculate the tansential flanie

Drt|ox coxofioxt

5/rr/
'a.tat,
fi l. r "t"-"/{,t/el, t& ;ahs 4a/
ltde/r.75't0 '

stress at the inside flange bore.

IOAO

special precaution is noted. When K < 2, results are faidy satisfactory;


however, when I( > 2, the results become increasingly conservative. For this
reason the ASME Code procedure is limited to where I<
2.
Derivation of the new equations for reverse flanges is similar to that for the
regular flange except shears and moments are applied at the outer edge of the ring

'

Kai'ed {""e-

llwt lr||
t.=J(C+i'-23-t)=

fi*r- x.t - t81,1o

l Or{t|.l

-,r'r' - _ I,Orl,tq l
- zz 1q f. y't f
*
- Z,trL'?V
r.r

flange where discontinuities occur between the flange ana *re truU. Wittr
the conversion term ca is determined for converting T, Il, and y to
T,, U,, alrd If, which is obtained as

K = A/B',

r(5r+ s.)rJ(s' +

"=*['.*.#*)

r.ir.

rta. 9r

e!)

816EO ?e\

( ! a') =?

(1,0.24)

I't,|o'l

rtl
rr = r:-rj.jb.t

Substituting this expression into the regular equation for tangential shess

I=.ch/d
4sr +tn.t

0.957

loatr.+ l),,P=

3l +n= qt6rl

r".9, rrg, sr t^r r') =

(10.2s)

Z5r

ff
t =./3r+ | =

10.11. A reverse flange is joined to a regular ring_type joint flange


to form a reducing connection . The total bolt-up momint ls coitroiting
anA equit

l.

Example

to Ms = 2,613,W. The flange bore d, = 13.25 in.; the outside diameter


A = 26.5.n.; and the flange thickness r = 5 in. What is the tangential flange
stress at the hub and at the inside bore?

Solutian,

The tangential flange stress 51 at the hub is

tr=
" _Mol,,
*,zl+ t,

zl.,z \j

i\l*

r.ut - fl(r*
#*#f
tj.zJ\zJ) L
4.14\

'fhe tangential flange stress


s+

r*7i

Ji

--/] :
]3 " s " o.r:r)l

szzopsi

Fisurs

10.18

Rwerse flonse somple colculotion she|. (Courtesy

G+W Toylor-Bonney Div.. Toylor Forge.)

at the flange bore is

gof
_zK'?(_t +
kly
B'f L (K, - l)i l

309

ll0

luND ftaNots, covln puTrs, AND ItANOES


.(,.

_ 2,6t3.(xx)L
r3.2s(25)

oa

L-'"

_ z(+Xl

+lx5

IO.I2

#*itti

= I6'o5opsi

FUI.L.FACT GASKET FIANGE

3l

Example 10.12. With the reverse flange given in Example 10.11, what is the
minimum required thickness based on an allowable flange stress of 17,500 psi?

Solutia3. The tangential flange

stress at the flange bore of 16,050 psi is


controlling. Because / appears in several terms in a no;linear manner, the easiest
way to select the proper thickness is by nial and error. For the initial trial, use
a square relationship as follows:

16,050

--tl-:
The term

,\ is recalculated

17.500

l1z-

or t:48in.

as 3.855. Using this, the

.ti =

16,900 psi. By
, : 4.6g in.

successive recalculations, the approximately correct thickness is

which gives

Si:

17,500

psi. I

Pmhlcm
10.11 Using the details of the flange described in Example 10.11. what is the
minimum required thickness if the material of the flange is changed to one
with an allowable stress of 15,000 psi?

Answer t-i\ = 5 -26 in.

IO.I2

FULI-FACE GASKET FTANGE

gp" ot flange that is frequently

used but no design methods exist in the


is the flange using a full-face gasket, as shown in Fig. 10.19.
lfME "C:* is a sample
Figure.10.20_
calculation sheet. This type of flange is designed
according to the provisions of U-2(g) of the ASME Code, Sectiorivll, Division
l. This code paragraph permits using good engineering design for those constructions where no rules exist in the code. Although the analysis is similar to
that used for a raised-face , ring-type flange , a countermoment is introduced
from
that part of the gasket that is outside of the bolt circle. In addition, the
decrease

919

in section strengtl at the bolt circle from the bolt holes must be considered when
the radial stress at the bolt circle is determined.
..soft,,
lmplolng this type of gasket is usually limited to designs where a
gasket (with a low m and 1, factor) is used and the design prlssure is
low. This
is necessary to keep the loads and bolt size within reaso-n ti fit *ithin
th" fl*n"
geometry even though the countermoment usually results in a low
flange mi_
ment and a minimum required flange thickness.

l-l

_tA

Figura I 0.19 full-foce gosket loodin$.

Several important design assumptions made in the analysis are uniform gasket
pressure over the entire gasket, inner edge of flange assembly unrestrained, and
no reduction in gasket pressure area due to bolt holes. Other restrictions and

limitations necessary for the raised-face, ring-type gasket flange, such as linear
rotation about the centroid of the ring, prevail.
Assuming a uniform gasket pressure, determinations are made of the dis

312

tNo ttANots, covrR p[ATrs, AND FtANOIS

tonce$ or momcnt olTns lrom the bolt circle to the ccntroid of the
annulus from
the bolt circle to the outside diameter and from the bolt circle to the insidc
diameter. In solving for the distances, the angle is assumed to be small and
thc
arc lengths are evaluated as sfiaight lines. From Roarkr2 and using his
terminology, the basic equation is

,=i(T#)

(lO.26a)

Horvever, converting to the terminology used in the ASME Code and as


shown
in Fig. 10.19a, the equation becomes

A_C

a-

b=

oraa.. corDmoxt

*(#)

(10.26d)

hL

(rO.26e)

Therefore, substituting Eqs. 10.26b, c, d, and e, into Eq. lO.26a,

ro^0 aro fori calcul lo|t


ti'.r
= l,tq,tqQ
tt,=26ra6r = | 18,q86

rlj= 6tor +
tlEoo

lr

)qzoo

14

6=

ftl trtD = t/tt.r1' =


Fi E=cnr/.=

!!:!E!-*9=-

t:*

4 t r' 5 t1
1t,168

wr'=tt +lt.r+t|'r = 7At,1l3


I
ltv ar

reL

qrlE

(.

= 2.9915'
*"

r.rErFEgr: Pb/f
r-r. tla 9=-.t/f -u.-

o. 11

3nls3 CIICULllDOT-4din,
16!, |kb, ti = nJIEI
= 1tt 71 ?ta

17.,

)c.1b

Pt-,d6-

tZt,r72

- rrir - l1{,,rO{
V.
- ?t1,h.6
&

=bg.4Lgl=

h.L- =

w-Jt=

\^.2 t(.- z"Q tJte


^,= .+^,1t.= 706,t16
w=tl
tr'at=r./:. ttc,= 94a, 4q6
N.A

r.

-l|.= LlAtSoa

:-j.5(5r+ s.l'Jl3r +5'l

wd/s. d
^- =ebcL'of

- r+ .5r, - tl,t 1
|'-Jtr+.,+tEl - { Zt,

it - r)trl. - 1,'t,o4\
,tt-E-ED- 1L,17-4

- |ltt=7

to9

sA-rzt cv.l

,.o=\a

"^err,J

F'tt - F'.e ,/1eturtL.f 'be.

(10.26b)
(10.26c)

f6

r.oz?2'

a.=8.t-t'=
x er,o sur

1C4

tozL

rrcrort

t1,71o ?,1
?,95'
q' ToL,?r

'-i

t/iDrrt 5trE$ al tolt oto.t

..-:;iffi = n,qL4 ?,.

0 t118

.-lh&.'-20116

t\I'ti;-,.217

nr.3s torMuta tactott

r l.:5
. -r.+l
t calak+r = l.4IO

,,
-

(A-C'^)(U+Cl
6(A

(10.27)

-afi
, -.tla

t. ool l
O,o.lo1

-=rL,rt

r,o1',
H?.l6

r -t+a

C)

t br rp.d..

o....'

C-r-ao.d.aFigurc

10.19(0)

r.*htrt l;E

I 2.+l

t1.tt1"

16- 2"uotst

Fiour

2. +

lo.2o

Od.L'r.+

Fvll-Goce flonge lomple colculorion 3ho6t

Full-foce gosket dimnsions.

3r3

3I4

II.IND ?U\NO!S, COVER PTATTS, AND TIANOTS

IO,I2

ln a similar munncr, the distance or moment &rnt k)w&rd the inside diameter

is determined as

C_B

-0"=+('!:'\
5 \O + c /

(r0.26f)

(to.26s)

.r(?*)

(10.26h)

,= *(?;
And substituting Eqs. 10.269, h, and

i into Eq.

..
hb

(A

- c)(u + c)
6(C + A)

(10.26D

1.0272 in.

- 2hc:22.5 - 2 x 2.5915 = 17.317 in.


(22.5-10.75)
t. =-c-B\
= 2.93?5 in.
-44
G= C

y= l10O and m = 1.75


Determine the loads:

10.26f gives

c-B

n = Tc.p
4'4 = +,r7.317)r(3z})
Ho

= ZbtGmp =

HI

and solving for ft6 gives

(r0.28)
gasket loadings and two moment arms are determined, the
9n9"
analysis of the flange is the same as for other flanges. The method
is equally
applicable to integral flanges, loose flanges, reverse flanges, and any othei
type
of flange. It is important to remember to use a..soft,'gaiket that keeps tfre tott
loading within acceptable limits.

t"_*9

Example_10.13. A welding-neck flange with the same geometry as that in

/r,^\
\rt)H'

= blrGy =
/ h^\

Hb'=
W,a

75,368

2(2'937 5) n(17 .317)(r.7 5)(320)

.? sqr

5)

@;^t'is,r8rl:

Wt= H + Hp+H; =
Hsn

75'368

178,986

(2.9375)r(17 .317X1100)

\nHc'=

= Hay + Hb,

/,

5015\

@rfi5rw=
=

175,799

Determine bolting requirements:

443,496

A'

175

ha

2.5915 in.

t0.75)\2 x 10.75 + zz.5)


6( 10.75 + 22.5)
6(10.75
22.5\

705'913

443'4e7

619,286

is the greater of Wa/S"ot W^z/S.

= 36.76 in.'z based on ffi


At = 36.8 in.'z based on 16-2-in. diameter bolts
W = 0.5(A^ + A) : s.5136.76 + 36.8)(19'200) = 706'176
Determine flange moments at operating condition.

- B)(28 + C\ _ (22.5 6(8 + C)

'79o

Solution

h.
'" = G

178,986

451'559

A^

Determine the lever arms of the inner and outer parts of the sasket:

45r'55e

Example.10.9 except for the thickness is used with a full-facJ gasket. The design
pressure is 320 psi and the "soft" gasket is vegetable fiber with m
= 1.75 and
y = 1100. What is the minimum required thickness?

l.

3I5

22.5t(2 x 26.5 + 22.5)


6(22.5 + 26.5\

(26.5

TIANGI

Determine the gasket dimensions:

. C_B
a:
2
,

h1;

FUIL-FACE GASKET

Flange Loads

H, = loB2p = f,go.t s1,1szo) = 29,oM


Hr = H - Ho = 75,368 - 29,444 : 46,324

316

ILANOIS, COVER PI.ATES, AND

IO.I4

FI.ANOES

'IIND
Lever Arms

Hphp

Sn

(29,044)(4.187 5)

M7 = H7h7

= 121,622
= 196JOq

= @6,324)(4.2333)
M. = Mo + M, = 121,622 + 196,104 =

14,77O

psi

<

(t.4'104)t4M,O22)
(1.042Sx2.03)110.75)
17,500

psi

allowable stress

Tan Be ntial F lange Stre s s

s,:

VM
--+

t'B

3457

psi < 17,500

317,726

Sr
6.

l\M"
Lt2B

tlte +

Flange Moments

3t7

WITH MEIAI-TO-MTTAI CONTACT

Radial Flange Stess

[o=R * 0.59' = 2.5 + 0.5(3.375) = 4.t875 in.


lr = 0.5(ft i g * h) : 0.5(2.5 + 3.375 + 2.Sgt5\ = 4.2333 n.
Mp

f LAT-TACE FTANGE

Determine flange moment at gasket seating condition.

zs,

2.29(464,022)

(2.03f (10.75)

psi

(1.39)(14,77 0)

allowable

stress

Problcm
Flange Load

He = W"

H=

10.12
706,176

75,368

630,808

Lever arm

15,000 psi?

hahh

(2.5915X1.0272)

h',_ =
- ho + hb-- Q.915) +
"o

[onr)

0'7356 in'

Fhnge moment

Mr:

H6h'[ = (630,808X0.7356 = a6a,O22

constants are the same as in Example 10.9.


Calculate flange stresses. Assume flange thickness t = 2.03 in. This is
set directly from the radial flange stress at the bolt circte which is

M'
6(4u,022)
sF=,
" t"(rc - Nd)- (2.0j),(22.5t - 16 x 2)
SF

= n,a@

psi

<

17,500

psi

allowable. stress

Inngitudinal Hub Stre ss

L= te+l
+a=
T

1.0021 +0.0407

Sr=

\4e,022)

Sa

L'?n

1.0428

(1.0428X3.375f(10.7s)

3634 psi

<

Answer:

IO.I3

t,"q'd.

2.19 in.

FTANGE CATCULATION SHEETS

Calculation sheets are included for the following types of flange design:

All flange geometry

Assume a flange with a flat-face gasket has an applied moment of


Mo -- 464,000 with a bolt circle of C = 22.5 in. using 16-2-in. bolts.
What is the required thickness of the flange if the allowable skess is

26,250

psi

allowable stress

Sheet 1. Welding neck flange with ring-type gasket


Sheet 2. Slip-on or lap-joint flange design with ring+ype gasket
Sheet 3. Ring flange with ring{ype gasket

4. Reverse welding neck flange with ring-type gasket


Sheet 5. Slip-on flange with full-face gasket
Sheet 6. Welding neck flange with full-face gasket
Sheet

IO.14 FLAT.FACE FTANGE WITH METAT.TO-METAL CONTACT


OUTSIDE OF THE BOIT CIRCLE'",'O,''
Rules for the design of flat-face flanges with metal-to-metal contact outside of
the bolt circle are given in Appendix Y of the ASME Code, VIII-I. The rules
are for circular, bolted flanged connections with identical and nonidentical pairs
of flanges. The pairs of flanges that are in metal-to-metal contact across the
whole face and the gasket load to compress the gasket are small. (see Fig. 10.21)
The rules also apply to identical pairs of flanges with a metal spacer added at the
outer edge between them.

torrD afto aorY

calcut
'|or{S

It
ro/ro

,!lsr +

SlSr

5r,.!

tsi + S,j

+ trlo'.5(t, +

llvar /lr|r

rOAO

aEotr.

3t8

^rr

|rorlxl

t'i =

Welding neck flcng with ring-ryp g6kei. (Co,.rrresy

r,'.hi?t
.br .qd'or b', v /i"L,Da.r
-;=;-

b.l iFdne d.od.2. +

r .d i.

l.

val

lr

Sh6.r

Csrea6.r.,
c+W

O.r.

|{Jih.'-

Toylor-Bonnoy Div., Toytor Forg.)

-----J@!!
2. Slip-on or lop-ioint

Shsor
Forge.)

flonse v.irh rins-typ sd3ker.

Courre3y

G+W Toylor-Bonney Div,, Toylor

3r9

tl0

ll.lND

.ANO!s, COV!n p[AtES, AND trANOls

.:...:.---

---

2olrr

1,-

prrr

:-:-=-._.....Y-

trl

l*'

la,;,.-=

rv.r

Lsc

-e,r/.

brc,

^-=Zi w-,tt,- s-,,.-

||-1/s.' w-tts,-

^-,44

"I.

I
.Jlrb

6 rxpt

ti=.5(c-G)

rEl E

^,=.r{.-F-

coxrr^'m l-t

L3,nfl;:r,,1*-;E;F-

,=J+l

tat lt,

k_/,

trb

rltt
1,

5:t

Co"ur.dG.*.d_

iiiiiiS,iiiidiii'fi iF,il,,i -""'!,iit,y,,,:,.^*,-,.".

I "',i,:.

O.r.

ili5.,--

Fo;

5r

xu5,

tcie. tle.,

S'= tufr/t, -ZS,tO,6rt.+rt/B=

g = Ircllo,r
= pn./lt

r.^o fl!., S'=

rr

;;

=+.a,

l;-------=_+
Ur=drU

^cfr/r' -Z',to.6rt.+n/R=

i,'

?r-T*-+
x r_..

The.basic development assumes that the flanges


are in tangential

contact at the
outer.diameter or at some point between the
b;ft circle
th;i,r'te.
oiam"te,
at a distance llc from the boit circle.
Ttre gasket is assurneJi. ti-rJrilr"o,ng
u"a
generaGs a negligibre load during
operation and is located in rir,"iia tn"
u"rr"t
wall. The major difference uetrieen ttris ryp",f
;il'tr,"'Jrg_typ" o"_
scribed in Section 10.9 is the additional pryi'nl
contact

trrls3 Forr ui,a ;^cort

e-rrr:-i-------.']
lY El
k_r'=

| [.n'rV
|t--|r---T| / h ]_-,_

d;"
;fil;;;iliit;

of
the two flanges.
To organize the calculations svsiemadcally,
it is necessary to !ru!.
classify assem_
blies and to categorize each individual nann". -- "--veJqr !v

't

r 4'"Ftt

II
r-bJ
il

C hs s ifcation o! As s e mb ly

aadl.
gasket

""+[+:!Ilr#rl t)-

rod,crae.,sr

llji .la, +sa- rrs, + s,r =


r-, n,.. s" 1^l 11 = f, _
[v
i::" i

is a pair of flanges that are identical except


for the

ttr$t cllcutano|r- sdd..


.rub,

xAtD |lut t^cro$

=ti./I!r'

1:/ r rsr + sr,or J{s{ + s,, =


r".".a,.s,o,r'r=+
[v-,xit(Jj
9 "?.::'

M.l

rtttsS carculaiox-{rf, rolin,

r{e,

ning flonga yrith ring-iypo golkt. (Cou|.tosy G+W


Toylor_Bonney Div., To),lor

Class l. This
g'oove.

tavl| atr

iD=J(C+r,-2$-tJ=

1."'.e

Shsi 3.

to^o eno rotr cercur.r6ii

Shl ,a.

,__<.

--l,o l.-----r=

Cmptrd-

D.h.-*----

<t_A:

Chxr.d-

N!ib.r=--

Rverc wldins

n*

flonse wirh rins-fyp goskst. (Court$y

c+W

Toylor-Sonney Div., Tdytor

Fors.)

Class 2 . Ii consists of a pair of nonidentical


flanges where the inside diameter
of the reducing flange Jxceeds one_half the
U.it
Ou."to*
"i."f"
Class 3- This is a flange combined with
a flat head or a reducing flange where
the inside diameter is small and ao", oot
on"_tlif" fieiort ctcte
diameter.
"*"""0321

o8rox cDaa!|no{t

2.

loao

lott carcuraroxt

^to+ Nir
w.r= bror
=

Ar =

rr..tr.t wd/s. d w.Jt =

Ir

li
IOAO

lavn rrr

,r

Wn=fi+i!+fi'?=

|tot,Nt

TIVlt

tc-tlra+o=
-=-=iiT6-

lA-Cll2A+Cl=

""=-:rc+.ih,i= l'.1"., -

"i*

ttatS CArqrlAnOx-Ot rato,


r.aEt

tr-

r@. 6E

ar
=
sr

P*/If

Jl!, + li'Jl$

+5rl '
ot<ll

ttrg totnutt ttctotg

I Llr !Fd'! .s.i' 2. + I rlrirt

C..'a.itr

It

322

5,

Slip-on flons6 with tulLlcce soska. (Courtsy

cfw

Dd.-

ToyloFBonney Div., Taytor Forss.)

nra$ tourula tacloti

!.lr D.d'. .B.dt 2. + t

r.inlb.e!fu

C6er.{-6rr.a-

O.d.aSh.at

tac'ot

r
= ..1/ I -l5l

t^Dur str!3s At |olr

|lo nof

lttr|lr,h=nJr6r

!r!

dldrlr I t lr r.dr
I 2.+l

o.r.f&iL'-

Shcet 6.

323

321

II.INO FIANOIS, COVTR PTATES, AND FI"ANOTS

t0.15

sPHERtcattY orsHED covtRs

dished head and the flange ring. The flange thickness is set by the combination
of the circumferential ring stress and the tangential bending stress. Figure 10.22
shows the head geometry and the loading applied to the ring flange resulting
liom the reaction from the internal pressure against the dished head. It is derived
thus. Using the geometry in Fig. 10.22, the following is set:
adjacent side

cos B,

:
=

adjacent side

_\/L'''' - (

hypotenuse L'

\/4L'1Err-=E

2L'

membrane force in head to due to oressure

circurnferential ring stress


Figur6

= 5" =

pR

10.21

Flor-foce flonge wirh mebl_to-metol


conto.r ouisid. of tfie bolt circle,

: F' =pL
2T

(10.30b)

:pD

(10.30c)

2t

Catagory of Flonges

t.

This is an integral flange or an optional flange calculated


as an

9i*g.IV^
mtegral flange.

ca'gory 2.It
add shength.

consists of a loose-type flange with a hub that is


considercd to

3. A.loose-type flange that is with or without a hub


or an optional
:l"g.y
type calculated as a loose type
where no credit is taken for the hub in any case.

Once the class and category are established, the


analysis is similar to that
Appendix 2 flaige except for tt udaitionJrl"oings
iuus"c uy ttr.
i"9"
prying effe{t where the contact near the ourcr "
diameter occurs . iiis Jontact torce
H3 and its_moment arm lk involve an interaction
between tfr" Uoft
anC
flange deflection and the moments Me and Ms.
"iongution
The required bolt load for operating conditions is

fr:g

W:H+Hc+Hc
IO.I5

(r0.29)

A ( outeide dianeter)

SPHERICALTY DISHED COVERS

'Ihe ASME.Code
contains special rules for designing spherically dished covers
flange. The formulas given in the code are approximate
I-tll
DecauseTntnC,
tney do"ng
not take into account the discontinuity existing between the

Fisuru

10.22

(10.30a)

Sphcricolly-dirhed covcr.

t26

.tND

Substituting

ttANO!!, COVIR puTrs, AND traNols

IO,I5

l, = tr', cos B,; D = B; and , = (/ _ B)/2 in Eq. 10.30c,


F'cos B,

^'

a-B)/22

l)ividing by S and rearranging terms to form a quadratic,

T2-27(F)-J=0

(r0.30d)

2p -r

When the value of ./c, is substituted in Eq. 10.30d,


the equation becomes

s" =

*2
,,"o" 9,,,
212@-B)/2

(10.30e)

]anCeryia

gtrep] ring due to Me is as follows:


VIII, the equation rs

Code, Section

-'
butY = (A + B)/(A

(10.31)

from Eq. 9 of 2_51 of the ASME

vM"
(10.32)

T2B

B),so
(10.33)

Combining the circumferential and the tangential stresses


in the ring grves

r, = r4@-=F4r e= n

(10.38)

This equation is identical with the equation given in 1-6(9) of the ASME Code,

v[-1.

Application of this equation is permitted for either internal or extemal presp is the absolute value for either the internal pressure or the
external pressure. The value for ffi is determined by combining the moments
from bolt loading and gasket loading with the moment caused by the pressure
loading from the spherical head on the inside edge of the ring. When this total
moment is determined, the absolute value is inserted for Mo in the equation.
Figure 10.22 shows the loadings caused by the pressure. In Fig. 10.22, the
loading shown is due to intemal pressure. However, if the loading were due to
extemal pressure, all directions of loadings would be reversed, but the effective
stresses on the ring would be the same. If external pressure were applied to the
head, it would have to be examined for compressive buckling that might set the
thickness.

10.14. A spherically dished head is to be bolted to the welding neck


flange described in Example 10.9. The dished head is to b attached at the upper
inside comer with the outside surface even with the ring's outside (see Fig.
10.23). What is the minimum required thickness of the flange ring when the
spherical head is dished to a radius of
= 28?
Example

"= c^;(*=)
s, = s" +

1/@ufi or T:F t-1/vta1

(10.37)

sure. The term

Whdn the value of cos B1 from Eq. 10.30a is substituted,

t/+Ld-=E
". - pn
4T A_B

SPHERICATTY DISHED COVERS

* n\
*- ( u"\(e _,
\f,ri1, )

(to.34\

It

r = PBldt=E
-^^
8S(A - 8)

,_

Mo(A + B)
s8(A _ B)

(10.3s)

Then

s,=f<n * fiut

(10.36)

Fisure 10.23 Dimgnsioni of sphericolly-di.hed heod in


Ex. 10.14.

329

tuND traNots, covtR phTrs, aND H.ANotS

Solutlon. From
A=

the geometry

26.5;

a=

IO.I5

of Example 10.9,

=t#

=*ffii

2.560

in.;

He

Dtermine the minimum required head thickness as follows:

IIp =

11,

ho

= 0.5(C - 8)

: 5.875

Mp

480,000

he

= 0.5(C - G)

: 3.729

Mc = H6h6 =

934,000

8l,700

= Hp
:250,600

Hr =

336,100

336,1.0O

-hn

From geometry calculations

Mo:

g'l

hr = 0.5(R'r

use2.625 in.
Hn

Moment

Arm

t-oad

10.75; L=28=2(10.75\:21.5

SPHERICAI.I"Y DISHED COVERS

4.8O2

-O.5(T

-0'5T +

Mp + MG + Mr + M,

h6)

t)

cos p1

M7 = H7h7

Ma = Hnhn

: -

3,469,60

1,614,000

168,050r
+441,300

168'050f

The minimum thickness at gasket seating condition is

in.

(10.75
22.8t3)z
2(22.813)

H6hp

1.313

L'=L+l:r.r.t*?@
L' = 22.813

=0.972;

(2,613,0W)1?!ll_!!JI)_ rt'orv
?,, Rsn
F=u and r: (nJ:00xmj5)(26i
- l0J5):=
T: F + \/F' + J = *2-s5o = 5.732 in.

h=13.626"

Membrane force in the head due io pressure is


The minimum thickness at operating condition is

-n- -(25mV2l'sl
'r':pL
:2r,s" =lo'zolb
Horizontal force
Vertical force

= F'

= F'

cos p1

sin Br

GO,24O)(0.972\

O0,'2,40)(.236)

'" _

9950 lb

?A2O

If we

lb

(2s00x10.75)y'4f11.8
8(17,500x26.5

assume

'ffi;ffi

T = 0.540 +

If

Moment at gasket seating condition is

T = 5.75 and M0

r :32.8so

Total horizontal force = a(10.75)(9950) : 336,000


Total vedical force : zr(10.75)(Z4ZO) : 91,76

we assume T

tP-:-(l0l75f = o 54o
10.75)

2,503,000,

31.467

+ (3r.467):
= 6.25 and Mo =

6.175 in.

2,419,000,

I=32.850"?*i:# =ro4tl
Load

furn

He = W. = 700,800 ho = 0.5(C

Moment at operating condition is

G)

Moment

T = 0.52+0 * y'1g5a0t + (30'4lD = 6.081 in.

3.729 Mo = H6h6: 2,613,000


The minimum thickness is approximately 6.108 in. Although exact thickness
can be determined , T = 6.25 in. is satisfactory. I

330

EuND frANOrs, covER

ptAlrs, AND

FtANGTS

NOMENCTATURE 33I

l'robhms

NOMENCTATURT

10.13 A spherically

dished flange with an outside diameter ofA = 36 in. and


ofB l8in. is subjected to a gasket seating momenr
of 3,500,000 in.lb. The allowable tensile stress of the flangi material
is 15,000 psi. What is the minimum required thickness at the gasket
seating condition?
an inside diameter

Answer: t^n = 6.24 in.


10.14

For the flange in Problem 10. 13, what is the maximum allowable flanse
moment if the allowable tensile stress is increased to 17,500 psi and tie
flange thickness is set at 6.25 in. ?

Answer:

M51o*

= 4,|O2,NO in. lbs./in.

circumference

lndividual nomenclature is used throughout Chapter 10. It is usually noted near


to where used. The following list gives some of the general nomenclature.

A
I
C
E
G
1u'
N-6
P
R
S
S.
56

outside diameter of flange (in.)

=
=

inside diameter of flange (in.)

:
:
:

weld joint efficiency

=
=
=
=

minimum gasket width (in.)

:
:

diameter of bolt circle (in.)

diameter of gasket reaction (in.)


gasket seating width (in.)

total load 0b)


spherical radius of gasket surface (in.)
allowable tensile stress (psi)
allowable bolt stress, room temperature (psi)
allowable bolt stress, design temperature (psi)
design pressure (psi)

nominal thickness of head (in.)


effective diameler of flat head (in.)

minimum requircd thickness (in.)

Yory = seating stress of gasket material (psi)


E,
= modulus of elasticity (psi)
W^t
= flange loading for design condition (lb)
= flange loading for bolt-up condition (lb)
Wz
bn
= basic gasket seating width (in.)
b
= effective gasket seating width (in.)
OD = outside diameter of gasket (in.)
ID
= inside diameter of gasket (in.)
= actual bolt area (in.'z)
Ms

flange moment for design conditions

(in.lb)

332
Mn

tuNO fl-ANOts,

COVTR PLATES, AND

S|EUOORAPHY 333

lt-ANOts

flange momcnt for bolt-up condition (in.-lb)

BIBTIOGRAPHY

maximum bending stress (psi)

dmum deflection (in.)

0*

maximum rotation (radians)

o,

or

o,
a"

ai = radial stress (psi)


a6 = circumferential sness (psi)

lL

poisson's ratio

Bhch, A. E., and A. Bazergui, "Mthods of Analysis of Bolted, FlaDged Connections-A Review," Ecolc Pol)4echnique, Montial, Camda, Jaluary 1981.
InterprEtive Study on the Design of Notr-Circular Flaoges and Flanges with Extemal Loads" (a
private report to PVRC , May 23 , 1979 .)
Rrut, H. D., A. Bazeigui aod L. Marchand, 'Casket lakage Trends" (A private report to PVRC),

tangential stess (psi)

April

Timo$henko,

REFERENCES

ASME Boiler atrd Pressure Vesol Code, Section VIII, Division I, Pressure Vessels,
ANSVASME BPV-Vn-I, Amedcan Society of Me.hanical Engine$, New Yo*, 1983.
ASME Boiler ard Pressure Vessel Code, S@ton I, Pover Boilcrs, ANSVASME BPV-I,
American Society of Mechadcal Engineers, New York, 1983.
Wate$, E. O., D. B. Wesstiom, D. B. Rossheim, and F. S. G. Williams, "Formulas for
Sftsses in Bolted Flanged Connections," f/dns. ASME, vol. 59, 1931, pp. 16l-169.

',

11.

1981.

Rodsbaugh, E. C., atrd S. E. Moore, "Evaluation of the Bolting and Flarges of ANSI 816.5
Flarged Joints-ASME Part A Design Rules," ORNUSub-2913-3, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TeDn., Septenbr 30, 1976.

Wate$, E. O., D, B, Rossheim, D. B, Wesstrom, aDd F. S. G. Wilham's, Development of


General Formulas for Bohed Flaryes, Taylor Forge atrd Pipe Works, Chicago, 1949.
Waters, E. O., and R. W. Schneider, "Derivation of ASME Code Formulas for lhe Design
of Reverse Flanges," WeldittS Research Council, Bulletin 262, October 1980, pp. 2-9.
ANSI Standard 816.5, "Pipe Flatrges and Flanged Fittings," American NatioMl Srzndards
hstitute. New York.
API St ndard 605, lzrge Diametcr Carbon Stee, FrarSer, ANSVAPI Std. 605, Americatr
Petroleum ltrstitute, Washington, D,C.
ANSI Staftlard B16.24, 'Bronze Flanges ard Fittings, 150 aod 300 lb," America! National
Standatds Institute, New Yo*.
Rossheim, D, 8,, and A. R, C. Markl, "Gasket Irading Con$tants," Mechanical Eb
gi ceri g, Vol. 65, September 1943, W. 647-648.
Raut, H. D., and G. F. Iron, "Report of Oasket Factor Tests," Welding Research Council,
Bulleti! 233. New Yort. De.ember 1977,
Modern Flange Design, Bulleth 502, Tttt ed, , G aDd W Taylor-Bomey Division, Southfield,
Mich.

12. Roark, R. J,, FormnJas for Stress and Strain,3d ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1954.
13. Water$, E. O,, 'Dedvatior of Code Fordulas for Part B Flanges," WeUinB Research
Coun il, Bnlletin 166, October 1971, pp. n47.
14, Schneider, R. W., and E. O. Waters, "The Backgrcund of ASME Code Cas 1828: A
Simplified Metbod of Analyzing Part B Flanges," Tranr, ASME, Jounal of Presrure Vessel
Technology, Vol. 100, No. 2, Mt! 1978, pp. 215-219.
Schneide., R. W, and E, O, Wate$, "The Application of ASME Code Case 1828," Irarr,
ASME, lournal of Pressure Vewel Technology, Vol. 101, No.

I, February

1979,

pp.87-94,

5., Theory of Plates and S&ells, McGraw-Hill, New Yo*,

1940.

CHAPTER

ll

OPENINGS, NOZZLES, AND


EXTERNAL LOADINGS

334

335

336
I

.I

OPENINGS, NOZZIES, AND EXTERNAI' LOADINOS

GENERAL

process vessels require openings to get the contents in and out For somc
vessels, where the conients miy be large or some of the intemal parts may need
frequent changing, access is made through large openings in which the entirc
heai or a secioriof the shell is removed. However, for most process vessels,
the contents enter and exit through openings in the heads and shell to which
nozzles and piping are attached. In addition to these openings others may be
required, suCh- as those for personnel entering the vessel through a manway
opining. Other openings rnay be necessary for inspecting the vessel ftom the
outside-thmugh a handhole opening , and still others may be required-for cleaning
or draining tie vessel. Thesl openings do not always have a nozzle located at
the openin!. Sometimes the closure may be a manway cover o-r handhole cover
pad area by
that ii eithlr directly welded or attached to the vessel or a built-up

All

bolts.
For some nozzles, additional loading to the iniernal or extemal pressure may
be innoduced from dead loads ftom equipment and piping and ftom thermal
expansion flexibility loadings from the piping and equipment motions' This

I.I

additional loading may require compensation as well as what is necessary to


rcsist the internal and external pressure loadings, as shown in Fig. 1l.l'
Openings and nozzles similar to those occurring in pressure vessels also occur
in piping. This is the case where a branch run is attached to the main run of
piping. The branch-to-run intersection is subjected to the same pressure and
ihermal expansion loadings as those applied to a vessel nozzle. Although the
nozzles have a similar construction, usually an important difference lies in the
relationship between the ratio of the nozzle diameter to the vessel diameter and
the branch diameter to the run diameter. For pressure vessels, this ratio d/D is
much less than for piping. In many piping systems, this ratio may be very close

to 1:1, as as shown in Fig. 11.2.


In designing openings and nozzles for resisting loadings from internal and
extemal pressures and from external loadings, two types of stress conditions are
important. Fkst, the primary rnembrane stresses in the vessel or run pipe, that
is, the necessary stresses mahtaining static equilibrium must be kept within the
limits set by the allowable tensile stresses. Second, the peak stresses caused by
abrupt changes in the geometry at the nozzle-to-shell comer and cause stress
concentrations must be kept within acceptable limits. These peak stresses are
important in a fatigue evaluation where the design life of the nozzle and the other

Ml

f-

F^l

figura

tl.l

Applied Pras$rre ond externol loodings on noz-zle'

OENERAI,

FigurG

ll.2

Voriotion in d/D rotio of nozzles ond piping.

OPININOS, NOZZICS, AND EXTERNAI TOADINOS

I.2

STRESSS

AND TOADINGS AT OPTNINOS

vcssl parts or piping system are established. A slight change in the details at tho

intersection may enable the vessel to operate through many more cycles of
pressure and temperature loadings.
Detailed rules for designing vessels and piping to accommodale the primary
membrane stresses and loadings from intemal and external pressures are given
in codes and regulations such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codel
and the ASME Code for Pressure Piping B31.'z In addition, some design rulcs
are given in the more advanced sections of these codes to permit considering
shess intensity factors (SIF) and stress concentration factors (SCF) in determining peak stresses. The peak stresses are used to determine the design fatigue
life of the vessel. Other codes do not mention peak stresses or fatigue evaluations
and leave the latter as the designer's responsibility. At the present time, none of

these codes contains detailed design rules for the consideration


loadings from either dead loadings or piping expansion loadings.

I1,2

of extemal

Stresses ond Loodings ot Openings

Both single and multiple openings require calculations that show that the stresses
and loadings in the shell and head are kept within acceptable limits. Single
openings are calculated by the reinforcement method, whereas multiple openings are calculated by either the reinforcement method or the ligament efficiency
method. In both cases, the primary stresses are effectively kept less than the
allowable stress by replacing the area removed for openings.
For a single circular opening in a flat plate with infinite boundaries in two
directions (not through the thickness) that is subjected to applied forces and
stresses along opposite edges of the plate, stresses are increased above the
nominal applied stress in the unperforated plate. The stresses decrease away
from the opening until the nominal stress in the plate is obtained. The ratio of
the stress at the examined point divided by the nominal stess is the stress

intensity factor.

The shess intensity around an opening may be expressed either in general


terms of applied stresses and geometry or in location of the considered point. The

basic equation at an opening may be represenied in terms of o and 0, with the


angle of the considered point measured from the loading axis.r For the loading
shown in Fig. 11.3a, the or is axial and 0 = rl2 at the maximum sfiess locarl2 atthe maximum stress location
tion. ForFig. ll.3b,lhe q is axial and

0:

a1 and 0 : 0 at the maximum stress


location. For Fig. 11.3c, the a1 is axial and o2 : o1 is at right angles to o1.
Values of 0 are the same as for the cylinder. When two loadings or stresses are
involved, the effects at the maximum stress location are added. The basic
couation for direct s[ess is
and,

o2:0.5or is at right angles to

-'
*'
" = Zl'. (;)'] - i [' '(;)'] ''

(11

l)

Figure

ll.3

Two-direction'lood combinorio's on flot Plote with circ"ldr oPening'

The basic equation for the maximum stress at the edge of the opening in terms
of the component of stresses in each direction is

o^o:3o1 -

o2

(1r.2)

where the values of or ?rd oz include plus and minus signs depending upon
whether the applied stress is tension or compression. The stress intensity factor
at the edge oi circular openings for various ratios of applied edge stresses is
siven in Table 11. l.
The stress intensity factor for various combinations of stresses is maximum

340

OPININO5, NOZZLES, AND EXTERNAT IOADINOS

Tqble I I.l

Foctors for Vorious Rolios of

Applied Stress

",,

Stress Ratio

I
I:I

2:

(cylinder)

3.00
2.50

(sphere)

2.00

STRESSES

AND IOAOINOS AT

OPININOS

341

intemal pressure-the basic equation for the stress intensity factor is found by
combinine the effects of sfesses in two directions according to Eq. l I l:

Streu Inlenally

1:0(axialonly)

l.2

: Zl'.

.
G)l - ; t' '(;)']

cos

20

* =; i' . (;)'] -i['-':0']*'ze

where o
cos 20

= -1

where 0
cos 20

=
=

0
+

The general equation is the summation of the two stresses and


at the edge of the opening and decreases away from the opening until the stress

approaches a nominal shess factor close

to 1.0.

Using the following nomenclature, various formulas for different combinations of applied stresses are developed:

r=

radius of circular opening in plate (in.)

r:

distance from centerline to point of SIF (in.)

For applied stress ratio of 1 : 0-the condition of an axial tension load


only-the basic equation for the stress intensity factor is obtained by solving Eq.
1l.l with 0 = rl2 wherc cos 20 = -1, giving

"' = Zl'.

(;)l - i l' -''0']t-'r

',:ilr. (;)'-,(;)l

(1

1.3)

At the edge of the opening, the stress iniensity factor is determined from Eq.
ll.2 assuming that o1 = or and or = 6'

o^:3or-0=3.00or

(r 1.4)

Substituting various values of r for x in Eq. 1 I .3, stress intensity factors at


various distances from the edge of the opening are

r
21
3r
4r
For an applied stress ratio of 2

1.15ar

(l l.s)

At the edge of the opening, the sffess intensity factor is determined from Eq'
1 1.2 assuming cr : or vnd 02 = 0.5or so that

c* = 3or -O.5or = 2.5oot

(1

l.6)

Substituting various values of r for.r in Eq' 11.5, stress intensity factors at various
distances from the edge of the opening are

r
2r
31
4r

2 5oor

l.23at
1.09or

l.05or

For an applied stress ratio of 1 : 1 in a spherical shell or hemispherical head


under internal pressure, the basic equation for the stress intensity factor is
resolved by combining effects of stesses in two directions accoding to Eq. 11.1
that gives

'=t*$'

3.00sr

(l l.7)

At the edge of the opening, the stress intensity factor is determined from Eq' 1 I .2
assuming that at = or dllrd cz: 6t as given by

l.Mo1
l.O4o1

: l-the condition of a cylindrical shell

r - 3fr)'+ r + (r)'- t- rf:)'l


=Ilz*
u/ I
4L- /r)'*
\r/
\x/
\r/
,(')' . ,(;)']
", =ilo.

",

under

c*:3c1 - ar=200or

(11.8)

oPlNrNoS,

l{onfis,

AND ExftRNAr toAD|NOS

Substituting vsrious vulucs

ol'r

li)r

in Lq. 11.7, stress intensity tactors

at

dislances lrom the edge ol'the opening are

Exarnple

.1

2.O0oy

What is the stress intensity factors for a plate under a stress ratio of 2 : - I
for the vessel given in Example 1 1.1 at the edge of the opening and at
distances of 2r,3r, and 4r?

l.25or

Answeri

1.11o1

1.06s,

11,1

A vertical vessel under intemal pressure and dead load contains


an opening that is qubjected to applied stresses. The dead load stress is equal to
the circumferential pressure shess. For this stress condition, what is the basic
equation for the stress intensity factor at any location from the center of the

11.2

opening?

Solutian.

The applied stress in the circumferential direction is o1, whereas in


the longitudinal direction it is the longitudinal pressure stress minus the longitudinal dead load shess. This equals oy,
IO.5o1 and c2DL: -or and the
summation equals -0.5o;. Using Eq. 11.1, the basic equations are

",=url,. (t']

/r\
-;[' +31:l
\r/l

4l
lcos

20

/r\21 -l
oa: --lof
l+l-l
*' 2o
_ll+
4L V/l l+ 4L
G):

where 0

"

cos 20

-l

o:

tr

where

cos

"ol,

rG)'

,, ="olo. (;)'

.'(')']

Exarnple 11.2 For the vessel described in Example 11.1. what is the maximum stress at the edge of the opening according to Eq. I 1.2?

Soltttion.

Assuming that or = o1 and o, = -0.5 rr, the equation for maximum stress at the edge of the opening is given by Eq. 11.2 as

o,o^:

3oy

oz

= 3ot

(-0.5ar)

3.50ar

SIF
3.50
1.2O

1.05
1.Oz

VIII-2, a local stress region is one in which the stress


not extend more than VRt In terms of the radius
does
intensity of 1.15,
ftom the edge of the opening in-a hemispherical
far
r,
how
of the oiening
pressure
is required to have a stress of 1' 15. assuming
iniernal
head under
S^

o1?

becomes equal to 1.1S. at a distance of 2'66r from


the edge of the oPening.

Answert Ttrc SIF

11.3

As in Problem 11.2, what is the distance from the edge of the opening
along the longitudinal axis in a cylindrical shell under intemal pressure
if required to have a stress of 1. lS,?

Answerz T\e SIF becomes equal to l.lS. at a distance of 2'90r from


the edge of the opening along the longitudinal axis'

20: *l

+,.'(:) -' - (")'.' ., (r']

Incat\on
r
21
31
41

In the ASME Code,

,,

THEOTY OF REINfORCID OPENINOS

I'roblems
II

r
2r
31
41

I.3

I,3

THEORY OF REINFORCED OPENINGS

AsdescribedinSectionll'2,thereisanincreaseinbasicshessesatanopenlng
pathway for
in aflat plate or shell under edge loadings due to the discontinuous
other side'
the
to
opening
of
the
side
pasJ
one
from
(anO
to
stresses)
the loms
keep the
to
in.order
be
establishedto
pathways
have
When this happens, otler

orimarv sresies at an acce-ptable level. The basic theory of reinforced openings


region of the opening to
ir to suppty pathways
-ttt"with additional material in the
opening. In designing process equipment and other
tiJ ioud. Uy
"u.ty
pattrway
iJ supptied by the thickening of the basic shell or
pr"s*r" u".t"l., tiis
material such as a pad, as shown in Fig' l1'4'
Uy
adding
iozzle material and
placement of the additional material is important. It must be sufficiently near
prevent
the opening to be effective; and yet, it must be added with caution to

OPININOS, NO2IIES, AND TXTENNAI I.OADINOS

Tn

\,i:

\:;i*

.r!,

figure

Figt re I

L,4 ,{lhods of odding r6inforcmsnt moteriol. (Court*y Arnericon Socisry


UM6.l of the ASr'tE Code, Vlll-l)

L5

Reiniorcemsnl

of itchonicol Enginerc,

From Fis.

another problem such as high thermal stresses. Investigations by the pVRCa and
others indicate that the placement or location of the reinforcement is important.
On most pressure vessels, the reinforcement is added to the outside as shown in
Fig. 11.5. However, on some vessels the reinforcement is added on the inside
as in Fig. 11.6; and on still others, some of the reinforcehent material may be
added !o both the outside and the inside as in Fig. 11.7. The best arrangement

\tl.t

for reinforcement is the so-called balanced reinforcement which consists of


about 35-407o of the area on the inside and about ffi-C|Vo of the area on the

outsidg. On many designs, it is difficult to place any reinforcement on the inside

od&d to outside of oPening'

Figur

I1.6

Rinfor.ment odded to

intid. of opning'

345

t.l6

OPININOS, NOZZTES, AND IXTIRNAI. I.OADINOS

Tn

I.4

RTINFORCEMENT TIMITS

ular to the surt'ace of the shell. These are set at a point at which it is l'elt that the
added reinforcement within the limits is effectively helping to replace the metal
removed at the opening.
Two formulas are used for setting the limits measured from. the opening
offlre two inswEis used.
c9!!er!!e3!91g.1@g!qg".jg@f, with--th"
The first answer is equal to the diam6fer of the opening d. The second limit equal
tothesumof ?l + T^+ O.5d. AsshowninFig. 11.8, the thickness ofthe nozzle
wall usually determines which of the two limits controls. At a distance d from
the centerline without reinforcement added, Eq. 1 1.5 for a cylinder gives a SIF
With additional
of 1.23or and Eq. 11.7 for a sphere gives a SIF of 1.25
reinforcement material, the nominal stress is reduced close to that in an unperforated plate.

t-c*

q.

\i,:'l

\i-;.jl:i

{.a

If z nozzle is attached at the opening, it

also offers reinforcement arca


from
the vessel at the opening.lUavailable for replacing that area removed
on the wave

@iruegAUC!.d9l4bl9-lgled

damping length of a beam on an elastic foundation. For a cylindrical shell, this


length is a function of l/B, where B for a poisson's ratio of 0.3 is equal to
1.285 /Y rt

many years ago when


The vertical limit was set in the ASME Code as 2.5
an assumption was made that r/r of 10 was to be usEif-This limit is about right
12,000 psi. The development of
for an internal pressure p of 1200 psi and S
2.5 T" is

Figore I I

.7

Rinlorc6manr odded to

bofi

insid ond o'rrside.

either because it is not accessible or it interferes with flow or drainage. The


balanced reinforcement is often used at manway and inspection openings where
no nozzle is attached.
For applications in design problems, where the reinforcement requirements
are established, the method of replacing areas is chosen rather than a method that
balances loads or stresses . An area at the opening for carrying primary loads and
shesses is removed. Thus this required area must be replaced by another area
adjacent to the opening that is not used for that purpose. It is desirable to replace
that area required for primary loads by an adjacent reinforcement area. Within

the reinforcement limits, the reinforcement areas are assumed to have the same
load-carrying capabilities as the area removed for the opening. Consequently,
when the reinforcement areas are equal to or exceed the required area, primary
stresses have been restored to as near the unperforated plate as possible.

I.4

REINFOR.CEMENT LIMITS

As described in Section I

1.2

, the stress intensity factor for an opening in a shell

or head is highest at the edge of the opening and decreases away from the
opening (based on a shell wall with constant thickness). When the effective
thickness is increased, as happens with added reinforcement material, the everage stresses are lowered. Limits of reinforcement are set parallel and perpendic-

\/o.tv

_l\/,

- p

r.285

1.285

O.246r

2.46t

For code application, the number was rounded off to 2.5 f. With the wide range
r/t ratios, which are currently used in process vessel construction, some of
the codes are setting this reinforcement limit in the vertical direction by

of

L=
where L =

O.7S

!r-I"

11.e)

reinforcement limit perpendicular to shell (in.)

/, = mean radius of nozzle opening in shell (in.)


4, : nominal thickness of nozzle (in.)
Each pressure vessel and piping code treats the calculation of the reinforcement area somewhat differently and establishes both parallel and perpendicular

limits in different ways. A discussion of the reinforcement requirements for


several different codes follows.

11.3 A cylindrical pressure vessel that is 60-in. ID by 6-in. thick


contains a nozzle that is 12-in. ID by 3-in. thick. What is the stress intensity
factor at the reinforcing limit that is parallel to the surface of the vessel?

Example

Solution.

r.4

RqNtoRctMENT

tlMlrs

The two horizontal limits are set by the larger of

d:12in.
0r

T,

T^

O.5d

=6+3+

0.5(12)

15

in'

The limit is set by the 15 in. from the nozzle centerline.


The stress intensity factor is obtained by using Eq' 11.5 to give

",:Xlo. '(*)' . '(iJl = l rkn

Problams

the new reinforcement limit in the vertical direction were based on


5 instead of r/r = l0 that was used to obtain the present limit of
2.5T,, what is this multiplying factor in terms of T^ for r/t = 5?

11.4 If

r/r =

Ans*ert

The vertical

limit is

1.74?1, based on the

limit of

r/t = 5'

an allowable stress of 15,000 psi, what is the maximum design


pressure permitted for an rft = 5 based on the circumferential stress
formula given in the ASME Code, VtrI-l?

11.5 For

Answer:

i t.l.

Based on the circumferential stress, the maximum design


pressure is 3260 Psi.

Reinforcemenl Rules for ASME, Section

The rules for reinforced openings in ASME, Section l, Power Boikrs, permlt
using the replacement of both area and ligament efficiency provided certain
limits are met. Ligament rules may be used for repeating pattems of openings
provided the maximum diameter of any hole in the pattern does not exceed a
diameter determined from Fig. PG-32 of Section I. This figure is a plot of the
following equation with limiting values of K between 0.5 and 0.99:

a,,,

Ti+Tn+o,td

=z.ts{WJr-x)

(11.10)

with the limits of 0.5 < K < 0.99.


Figur.

I1.8

Reintorcomsnt limits porollsl to she'l sur{o.6.

p=

intemal design pressure of maximum allowable working pressure


(psi)

348

3IO

OPTNINOS, NOZZTES, AND TXTERNAI. TOADINGS

4nn"

D, =

35I

of shell (in.)

4.

Except for hemispherical heads, formed heads have dlD


= 0.25 Bnd
d^* : 2-in. NPS, which is the same as for cylindrical shells.
For hemispherical heads, the actual center-to-center distance in item I is
met. The value of K is one-half the value of 1( as determined bv Eo.

5.

For formed heads,

outside diameter

11. 14.

allowable tensile stress (psi)

(1

l. l1)

For shells designed to PG-27 .2.2 of Section I,


PD"
1.82

(t|.r2)

St

N o Reintorcement Re quhe d

l. d /D < O.25 arrd d^* = 2-in. NPS.


2. d* = maximum diameter using Fig. PG-32.

Actual center-to-cenier distance between openings is less than

A+B
L= 2(r
+ K)

where

(1

1.14)

diameiers of adjacent openings (in.)


diameter of formed head (in.)

1 1.

The total cross-sectional area of reinforcement required for any plane through the

center of an opening is given by

A = dt,F

10.

The edge of one opening is no closer than

where d = diameter of opening (in.)


t, = minimum required thickness of seamless

to the edge of the adjacent

(r1.15)

shell (in.)

f = 1.0 except that Fig. PG-33 may be used for integrally

reinforced

openings, where permitted,

F=0.5(cos'z0+l)

thickness of formed head (in.)

Other terms are the same as for Eq.

opening.

Required Area of Reinforcemenl

(11.13)

r = --!2:-1.82 S?:
D, = outside
{ = nominal

2.

For vessels 60 in. and less in diameler, the opening shall not exceed
0.5 D or 20 in.
For vessels over 60 in. in diameter, the opening shall not exceed 0.33 D
or 40 in.

When these sizes are exceeded, suggested rules place the available reinforcing
area close to the opening.

For openings in forrned heads, no calculations are required to prove the adequacy if all of the following are met:

The shape of the opening when these rules are applicable is limited to circular,
elliptical, or obround where the ratio of the large-to-small dimension is < 2.0.
When the ratio is ) 2.0, special requirements may be necessary to resist any
twisting moment. For shapes other than those above, a special analysis or proof
test is required.
No limitations are set on the size of an opening by Section I rules. However,
the rules in the text are limited to the following sizes:

l.

The rules for openings in Section I contain proyisions for single openings when
no calculations are required to prove the adequacy of the shell. No calculations
are needed for a cylindrical shell when either of the following is met:

A and B

of Eq. 11.10 is met.

Size and. Shape of Openings

K:
- 1.6 s?i
r=
--

d,-

I,

P?'

2.

TIMITS

3.

For shelfs designed to PG-27.2.2.1 of Section

1.

RTINFORCEMENT

msximum alkrwable diameter of opening (in.)

fl = nominal thickness of shell (in.)


S

I.4

(11.16)

For torispherical heads when the opening and its reinforcement are within the
spherical part t, is the minimum required thickness for a hemispherical head
when the radius is equal to that of the spherical part of the torispherical head.
For a 2 : I ellipsoidal head when the opening and its reinforcement are within

352

OPININOS, NOZTLES, AND EXTERNAT I.OADINGS

I.4

REINFORCEMENT

IIMITS

353

circlc of 0.8 D, ,. is the nrinimum required thickness fbr a hemispherical heud


when the radius is equal to 0.9 D.
u

Limit of Reinforcement Parallel to Shell


The limit of reinforcement parallel to the shell measured on each side of the
opening centerline is the greater of (1) / or (2) T, + T, + 0.5d.

Limil of Reinforcement Perpendicular to Shell


The limit of reinforcement perpendicular to the shell measured either inward or

outward from the surface is the smaller of

(l)

2.5 T, or

(2)

2.5 T"

T".

Available Area of Reinforcement

If the thicknesses of the shell and nozzle are uniform and the reinforcement area
does not extend beyond this uniform thickness, the following formulas may be
used for determining the available area of reinforcement. However, if the opening and its reinforcement extend into areas with different nominal thicknesses
and different minimum required thicknesses, these formulas are not applicable.

1.

Area available in shell wall is the ereater of

Area available

At=(EL-Ft,)(zd-d)

(11.

At=z(EtT'- Ft,)(T'+n)

(11.18)

in nozzle

walT is the smaller

l7)

of

Az=2(T"-t,)(2.57,f

Az:

2(7"

t^)(2.57,

tt.9

binfo.cing requirom6nb for mlltiple oPnings. (courles), Americdn so.i6tv of r{e.honicdl

Ensinrs, Froh

fig.

PG-38 of the ASME Code, Scrion l)

11.4 Figure 11.10 shows a 66-in. ID steam drum containing five


different diameters and two types of nozzles. What are the nozzle reinforcement
requirements? The design data are

Example

or

2,

Figorc

+ T)

(11.19)

Design pressure = 2875 psi.


Design iemperature : saturation at design pressure approximately 689'F.
Materials 70,000 psi UfS drum plate.
Allowable stress at safiiration temperature : 16,800 psi.
Weld joint efficiency is E : 0.95.
Nozzles are 3+in., 4 in., 5 in., 63 in., nd 24-in. ID.

(r 1.20)

Solution.
When two or more openings are spaced so that theil limits of reinforcement
overlap, the combined area is used and counted only once. The spacing between
any two openings is to be not less than 1.33 4". For a series of openings in a
pattern, the area between any two openings equals 0.7f' of the area obtained by
multiplying the center-to-center distance by the required thickness as shown in

Fie. 11.9.

1.

Minimum required thickness of shell at E

'

PR
sE - 0.6p

0.95 is

x 33
0.95 - 0.6 x 2875
.use 6i in. plate

2875

16.800 x

T"l

--

d-^:2.75

EX
x

\rr3t675x(i-r0.9

4.814 in.

(see Table 11.2).

2X

355

The only single openings are 5 in. and 6{ in.;others are not considered
single. Consequendy, all nozzles have the reinforcement area calculated

T^

RIINFORCEMENT I.IMITS

Using Eq. I L 10, the maximum diameter is

a
d

I.4

B( D=LIMIT OF REINFORCEMENT

6.

All

Reinforcement area required by Eq. 11.15 is

nozzles except the 24-in.


together.

A, = dt,F

8.

ID

nozzle are "set-on" type and calculated

d(6.294)(1.0)

6.294 d

Limit parallel to shell is greater of

d or T,+7,+
9.

O.5d:6.75 + T.+ r

Limit normal to shell is smaller of


2.57,

2.5(6.75)

in. or

16.875

2.57,

10. Area available in shell wall is


ABCD-LlMll OF
Figurc

2,

11.10

A, = (2x - d)(r" - t) = (2x


A1 =(2X-dX0.456)

REINFORC EMENT

.,S.t-on,,

,,3t-in,,

ond

nozzles.

11. Area available in nozzle wall

Minimum required thickness of seamless shell is

''
4,

sE

- 0.6P

16,800

ll.2

,*,

,r-32r-

6.294)

rs

Reinforcement Cqlculqtions for

,X=

r
0.6 x 2875

Maxirnum diameter of a single uffeinforced opening is determined

K from Eq. tt.tZ ls

3| in.,4 in.,5

in., ond

6f

in.

Nozzles on o 66 in. /D Steom Drum

rR75

D, = 66 + 2(6.75y = 79.5 in.


287 5 x 79.5
:

354

Tqble

Minimun required thickness of nozzle is

Pr

d)(6.7s

Az:2Y(T^-t^)

PR
2875 x 33
' sE - o.6P t6.800 - 0.6 x 2875 =61!rrn
3.

l3 -ffifi;Js=

as

r'tur

K'- = 0'99

d
3.5
4.0
5.0

A,

T"

parallel Y=

normal

6.'75 +

d T"+r 2.57, 2.5T, t,^ At Az A,


22.03 1.8'75 3.s 10.375 4.688 t6.87s 0.334 7.8'7 t4.44 22.31
25.18 2.125 4.O 10.875 s.313 16.875 0.381 8.09 18.53 26.62
31.47 2.5 5.0 11.75 6.25 t6.8'75 0.477 8.44 25.29 33.73
6.875 43.27 3.O 6.875 13.188 7.5 16.875 0.656 8.89 35.16 ,t4.05
Area available is greater than atea requied and values of

that were assumed arc correct.

116
12.

OPININOS, NOIZI.Is. AND EXTERNAT IOADINOS

A 24-in. lD

downcomer has "set-in" nozzle and calculates d/D =


24/66 = 0.36 exceeds limit of 0.33D for vessels over 60 in. ID. Alternate rules are also recommended.

13, Minimum required thickness of a downcomer nozzle is

t- = 0.lm(12) :

2.289

in.

?i

use

5l

24

in. or T,'t

T,

16. Limit normal to shell is smaller


16.875

in. or

t7. Area available in shell wall


At = (2 x
18. Area available

in

r:r.rrzzle

in Fig. I l.l l. The design pressure is 500 psi at 700"F design temperature The
allowable stress is 16,600 psi There is no corosion.

6.75

5.25

The minimum required thickness of the cylindrical shell is

500 x l8
PR
:
" sE - o.6P 16,600 - 0.6 x 500

151.06 in.2

2.

O.sd

12

24

n.

500

of
3.

13.125 in.

- 0.6P

16,600

1.125

0.6 x 500

U-

12)(0.456)

in.,

5.47 in.2

wall; wall extends inward for 6j in. as full

reinforcing limit oulward:

At =
Azz

2(t3.t25)(5.25
2(6.5)(5.25

o)

2.289)

68.25

77.73

in.'2

in.'?

2.25" diameter

19. Total area available is

At = Ar

A21

A22

151.45 in.2

> A, of

151.06 in.2

20. Also, check 'tlose-in" limit. Determine limit parallel io shell as the
greater

of

0.75d:

0.75(24)

18

in. or

T"

T^

+r=

24 in.

limit is the same for the "close-in" limit, the area


required of 0.674, is also satisfied without further calculations. I
Because the parallel

Exrmple 11.5. Determine the minimum required thickness of a 36-in. ID


cylindrical shell based upon reinforcement requirements. The nozzles are
through-welded as shown in Fig. 11.9c and have 2.25-in ID on a staggered

0.035 in.

Deiermine the reinforcement limits based on Ts = 1.125 in' and f,. =


0.188 in. Limit parallel to shell surface = X = 2.25 in. or (1.125 +
1.125 + 0.188) = 2.438 in., use 2.438 in.
y = 2.57" = 2.812 in. ot 2 5n =
The limit normal to shell surface
in.
use 0.469
0.469

is

0.552 in.

The minimum required thickness of the nozzle is

sE

2.5/5.25't:

357

Solution

Limit parallel to shell is greater of

d:

IIMITS

Dattem of three fows on 3-in. centers and 4 5-in. longitudinal spacing, as shown

l.
=

REINIORCEMENT

in.

14, Reinforcement area required is

A, = 6.294(24)

I,4

Fisur I

l.l I

Muliiple opninss in cylindricol lhell.

358

4.

OPININOS, NOZILIS, AND EXTIRNAI. I.OADINGS

l-2.

Actual spacing = 4.5 in. parallcl


2(2.438) 4.875 in., exceeds actual

Exnminc thc longitudinal plane

limits without overlap = 2x =

dt,F = (2.2s)(0.552)(1.0)

Ar = (?i
Ar

= (7,

Asa = (0.552)(4.5X0.7

A561s: (l.125)(4.5

5.

0.552X4.5

z.z5) =

I1.4.2

1.289 in.z

- t^)(2Y) : (0.188 A' = A1 t Az = 1.432 in.z

Az

Ans#sr.' Minimum

1.242in.2

= (r.tZs

r)(spacins d)

1.0)

2.25')

0.035)(2

0.469)

0.143 in.,

1.739 in.2

2.531 n.2

>

1.739 in.2

Examine the diagonal plane, 2-3. With a row-to-row spacing of 3 in. and
a longitudinal spacing of 4.5 in., the diagonal spacing is
+

\,tr

ZB

3.75in.,0 = tan-' 3/2.25.0 = 53.13.. With a spacing of 3.75in.,


the parallel limit of 4.875 in. exceeds the actual spacing; therefore, the
limits overlap and the special rules apply. From Eq. 11.16,
F:0.5(cos2 0 + l) = 0.68 for g = 53.t3'.
A, = dt,F
Ar = (4

(3.75

(2.2s)(0.ss2)(0.68)

r'r,)(spacing

2.25)

= 6.30r

.n.,

d) = (1.125 - 0.68 x 0.552)

A14a:
4567s

6.

>

0.845 in.2

x 0.68) : 0.985 in.,


2.25) = 1.688.in., > 0.985 in.,

(0,552)(3.7 5)(O.7

= 0.125)(3.75

The assumed values of T,

factory.

1.267 in.2

1.125

in. and ?i = 0.188 in. are satis-

359

lensth of side is 4.631 in.

Reinforcemenl Rules for ASME, Section Vlll, Division I

VIII, Division 1, Pressure


However, the rules for
ASME
Section
L
to
those
for
Vessek, arc similar

reinforcernent are given as the main choice, with ligament rules used only as an
altrnative for repeating pattems of openings. Rules iue contained in both the
iext and the appendices. They are given for both internal pressure and extemal
pressure. The rules are essentially the same except that only 50% of the replacement area is required for extemal pressure assuming that the minimum required
thickness in each case is based on the appropriate formula and design rules for
both intemal and extemal pressures.

N o Reintorcement Re quiNed
Single openings in vessels that are not subjected to special applied loadings, such
as cyclic loading, do not require reinforcement calculations if the openings do
not exceed the following size limits.

Size

In plate thickness of $in. or less,

d,,. = 3-in. NPS.


d* = 2-in. NPS.

In plate thickness greater than;i".,

anl

Shape of Openings

The nrles apply to openings that are circular, elliptical, or obround. The latter
shapes often result from an opening in a curved surface or from a nonradial
nozzle. However, other shapes arc permitted when considered according to

u-2(e).
For openings in cylindrical shells, the rules in the text are limited to openings
of the following size limits:

Problzms

11.6

IIMITS

The rules for reinforced openings in ASME Section

1.
2.

1.124 in.2

A: = 0.143 in.'z
A, = A1 ! Az

REINFORCEMENT

For triangular anangement of openings shown in Fig. I l.l I with oPenings that are 2.25-in.lD, what is the minimum side length of a spacing
that forms a series of equilateral triangles?

ll.7

spacing. Therefore, limits ovedap and special rules apply.

A,=

I,4

What is the minimum required wall thickness (rounded uo to the next


l/8 in.) of a t2 3/4-in. ID nozzle atrached to a 60-in. by 3.75-in.
thick drum? The allowable stess of both the shell and nozzle material is
15.0 ksi. The nozzle is attached by a full penetration weld with comer
fillet welds with a throat of 0.7 ?i. The design pressure if 1400 psi at room

@mperature.

Answer:

t-in

2.50 in.

1.
2.

For shells 60-in. and less in diameter, the opening is not to exceed 0'5 D
or 20 in.,
For shells over 60 in. in diameter, the opening is not to exceed 0.33 D

or

210-in.

When these size limits are exceeded, in addition to the rules in tle text, the rules
in Appendix l-7 are also to be met. These additional rules may require some
reinforcement to be placed closer to the opening than required by the rules in the

360

II

oP!N|NOS, NOZZUS, AND CXTEnNAL tOADINOS

,4

RETNIORCEMINT TIMITS

361

text. l.'tlr opcnings in sphcrical shells and lbrmed heads, the text rures are mer
by considering the use of reverse curves and conical sections where possible.
There are no specific limitations on size and shape of openings in spherical shells
and formed heads.
Required Area of Reintorceme nt
The total cross-sectional area of reinforcement required for any plane through the

center of an opening is given by

A: dt,F

(ll.2l)

where d = the diameter of the opening on the longitudinal plane of

cylindrical shell or any plane of a spherical shell or formed head


(in.)

conection factor for pressure stress on plane being examined with


respect to longitudinal axis, as shown in Fig. 11.12. This factor is
applicable only to nozzles with integral reinforcement,

t, = minimum requked thickness of a seamless shell based on the


circumferential stress (longitudinal plane) or of a seamless formed
head with the following additional provisions:

1
2.
3.

When the opening and its reinforcement are totally within the spherical
part of a torispherical head, l. is determined using the hemispherical head

formula with both E and M

1.0 (see Fig. t1.l3a).


When the opening and its reinforcement are in a cone, r, is the required
thickness of a seamless cone.
When the opening and its reinforcement are in an ellipsoidal head and
within a circle that is equal to 8070 of the shell diameter, r, is determined
using the hemispherical head formula for a seamless shell of radius K1 D ,
where D is the shell diameter and K1 is obtained.from Table 1 1 . 3 and as
shown in Fig. 11.130.

The value of t, obtained from any of the methods given above is used only
to determine the required area of reinforcement. The value of t" used to set the
minimum required thickness of the shell or head is based on the thickness
fbrmulas that consider all the design loadings and weld joint efficiencies.

o" r;o

2oo so" aoo loo coo

Arrelr ol Pt.na wlih Loneitldltral

loo loo

eoP

Atb

FisurIl.l2 Charr tor derrmins F. (Courreiy Amsricon Socistv of l'lechonicol Ensiners, From Fis UG-37
of d's ASME Code, Vlll-l .)

Limit o! Reinforcement Perpendicular to Shell


The limit of reinforcement prpendicular or normal to the shell measured either
inward or outward from the surface of the shell is the smaller of (1) 2.57' or (2'S

2.5n+

L.

Limit of Reintorcement Parallel ta Shell Surlace

Avaibble Area of Reinforcement

When the size of tle opening is within the limits in the text, the limits of
reintbrcement parallel to the shell surface measured on each side of the centerline are the larger of (l) d or (2) T" + Tn + 0.5d.

When the reinforcement limits do not extend outside the zone of nominal wall
thickness of the shell and nozzle, the area available for reinforcement may be
calculated by the following formulas:

t62

OPININO!, NO! T!3, AND TXTIRNAT TOADINGS

I.4

REINTORCTMENT TIMITS

Tqble I 1.3'
D

/2h

Kr

3.0

2.8

2.6

2.4

1.27

l.l8

1.08

36

D /2h

1.8

1.6

1.4

KI

0.81

o.73

0.65

2.2 2.O
0.99 0.90
1.2 l 0
0.57 0.50

Required Area of Reinforcement

(a) rimits for forisphericat

Head

The total cross-sectional area of reinforcement required for any plane through the

center

0.8D = sneci
'1

of an opening using rules l-7 is given by

(l l.26)

0.67 dt,F

Limit of Reinforcement Parallel to SheA


The limit of reinforcement parallel to the shell measured on each side of the
opening centerline is the greater of (1) 0.75 d or (2) T, + T, + 0.5d.

Limil of Reinforcement Perpendicular n Shell

(b) Limits for Etlipsoidaf


Figt

r I L

Dorerminorion of spciol limirs

The limit is set exactly the same way as for a nozzle that is within the rules
the text.

Head

ior determing t, to u! in

roinfiorrnenr colculations.

Wlen any two adjacent openings are

Area available in shell wall is the greater of

41 =(2"d._d)(ET,_Ft)

(11.22)

or

tu = 2(7" +

2.

T^

0.5 d)

d(ET,

Area available in nozzle wall is the smaller

Ft,)

(r1.23)

spaced so that their reinforcement

overlaps, the combined area is used, but is evaluated only once in the combined
area. The preferred spacing
between the two openings.

1.

is at least 1.5d"", with 507o of the area required

Example 11.6. Determine the reinforcement requirements of an 8 in. 1D


nozzle that is centrally located in a 2 : 1 ellipsoidal head. The inside diameter
of the head skirt is 41.75 in. The allowable shess of both the head and nozzle
material is 17.5 ksi. The design pressure is 700 psi and the design temperature
is 500'F. There is no corrosion and the weld joint efficiency is E : 1.0. See Fig.
11. 13. 1 for details of a nozzle.

of

A,=(sDQ.-h)

(r1.24)

+^' o.taq"

A2= 6n+2.5t"\(7.-t,)

T^r

t'6

(11.2s)

When the size of the opening exceeds the limits in which


the rules in the text
apply' the supplemental rules in r-7 are used in addition to
the text rules. These
additional requirements follow.

of

Fisure I

l.l3.l

Deroils of nozzle in exomple I

L6.

t6a

oPtNtNo3, NOZZII3, AND tXTrRNAt" LOAD|NGS

ll.

Solullon

l.

7oo (41'751

PD

=x 1.0) - 0.2P= 2(17,sn

zSE

0.2(700)

0.838 in.;
use 1.0 in.

3.

As noied in the definition of r, ro use with Eq. 11.20 and shown in Fig.
11.13.1, when an opening and its reinforcement are located in an ellio_
soidal head and within a circle equal to 80Zo of the shell diameter, ,. to
be used in reinforcement calculations is the thickness required for a
seamless sphere of radius K1D, where D is the shell ID and E for a 2 : I
ellipsoidal head is 0.9 frorn Table 11.3. For this head, the opening and
reinforcement are within 0.8 D = 0.8(41.75) = 33.4 in.
Using the spherical shell radius of R = K tD = 0.9(41.7 5) = 37 .57 5 n.
in the hemispherical head formula gives

!' = = PR = 2SE - 0.2p

7oo (37.575)

PR

4.

6.

1.0)

0.2(700)

u.

/f)

= (17,500

7OO

(4)

1.0)

0.6(700)

6 765

Area provided = 6.765 in.z > area required


area is needed, use fillet weld area. I

6.040 in.'?

'r Az:

1.960

in''

1.

The minimum rcquired thickness of the shell is found from


700 (20.938)

-t=-=sE -PR0.6P
2.
rs

(17,500

1.0)

(0.6

":'::700)

0.858 in.:
use

The minimum required thickness of the nozzle is obtained

= (17,500 x 1.0)
', : --!losE - o.6P
-

(0.6

Because the limit of 2X = 2(8): 16 in. is less ihan 33.4 in. of item 2
above, the provision of the spherical head may be used.

E.

Reinforcement area required following Eq. 11.20 is

-a-

Reinforcement area available in head according to Eq. 11.21 is


A1

(ET,

Ft)(U

d) = (1.0

10. Reinforcement area available

Az=

57"(7,

0.755X16

8)

1.960 in.,

in nozzle according to Eq. 11.23 is

- tJ = 5(1.0X1.r25 -

ABCD=Limit

0.164)

4.805 in.,

Figure

ll.l,1

12

of Reinf

16 Monwoy opnins detoils for exompl l

ln.

as

use

A, = d+F = 8(0.7s5)(1.0) = 6.040 in.,


9,

= 0.246 in.:

700)

Lirnits perpendicular to head surface i s y = 2.57, or 2.52,, whichever rs


smaller. y = 2.5(1) = 2.5 in. or 2.5(1.125) = 2.813 in.; use 2.5 in.

,|

additional

Solution

700 (6)

Limits paraUel to head surface = X = d or (T, + T, + r), whichever


larger. X = 8 in. or (4 + | + t.125 = 6.125 in.); use 8 in.

If

shell is 41.875 in. Both the shell and manway material have an allowable tensile
stress of 17,500 psi. The design pressure is 700 psi at a design temperature of
500'F. There is no corrosion and the joint efficiency is E = 1.0' Details are
shown in Fig. 11.14.

rn.

0.164 in.

is

+ 4'805

A1

365

Example 11.7. Determine the reinforcement requirements for a l2-in.


x 16-in. manway opening. The l2-in. dimension lies along the longitudinal axis
of the cylindrical shell. The manway cover seals against the outside surface of
the opening so that the opening nozzle is under intemal pressure' The ID of the

The minimum required thickness of the nozzle is

PR'
,^=
'- sE - 0_6P
!.

2(17,500

UMI1S

RHNFORCEMENT

Total reinforcement available from head and nozzle

A,:

The minimum required thickness of aZ: I ellipsoidal head without an


opening is determined from UG-32(d) of the A3ME Code, VIII-I as

t.4

7.

in.

OPININOS, NOZZUS, AND TXTERNAI. I,OADINOS

3.

t' =

Uxuntinution ol thc longitudinal planc where


Fig. l l.12.

.0 is determined tiom

Limits parallel to shell, whichever is larger:

r.4

RflNFORCTMENT

UMTTS

367

All joints are fully radiographed with


1.0. There is no corrosion.

is 70O psi at a design temperature of 500'F.

t joint efficiency of E :
Solutinn

d:

T,

12

+ T, + 0.5d : 6+

in.
1

1.

1* = S+in.

The minimum required thickness of the cylindrical shell from Example


11.7 is

Limits perpendicular to shell, whichever is smaller:

t=

2iT, = 2.5(r) = 2.5 in.


2+r": z.s(1.25) = 3.125 in.

2.

dt,F

12 (0.858X1.0)

PL
zSE

Ft)(2x

d) = (r

Reinforcement area available

At =
Azz =

57,(7, 57,(7,

jn

0.85sX24

4.

3.

r2)

dt,F

0.246)

5.020 in.,

x 1-

= 0.420 in.;
0.2 x 7W

1.704

"

sE

o.6P

use

4.

5.020

+ 6.25O-_

Limits parallel to vessel surface, whichever is the larger of


d.

16 (0.858)(0.s)

T,

12.974 in.2

5.

T,

+ 0.5d= I +

= 6in.

0.75

+ 3 = 4.75in.; use6in.

Limits perpendicular to vessel surface, whichever is the smaller of


2.5T,

= 2.5(1\ =

2.5 in.

or
6.864 in.2

2.5f":
6.

2.519.'lt,

= l'875 in.;

use 1.875 in.

Reinforcement area requhed by Eq. 11.20 is

A, = dt,F = 6(0.858X1.0) = 5.148


,1

in.

700x3
0.123 in.;
17,500x1-0.6x700 =

or

11.8. Determine the reinforcement requirements for a 6-in. ID noz_


zle that is located at the junction of a cylindrical shell and a hemispherical
head.
The entire opening is in the cylindrical shell, but ttre reinforcemlni
extends in
Dotn drectlons-some into the head and some into the shell.
The ID of the shell
is 41.875 in. The allowable shess of all material is 17.5 ksi. The design pressure
Example

Pr

t =-=

0) = 6.256 ;n.z

If the arc length of l6.4in. is used,A, = 7.036 in., Either of these areas
is less than A. in item 3 and does not control. The longitudinal plane

conhols.

17,500

20.938

The minimum reouired thickness of the nozzle is

1.7s4.o.2

Area provided of 12.974 in.2 ) area required of 10.296 in.2


Examination of circumferential plane where F = 0.5 from Fig. 11.12
gives the reinforcement area required by Eq. 11.20 as

A,:

O.zP 2x

use

Total reinforcement area available:

700

nozzle wall by Eq. 11.23

t,,) = S(t)(1.2s
t^) = 5(1)(1.2s

At = At + A^ + An

usel in.

10.296 in.2

Reinforcement area available in shell by Eq. 11.21 is

Ar = (ET"

in.:

The minimum required thickness of the head is

Reinforcement area required by Eq. 11.20 is

A,:

0.858

in.'z

Reinforcement area available in shell and head by Eq. 11.21 is

At = (ET" -

- 0.8s8X6 - 3) = 0.852 in.'?


Arz = (ETt, - Fil = (l - 0.420X6 - 3) = 1.740 in.2
Ft,, = (1

o!

in.

3e0
E.

oPlNlNos, NOZZ|tS. AND

Reinlorccnrcnt urea available in nozzle wall by Eq. I 1.23 is

Az:

9.

TXTEnNAT TOAD|NGS

5T,(T,

- t') = 5(0.75)(0.75 -

0.123)

.2.351

Ar * Ao + A2 = 4.943 in.2,

ll.

not enough

1.

A, = 5.148 in.'?

4,

centerlines of openings is limited to no less than


(a) Three times the sum of the radii for formed heads and the longitudinal
axis of cylinders.
(b) Two iimes the sum of the radii for the circumferential axrs
The rules shall be satisfied for all planes'

design-by-analYsis is used.

What is the minimum required thickness of the nozzle wall (rounded up


to the next ] in.) of an opening whose reinforcement is based on an
available area from both the shell and the nozzle? The opening has a
15-in. diameter and is located in a cylindrical shell of 22-in. diameter.
The design pressure is 450 psi, the design temperature is 450'F, and the
allowable iensile stress is S : 15,000 psi. There is no corrosion.

Azswer.' Required nozzle wall

11.9

limited to
The ratio of the large to the small dimension of the opening is
1.5.

limitations'
For all dimensions and shapes of openings that are not within these

Problems

11.8

Required nozzle thickness is

?,

Openings Not Requiring Reinlorcement Calculations


calcuProvisions are given for circular openings not requinng reinforcement
lations when ali the following requirements are satisfied:

1.

Single openings with d*, = 0'2 V]4r and two or more openings within
a clide- with a diameter < z 5 \/fu , the sum of the diameters is

<

th'ickness is

I in.

Assume the nozzle in Example 11.6 is not centrally located in the 2 : I


ellipsoidal head. Instead, some of the reinforcement area extends into the
knuckle region. Is the available reinforcement area sufficient for this
condition? If not, how thick does the nozzle have to be?

Azsrer.'

1.25 tn.

2.
3.

0.25 \/Rt

Center-to-center spacing > 1.5( + d)'


greater than
Center-to-edge of another local stressed area, where Pr is
1. 1S-, is : 2.5 \/Rt .

Required

Ana of Reinforcement

Thetotalcross-sectionalareaofreinforcementrequiredforanyplaneisgivenby

A:
I

1.4.3

369

2. d/D <0.5o.
3. Arc length between

0.250 in.'z

Total including attachment fillet welds is

At = 5.193 in.z

LlMlTs

'fhe rules are applicable to circular and elliptical openings and to shapes of
of circular and elliptical cross-sectional nozzles' In
,ft" iti
"rsection
"p*i"gt
"i
addition, the following limits also apply:

in.2

L0. Reinforcement area available in attachment fillet weld assuming leg


dimension of 0.5 in. is
43 = (0.5)'?

REINFORCIMINT

Limilalions on Dimensians and Shape of Openings

Total reinforcement available from shell. head. and nozzle is

A, =

1.4

Reinforcement Rules for ASME, Section

Vlll, Division 2

The rules for reinforced openings in Section VtrI, Division 2, are similar to those
for Division 1 ; but there are some differences . Reinforcement limits and spacing
are based on the damping length of a beam on an elastic foundation. The rules

are for either intemal or external pressure with no specific rules given for
extemal loadings or for fatigue. However, there are stress inlensity factors that
can be combined with the intemal pressure stresses to indicate the peak stresses
for fatieue.

where t, =

dt,F

(1r.27)

minimum required thickness by either internal or external pressure

rules, as aPPlicable, (in.)

depending upon the plane under consideration' 1 0 for


formed heads and on the longitudinal plane' For nonintegral
connections, F = 1.0 for all Planes'

F = factor

One-half of the required area


opemng.

of reinforcement is placed on

each side

of

an

T7O

OPlNINO8, NOZZ!Is, AND IXTERNAI" I,OADINGS

Llmll of Relqforcement Along Vessel lVall


The limit of reinforcement along the vessel wall measured
on each side of the
openrng when 10070 of the required area of reinforcement is
needed is the larger

of (l) d or (2) T, + T" + 0.54.


The limit of reinforcement along the vessel wall measured
on each side of the
opening when two-thirds of the required area of reinforcement
is needed is the
larger of (1) r + 0.5 \Ar or (2) T" + f, + 0.5d.

,-

90 dca.

Limil of Reinforcement Normal to Vesset Walt


The limit of reinforcement norrnal to the vessel wall measured
from the vessel
surface is equal to the following:

f.
2.

11.15a and b, it is the larger of (0.5


fo1-FiS.
(1.73x+2.5b+ n < 2.57, and, < L + 2.5t,
For Fig. 11.15c, when 45 degrees

0.5

\Gn

Y"if
3.

(L' +

For Fig. ll.15d, it is the targer of (0.5

or

2 0 > 30 Jegrees, it is rhe largerof

Z.Stp) < 2.57,.


30 degrees, it is the larger of

or

\/riI,

2.57".

.5

\/ffi

\/r^I, +

or e.73x
te)

2.5t0)

or (2.57., +

t)

In both expressions above, t" is not to exceed 1.5[ or 1.7317 where


I7 = width of added reinforcing pad.
For all cases, the terms and definitions are:

*=

slope offset distance (in.)

: amgle from vertical


I' : vertical length of tapered section
r^=r+0.57:
0

Metal Availablz for Reinforcement


The metal available for reinforcement is obtained from the
following
within the limits established:

l.
2.
3.
4.

areas

1Lt

Excess vessel wall thickness

Excess nozzle wall thickness which


penetration welds

is integral or

Weld metal in fillet welds


Pad attachment welds (where permitted)

attached

by full_
Figur

ll.l5

,i..honi.ol

Deioil! for limir of rinlorcmonr normol to vesrel woll. (Courtesy Anericon Soci6ty of

Enginis: From Fis. AD-5,{0.1 of the ASME Code, Vlll-2.)

371

OPININOS, NOZZTES. AND EXTIRNAI IOADINOS

Pads (where permitted)


6.

I.4

The required minimum area of reinforcement


l(aR

- o.ilTl < 0.0008


of

vessel metal

Af = temperature range from 70'F to design iemperature


highest temperature,

if

at

design

or lowest to

greater ('F)

1.0

> &/,tv >

Sy

of nozzle material at design temperature (psi)

allowable stress of vessel material at design temperature (psi)

Alternative Rules for Noule Design


As the result of an extensive study for the PVRC5, it was determined that within
the restrictive limits and rules that follow, a nozzle can be designed that does not
have 100% replacernent of an area but has the nominal strbss essentially maintained.

>0.40

None, except

12

required

ls.40(d/\/RDt/2

2.41fdt,
dt, cos g, O = sin-\(d/D)

1.811dt,

0.75 dt,

met,
Determine the reinforcement requirements of an.8-in- ID nozzle tha:t is centrally located in a 2 : 1 ellipsoidal head. The inside diameter of the
head skirt is 41.73 in. The allowable stress of the head material is 20'5 ksi and
of the nozzle material is 21.6 ksi. The design pressure is 70O psi and the design
temperatme is 50OoF. There is no corrosion. See Fig. 11 18 for details ofnozzle'

Example

11.9.

Solutinn
The minimum required thickness of the 2 : 1 ellipsoidal head using Fig'
AD-2O4.1 of the ASME Code, VIII-2, is determined as follows:

which siue. : o.ozt


|
; = ;* = 0.034
I = 0.9D = 0.9(a1.75) = 37 575 in.
t = O.OLLL = O.o2l(37 .575) = 0.789 in.;

Circular cross section is perpendicular to surface.

All integral construction

required

14.os(d/\/-k)1tz

0.40

1.

Limitations

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

12

Reinforcing zone limits and reinforcing area are given in Fig' 1.1'16' Figure
11.17 shois the acceptable transition details. In order to use this altemative
method of determining the reinforcing area, all provisions of the procedure are

0.80.

stress

None, except

<o.20
>0.20 and

is

Limits or Reinforcing Zone

Adjust area by S./Sn not to exceed 1.0

where S, = allowable

Nozzles in Cylinders

dl\/Rt,

<

Strength of Reinforcement Metal

1.
2.

373

Nozzles in Spherical
Vessels and Formed Heads

Value of

of expansion of reinforcing metal at design


(in./in./'F)

av = mean coefficient of expansion


temperature (in./in./'F)

4.,

(11.28)

mean coefficient
temperature

TIMITS

Required Area of Reintorcement

Metal from items 2, 3, and 4 meets the following:

where rri =

REINFORCEMENT

use specified comer radii.

Edge+o-edge of openings - 2.5 \/Fi.


Material has tfslfs > 1.5.
Design is within the following dimensional limits:

use 1.O-in. thickness

Limit

Formed Heads
Cylinders

and Spheres

D/t

10-200

l0-250

d/D

0.33 max.
0.80 max.

0.80 max.

d/\/Dt

Using AD-201(a) of the ASME Code, VtrI-2, the minimum required


thickness of the nozzle is

0.50 max.

0.5P

700x
21,600

4
0.700

= 0.132

in.;

use 1{ in. thickness

374

oP!N|NOS, NOZZ|tS, AND [XT!RNA| TOAD|NOS

v.x.r 416, Nod.r

bl A.inlo.d.r Zar. Li'ir

ltl

Lc-

OSas

li / RPI3R

fo. nozrld in cylin l.ic.l.h.th

l2l

La

'

128

k./ 213|Bh/a+g.'tI

for notrl.3 in

h.dt

(3) Th. c.ni.r or l. or L, i! .r llr. ionct!.. ot rh. ourrldr


rorl.clr ol th! .hdl r.d .02116 of rhicknt.r, ...nd a',

{a)

l. condrudioff whr. th. .o.. bosfthry p.$6 rhrollh


mll r.gh.nr, th! .on. born.Lry m.y !a
o.l, through !h. thi.ln'.i

unilorm rhictn!3r

.on3id.r!d.31.
Cylindric.l Sh.llr

rr

lll H.lch.d'..3 r.pr .nt !{.il.blc rlinlorc.hanrr..,a..

o.ltro 0.5.
rh. tfEer ot r.41

the

rr

rtre

l2l M?r.l .1.. whhin rh. ronc bou..hry, in |rc.$ ot tha.raa


torhcd bV ri. inr.rildion ot th. b.!ic rh.[r, rh.l ba conrida.ad
.! conrrabutin! ro th. ..qut.rl &.., Ar, Th! b.jc th.[!.,r
drtimd .r h.vi.g iniid. r.di!! ,, thictn rt a, inrkt! r..liv. ,,

>

'

\/A;

o.

tn

tz,sr otl.,/E7i6li,z] or lol9oltn


targe. of I t - JitEil x 1.41 \,6

or tl

l0l90,1

l./21

= {0' /90)r

l3l Th. .vriltbl. r.'nldc.rn.nt .rx,4. ih.|tl b. .r t..tr


.qo.l to I,/2 on ..ch rid. ol rh. norrlaornr.r ti...nd in rvaw
d.m co.r.iniq rh. nor2l..tir.

" <45deg.
end0'

{.1

Fisurc

ll.t6

Limits

of reintorcine zone. (Courrely Amgrkon Sociory of rnechonicot Ensiners: From Fis.

560.,{-l of the ASME Code, V t-2.}

3.

Nozzlo d6tqil. 60r u3 of olrrnorive rult. (Courl$v Arnericon Sociry of tnchonicol Engineers'
Figuro I I . I
From Fig. AD-560.IJ of {'s ASME Code. Vlll2.)

Limits parallel to head surface are:


(a) For 1007o or required reinforcement area:

d or (f, + f" + r) whichever is larger


X=8in. or (4 + 1+ 1.125) = 6.125in.; useX:8in.
X=

(b) For two-thirds required reinforcement area is the larger of:

X' = r ! 0.5 \/ R^t or (T + T, + O.sd)


X' : 4 + 0.5 \,{3S.07sXD = 7.085 in. or
use

T-1.o"

o.'1a1"

6.125 in.;

X'

7.085 in.

Fisure

tl.l8

Detcils o{ 2,1 ellipsoidol haod os givm in exomPl

ll.9'
375

116
4.

OPININOS, NOZZTES, AND EXTERNAT IOADINOS

Linrits nonlul to hcud surlucc, the lurgcr ol'

2.5(l)

1.
2.

2.5(1.125)

Strength ratio

:
?: A, :

6.

= (r,

8(0.789X1)

?(6.312)

- dr:

t)(2x

(1.0

2Y(7"

Pr

8)

1.688 in.'?

4.

0.132)

1.688

4.965

6.654 in.'?

(7,

1.3O2 in.2

Ft)(2X'

d\

: (r -

0.789)(2

d or (f, + f, + r), whichever is larger


X= l}in. or (6+ 1+ 1.25) = 8.25 in.; useX = 12in'
For two-thirds of required reinforcement area,

(2, +

I" + r)

whichever is larger

7.085

X' =

8)

8.25

8.315 in.

10. Total reinforcement available from head and nozzle usins two-thirds
limit is
A, = Ar

Az

1.3o2

4.965

6.267 in.2

>

4.208

in.

For 100% of required reinforcement area:

x' = 6 + 0.5\Cl.438XD = 8.315 in. or


x

,1oo I 9 =.=, :- u.zzu


o.22o\n.:
u5 1| in.
',r., use
oJCdO
lt70d=

X' = r 4 0.5\/R"t or

6.312 \n.2

Reinforcement available with two-thtds limit is

Ay

""'

X=

4.965 in.2

>

use

face as:

(b)
=

-= 0.728
"'"
''''o in..

Examination of the longitudinal plane gives limits parallel to shell sur-

Total reinforcement available form head and nozzle within 1007o rein-

A, = Ar r,4z

700 x 29.93_8_ 20-500 -T3o00)-

Using AD-201(a) of the ASME Code, VIII-2, the minimum required


thickness of the nozzle is

(a)

pR

,., = _ g.5p =
s

0.789)(16

t^) = 2(2.s)(r.rz5

is, = D.a/?-0.5 = 0.946.

S:ojp

4.208 in.2

forcement limit is

9.

t=

3.

6.312 in.'z

Reinforcement available in nozzle wall is


Az

8.

tor

thickness of the shell is

Reinforcement available with 1007o limit is


A1

7.

dt,F

19

Using AD-201(a) of the ASME Code, VIII-2, the minimum required

Reinforcement area required for

1ffi7o: A,

Fig. I l

377

Solutian

usel=2.5in.

5.

I.IMITS

details.

+ O.25:3.063 in. <


2.5 in. and < 4 + 2.5(1.125) = 6.813 in.;

REIN'ORCEMENT

and the design temperature is 500"F. There is no conosion. See

Y:0.5\/r^h + K or 1.73-r + 2.5rr,+ K.<


2.57, and < L + 2.5h
v = o.s r{+s6rttll25) + 0.25 = 1.383 in. or
=0+

I.4

in.'?

Example 11.10. Detemine the reinforcement requirements for a 12-in. x


16-in. rnanway opening. The 12-in. dimension lies along the longitudinal axis
of the vessel. The manway cover seals against the outside surface of the manway. The 1D of the shell is 41 .875 in. The allowable stress of the shell material
is 20.5 ksi and of the manway material 19.4 ksi. The design pressure is 700 psi

ABCD=LirDit
Figure

1t.19

ot

Deloih of 12

Rei.nforcemerlt

16 monwoy opning in exomPle

I1.10.

in.;

use

078

OPII{INOS, NOZZLIS, AND EXTERNAI. TOADINGS

(c)

5.

For limits normal to shell surface, the larger of

y=05\/VJ+x
1.73x

(d)

A,:

(f)

0.858

= (1 -

0.728)(24

ments?

12)

in.z

1.4.4

8.315

12)

1.259 in.2

Total reinforcement with two-thftds limit is

At = At + Aa + An
A,

1.259

+ 4.972 + 5.912 =

= lz.MO > A, = 5.922 in.2

To

t2.O4O in.z

0 375 in'

= l'375 in'

Reinforcement Rules for ANSI/ASME 83l. I

Ruies for welded, reinforced connections according to ANSVASME 831.1,


Power Piping, are similar to the rules for reinforced openings in the ASME
Code, I and VIII-I. The following requirements give the basic considerations.
N o Reintorcement

Reinforcement available in shell with two-thftds limit:

0.728r(2

{ = 2.5 in.

Pad' t"

3.264 in.2

14.M8 > A, = 8.834 in.,

(l -

shell,

nozzle,

* Ar + A:z= 3.2& + 4.872 + 5.912 = 14.048 in.,

A' =

6.864 in.2

Answer:

Total reinforcement with l00qo limit is

x 0.5 =

10 in. inside diameter nozzle is attached by a full-penetration weld


and comer fillet weld to a 48-in. inside diameter as shown in Figure
11. 15b. The shell maierial is 5.4-266 Class 1 carbon steel and,the nozzle
material is SA-182 F304 stainless steel. The design pressure is 1250 psi
at a design temperature of 500'F. What is the required thickness of the
shell, nozzle, and pad (if required) to satisfy the reinforcement require-

Reinforcement available in nozzle wall:

At

(i)

16

Reinforcement available with 1007o limit:

A, = A1

(h)

5.922 in.2

outward: 421 = 2(2.5)(1.25 - O.2n)e.946) = 4.872


inward: A22 = 2(2.5)(1.25)(0.946) = 5.9t2 in.2

(g)

dt,F

11.10 A

- f)
A"=12x0.728x1+2x1.25 x 0.728(1 _ 0.946)

A1

379

Problem

dt,F + 2t"t,(1

= 8.834 in.,
A, = 4$.834) =

TIMITS

Using the arc length of 16.4 in., A. = 7.036 in.']Either of thetwo areas
is less than 4, in item 4d and do not control. Longitudinal controls. I

Reinforcement area required for

l0o7o:

(e)

A,:

2.5te

usey=2.5in.

REINFORCEMENT

In examining the circumferential plane, reinforcement area required according to the ASME Code, VIII-2 is

or

+ K Z.ST, and, < L + Z.Stp


=
=
y = 0.5\/6.625 x l2s + 0.25 = L698 in. or
Y : 0 + 2.5(1.25) + 0.25 = 3.375 <
2.5(l) = 2.5 in. and < 3 + 2.5(1.25) = 6.125 in.
Y

I.4

C altulalians Re

quired

No calculations for reinforcement are required when the following limits


are met:

1.

Connections made from fittings that have a standard pressure/temperature rating established.
d^:2-in. NPS with tn6 > Schedule 160 pipe.

2.
3. d/D < 0.25.
4. Standard fittings of extra heavy or Class 3000 rating.
Limitations.
and 90 deerees.

Angle between branch and run or nozzle and shell is between 45

3t0

optt{r],tot, NoTztlt, aND txrrRNAl loADlNos

r.4

RHNFORCIMINI

llMlt3

3tl

Notatlons and Dsnnltlons. (Sce Fig. 11.20)

a = angle between nozzle and shell (degrees)


D, = outside diameter of run or header (in.)
d1 = (D" - 27,) /sin o(in.)
dz = horizontal limit of each side of centerline, which is the
T, + T, + 0.5/, but not more than D, (in.)
1 = perpndicular limit : 2.54 + t, (in.)

larger of dy or

Required Area of Reinlorcement


The lotal cross-sectional area of reinforcement required for any plane through the
center of an opening is given by

A,:
which for

l.o7t^hdlz

(rr.29,

sin d)

90' is

A,

= l.o1t*dl

(1 1.30)

Avoi.lable Area of Reinforcement


The total area available for reinforcement is the sum
45 where each area is determined as follows:

ofAl + A2 + A3 + A4 +

Ar=(2dz-d)(7,*t,,t)
. zl(n - t'h)
A1 ---------1--

(11.31)

sm(I

t,
T;
-T

(rr.32)

A3

area

Aa

arca of reinforcing rings, pads, and so on.

A5

area of saddles

of fillet welds

Reinlorcement Zone
The limits of reinforcement are formed by a parallelogram with sides of d2 on
each side of the nozzle centerline and an altitude of Z perpendicular to the shell
surface.

N^N
N'
f
fislr6

The following should be applied:

l.

Overlapping area shall be counted only one time.

Au

A2

-.rcF

wttl in

a
i
jml[mt

Ar.!

A3

a&

A4

l@'

ar.

45

- m'ttt

br.nch

I I .20 Dimnlions ond not'otions for ANSI/ASME


Ensinosru, From Fis. 1O'1.3.1D of ASMBANSI B3l'l )

2.
Multiple Openings

F.di6d 6lnro6m..t.r!.
a6. at -.rc6wdl l. h.!d.

B3l l

Try to limit centerline spacing to

rilld

*ld dll't

ncor In rin!, prd. or Ini.s.l


dinro,c.d.nr tNol! {2ll
in

td'!t doc

tun

(Coud$v Americon Socitv of rnchonicol

54"

with at least 50% of

area

between oPenings.

a design
Example 11.11 A steam pipe has a 24-in' inside diameter with
temdesign
psi
at
the
14,500
of
stress
psi
allowable
and an
oressul of Z5OO
of
angle
at
an
connects
8
in
of
diameter
rnside
an
pera$re. A branch ptpe wtrn

980

OPININO!. NOZZ[!S, AND IXTIRNAI toADlNos

1,4

lu

RflNloRclMlt{T tl,ulTs

Notatlone and Deffnltlons. (See Fig. 11.20)

a = angle between nozzle and shell (degrees)


D" = outside diameter of run or header (in')
dy = (D. - 24,)/sin o(in.)
dz = horizontal limit of each side of centedine, which is the
T, + T, + 0.5d, but not more than D, (in.)
1, : perpendicular limit = 2.5T^ + te (in.)

larger of d1 or

Required Area of Reinforcement


The total cross-sectional area of reinforcement re4uired for any plane tbrough the
center of an opening is given bY

A,
which for

a=

l.o7t,,hdt(2

(1r.29)

sin d)

90o is

A,

= l.olt*dr

(11.30)

Avaihble Area of Reinforcenent


The total area available for reinforcement is the sum
45 where each area is determined as follows:

ofAl + A2 + & +

At=Qlz-d)(T"-t*)

zL\T,

Ar- = -_---:-sln a

t*)

=
A+ = nrea of reinforcing
A5 = arca of saddles

A3

a'.ea

(11.31)

;rI

(rr.32)

-T

of fillet welds
rings, pads, and so on.

Reintorcement Zone
The limits of reinforcement are formed by a parallelogram with sides of d2 on
cach side of the nozzle centerline and an altitude ofl perpendicular to the shell
surl'rce.

rNvFr.diDdorntor6n.nr.n!iaa..!43-lilltt'|'!ldm'itl
Nv
4llD!l!II' eor aa - nrot in ri.s, p.d, or l.t trl
a6. a1 -.'..sEll i. h..rL
N'
dinror.m.nr lNoa {2,1
l@'
atle a5 _htnt innddttdd!run
aE 42 -.r6.Mlt an bEnch
f
(Court$y Americon Socitv oI ttchonicol
Figur. I I.20 Dimaffions ond nolotions for ANSVASME B3l l
Ensimrs. From Fig. 104.3.1D of ASME/ANSI

2.

Mulliple Openings
Thc folkrwing should be aPPlied:

l.

t,

Ovcrlapping area shall be counted only one time'

B3l'l

Try to limit centerline spacing to

l 54"

with at least 5070 of

area

between opemngs.

a design
Example 11.11 A steam Plpe has a 24-in' inside diameter with
temdesign
psi
at
the
stress of 14,500
-"r.ui" of 2500 psi and an-ailowable
of
angle
an
at
;;;;;.; ;;-.fi pipe with an inside diameter of 8 in' connects

?82

OPININOS, NOZZITS, AND EXTERNAI. TOADINGS

o = 75'.'l'ho
so that

I.4

REINFORCEMENT

requirement: l7-in. OD ring x 0 75 in thick


Nozzle attached to shell and pad by full-penetration welds'

br&nch is &ttached by a lull-penctrutit)n wcld that is radiographed


1.0. Determine the thickness and reintbrcement requirements.

Pad

IIMITS

383

Solutinn
Problem

l.

Determine the minimum required thickness of the run pipe as follows:

PR
t', =
Sf=-06p
2.
t*

3.

25oo

2.308 in.: use

Pr
_
Sn
oSt,

2500

4.0

0.769 in.: use 4,

2.5 in.

2.0 in.

Area required for reinforcement according to Eq. 11.29 is

1.07(2.308\(8X2

sin 75')

use8.5in.

6.

0.75

2.880

in.,

5.75 in.

Area available for reinforcement is

Ar

4, =

(2x8.5

2(5.75\(2

8X2.5

:-o

sln /J-

7691

2.308)

A, = (0.5)'z= 0.250 in.'?


ra = (2x8.5 - 8 - 4)(0.75)
A, = At

A2

14.656

, the

Fig. 11.21.

Limilations of Geomew
The angle between the nozzle and header is restricted to those intersections
where tle acute intersection angle B is equal to 45" or more'

Limitalion When No Reinforcement Calculatians Are Required

L = O'75 in'
2.5(2)

Reinforcemenl Rules for ANSI/ASME 83l '3

Plant and
The reinforcement requirements for ANSI/ASME B31 3, Chemical
ANSVASME
Petroleum Refinery Piping, are similar to the requirements for
connections'
S31. t and for Section Vtri, Dini.ion 1. Rules are given for branch

shown in

ined.

+ t" =

I.4.5

Pad

minimum requiled thickness of the branch piping


"ul"ulations
is measured on the outside thickness of the piping' The area
anJ tne tun piping
thickness as
available foi riiniorcement is the remainder of the piping's nominal

Perpendicular limit of reinforcement is as follows: Assume a 0.75 in.


thick pad is added and attached by full penetration welds that are exam-

2.s7i,

,"info.""."nt

Horizontal limits of reinforcement are the larger of

L=

Answer: I in. thick

oi no""l"., which are attached to run piping, or headers' Differing ftom other

29.43s't.z

d=8in. or 4+ nI r = 2.5 + 2.O + 4 = 8.5in.;


5.

Determine the minimum required thickness of the branch pipe as follows:

A,:
4,

x tr

ll.lllfthenozzlewereattachedattt=g}",whatthicknessisrequiredfor
the pad, if anY?

n.,

3.750

+ A3 + Ac = 21.536

n.' > A, = 20.430 in.2

Shell requirement: 24-:lr.. ID x 2.5 in. thick


Nozzle requirement: 8-in. ID x 2.0 in. thick

Fillet weld requirements: 2 with 0.5 in. legs

in.,

1.
2.
3.

Standard fittings that have pressure/temperature ratings determined'


< O'25 and a
Standard fittings not exceeding 2-in. NPS that have d/D
pressure rating of 2000 lb or more.
Integrally reinforced connections that have been proved adequate by
tests, calculations, and use.

Nomenclature

4 = opening size in run or header (in')


dz : horizontal limit on one side measured from the centedine of the opening (in.)

l+ :

vertical limit perpendicular to header surface (in')

F:

acute angle at intersection (degrees)

,,, =

required thickness of header (in.)

L4 RllNrgRcltllllr I Llmlrt

Requireil Area of Reinforcement At

g--t:-

For intemal Pressure,


sin F)

(1 1.33)

. thd(z - sin B)
ar:
-----T-

(11.34)

Ar = ttdrQ

'o

For extemal Pressure'


E

\,

Horizontal

6!l

t2
ic

'6-

t;i.ie:

l
I

nozzle is the larger of

12
<{
fa
---{--J_ 9a

:;e

g'E

*r

E'6

d1 or T1+4+05dI
but not more than

Vertical

96

En
i +i
s9

5a
z6

D1,.

Limits.

the smaller

E-i
E8

(t

of the
The horizontal limits on each side of the centerline

I
I
I

IaE

Limits.

the shell is
The vertical limit measured from the surface of

of

2.5T,
Areas Available

or

2.57b

9i
ii'6
.l

4 = nominal

thickness of header (in.)

t6 = required thickness of branch (in.)


?i = nominal thickness of branch (in.)
D6 = outside diameter of branch (in.)
D,, = outside diameter of header (in.)
384

where

4=

pad thickness

(in')

for Reinforcement A2, Aj, and Aa

Excess thickness in header or run ,42 is

A2:

q:
I

+ 4,

(2d2

d)(Th

th)

(11.3s)

Excess thickness in nozzle or branch A3 is

.
a^
=

2L4(Tb

tb)

(11.36)

sin P

metal is weaker than


In other metals available within limits Aa, if reinforcement
;;r-;i;;,J,,h" area available for -rcinforcement is reduced by Sn/Su'
Excess area within the following is considered acceptLa, wtrl.;e La is measured perpendicular to shell surface'

Reinforcement
-iii:,

ut

"

Zone.

to be followed:
Muttipte Openings. The following cautionary rules are

1.
2.

Center-to-center distance of at least 1'5du"'


At least 5O9o of the total required area between the openings'

rrc

optt{tNot, t{ont|t, AND tXTlRt{Ar toADtNOS

Oxnmplc I l. 12. An tt in. NpS Scherlule g0 bronch (nozzle) is attached


at right
angle to a 20-in. NPS Schedule 40 run (header) with a full penetration
weld with
fillet weld cover. The allowable stress is 13.l ksi. Design pressure is 600 psi
at
a.design temperature of 900.F. Determine the reinforcin-g requirements
and pad
size, if required.

5.

(?.125)t0.519

0.450)

= 0 492 in'z

Ar = 2(1.095)(0.438 - 0.194) = 0.534 in

Determine actual and minimum required sizes at the branch run inter-

0.7(0.438)

0.306 in.; use fillet

Ao

L4

+0:

1.095

in.;

use Za

sin 90.)

Il

= 0.297 in.

in. determine minimum pad width'

6.95 in. Use 14 in.

1.089;

(14

7'r2s)(0'3125) = 2'117

5/ 16 in. pad.

7.125X0.3125)

= 2 148in2

Available area of reinforcement in A2 + A3 + A4 + As


This is greater than A1 and therefore is satisfactory'

3 '237

in''

It may be possible to obtain more refinement and a thinner or narrower plate by


: 0 312 in and by including the
reevaiuating the vertical limits by setting T,
outer fillet;elds if they lie within the horizontal reinforcement limits' This
recalculation may reduce the pad thickness and/or the pad
14-in. by 5/16-in. pad is satisfactory. I

1.095 in,

Determine the reinforcing area required according to Eq. 11.33 as fol_


lows:

41 = (0.450)(7.125)(2

45

11,12
2.5(0.438)

5116

width However,

Problem

1.298 in.

or

in.

reinforcement from the following,

f, =

(2w

weld,ir" = |

2.5(0.519)

Az

in.;

= (8 - 2 x 438)/sin 90" = 7.125_in. opening size


dz = (0.519) + (0.433) + 0.5(7.125) : 4.519 in. or
d2 = it : 7.125 in.; use d, : 7.125 in.
of

in Azr

(7.r25)H = 3.206
Assuming

0.063 in.2

Ao = 1.939 in'2 This is less than '4r; consequently, a pad shall be provided. Determine the thickness of pad based
on the pid extending to the horizontal limits of reilforcement'

d1

Determine the vertical limits


whichever is less:

= 2(r()2:

Excess area

Determine the horizontal limits of reinforcement from the following,


whichever is the greater:

Lq

'

In fillet welds:

Fillet weld size is the lesser of 0.7?i or

4.

3A7

Excess in branch (nozzle):

4 = (0.s93)(0.875) = 0.519 in.


{, = (0.s00)(0.875) : 0.438 in.
th: PD/2(SE + py) = (600 x 20)/2(13,100 + 0.4 x 600)
= 0.450 in.
b= Pd/2(SE + PY): (600 x 8.625)/2(13,100 + 0.4 x 600)
= 0.194 in.

3.

SHCLI.S

Determine the areas of reinforcement as fbllows:

Ar

section as follows:

2.

TIGAMENT EFFICICNCY OF OPENINGS IN

Excess in run (header):

Sohrtion

l.

I.5

3.206 in.,

For the construction in Example 11 . 12, what is the maximum allowable


working pressure when the allowable stress is increased to l8'8 ksi?

Ansper.' MAWP =
I

1.5

880 Psi

Ligomenf Efficiency of Openings in Shells

In addition to the method of reinforced openings for compensating for metal


removed at openings in shells, there is the method of ligament efficiency The

318

oP!N|NOS, NOZZUS, AND TXTTRNAL TOAD|NGS

ligoment el'licienoy method considers the loarJ-carrying ability of the area bctween two points in relationship to the load-carrying ability of the ligament
reTltlilg when the two points become the centers of two openings. In thc
ASME Code, only the shell plate is considered; however, Lloyd;s Rulis6 permit
some help from integrally attached nozzles.
The basic method of diagonal ligament efficiency for application in thc
ASME Code was developed in 1915 by Black and Jones oiihe Babcock &
Wilcox Company, which was published in 1920 in the Marine Engineer's
Handbook.T ln 1975. a limit design analysis was used to examine suesses ln a
perforated cylindrical shell.8 This limit analysis was further developed for
ASME Code application and used to update the original code rules. The rules
and curves are still given in several sections of the ASME Code and several
foreign codes that determine the ligament efficiency used in the cylindrical shell
formulas.
The ligament efficiency curves apply only to cylindrical pressure vessels
where the circumferential lension (stress) has twice the inbnsity of the longitudinal tension (stress). Once this was established, Rankine's Eilipse of Streis
was used to determine the iniensity of lension and of shear on any diagonal
ligament. This is shown in Fig. 11.22. The total tension and the total shear are
ottained by multiplying the intensity of tension and of shear, respectively, by
the diagonal pitch between openings and by the shell thickness, as ixpressed by

I.5

TIOAMENT EIFICIENCY OT OPENINGS IN

cos2 0

intensity of tension on any plane


intensity of shear on any plane
total rension
rotaf

sin d cos d

cos, g

SHEITS

l(p,4)

shear:

sin

A cos

*\p'T,)

A. ,-,

389

(11.37)

l 1.38)

(11.39)

11.40)

The stress factor for tension for any section of the ligament is obtained by
dividing the total tension by the cross-sectional area of the ligament. The shess
factor for bending for any section of the ligament is obtained by dividing the
bending moment of the section by the modulus of the section. The bending
moment is the product of the total shear multiplied by the distance between the
section considered and the point of contraflexure, which is the plane passing
through the centers of the openings. The distance is Y in Fig. 11 22'
length of ligament
bending moment

the following equations:

section modulus

: L = P' - \/F=4

(11.41)

(rr.42)

(6161 shear)(I)

:+:tg-P

(11.43)

The stess factor fot tension is determined as follows:

"'^

cos20+

(p'T,\

lp'-\/d2-4Y'z)T,

(11.44)

The stess factor for bending is determined as follows:

Sa=

sin 0 cos 0

Ie' - t/F - +-qv'f la

(11.45)

The total stress factor for both tension and bending is the sum of the stress factors

for tension and for bending. When the curve was originally developed for the
ASME Code, the maximum total stress factor was found by tial by calculating

the shess factor at several sections between the sections through the centers of
the two openings to the plane that is tangent to the edge of the openings. Table
I1.4 shows a sample of this calculation to determine the maximum factor for a
particular angle ;ith the longitudinal axis 0 values of p' /d and a shell plate
Figur.

I1.22

Diogonol ligoment!.

thickness

I.

390

OPININOS, NOZZITS, AND EXTERNAI IOAOINOS

Undcr the sponsorship of the Pressure Vessel Research Committee, an extensive limit design analysis of perforated cylindrical shells with uniform patterns
ofopenings was completed. This limit design analysis was used to determine the
upper and lower bounds of limit pressure. A 2 : 1 ratio of stress field was
considered and the shell plate curvature was not included. From this analysis,
the basic lower bound equation was develooed into
PLqb

(11.46)

1+3cos20

TIGAMTNT Eff ICIENCY OF OPENINGS IN

SHEIIS

39I

The lowest factor is used to calculate the minimum efficiency for the angle 0
being examined.

: -l- = O'437 :
2.29

efficiency

Examplell,l3.

I + cos2, - d/P\4 +-5io?n


2

I.5

43 7vo

Determine the minimum required thickness of the shell given

in Example 11.5 using the ligament efficiency rules.


Solution

For application in the ASME Code, the equation was rearranged so that the
diagonal efficiency term was expressed as p' /d, a number equal to or greater
than 1.0, and the efficiency was expressed as a whole number. The equation for

1.

Determine the longitudinal efficiency based on the longitudinal spacing

of 4.5 in.:

code use is

sec2

-'-

E=r ^'-

p'

/"-^ a\
o + I - I "':;YI\A + sd2-7
\P /d|
0.015 + 0.005 sec2 0

(1r.47)

2.

d=

calculated dnt^:

6in.;0= 35.;I = 1in.


s/cos d = 6/cos 0 = i.32-in.f;

4 in.; s =

p':

EVo

=ffi

t.AZ

3.

1.00
1.50
2.00

Section

Modulus

Total Bending Tension Bending


Shear Moment Factor
Factor

Total
Factor

6.12
6.12

1.84

l.'t2

1.98

1.72

0.86

r.77

o.43

2.20

6.12

z.t8

|.72

1ro

1.69

0.59

2.28

1.55

1.63

0.66

2.29

r.E4

6.12

2.34

1.72

6.12

2.48

1.72

1.72

1.59

0.69

2.28

4.68

6.12
6-12

3.65

t.'72

2.58

1.31

0.'t

2.O2

8.93

1.72

3.44

0.84

0.39

1.23

.32

+|

(r.667 /

+ s-7 51ly

r.6T\/t + Q.667f 47 .59?o


=

500 x 18
:
C3oo;04i6 -10=.ox-500

r'164 m'

This thickness of , = 1. 184 in. is based on the shell thickness only with
no contribution from the nozzle. I

I .84

3.86
7

(1.667)2

t = sE PR
- oip =

I,ength

o
3.32
0.50 3.45
0.75 3.62
0.90 3.'15

sec0:1.667

Determine the minimum requAed thickness using the equation of UG27(c)(l) from the ASME Code, VI[-l, as follows:

ToblE | 1.4

and Total
Area Tension

O {0f)

0=53.13" d=2.25 l=w


sec2 53.13' + 1 - (sec 53.13)/1.67\,6
EVo =

angles 0:

data:

4.5

Determine the equivalent longitudinal efficiency from the diagonal efficiency using Eq. 11.47 as follows:

Calculations of minimum ligament efficiency was determined by examining


various planes between openings at different distances of I as shown on FigI1.22. An exanple of the calculations based on the original ASME Code work
is given below. It has io be repeated for different values ofp ,/d and for various

known

I'= A\-2)5
-:::------:j:::

Problems

11.13 What must the angle

d be between two openings for the longitudinal and


diagonal efficiencies to be equal when the longitudinal spacing is 4.5 in.
and the opening diameter is 2.25 in.?

Answer:

Angle with longitudinal axis is 0

= 54.1'

392
ll.l4

OPININOS. NOZZIES, AND EXTERNAI. TOADINGS

ln Problem

ll.l3,

conliguration'l

I.6

The circumferential spacing is 3.108 in.

o, = normal

When a fatigue evaluation is required, it is necessary to determine the peak


stesses around the openings. The current methods are the stress index method,
experimental 0ests and measurements, or a theoretical analysis procedure such
as a finite element analysis. The stress index method is the easiest method and
is allowed by the ASME Code, III-1 and VIII-2. The stress index method was
developed from reviewing a large amount of experimental and analytical data
determined in a program conducted by the Pressure Vessel Research Committee .
The stress index method pennits easy calculation of peak stresses at the
nozzle-shell or nozzle-head intersection without resorting to any complex analysis. The stress index method gives conservative results; and if the exact multipliers for a specific geometry are known, they should be used. Essentially, the
nominal stress in the shell or head is multiplied by the stress indices and the peak

stress

36-in ID by 2'5-in' thick contains


design pressure is
a perpindicutar nozzle that is 4-in. ID by 0 75-in thick' The
td00psi at a design temperature of 450'F. The vessel is subjected to cyclic

Solutian. At the intersection of the nozzle to the shell, peak stresses are
as
obtained according to Eq' 11.48. The nominal stress is determined

_
"

PD^

2T,

Stress (psi)

(11.49)

Hoop stress

qr

2.O 2.o
0

1900(36

+ 2.5)

2(2'5)

(r/R)
(r/R)

1.2

1.0

a1

-0.2
-2r"/D^

1.0

-o.2
-27"/D.

z,o
0

Outside

+45,350

+ t7 ,560
+ 14,630

q10

1,900

Transverse Plane
Inside

,630
- 2,930
- 1,900
+ t4

Outside
+30 ,720

+38,040
0

must be
These values are the peak stresses due to intemal pressure only and
shell for
the
on
location
same
at
the
combined with other peak stresses occurring

TransversePlane

3.I

Inside

- t

stress

Radial stress

LongitudinalPlane

14.630 psi

index
The peak stresses are determined as follows using the factorc for stress
from Table 1 1.5:

Cylindrical Shells

- (r/R)
-o.2
-4r"/D^

Longitudinal Plane

Spherical Shells and


Formed Heads

2.0

shell that is

operation and a faiigue analysis is requircd' Peak stresses and- str-ess concendation factors are noi known for the specific geometry to be used' What method
can be used to evaluate the peak stresses for a fatigue analysis?

lrngitudinal
Stress lndex

in plane being examined (psi)

11.14. A cylindrical

Example

For cylindrical shells:

393

= tangential stress in plane being examined (psi)


o, = radial stress in plane being examined (psi)

(11.48)

o= t.PD.

PRISSURI

or

shesses are obtained.


The peak stresses are determined from the following equations where the
shess index I is multiplied times the nominal shess.
For spherical shells and formed heads:

I1.5

NOZZTES UNDIR INTERNAI

P = intemal design pressure or pressure range (psi)


I : stress index for various locations (see Table 11'5)

PRESSURE

Toble

Of

FATIGUE EVALUATION OF NOZTES UNDER INTERNAL

.PD.

IATIGUE EVAI,UATION

= inside radius of shell or head (in)


r = inside radius of nozzle (in)
4 = nominal thickness of shell or head (in)
D. : mean radius of shell or head (in) = 2q * t

where

what is the circumt'erential spacing for the samc

Answer:

I.6

a.fatigue evaluation.

Problem
vessel is 5 ft. 0 in. inside diameter with hemispherical heads'
The design pressure is 450 psi at 650'F The allowable stress of the

11,15 A reactor
:

OPININCS, NOIZI-TS, AND IXTtRNAt TOADINGS

vcsscl is 17,5(X) psi. l'hc hcatl and shcll rrc nradc ol.rrinirnurn
thickncss
r)alcritl roundod up to (hc ncxt I in. Thc vessel is operated undcr ir
cycling conditkrn.so.that a fatigue analysis is n"""r.ury. It is necessary
to place an 8-in. inside diameter by l-in. thick nozzle, in the vessel.
Is
the peak stress less in the head or in the shell at the nozzle junction
and
what are the values ofpeak shesses at the maximum location in
ttre treaa
and shell? Thin-wall equations are used.

Answers: oFar = +48,510 psi in shell


o''.*,

I.7

+27,220 psi in head

EXTERNAT LOADINGS

When extemal loadings are applied to nozzles or branch piping, local saesses
are generated at the nozzle-shell intersection. Several typis of ioading
may be
applied, such as sustained loadings, transient loadings,- ind thermal
flexibility loadings. Sustained loadings are continuorisly applied and "*paniion
combined
with iniernal pressure, such as dead Ioads. Transient loadings are applied for
a
short period of time, such as earthquake and wind loadinls, pressure fluctu_
ations, and water hammer loadings. The thermal expansion Ioadlngs are
caused
by
potential axial growth of piping from temperature expansion.
-the

. When external loadings are applied to nozzles,


the nozzle and the shell or

stresses are generated in both


head. Although the stresses in thJ nozzle are both
membrane stresses, which are acting upon the entire nozzle cross
sectlon, and
local membrane stresses, which are aciing through the nozzle wall thickness,
present analysis procedures are available only for the general
stresses without
resorting to some procedure such as a finite element -analysis. These general
procedures usually have a way of applying a stress intensihcation
facto; (SIF)
that predicts the local stresses in the nozzle. The stresses generated in
the shell
or head adjacent to the nozzle are-focal stresses. A proce-<lure for determining
the_se local stresses is given in detail in Welding Reseirch
Cor,rncji, Bulletin Nol
ttJ7 "

| | .7.1 Locol Stresses in the Shell or Heod


Although a considerable amount of theoretical development work on local
in shells from external loadings was conducted ind reported by p. p.
iiJyalff'r in the early 1950s, it was not until rhe Welding Risearch Councit
ff
IlulldinNo. 107 was issued that all the miscellaneous inforriation from Bijlaard
and others was put into a concise form for easy use. The range of
usige is
rcslricted by limitations on various parameters,'but it is infinitily better
than
strosses

anything before WRC 107 was issued. Currently, experimental and


theoretical
work is being conducted to extend its useful ranse.

Extcmal loadings cunsidered by

W/?Cl

I.7

TXTTRNAL IOADINGS

arc longitudinal nx)r)lcnt,

tr

nsvcrse

r)lorncnt. torsional moment. and axial fbrce. Stresses at various locations on thc
inside and outside surfaces are obtained by combining the stresses from variuus
offects. This involves considerable "bookkeeping" that WRC 107 developed t<r
help alleviate. Once the stresses are obtained according to WRC, they must be
combined with intemal pressure stresses to determine the overall stresses.
Bijlaard's original problem was finding the effects of structural supports on
a cylindrical shell. This initial work considered the radial loads and moments
over a flexible, rectangular loading surface. The initial treatment of nozzles was
an approximation based on a rigid attachment without the effects of nozzle wall
flexibility. Bijlaard extended this work to spherical shells based on a shallow
shell theory and considered both solid (rigid) attachments and nozzles with
flexibility parameters. Usage of the rules is generally limited to D/, between 10
and 200 for cylinders and between l0 and 250 for spheres. Usage is also limited
to d/D oI about 0.33 for cylinders and 0.50 for spheres. However, depending
upon other parameters, the value of d/D nay go as high as 0.60 for some

A limit of 0.80 is also applied to the value of d/YD^T for both


cylinders and spheres.
The curves in WRC 107 are related to certain parameters at the intersection.
The two important parameters are the shell parameter and the attachment parameter. The different applications on spherical and cylindrical shells follow.
cylinders.

Spherieal Shells
The shell oarameter is

"

:t :

r0

..fn;r

(11.s0)

For a square attachment, the shell parameter is

It
"=

c1

o.875\-RJ

(l1.sl)

In the attachment parameter for all solid attachments, no parameter is needed.


For a hollow cylinder (nozzle),

t
T
I

(11.52)

(1

1.53)

396

OPIN|NOS, NOZZLES, AND EXTERNAI I.OADINGS

l.br a hollow squure,

0.875t

't

t.7

EXTERNAT

T.OAOINGS 397

proper values must be read carefully because it may be necessary to interPolate


not only from line-to-line but from curve to curve. The values on adjacent charts
do not always increase or decrease in a consistent direction. Computation sheets

(11.54)

are given for:

Figure 11.23. Solid attachment to a spherical shell

(r 1.ss)

Cylindrical Shells
The shell parameter is
v,

1::

._

(1 1.56)

to.

'- ,/l;r =t,/Ri

=-

The attachment parameter for both solid and hollow is for a cylinder

e=o8i:.

(r 1.57)

where cr

(1 1.58)

For a square,

*g

For a rectangle
C!

F,

R.
c2

B,

R^

If

t,,

u=

f' -*(f; -'),' - n)\/e,k

01.5e)

If

- S
it u r" 4f 4ith:r
l ) Hhcn r I o, s - rrI:L-lL!j-$-c--[.!qi
\
s - l/2 lox+oy ! llox - ay)2 | at2 Jot r'tax - oyl' ' 4r'
2) r,then t = o, s = largest absolur. ndgnitudc of either
s - dr, oy or (ox - oy)

Co}.IOIN,jD S?RESS INTDNSII1

t. r,

u=

K))\/e,e,
[' - i(' - f;),' -

(1r 60)

Using these parameters and the curves given in WRC 107, stresses may be
calculated at the inside and outside surfaces due to the various loadinss. The

Figure 1'1.23 Computotion sh.t for rigid onochment to.Phericol shell. (Courr.sy Welding Reseorch Council,
WRC Sulloiin lO7. A',s'Et 1965,)

I;

Figure 11.24. Hollow attachment to a spherical shell

F-igure 11.25.

All attachments to a cylinclrical

shell
Mt

GF6atfia

L Appliod Lootir'

l.

Appl,cd

3. Gemrtric Poromctcrr

Loodr'

e=-lb.
vt2_lr.
v,

Rod,ol Lood,
Shror Loqd,
Shcor Lood,
Ovc.terning Mom.nr,
OvGrturhrng Moarcnt,
lorrronol
Momcnt,

Tonica f,oronl.
thocr Lccd,

. z .*
: ="_
02 r an.lb.. '-

M,

Slcr Lcod,
2. Goaary
Vorrrl thicllorr,
Arccharat rt,dlur,
Yorrol odior.

,'j# =i: -lb'.-if.lbr:


4. 5t.a3r ConcGnt.oiion

Focfora

dua lcl
rncnbrono lcod, ;,,
=bending lood,
Kb aNOTE: Entc. oll torcc voluor in
occsrdoncc wrth rign convGnlion
Frcm

Conpvtc obtolvtc

Rcod <urv

fr g.

alicrr

lor

5P-l to l0 Xrl
F

ro l0

N,rfiiT

N,r\r/E;T\

^'\T/
/

ilt

BL

8u

tignr

rhorn

CL

Ds

1r-,{ffi \

u.y'Ti.'i
tt

rr

fr{R6f

ta

/xvT\
\ P /

T
xyrr/if

IL,/ tra6l

-g? t?,a

xyrr/EiT

r.,

xrr/F;-i

//Nrry'nhr

lor rumnofion of
de.

Sh.o..tr..r
ro lood, Yt

de.

:h.cr !tr.!.

d!.

fr

COMBINED STRESS

1"1",),* t3;

2)

Hhen

5br lror
ro l*rio,

rr

{-

li --,7t- :*+-

r-Prr -

t-

t-

*(#)'#?'
t

At

xr\;ta,B-'l'

6l{c

itffi

IL

rllrrp

"(""+-r'#=

t
+

f.t D.-tl

Jo
I

rrlr

< {rP '

l{t
=

lh-r dr.. ar.


ro ld, Yc

T,+ =

llorr rtnrr &r


r. l-4. YL

Trd

Ala
f-.*tl6
^halnlollt
at rb-r
rtroaaar,ft

2nc2o'

"F

t-

YL

;;T

-s

of eithEl
o, s = lar@itudg
s = l/2 fo**o* ! /to* - o0)2 + 4t2 )or r'(ox - o4)d +
2) Wtren T = O, S = largest absolute magnitude of either
S = olr oO or (O* - 06)
tJtren 'E I

'"("-fo)' ;;EF -

1)

I}ITENSITY

-'",

.,
---{a
2t-l

l-

6fL

_E! r
rL/litp

A- olgrleially
ol | $tott.lCt

t .

.t-

{-

=,+
r, ofr7

Add ofgrbrorcolly lo' rua^ot,oa ol

"

.l-

6tr

Sh.or.t..r.
ro lod. Yr

r,

""\--*l-/.ffi=
7xyffii \
*'\;;_/.ffi=

xt

xv1fiiT

Add olgebroicolly

DL

J.c/l,aP

3hM

CL

-"(""ft)'#=

.. (*,)' -! r
rr (3).8
r/
ta =

2A

t'9nr

"vc?t'

Cu

|.. .r6dro
*

tr

T?

8L

Eu

l2

/ 16\
t5l-l
\nzr-B /

ir

-^(-#)'#

-=

r9
I or
It-r
IL/ trlt

2C

rL

t-

or

Bl

rhot ;ho-n,

lnl
6P

ffiE'

-'(+) ';l '


r,
xrr,r/-.i\
-"\T/'iffi=

It

/rd\

'

CYLINDRICAL SHELL

- il locd i. cPgotilc

\?/

xo

lo, .ummol;on of r, r,

f,b |

rc/ tnE

3C or
ac

ro

Adi rlgoltiolly
of { rroror.od

ohd anlar tlagll

?/2,a

t ta^26 rd

lc-1

6M:
:

\ t 7'ii7ffi=

Ht

Add olgcbroicolly

''

SfngSSfS

(n /Nd\
t- rh /l

ROUND

ATTACHMENT

'NOTE: Enrrr cll fcrco volvcr in


cccordoncr rilh aign co'vcition

a^.

rlrarr

F,.0

IA

6*{,
la.lili
\
xb t\ M, /i'- r.y'nnl =
r,
/ x,rlr/ffii\

3lr-l to l0

Rh

aC

x6_

cc

lC or
2C- I
!A

(s,')'? =
*'(ts)' *l=

x.r/T;T

lP- I ro l0

AU

'

g
Rn: -an.
-rn.
-

v!

't T=P to.orsr*.-

T,

lor

3c or

*^

T
5r4-

Fig

STRESSES - il lood ii cpporilG rhor rhown, rcvcrtc

volcer ol

cnd antar ratull

g.;=
lb.
|lL:-i6.
-15.
lb.
lr =-_i^.
vc -- -in.fb. lb.
VL --lb.

Rodiol looC,
CirG. l5h. hl,
Long. Xolttl,

Mc
M"

Pc?omalcra

4T-

(Courtesy Welding Reseqrch Council,


Figure I1.25 Computotion sheei for qfiqchmenis to cylindricol shell'
WRC Bullefin 107, August 1965.)

1",1fifffi;?l'5'll'lli#,Fa

t = Or S = largcst .,rbsolute rnagnitudc of either


S .' O-r qv or (o- - g.l .

Figvre 11.21 Computotion sheet for hollow otiochmenl


Council, WRC Bullerin 107, August 1965.)

to sphericol shell. (Courtesy Welding

Reseorch

399
398

4OO

OPTNINOS, NOTZIIS, AND TXTTRNAL IOADINGS

In addition tt) thc linritllions ()n tlrc gcorlrctty in thc anitlysis in MiC, thctc
arc othcr lirnitations. 'Ihis analysis detennines only the stresses in the shell or
head due to the extemal loadings and thus those from intemal pressure must bc
added to them. Because no nozzle stresses are determined by this method, they
must be determined by a separate analysis. However, engineers felt that when
the extemal loadings are applied to a relatively thin-walled nozzle, the highest
stresses may be in the nozzle. For thick-walled nozzles, it appears that deformation is similar to a solid attachment and maximum stresses will occur in the

shell or head adjacent to the nozzle. Bijlaard's method indicated that for a
longitudinal moment, the maximum stress occurs on the longitudinal axis.
However, experimental results obtained in PVRC tests indicate that for larger
nozzles with ad/D = O.5 or larger, the maximum stress may lie somewhat off
from the longitudinal axis. Thus adjustments have been made to some of the
curves in l\lfiC Bulletin 107. In spite of these shortcomings, a reasonable
estimate of the stresses due to the external loadings is obtained by following

wRC lo7

Recendy, in considering certain PYRC work to extend the ueful range of


WRC 1O7 , J. L. Mershon concluded that within the range of its applicability, the
curves for loadings on a cylindrical shell could be reduced, for all practical
purposes, to an easier-to-use set of curves given in Appendix K. This set of
simplified curves practically eliminates the need to interpolate between various
curves in WRC 107 to determine the factors used to calculate the stresses. When
the simplified curves are used, it will still be necessary to combine the internal
pressure stresses and to develop a method of "bookkeeping" for the signs of the
various stresses due to different loadings.
The sign convention used with the Mershon method is identical to that of
WRC lO7, as shown in Fig. 11.25. The figure shows that stresses may be
obtained at the same locations. The relationship of the curves given in WRC and
the Mershon curves given in Appendix K is as follows:

Appendix K Figure

WRC 107 Figures

K.1

11-,2A
3A, 4A
18, 18-1,28,28-l
38, 48
1C, 1C-l

K.2
K.3
K.4
K.5
K.6
K.7
K.8

IXTERNAL

TOADINGS 40I

VD,"T
^: -+L:

where d, =
D^

diameter of opening in shell (in.)


rnean diameter of shell (in.)

? = nominal thickness of shell (in.)


Because the ASME Code, VI[-l, has neither an acceptance criterion nor a
rnethod to classify stresses, the designer has to establish a method that is
acceptable to the Authorized Inspector. For guidance, the method in the ASME
Cod;, VU-2, may be followed by considering the differences in stress theory
and allowable stresses between the methods in VIII-I and VIII-2 This method
permits the designer to assign stresses into such categories as primary stresses'

iecondary stres;s, and peak stresses depending upon what loadings are included.

shell that is 84-in. ID by 1'0-in nominal


ID
by 1.0-in. nominal thickness' The design
S-in.
thicknLss contains a nozzle
of the material is 17.5 ksi' The nozzle
stress
psi
allowable
the
and
pressure is 400
12,000 lb and an applied moment in
of
loading
radial
is subjected to an inward

Example 11.15,

A cylindrical

of 150,000 in.lb. What are the combined sttesses on


to these two extemal loadings using the Mershon
due
the lon-gitudinal axis
in
metfodand the curves Appendix K? The vessel is not subjected to cyclic
loadiqg, and therefore no stress concentration factors need be considered'
the longitudinal direction

Solution

1.

The shell parameter is

d^ _--:l0
= ----:
yD^T

V(85X1)

r.uo

Using this parameter, the constants from the radial loading on the longitudinal axis are:

K.5 M'/P = 0.127


From Fig. K.6 Mo/P : 0.086
From Fig. K.8 N,I/P = 0.160
From Fig. K.8 N6T/P = 0.176
From Fig.

2C,zc-l
3c(l),4c(1)
3C(2),4C(2\

tor the simplified method, only one parameter is required in using the
the opening-shell parameter of ,\, which is determined as follows:

I.7

curves-

3.

Using these constants, the stresses due to the radial loading are determined as follows:

OPTNINOS, NOZZTIS, AND IXTERNAI. TOADINGS

M, rrom p (bending) = 0

M6 from p(bending)

rr?[A18gu] :

nrro o,'

oreo n,i

0861@5!qE]

N4 from

(membrane)

: 0 1?6[%P]

u,ft=

Lonsitudinal Axis

= uzo n,i

u,( = oo,
o'( = o)

From Fig.

r.z uoft= o.tu

From Fig.

K.4 N,H = 0.076

+0.20
+o.lo

1.40

0.80

s' =PD^ 2T

E.

o r?o

N5from M1 (membrane)

2xl

= l/'wuPsl

For the WRC method, the following shell-nozzle parameters are required:

,5

l(ffi#]

o.oze f

=,r,r*

0,,

B:0.875f;=

0.875

R^ 42.5
Y=;=i=

42's

a2r=

o.roz

The constants below are determined from various figures in ITRC and the

stesses determined as follows:

= e:oo n,i

!J!9'0{ll = | lao psi


(luxrr I

o.roof$lqll :

l.l * J244- = 2060 psi


q#"'q = 6340 psi
From Fig. zc-r M6/P = 0.088 x

From Fig.

4C

No/e/R^) =

From Fig.

38

N6/@L/R,^B) = 4.5 x

:eoo pri

Summaries of membrane stresses, bending shesses, and combined


stresses at various locations for external loadings are given in Tables
I1.6. 11.7. and 11.8.

=
From Fig. 1B

85

-f 0.55

Solution

M5from M1(bendins) : 0 r04lqx!ggg]

N, ffom M L(membrane) =

-r-0.35

K.4 N6H:0.260

ftom M2@ending)

0.70
0.85

The total cornbined shesses from htemal pressure and extemal loadings
are grven in Table 11.9.

Using these constants, the stresses due to the longitudinal moment are
determined as follows:

M,

Bending

o"( = a)
o,( = a4)

400

Membrane

Example 11.16. For the cylindrical shell given in Example 11.15, determine
the stresses due to iniemal pressure and applied extemal loading by the method
in WRC Bulletin lO7 .

1.
FromFig.

Bending

= zrro nri

o.tto

rc.2

TOADINOS 403

if available.
were
determined:
following
values
geomefy,
the
assume
For this

Using the parameter in item (1), the constants from the applied longitudinal moment on the longitudinal axis are determined as follows:
From Fig.

EXTERNAT

as shown in Table I I .5. However, exact values may be used

Membrane
N, rrom p (membrane) = 0.160142!9E]

t.7

In addition to the stresses from the extemal loadings, the stresses from
internal pressue must b combined. These stresses may be determined

@#ftffi--

3630 psi

M6 =or}4sx 6x 150,000
(MJR^p) ""'"' (42.sxo.lo3XlF

9250 psi

898
-..i

--t

&

88S

Y|56
oi ,.i 6
+-:

s"qaR

\ct .d

all+
f

O\FF'

8833

di -i ,.i d

ldui

t':+
-t-

i++l

REB
O\:O

:5t516;6

ttl

+'++

..r --i ..i

98
a" +-

s:8
-i -i .i

t$.1

ttl

e88
1o\\
t++

.9

t
2
o
o
o
o

o
aa

o
-o

:H5

oi ..i 'd
tll

9
o
-o

o
o

o
O\\OF

l++

1
tt.:

."1

vl

-9
-o
o
F

{,

=o
b
o

t.icjtl

in

\s
eeE

b
o

-o

o.:
I9E
AF,.Y

c..l | -! ol

f
B
o

ao

ttl

+++

ao

F
q

F:o\

o'

iO\Q

+tl

o
o

tt

=o
c
t

,9

v1 ..!

ar

+tl

o\ \o

.9

t++

\
+ll

\o^

v1

NINI

Eonr

o
-o
q
F

-g

zlaF

o
l-

::c-fi:

>oA.F
405

406

oPlNlNOs, NOZUuS, ANO EXTERNAT tOAD|NOS


From Fig.
From

t" h=
tc-t +

Fig.

FrornFig.

4B

6.6

Mfu=

150,000

(42.5),(0.103X1)

Answer: o6:

28

6 x 150,000
M,/(ML/R^O = 0.072 x
(42.5X0.103X1F

3.

14,800 psi

Using the intemal pressure stresses determined for Example 11.15 and
combining then with these stresses gives:

BU

BL

+23,800

+23,800

+ 23,800

+23,800

Pressure bending

-3,400

+ 3,400

-3,400

+ 3,400

P membrane
P bending

1,690

9,000

+ 9,000

-9,000

+ 9,000

-3,630
+9,250

+3,630

+3,630

+9,250

-9,250

+37,100

+24,880

+25,860

M1 membrane
M1 bending
Totals

-3,630
-9,250
-880

=
Dt =

1,690

11.17 What are the same

results using WRC

Mr. membrane

M1 bending
Totals

AL

BU

B1

+ 13,600
+ 1,700

+ 13,600

+ 13,600

+ 13,600

I,700

+ 1,700

-2,060
-6,340

-2,060

-2,060
-6,340

-2,060

+6,340

1,050

+ I,050

+ 14,800

+ 14,800

+32,960

+20,4ffi

1,050

- 14,800
- 11,240

1,700

+6,340
+ 1,050

14,800

+5,460

+23,030 Psi
+47O Psi

Answer: o4:' Cu : -7730

l,690

AU

+ 19'970 Psi

l0'l?
Psi

= + 31,150 Psi
Du = +34'670 Psr
Dr. = -7050 Psi
o': Ct) = -2620 Psi
Cr = + 19,240 psi
Du = +21.820 Psi
C.

or

hessure membrane
Pressure bending
P membrane
P bending

Du

A7

I,690

Cu

Cr'

oO

Pressure mernbrane

407

= -8180 Psi
Cr. = +30,460 psi
Du = +33,280 psi
Dt = -6200 Psi
4t Cu = -3550 Psi

1050 psi

From Fig.

LOADINOS

11.16 For the same vessel described in Example 11'15, what are the stresses on
the transverse plane when the applied moment is changed from a longitudinal rnoment to a transverse moment M": 150'000 in'lb and the
radial loading remains at 12,000 lb using the method in Appendix F?

ai?rq = e000 psi

1.3 x

EXTIRNAI

Probhms

* -l?41 = l6eo psi

= 0.12s x

1.7

Dz:
I1.7.2

+920 psi

Stresses in ihe Nozzle

The general membrane stresses

in the

nozzle are calculated using the basic

equaUon

_
_.P,M,,7"

A_ I

(1 1.61)

4OO

OPININOS, NOZILCS, AND EXTIRNAI I.OADINOS

Howcvcr, to utiempt to make some correction fbr local eflbcts, the bending
moments are adjusted by a stress intensification thctor. For piping thermal
expansion flexibility stresses in both the ANSI B3l.l and ANSI 831.3 Codes,
the procedure is as follows:

The sfess range, SE, is calculated by

se

where

S'

=
Z=

Mr

- t/il a aP

(0r.62)

M'/22 @si)
section modulus of nozzle (in.3)

i, =
Mi

Example 11.17. A l2-in. NPS Schedule 160 branch and run pipe are attached
to oneinother. The design pressure is 2200 psi. The allowable stress at ambient
temperature is & = 17.5 ksi and at design temperature is Sl = 12'0 ksi' In
addition to the intemal pressure, the branch is subjected to externally applied
forces and moments ftom thermal expansion of connecting piping. These moments and force are Mi = 600,000 in.-lb; M, = 900,000 in.-lbiMt = 750 '00,0
in.lb; and F*iur = 90,000 lb. The nozzle is designed for 20,000 cycles Using
the design procedure ofthe ASME-ANSI B31 I Code, what is the total applied
stress and what is the allowable stress?

1.
(11.63)

Properties of 12-in. NPS Schedule 160 are D, : 12.75 in.; inside


ard : 80.5 in.2; metal area = 47.14in.z;z = 122.6in.3; t^ = 1'312

ln.

in-plane SIF from Table 11.10


outplane SIF from Table 11.10
in-plane bending moment, (in-lb)

100

80
60

M, = outplane bending moment (in.Jb)

Flexibility
'for
elbows

The allowable shess range 51 is

30

lo =/(1.255" +
S"
51

:
=
=

0.255/,)

20

(11.64)

15
10

allowable stress at ambient (cold) temperature (psi)

{actor

= 1.65/i

' Flexibilitv factor


lor miterc k = 1.52/h5t6
'
Stress intensif ication

40

where

LOADINGS 409

Solution

itM)" + (i"M.)

i1

txTCRNAt

torsional moment (in.-lb)

and 56, the resultant bending moment, is

where

r.7

'

lactor i =O.9lh2t3
-Z 'Stress
intensi{ication

r .r ||

l|

'tactor t = O-75/h213

allowable sfress at design temperature (psi)


reduction factor from Table 11.11 based on number of cycles

The design is acceptable when S5 < 51.


lrngitudinal stesses Sa due to sustained loadings, such as pressure and dead
loading, shall not exceed S7,. When 51 ) .[, the difference may be added to the
term 0.2551 in Eq. 11.57. This gives

.9

.\

3
2

t!

1.5

tf.

cl
I

1.00

0.75

,So

:/[1.255" +

0.255,

(Sr

Sz)]

0.50
o.375

or

o.25

sA

=/[1.25(s" +

which may be used in place of Eq. 11.64.

s) _.ir.l

(11.6s)

1 end flanged

cr

2 ends flanged c1

s.t EE
33:
E oe q:33
o
oo o
Characteristic

i]

=i1l3

ll

,:f F "1l't I (

rs

l'>

.l

F_r

-lf't I s

-iEIN
(,)l

rFi I

r,-rs
<f

*l

qli
ot{

o.

lE.

o.

9I's

!a

lsl;'

vr

+
It\

o
o

Jl{

{.tFr
rr..,

=r

rr-,.|s
adl
\t

-l-

l{
e l"t

ol\

frn-T|

rF,ls

:l

lt

1r -1

ili@
ilM
lIrJ

9l'
+l
o\

lF.. tS

ill,\

t)t

rr-. |

.n

o, lE

<i

l!

g.F

o
E

.!

IFH
.a',-n

l{

<i

rlr s

lms

o\

'\ l<

rir. ,l
-ll- | I

-Ill r$'

rI. 1f

*lh
.RIG
It\

9X

|r

e't
Eo
#E

tLh
,

!.)

rt)

ctl\

dl\lt

o. lQ

ctl\

o\

t{

..tF

oF.
ct

l\

o'lQ
ct

lt

dltli
o.

l{
cil\
o.

c]

(.:9

=
o

'=ll
x .!s

rn

l;

i I'q

o
o
o

!>r
!-

E}?

3bX

-o

0
;

-o

B
4r0

61!.
'Eo
lee
TE
35F

d0

'^c

F:
: 9
eE -dsF Fi;-

sY

-9

--&-

.:

^.,*

HH.t g;Ill

<;

Es
it .E
&,

'r::

e
I

.i ltt

.bv
trl

Fr'

"E

EE

J{

E E"*ii"Eq
Ea gSEFe"gE

EtIigEtEEEFf
4ll

il tr
lr

E;3
5
Ei E =
{
Eg E E ;
i
;E
7
9c
r t
gHE
i
;:
E; r i.Ex*,+
E E Z.E.gEE
Es E E.F*E
EE g E:.gCi
E

F"

B*
3E
g9
613
hF
2A

p,B

>!!

P.2
'*6
EOEE{

g.E E

ac a
sb

Eg
E
{>r
'{

E
c
o

-E

.s

EE
di >,

o .9.
9'x
c

.9

.i

at)

ll'6

co

.s

.E

E9
5fi

$ig E iE,

t,
o

$*c

ei
e 'Eq

5
o
o)

.g

o
p
412

q
-t

t\
d"
t
'E

E *E
*;
.i;i
FF

5fi

ao .-' >i
E .l- =6
E

>-:--

E 3.3 t

:H Hfr R H6 {lrF.
-e;
a 5 E --:-\
e;
E9 d o o { lasg.E ".9 +
E

"a
;t
t Ec
sEd
:
--=:I gE
E\
*HE 3.8
E
E$ :
r
; E E
*,t..tc 3b: s
E ; EE 5 !
6

e
F

,s

o
o

al

E--R

6
F!
o
.E
*!
.-'
>, .z
i'

!E' *
E*c c$F ;
?EH E:E ;
Fei i: E
;BE iE; g i

\tRl
q

.9 -EE

AE

EE
ra

E ir-a

a.-

2-\
eltt-,
,-->

E.Ets

EO

gq

l!";:5

Jg; ET

o
o
,S

ssso;

'E
}F

igg'EiEiiiEs
6fr
;$H;
'EE ri E FBa ! L' ll.,l I l. $E
.EE Bfl
gESF

EEEI
F

.3 FE.E

Eg
?A

A;EI
iE
I - .eE E E f
EFsggg
4t3

1t1

ollt{lt{ol, f{ollt|t,

AND

rxil${

ll,ll

Tobb

Focl,oru (

r KTAD|NO3

NO'rltNCtATURt

7.

Strcr-Rongr Rrductlon

f)

Cycles, rV

Factor,

7000 and less


Over 7000 to 14,000

Over 45,0m

100,000

Courtgoy American Society

0.8 for 20,000 cycles

11.1E An 8-in. NPS Schedule

of Mchanical En-

= 17.5 ksi, and the allowable sfress at design tem12.0 ksi. The maximum allowable torsional moment is
450,000 in.-lb. The pipe is designed for 10,000 cycles. Maximum
is

allowable bending moments are set as equal, ff rounded up to the next


even 1(X) in.lb, what is the value of M. md Mi2

Data at juncture from Table 11.6:

Answer: M. = Mr = 331,400 in.-lb

Determine torsional stess:


NOMENCTATURE

s,=E=ffi=*oo.t

Individual nomenclature is used throughout Chapter 11 and usually noted close


to where used. The following gives some general nomenclature:

Determine the bending shess:

Sa=

2.05

600,000),

(2.40

900,000

122.6

20,770 psi

- !*|14

F"

\/Ao,nTT4@ - 2t,t7o psi

Determine sustained longitudinal stress:

sL: ezu) nl4i:

p, or P = intemal

design prcssure or maximum allowable working pressure

(psi)

Determine the stess range:

s"

6.

26,490 psi

stress cold is S,

t = o.75i" + i = o.7s(2.$) + 0.25 = 2.05

5.

160 branch pipe is attached to a 16-in. NPS

__ 1.312
n=4
R, 5.719 =n,r"n
u:H=z.qo
n-'-

4.

3760]

Schedule 160 run pipe. The design pressure is 2000 psi, the allowable
perature

3.

Problpm

gioeers.

2.

S,r:

= 0.8[1.25(17,500 + 12,000)
Ss < S,{ design is acceptable.

0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5

Over 100,000

Se

1.0

Over 14,000 to 22,000


Over 22,m fi 45,ON

Determine allowable stress range

4lt

n
M6
OT

3760 psi

s
D

:
:
=
=

:
:

extemally applied axial force (lb)


extemally applied horizontal force (lb)
extemally applied bending moment (in.-lb)
total local stess at opening (psi)
allowable tensile stress (psi)
inside diameter of shell (in.)

t6

BIBI.IOGRAPHY

OPTNINOS, NOZZtTS. AND TXTTRNAT I.OADINGS

insidc dianrctcr

inside radius of opening (in.)

distance from center of opening to point being examined (in.)

=
=
=

T^

"strcsscs liorl Radial Loads aDd Lxlonl l MoDrcnls in Cylintlrical I'r'cssttrc Vcs
scls," Wtltlint: Journal, Vol. 34, Rcsearch Supplcncnt, pp 601ts-617s, 1955
"Computation of the Sbesses ftom Local Loads in Sphcrical Prcssurc Vcsscls or
-,
Pressure vessel Heads," Wewing Research Council, Bulletin No. 34, New York, March

ol nozzle (in.)

r,

417

,l

14.

nominal thickness of shell (in.)


nominal thickness of nozzle (in.)

minimum required thickness of shell (in.)

195't.
-,

"Local Stresses irr Spherical Shells from Radial or Moment Loadings," Weklirg
Joumal, Vol. 36, Research Supplement, pp. 24ls-243s, 1957.
"Sresses in a Spherical vessel from Radial l,oads Acting on a Pipe," weldinS
-,
Research Council, Bulletin No. 49, New Yo*, April 1959
"Stresses in a Spherical Vessel from Extemal Moments Acting on a Pipe," ibid , pp

-,

3t-62.

minimum required thickness of nozzle (in.)

17.

"Influence of a Reinforcing Pad on the Stresses in a Spherical Vessel


-,
l-oading," ibid., pp. 63-?3.

under Local

, "stresses in Spherical Vessels from Local Loads Transfe.red by ^ Pipe," Weditq


Research Council, No,50, pp. 1-9, May 1959.
, "Additional Data on Stresses in Cylindrical Shells under Local Loading," ibid., pp.

-,
-

l0-50.

REFERENCES

1.

'ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code," ANSVASME BPV, American Society of Mechanical Enginee$, New York, 1983.

2.

'ANSI/ASME Code for Pressure Piping


Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1980.

3.

Harvey, J. F., Theory and Design of Modern Pressure Vessels, 2nd ed., Van Nostland
Reinhold, hincton, N.J., 1974.

4,

Rodabaugh, E. C., and R. C. Gwaltney, "Inside Versus Outside Reinforcing of Nozzles in


Spherical Shells with Pressure Loading," Phase Report 117-7, January 1974, BattelleColumbus Inboratory, Columbus, Ohio.

5.

Rodabaugh, E. C., "Proposed Altemate Rules for Use in ASME Codes," Phase Report 117-3,

6,

August 1969, Battelle-Columbus Laboratory, Columbus, Ohio,


Rules and Regulations for the Classifcatior o/SiDJ, Lloyd's Register of Shipping, Irndon,

B3l" ANSI/ASME 831,

American Society of

l98l.

7.
E.
qlll.

Sterling, F. W ,, Marine E gi eers Handbook, McCtraw-Hill, New York, 1920.


Porowski, J. S., W, J. O'Donnell, and J. R. Fan, "Limit Design of Perforated Cylindrical
Shells per ASME Code," Jounal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 99, Sedes J, No. 4,
November 197?.

Wichman, K. R., A. G. Hopper, and J. L. Mershon, "Local Stresses in Spherical and


Cylindrical Shells due to Extemal lradings," Welding Research Council, Bulletin No. 107,
Ncw York, August 1965.

Bijlaad, P. P., "Shesses from Local Loadings in Cylindrical


I.\ME, Vol. 77. pp. 805-816. 1955.

ll. _,

vol.

Pressure Vessels," T/ans.

"Stresses ftom Radial Loads in Cylindrical Pressue Vessels," Welding .loutnal,


33, Research Supplement, pp. 6l5s-623s, 1954.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ellyin, F., "An Experimental Study of Elasto-Plastic Response of Branch-Pipe Tee Connections
Subjected to lntemal hessure, Extemal Couples, and Combined lrading," wRC BulletinNo
230, Welding Research Council, New York, September 1977.
Ellyin, F., "Elastic Stresses Near
Attachments

a Skewed

Hole in

a FIat Plate and

in Shells," WRC 8llrrerln No. 153, Welding

Applications to Oblique Nozzle


Research Council, New York,

August 1970.

Ellyin F., "Experimental Investigation of Limit lnads of Nozzles in Cylinddcal Vessels"' wRc
BulletinNo.2lg, welding Research Council, New York, September 1976
Eringen, A. C., A. K. Naghdi, S. S. Mahmood, C. C. Thiel, and T. Ariman, "Stress Concentrations in Two Normatly Intersecting Cylindrical Shells Subject to lntemal hessure," WRC
Bulletin No. 139, welding Research Council, New York, April 1969.
Fidler, R., "A Photoelastic Analysis of Oblique Cylinder In&fiections Subjected to Intemal
Ptesslure," WRC Bulletin No. 153, Welding Research Council, New York, August 1970.
Findlay, G. E. and J. spenc, "Bending ofPipe Bends with Elliptic Cross Sections," I/Rc B!.rletin
No. 164, Welding Research Council, New York, August 1971.
Gwaltney, R. C., and J. M. Corum, "An Analytical Study of Inside and Outside Compact
Reinforcement for Radial Nozzles in Spherical Sheus," ORNL 4732, June 1974, Oak Ridge
National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn.

al!

oPlNtt{ot, t{ozz[3, aNo rxTaRNAt r,oAotNos

Kruus, H.,

"A

Rcvlcw dnd llvlluution of Computcr Program6 for thc Analysis of Strcsscs in


MtC BulletinNo. 108, Wclding Research Couocil, New York, September

PrcBsun Vc$scls,"
1965.

teveD, M. M., "Photoelastic Determination of the Sftesses at Oblique Openings in Plates and
Shells," WftC Bunettu No. 153, Welding Resea.ch Council, New York, August 1970.

teven, M. M., "Phoioelastic Determination of thc Shesses in Reinforced Openings in hessure


Vessels," WRC Bulletirr No. ll3, Welding Resea.ch Council, New York, April 1 6.
Lind, N. C., A. N. Sherboume, F. Ellyin, and J. Dainora, "Plastic Tests of Two Branch-pipe
Connections," lyRC trrrerir No. 164, Welditrg Research Council, New York, August 1971.
Marwell, R. L., atrd R. W. Holland, 'collaps Test of a Thin-Walled Cylin&ical Pressue Vesscl
with Radially Attached Nozzle," WRC Bulletin No. 230, Welding Research CouDcil, New

Yort, September

BIEIIOORAPHY 4I9
"A Note on the Conelation of Photoelestic and Stcel Model Data for Nozzlc Con'
ne.tions in Cylindrical Shells," WRC Blt eri, No l39, Welding Resealch Council, Ncw

SellcrB. F.,

Yo!k, April 1969.


Taylor, C. E,, and N. C. Lind, "Photolastic Study of the Stresses neat Operdngs in hcssure
Vessels," WRC Burkr,t No. ll3, Welding Resea.ch Council, New York, April 1966'
Tso, F. K. W., J. w. Bryson, R. A weed, and S. E. Moore' "Stress Analysis of Cylindrical
Pressure Vessels with Closely Spaced Nozzles by the Fhit Element Melhod"'in Vol l'
Stres! Analysis of vessels with Two Closely Spaced Nozzles under Intemlrl Pressure'

oRNL/NUIiEG-18/vl, November 1977, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, oak Ridge, Tenn'

1977.

Mershon, J. L. , "Intetpretive Repoit orr Obliqle Nozzle Connections in hessure Vessel Heads and
Shells udder Ifternal Pres$ur
ading," WXC Sarr?rrn No. 153, Welding Research Council,

New Yort, August 1970.


Mershon J. L., "Preliminary Evaluation of PVRC Photoelastic Test Data on Reinforced Openings
in Pressur Vessels," WRC Bullain No. I13, Welding Research Council, New York, April
1966.

Raju, P. P., '"Tbre-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of 45" Lateral Model | (tl/D = 0.08,
D/T = lO, under External i&Plarc MomeDt lrading," TR-3984-2, Teledyne Enginedng
Services, Waltham. Mass. December 1980.
Raju, P. P,, "Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of 45"I-ateral Modelz(d/D :0.5,
D/f : n) under Intrtral hessur and Extemal in-Plane Moment Loading," TR-3984-1,
Tlcdyne Engineeriry Services, Waltham, Mass., December 1980.
Raju, P, P., "Tbree-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of 45" Lareral Model l(d/D = 0.08,
D/T = lO) under Internal Pressure and Extemal in-Plane Moment Loadings," TR-3X9-1,
revisd A, Teledyne Engineering Services, Waltham, Mass., January 1980.
Riley, W, F., "Experime al Detennination of Stress Disributioni in Thin-Walled Cylindrical and
Spherical Pressure Vessls wilh Ciltula. Nozzles," WRC BulletinNo. 108, Welding Research
Council, New York, September 1965.
Rodabaugh, E. C., "Elastic Stesses in Nozzles iD Pressue Vessels with Intemal Pressue Loaditr8," Phas Repoft ll7-1, April 1969, Battelle-Colubus Laboratory, Columbus, Ohio.
Rodabaugh, E. C., "Review of Service Experietrc atrd Test Data on q)ening$ in Pressure Vessels
with Non-I egral ReiDforcidg," WRC Bulletin No. 166, Weldiog Research Council, New
York, October 1971.
Rodabaugh, E. C. , and R. C. Gwahiey, 'Additional Data on Elastic Stresses in Nozzles in Pre$sulE
Vessels with Intemal Pressure loading," Phase Report ll7-2, December 1971, BattelleColumbus kboratory, Columbus, Ohio.
Rodabaugh, E. C,, aDd R. C. cwaltoey, "Elastic Stsesses at Reinforced Nozzles ir Spherical Shells
with Pressur and Moment Loadiog," Phase Report ll?-gR, September 1976, BattelleColumbus Iaboratory, Columbus, Ohio.
Rodabaugh, E, C,, and S. E. Moore, "Evaluation of the Plastic Characte.istics of Piping hoducts
in Relation to ASME Code Cdteiia," NUREC/CR-0261 ORNI-/Sub-2913/8, Oak Ridge
National Inboratory, Oak Ridge, TeIm., July 1978.
Schroeder, J., K. R. Srinivasaiah, and P, Graham, "Analysis of Test Data on Bmnch Connections
Exposd to Intemal Pressure and/or Extemal Coluples," WRC Bulk,n No. 200, Welding
Research Council. New

Schoeder,

t.,

York. Novembr 1974.

and P, Tugcu, "Plastic Stability of Pipes and Tes Exposed to Extemal Couples,"
WRC Bullctin No, 238, Welding Research Couucil, New York, June 1978.

CHAPTER

12

VESSEL SUPPORTS

Ditfereni v$sel supporis. (Courresy of the Noofer Corporotion: St. touir, Mo.)

420

421

412

VISSfl" SUPPORTS

I2.I

INTRODUCTION

I2.2

Process equipment is normally supported by one

1.
2.
3.
4,
5.

of the following methods:

Skirts
Support legs
Support lugs

a;.

SKIRT AND BASE RING DESIGN

I.'igure 12. lc shows an alternate design where the lcgs irLre attached to lugs that
in tum are welded to the vessel. The bending stiffness of the shell and its ability
to resist the moments adequately, must be considered. The cross-bracing ol the
legs may be needed to minimize lateral and torsional movements.
Vessels supported by ring girders, (Fig. 12.1d), are usually placed within a
structural frame. The ring girder has the advantage of supporting torsional and
bending moments resulting from the transfer of loads from the vessel wall to the
supports.

Ring girders

Horizontal vessels, (Fig. l2.le), Ne normally supported by saddles. Stiffening rings may be required if the shell is too thin to transfer the loads to the

Saddles

Most vertical vessels are supported by skirts, as shown in Fig. 12.Ic. Skirts
are-economical because they generally transfer the loads from the vessel by shear
action. They also hansfer the loads to the foundation through anchor bolts and
bearing plates.

I*g-supported vessels are normally lightweight and the legs provide easy
of the vessel. An economic design is shown in Fig. 12. lb,

access to the bottom

where the legs attach directly to the vessel and the loads are transferredby shear
action.

saddles. The problem of thermal expansion must also be considered.

I2,2

SKIRT AND BASE RING DESIGN

Design of the skirt consists of first determining the dead weight of the vessel W
and bending moment M due to wind and earthquake forces (see Chapter I 6) . The
stress

in the skirt is then determined from

-w

(f =

In most practical applications, the ratio


moment of inertia I is exPressed as

:
I:

-+-Mc
I

R/t )

(r2.r)
10. Hence, the area A and the

2rRt
rR3 t

and the equation for the stress in a skirt becomes

(a) Sklrt

(b)

(c) L!s

Leg

,
where

o:

axial stress in skirt

=
M=

weight of vessel

#'#,

0z.z)

moment due to wind or earthquake forces


radius of skirt

r = thickness of skirt
(d)

Rins Gl

rder
Figur

(e)
l2.l

Vessel supporrs.

Saddtes

Because the compressive stress is larger than the tensile stress, it usually
controls the skirt design and is kept below the skirt's allowable axial compressive stress as given by Eq. 8.15.

VESSIt SUPPORTS

Atlcr the thickncss of the skirt r is determined, the next step is designing the
anchor bolts. For a given number of bolts Nthe total bolt area can be expressed
as NA where A is the area of one bolt. The moment of inertia of bolts about the
vessel's neutral axis is I = NAR2/2.'fhtts, Eq. 12.1 is
(r2.3)

N -NR

where P = load/bolt

'

Bolt Dimensions ond Cleorqnces Bolting Dqtd


Nut Dimensions

Radial Edge Wrench


Across Across Bolt
Root
Bolt No. of
Size Thrcads Arca (in.'?) Flats Corners Spacing Distance Distance Diameter
arJ
rr
d
o1 10

18
l*
li
1"1
ll

bending moment

The maximum load/bolt is based on the allowable stress and conesponding


in Table 12.1. The allowable stress depends on the type of boli
fumished. Table 12.2 shows various properties and required dimensions for
bolts with different diameters.
area given

12.1. Determine the required skirt thickness and the number of bolts
needed in a vessel with an outside radius R = 7 .0 ft. IIJI empty weight
Wr : 160 kips, weight of contents Wz: l4l;} kips, wind-bending momenr
M : 1500 ft-kips and temperature = 300. F. Assume A307 bolts and use
Example

Figure 8. 11 for the exiemal pressure chart.

Solution

lt
li

1"2
28
2i8
2i8
2i8

0.969

li

RE
.t?
16a

a,

ti

o.126
o.202
o.302

rr_6

0.419

rr_6

1.589

0.551

ra-

L7

ri3

o.728
o.929

t.'796
2.002
2.209

1. 155

.16

2.4t6

3*l

1.405

L1

2.622

J7

2.828

;e

weight of vessel

N = number ofbolts
R = radius of bolt chcle

M=

12.2

,_-w2M
17 :

Toble

l!2

1.608

1.980

^3

2.304
2.652
3.423

-15

3.035

rt

+7

+i

1!

4.292

Ji

5.259

+i

4.688
On

5.102
5.515

5.928
6.341

'7L

6.755

8"1

8.'749
10.108
11.566

oi

L'

J;

3.862
4.2't5

.487

7F,

L1

4
3.449

t5

zc

Ja-

6.3

ri
z

1.383

3i8 v
3i8
3i8
48

1.1'7 5

!!1

1Z

zi

^J-6I

Lz
^3
ZE
t)a

tt

a=

lE

,7

7i

Ji

+i
.ri

rt

8j

ra

Skirt design

Lpt

t=

0.375 in. From Eq. 12.2,

Tqble

12. I

Bolt
Type

Allowable
Tensile

Cross-Sectional
Area

Stress (ksi)

(in.')

/^ 0.9743\'
t\" - -7rr- 1

tr

4307

20

4325
4449

40

Nominal

40

A.490

54

Nominal
Nominal

'l{'

is number of lhrcads/in.

425

lN

Vttilt luPlotTt

r2,2
160

o= -

r (84

1500

1l|40

12

r(83.813f(0.375)

0.37 5 / 2)(0.37 5\

10.28 ksi

RJt

The contribution of the bolts on the compression side is negligible'


The bolts on the tension side are assumed to act as a continuous ring
width r", where r" is calculated from the equation

A=

12,100

psi

OK

3.

The allowable stress of steel /" is taken from Table

Boh design
Let

N=

12 bolts. From Eq. 12.3,

I-oad/tntr:

l@+

- t2

2(15ooxl2)
12(84)

22.4 kips

Frorn Table 12.1,


area requlre{

22.4

ld-

=
From Table 12.2

| .12

n.2

l|.-lln. diameter bolts

(N' =.S).

Thus from Table 12.1,

n." ^-- 0.9743."


*u=Z1r.sD-1-): 1.23 nz > 1.12 OK
actual shess

7)A
= J1:
l-25

total furnished area


Use

l-in. skirt with 12

DIIION all

,,=4
zrd

0.001 I

Hence, from Fig. 8.11,

RINO

*d

ttt

0.125

A:

lA$

bctwccn
and/or r,esting on a group of piles, it can be assumed that fte intersction
concrotc
reinforced
of
a
that
to
similar
is
c-on"ret"
Uots, bie plaie,
made:
are
assumptions
the
following
12.2,
U"".. fn t"feoit g to Fig.

1.
2.

From Eq. 8.15,

tKlnT aND

18.2 ksi

12

1.23

14.8 in.'?

l*-in. dianeter bolts.

Having established the nurnber and size of bolts, the next step is to calculate
thc interaction between the base plate, anchor bolts, and supporting snuchre. If
thc supporting structure is a steel ftame or foundation, then Eq. 12.3 is all that
is necded for designing anchor bolts. On the other hand, if the foundation is deep

tigl!.o 12,2

of

(t2.4)

l2'1'

lrt

v||||t turro$t

I2.2

Tobb 12.3 Concntr Proprrflcr

1=,t"

Allowable
Compressive
Stess (psi)

6.

of Flasticity Gsi)

f" = o.4sfl

E.:

Modulus

57,WO\/n

Ei

/8"

1,t25

2,850,000

lt

3000

1,350

3,120,000

t0

3500

1,575

3,370,000

,1000

1,800

3,610,000

lf

IA3:

429

RINO DTSION

=W=t-2k

(12.6)

The total force T of the tensile area of the reinforcement can be determined bv
sumrning forces on the tensile side of the neuhal axis which gives

25m

"E, = 30 x

4.

Compressive
Stress (psi)

SKIRT AND

/,r\( t ll.,r.* yl\ sin + cos 'll


r = f,t,l;l {r--=
7
7l I
| [;
\z/ tr -1- sln 7 L\z
/
J)
o|

psi.

, =r,^(1) *,

Concrete on the compression side is assumed to have a width t" that is the
same as the width of the base plate.
The allowable complessive stress of concretel is taken from Table 12.3.
The ratio of the modulus of elasticity of steel to that of concrete is defined
as n.

The disance between

and the neutral axis expressed by

(r2.7)
12

is

n+o
''t"=4l<r/z+nt't+t.st*t"
(r/2 * 7) sinT * cosT
2L

(r2.8)

Similarly, the total force C of the compressive area of the concrete is given by

n: .E"
Ec

b=<,,*-{;lls::=;v]

=f'/e,
e"-f"e"
f"

f"a"

(12.e)

In an elastic analysis, the stains in the concrete and steel at any location are the
same. Hence, e" : e, and

c=(t,+*"r\h*

':ti - ,=*

The distance /3 between C and the neuhal axis is

Also, from Frg. t2.2c, using similar triangles

f,
d-kd

_ dl(n/2 -z)(sin'zy + l/21 - 1.S(sinycosy)'l

"-216]

nf.
kd

The relationship between extemal forces M and I7 and the intemal forces

C are derived from Fig. 12.2c. He,nce

x,1=
From these
obtained:

assumptions

1] 1Jnf"

afr Fig,

2M"=O

lJ2's)

12.2, the following relationships are

w(h + h)

r(h + 4) = 0

and

alo

12,2

v|lilt lutFom

0nd

^t = M-W(\+l)
1ra

(12. r0)

1,

Similarly,

lASl

RINO

DlllON .ltl

Example 12,2, ln Example 12.1, it was found that l2-lN in. A307 anchor
bolts were needed for a vessel with an outside radius R = 7 ft,Wt = 160 kips,
M = 1500 ft-kips, and a skht thickness of0.375 in. If/l = 3000 psi, determine
the actual stess in the concrete and bolts.

Sohiion. By referring to Fig. 12.3 and Table 12.2, for le-:ff' bolts, the bolt
circle can be calculated as

)r',=o
and

d = 2(84 + 0.25 + 1.875) = 172.25 in.

C:T+W
The values of 7,

of

SKIRT AND

h, h, h, Ks

(12. r 1)

Also

and K2 are given in Table 12.4 for various values

,t":2(0.25 +

/c.

2h/d

2t"/d

2h/d

Kr

Kz

1.489

0.016
0,o32

3.1 13

o.267

1.477

3.085

0.378

1.465

0.048

3.059

0.463

1.452

0.064

3.033

0.535

0.01

78.52

0.02

73.74

0.03

70.05

0.04

66.93

0.05
0.06

@.16

0.98
0.96
o.94
0.92
0.90

r.439

0.080

3.008

0.599

6t.&

0.88

1.426

0.096

0.657

0.08

57.t4

1.400

o.128

0.10

53.13

1.373

0.160

2.887

0.852

0.15

44.43

1.304

o.239

2.772

1.049

0.20

36.87

1.233

0.318

2.61

1.218

o.25

1.161

0.397

2.551

r.370

0.30

30.00
23.58

1.087

o.475

2.442

1.509

0.35

r7.46

1.013

0.553

2.333

1.640

0.40

11.54

0.84
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
o.20
0.10
0.00

2.983
2.935

0.938

0.631

r.765

0.862

o.709

2.2U
2.1t3

0.785

0.785

2.000

2.000

0.709

0.862

1.884

2.113

0.631

0.938

t.765

2.2U

0.553

1.013

1.ffi

0.475

1.087

1.509

0.397

1.161

|.3'to

0.318

t.233

1.218

2.333
2.442
2.551
2.661

o.239

1.304

1.049

2.772

0.45

5.74

0.50

0.00

0.55

-5.74
-11.54
-17.46

0.65

0.70

-23.5E

o.75

-30.00

0.80

-36.8'l
-44.43

0.85

1.375)

Frorn Example 12.1,

Tqble 12.4

0.@

1.875

-0.10
-0.20
-0.30
-0.,m
-0.50
-0.60
-0.70

"f,

18.2 ksi

From Eq. 12.2

,=- r2(r.23\
'"
t(172.25)
=

0.0273 in.

0.160

1.884

Figirr. 12.3

0.375

7.375

n.

1t2 Vililt tuttottl

I2.2

From Tablo 12,3

= 1350 Psi
n=10

and Eq. 12.5 gives

K=

From Table 12.4 wirh

K=

:
0.47 ,

1=
a

o'.,*

1=
a

o.ssz

2.157

is obtained ftom Eq. 12.10

',L
--:1.$7

4d

as

- 160,000 (0.1{ + 0.678) (172.25)


-- _ 1,500,000 x 12(0.892
+

The value

0.678)(r72.2s)

49,750lb

ofi

is determined ftom Eq. 12.7

as

= o.rn

K(:2.e47
K) = 0.734
t5 x ld x t2
T.
tr _
-

16

x lff

(0.85

0.120) (172.25)

:35.230

49,750
(0.027 3)(r7 2.2s / 2) (2. 1 s7),

O.O2

:1 = 0.8s
(t

& = 1.836

of

which is considerably lower than the assumed value ofl( = 0.43. Hence another
trial is needed with a K value of 0.02. After recalculating values of 7, /", C, and
/", a new value ofK is obtained and compared with the assumed one. ff both
values are approximately the same, the analysis is completed. If they axe not, a
new analysis is performed. Thus, in this example after a few trials, for
K = 0.O75, the following values were obtained:

= o.srr

&:

433

K= r + 9810/(10xr8)

0.43.

1a

8A3I RINO DI3ION

The calculatcd values of/,1 andf, result in a K value

"f'

The magnitude of

SKIRT AND

35,230

9810 psi

From Eq. 12.1I

(o.027 3)(t7 2.2s / 2) Q.e 47 )


5085 psi

= t95,230
f"=42psi
C

C = 49,750

160,000

:2O9,750lb
and

Equation 12.9 gives

2@,750

f": lo.on3 + (10x7.37st (t72.2s/2) (r.836)


=

18 psi

K:

r+(5085/10+42)

which is apptoximately the same


I" = 42 psi is the answer.

as

0.076

the assumed value. Hence;[

5085 psi and

,4r.tll',t!tf!,t;;

atrt

r2,2

vlSlll tUPPOltl

12,2,I

SKtRt AND

lA3!

R|NO

Dll|ON 4$

Anchor Cholr Dcrlgn

The base ring is designed both for the effect of the concrete-bearing load on the
side of the foundation under compression and for the bblt force on the other side
of the foundation in tension. On the compressive side, the base ring can bc
assumed as a cantilever beam subjected tol as shown in Fig. 12.4. The required
thickness is obtained from
6lj4
C= __V t

t:

r]--l

ls-l

lrl

PARTIAL VIEW
OF

l6It4

\/;

BASE RING

(")

(b)

Substituting for M the value

M=
the expression for

r!-

t becomes

tw

\/;
wherc t

---1_r",,
(r2.r2)

DEFLECIION

(,

required base ring thickness on the compressive side of the neufal

Fisuru 12.5

axis

/"
I
o

:
:
:

actud sftess in concete


cantilever length of base ring as defined in Fig. 12.5
allowable bending stess of base ring

On the tensile side, the thickness of the base ring is conholled by the amount of
bolt force and dimensions shown in Fig. 12.5. The exact analysis for deter-

rnining the maximum bending moment in the base ring is rather complicated
because of the nature of the boundary conditions and the hole. However, an
approximate and conservative solution can be obtained by assuming the ring to
act as a plate simply supported on three sides and free on the fourth side. Using
the yield-line theory,l

external

F(t) =

work =

21,1016

dr

intemal work

u,

(a

- fi j

or

__r'

Mp=

2[2n

/a + a /2t

Using. a load factor of 1.7 and a factor


effect,r the equation

Fi$,r. | 2.a

d(2/a + r/21)']

of l.l5 to allow for fleld-line comer

^4M
't'

lta

w||tt tuDotTl

I2.2

can bo solvod for tho rcqutrcd thickncss cxpressed as

S,l2b

/a + a /2t

where t = required base ring


F : bolt load
S,

ul

d 12'/a

+ t/zq'l

whcrc o
(

12.13)

thickness on the tensile side of the neuhal axis

yield shess of base ring

a, b, d, and I

(f =

l.5Fb
ntzh
-:-

allowable sness in shell

12.3. Design the base ring shown in Fig. 12.7a. Stress in the bolts
is 17,500 psi; height of gussets 12 in., and concrete-bearing stress is 100 psi,
Allowable stress for base ring is 20,000 psi and yield sfress is 36,000 psi.
Required base ring thickness due to concrele-bearing stress is obF4. 12.12 as

An

(12.r4)

x100x62
20,000

0.73 in.
From Table 12.2,

tln

net area

of I l-in. bolts is

force F in bolts

17,500

u.c)(b4)
''
zzh

(!)HoRtzoNTaL FoRcEs

Figur. 12.6

= 24,6M lb

(l2) t.l BOLTS

G)vqlrcaL_EaSaEs

RINO DISION

Example

tained from

approximate free-body diagram of the forces is shown in FIg. lZ.O.


Venicat
torces are transferred as shown in Fig. l2-6a. The resulting unbalanced
bending
the gussets resulting from the vertical forcei requires equal and
-^_1T:,1i
opposrte T
horizontal forces as shown in Fig. 12.6b. These horizontal forces
induco local sfiesses in the shell that are calculated from the
equation

!A3!

, = thickness of shell
F = bolt load

Solution.

re

as defined in Fig. 12.5b.


The load in the shell is tansferred tothe anchor bolts through the gussets.

SKIRT AND

Figw.12.7

1.405 in.'?
1.405

all

vltllr

t2.3

SuPFol?t

From thls trblc, cloarancc for wrcnch diametcr is 3.75 in. Allowing for gusset
flllct wclds, the distance between gussets is as shown in Fig. 12.7i. froi fq.

91

z4-roo

thickness

of

ruro,

1.5x24.600x6

'4-,4

[Iil-[f[ff]w

by bolt load, or use a base rin!


in. with anchor chairs, as shown n Fig. 12.7.
The stess in the shell is obtained from Eq. 12.14 as

thickness of 0.73

t!o! 4tg "

t-i-7
\i-_/

--

tlis point has a choice to make. One can either use a base ring
I1.07
in., which is controlled

"- = -1t

luPPoR?

--+--

Jtcrta,r

ile- designq

ol

/F lor

12.13.

D!3|ON

\7V

oigt n

,,,u,"'r.,

10,4O0 psi

This sbess is combined with the axial stress and the total must be less than thre
tirnes the allowable stess.

Column B in Fig. 12.8 is designed to carry shear in accordance with the equation

I2,3

DESIGN OF SUPPORT IEGS

Support legs are designed to take into consideration axial loads, bendins mo_
ments, and shear forces in tlre vessel. Refering so Fig. 12.g we see that at-cross
section A-A all forces are expressed in terms of M, V, and W. The axial force
W.is canie.d uniformly by all columns. Bending moment M is carried by the
columns away from the neutral axis and the shearing forces v are carried by the
columns closest to the neutral axis as shown in Fie. 12.g.
Column A in Fig. 12.8 is designed by using Eql I2.3 given by

where

T
-Il=VQ

P:
W
iV

*
=-w
n{ -NR

2tu1

The shearihg force f at the top of columns B causes bending mornent in the
column if no cross-bracing is used. With cross-bracing the force T is resolved
irito axial forces as shown in Example 12.4.

Example 12.4. Determine the forces in columns A and B of the vessel shown
in Fig. 12.9.

Sohtlion. Axial force in colurnns A

F=

w 240 :30
N8

load per column

Axial force in column A due to M is

weight of vessel

_ 2t4
.NR

number of columns

R = radius of columns' circle

M = noment

due to wind or earthquake loads

and B due to W is

2x20p,0

":''''

--"--*-"-ry*"trffiffitrufft
t2.3
rr3t. I'he quantity p of the crosshatched

DIS|ON Ot SUPPOnT

uog

4l

area in this figure is givcn by

a= wo(?,\
\1t /
/=

50k

M-2aaa8Fr

The force

(b)

Il

2:r2t

is then given by

v
V (2r2t)
"H- (in3t)(zt)- nrt -2V
A
:;6txSfl

0.2653 lb/in.

Horizontal force in column B is

a=

(o.z6sr)(:3y

:
X=

(d)

/2.5

Il is normally resolved into two components as shown in Fig. 12.9d'


Force U is a r{dial force on the shell and force X is a horizontal force in the plane
of the cross-b\acing.

=
total axial load in column B =
A

are zero. Those transferred to

u=W
h
I of

Hcnt

y'^ =

sin

a=

12.5

0.414

5.18 kips

!-a = !-L
= 13.53 kips
0.924

-50 - 100 = -150 kip


-50 kip

The shearing stnesses transferred to column


column B are detennined frorn

The moment of inertia

u=

The force X intoduces additional cornpressive force in column B as shown in


Fig. 12.9e. The distance between columns is

:igur. 12.9

total axial load in column

12.50 kips

This force

.
(")

the whole cross section in Fig. 12.9c is given by

t=2{ =3.en
The apFoximate height of the colurnns is 20
deers and the axial force F in colurnn B is

force E

#n:6e.61

ft.

Hence, angle B is about

kips

= 7O.lt fip.

"n

BA

ll

vtss

I2,5

suPPokrs

: --l5() kip
total forcc in column B : -50 - 69.61 :
total force in bracing : 70.91 kips I

total lirrcc in colunrr

lhc shgll duc t() support cccentricity is givcn by

M":

119.61 kio

If the cross-bracing is eliminated in Example 12.4, the shear force tends to


cause a bending moment in column B. Assuming the bottom end of the columns
pinned, the horizontal force causes a bending moment at the top of the column
of magnitude 12.5 x 20 ft
250 k-ft. Thus, without a bracing system, column
B must be designed to withstand a compressive force of 50 kips plus a bending
moment of 250 k-ft rather than a compressive force of 119.61 kips with a bracing
system.
Note that the absence of a cross-bracing causes the tops of the columns to

sway laterally because of reduced rigidity. This can also cause excessive vibration or deformation of the vessel.

I2.4

RING GIRDTRS

LUG-SUPPORTED VESSETS

The main design consideration regarding lug-supported vessels is the stress


magnitude in the shell. Bijlaard's method is usually followed in such a design.2
It consists of determining the stress in the shell at the vicinity of a support lug
of height 2C2 and width 2C1, as shown in Fig. 12.10. The bending moment in

Fe

r2. r5)

and the maximum stress in the shell is calculated from reference 2. Both membrane and bending stresses are calculated. Details ofthe required calculations are
well established in reference 2. Further treatment of this topic is unnecessary in

this book.

I2.5

RING GIRDERS

Ring girders (Fig. lz.ld), are common in elevated vessels supported by a


structural frame. An exact analysis of the stresses in a ring girder due to various
loading conditions is very complicated. For a uniform load, the stresses and
forces can be determined easily with the following assumptions:

l.
2.
3.

Supports are equally spaced.


Vertical deflection at supports is zero.
Slope of ring girder at supports is zero due to symmetry of loads and

4.

Torsion force at supports is zero. This assumes twisting of the girder due
to flexibility of shell.

supports.

Based on these assumptions, t}le moments, shears, and torsion at the supports
and in-between supports are given by

M, = Kzwr2

M^

: Ka,wr
r, =0

v^:o

V,

Kswrz
(12.16)

T^:o

where M,, V,, T" = support moment, shear, and torsion, respectively. Posi
tive direction is shown in Fig. 12.11.

M,,

V^, T^

K3

(t

:
r:

\__

)r-l
t4

=
=

w
1,.,
t

Fisur 12.10

midspan moment, shear and torsion, respectively


constants obtained from Table 12.5

uniform load
radius

The maximum torsional moment occurs at the ansles shown in Table


is given by

I 2 .5

and

Ifl'

Viiiliti,hom

2,t

milo

ottDltt 4t

_ In deriving Eqs. 12.16 it is assumed that thc loade and thc rcactions rct
through the neutal axis ofthe girder. In pressure vessels the loads are tansfcrre.d
to the ring girder through the shell. If the ring girder is taken as a channel section
as in Fig, l2.l3a, tben the loads in the sh-ell cause a bending moment in
the
girder because they are not applied through the shear (flexural) center.
This

moment, shown in Frg.

l2.l2a,

has the magnitude

m=-we
Figuro

T*"

l2.l I

where e is the shear cnter moment arm, which can be expressed as

The moment, shear, and torsion expressions for any given location between
supports are obtained ftom

Me

V,r sin d

M,cos 0

wr2

(l -

= V" - wrg
To = V,r(l - cos d) + M" s:rr,e
-wr.z (e - sn 0)

V6, 76

0
Tqble

12.5

Number

of

Suppons

Ring

mornent shear, and torsion at any location

angle as define.d in Fig. 12.11

Angle of
Maximum
Torsion

ftom
Support

(degrees) K3
180

90
72

60

45

t0

36

l2
l6

30
22.5

20

18

Tr-

'l--zt{-

Supports

120

The uniform bending moment m causes tension hoop sbess above the r_axis
and compression hoop stress below the.x-axis as shown in Fig. l2.l2b. T\e

\ 'r

Gider Coefficienrs

Angle

41,

(l2.l8)

Between

b2d2h

cos 01

Ve

whete M6,

e=

(r2.r7)

Kewr2

Ka

Ks

1.5707

Ka

-3.307 x
-8.278 x
-3.313 x
-1.654 x
-9.471 x

-1.0000
-0.3954
-0.2146

0.7853

-0.t351

0.6283

-0.57m
-o.2091
-0.1107
-0.0690

-0.0931
-0.0519
-0.0331
-o.o229
-0.0128
-0.0082

0.5235

-o.M7l

0.3926

-0.0262
-0.0166

-3.9q x

0.261'l

-0.0115

0.1963

-0.@65
-0.0042

x
-3.722 x

1.0471

0.3141

0.1570

-2.W x
1.154

-2.469

><

(degrees)

l0-r
10-,
lo-2
10-2
l0-3
10-3
l0-!
10-3
l0-3
l0-"

39.55
25.80

D.21
15.30
12.74

9.53

7.62

634
4.72
3.79

(b)
Figw. 12,l2

"--*tr*"wffruruilr12.5
momont and corrorponding strcso can be cxproosod

ac

,,
-v,rb2d2h
M=-mr=
4L
a:

RINO

/.tsev-rr *

rt

mry

L
(12.19)
wb2d2hry

4I?

where

o-

sftess

= width of flange
d = distance between flanses
ft = flange thickness
I, = rnoment of inertia of girder
r : radius of vessel
D

r = shell thickness
w = unifonn applied load
At the supports, the reaction eccentricity tends to produce compressive forces
in the top flange and tensile forces in the bottom one as shown in Fig.. 12.13c.
The.top and bottom flanges can be assumed to fansfer the loads as shJwn in Fig,

12.13b. TIla forces are derived as

M,:+

("o,a"otf

- 'rr -

ttt

i)
..
,,= -H..
---.
z t-z
i*

(c)
Figurc 12.13

At the supports, 0 = 0 and

- roo, (t-i.,)
n,=Z---;(a

(bl

3) - t. t .t

M,=+(*,;-i)
tt-Ha
= Zco.a
(t2.20)

v,:-H
'2
and in-between the supports 0

= a/2

f coo ?

nrl . "Mr= ;\sm;

OtRDlRt

Uf

W$tt tupPotll

7_.i
smt

tUPPOmt 49

200

0.637 k-in.
(zXl00) =

fia

v,: +!:!s
a .a

from Table 12.5, with N

t-z

F1,

SADDU

Solutlon

r,_ = .f,| cos a

The positive directions of M1,

2,6

8,

& = -0.0519
Ks

and % are shown in Fig. 12. l3c.

Exanp!9 12.5. The ring girder shown in Fig. 12.t4 is supporred at eight
points. If I7 = 200 kips, find the forces in the ring at the supports and at the
point of maximum torsional moment.

-0.02.52

= 0.3926
K6==3.940x10-3
Kc

Maximum torsion occurs at 9.53' ftom support.


The forces given by Eqs. 12.16, 12.19, afi 12.?I are detemrined in Table
Fig. 12.15 at the supports and at the point of maximum
torsion.
12.6 and illustrated in

I2.6

SADDTE SUPPORTS

Horizontal vessels supported by two saddles (Fig; 12. le) act as simply supported
beams. For vesSels with dished heads (Fig. 12.16a) the equivalent beam lenglh
is taken as .L -l 4H 13 where L is the tangent-to-tangent length of the vessel and

.br (,
At Support

At Point of Maximum Torsion

-82.65 k-in.

0 k-in.

Eq. 12.16
M", M^

v", v^

7.20k
6.n k-ln.

-60.05 k-in.

-60.05 k-in.

Mf

+40.54 k-in.

-101.50 k-in.

Fr

k
-6.13 k

k
-8.50 k

12.50

L,T^
Eq. 12.19

M
Eq. 12.2V

lxx =

587.4Inl

14.80

" Ihese equatioas apply at

'-. Wk+e'\
_

200 1.89

12.'26'

812

a==z:45o
6'
Flgure 12.14

13.58

poifis a and D; poirts A and C have opposite signs.

''''tit'lttl

t2.6

SADD!! SUPPORTI

4tl

Il

M=60.05 K-in

Fo.f.! or Support.

Fotce.

Figur. 12.15

tt

point ot

l rrinr,n

is the depth of the heads. The vertical load on each head is given by
V = 2IIw 13 and is assumed to act at the center of gravity of the head. Thc
horizontal pfessure on the heads due to liquid heads is resistd by a horizontal
force F acting as shown n Fig. L2.l6b.It is interesting to note that for hemispherical heads where 11 is equal to r, the bending moment at the head{o-shell
junction due to force F and vertical force V is zero. The bending moFent at any
point in the vessel is obtained from statics as shown nFig. n/f6 lL b
The section modulus of the shell between the saddles is I/c and is expressed
as rr2t. At the saddles, the effective section modulus is reduced due to the
dqfonnation of the shell which renders the full cross section less effective.
Research has shown3 that the length of the effective cross section of the shell is
equal to the arc length of the contact angle of the saddle plus one-sixth of the
unstiffened shell, as shown in Fig. 12.17. The section modulus of the arc length
that is in tnsion is expressed as

Z:

r2t

[4

Thus the maximum longitudinal stress values can be expressed as


01

,=

C1M6 for

midspan between supports

o1\ C2M, for unstiffened shells at saddles


or: CrM" for stiffened shells at saddles

L/

,TEI
'(.

F=r.w

Fisur. 12.16

450

tigur. 12.17

(r2.22'

112 Vllln

t2.6

tuPForTl

whorc or - longltudinal bcnding

r:
t=

c,:
'

length of vessel between tangent lines (in.)

t=2,(!+9\
" \z 20)

radius of vessel (in.)


thickness of shell (in.)

J,ft't

as shown

sinA/A

- cosA

a, =

t=o+E

^
Cr

The shear sress in tlre shell between the saddles is computed by assuming a
sinusoidal distribution of the shear forces where the maximum value is at
ihe
equator, given by

'

as

CtV

(12.24)

wher

o' = I
nn 'io

in Fig. 12.18. The shearing stress can then be calculaied

^-ll
"-r4LA+;inE;I-2Giltlfu)l

where

4t0

The shearing stress at the saddle area is influenced by the deformation of thc
unstiffened shell above the saddle. Experimental research has shown that the
shear near the saddle is distributed along an arc length of

shoss in shell (ksi)

I7 = weight of vessel plus its contents (kips)

SADDI tUPPOtTt

(12.23)

: -;- sin d
n\n-d+srnccos)

for saddles away from heads

sin
c sinacosa
- flI6 / -(l + Smdcosc/)
\n-

:
a:

where r

is measured as shown in Fig. 12.18.

d=

h:

o-"

for saddles near heads

radius of vessel

0/2 + F/20
ang(e as rneasured in

\
ngle that varies

Fig. 12.18

between

and

shear sftess

Equation l2.Z is also used to check.the stess in the head. In this case the
value of t in the expression for C3 is taken as the thickness of head rather than
shell.
The circumferential stress in lhe shell at the saddle area is calculated by
assuming the shell above the saddle 0o act as a fixed arch subjected to shearing
s&ess as illustated in Fig. 12.19. Using the theory of indeterminate stuctures,
the moment at any point along the arch can be expressed as

Ma =

wrf
I
- s
*anLa | cos {(sin'zB
- iFsin2F + 79'z cos2 F)
L

/1

+ dsind(iB'z

osnzB -

sin,9)

+ jFcosPQF + sin2p)

.
Flgurc 12,18

-sinp

lr

[;B
\4

\1
|
|
;o sin 2B + ;+ gcoszllll

#a

v||l|taultom

12.6 SADDtl SUPPOffg

"r

.ltt

160

3.#Pi

6
o

140

.\

s1s
120

-Ut

t@

w
2

Fi$rc 12.19

o.ol o.o2 0.o3 0.o4 0.(E 0.06 0.o7 0.G o.os

Cs ond

where

tigw.12,20

o.t

o.2

C6

Volucr of C5 ond C6 or o tunction oI the loddlo onsl! 0. (R.f. 4, p. 212)

ll

Cc=s111.2|-:^P'-=sn2!.
'24
The maxirnum value of M6 given by this equation occus at

The maximum circumferential force P at the hom of the saddle is determined

0:

from
B. Hence

the maximum circumferential bending moment in the shell can be expressed asa

"r=
where C5 is plotted in

H*,

(r2.25)

,'= (v)",
where C6 is given by

Fig. 12.20.

..=

/, Experimental work has shown that the wjdth of the shell that is effective in
j/resisting
the moment in F4, 12.25 can be taken as four times the radius or
,/
one-half the length of the shell, whichever is smaller.
It has also been showna that Eq. 12.25 is valid whenA/r is eqgg!-Io lfreater
than 1.0. For A/r values of 0.5 or less, it is suggEGTll[llvalG-i@1e
reduced
tfre neaA. nor inbetween values of A/r, a reduction factor (Rf)
,

"

* = (;i -',
can be used.

0.5<:<1.0

(12.26)

l*+ifu - "',8] . #*F (cs - c,)

and

t,

: frf,r,u(t - | "o,n * ) o"ne - le,)


- l|rnA + llcosFQP+ sin2B - ssinp + B cosB)]

A plot of the Quantrtt C6 is shown in fi9. 12.20.


When the stess in the shell as calculated from Eq. (12.25) nd 92.?,6) is
excessive, stiffening rings are used at the vicinity of the saddles to carry the
bending moment.

illuooRAPHY 1r'

.t!6 v|llll luttotTl


{,

NOMENCTATUR,E

Browncll, L. 8., ald E, H, Young, Procr$ Equlpmcnt Datlgn, John Wiloy, Now York,
1959.

C = compressive force on concreie foundation

F = bolt

"f"

load

BIBTIOGRAPHY

allowable compressive stress of concrete

f, : allowable lensile stress of steel bolts


* = constant given by Eq. 12.5
Kr Kz = constants given in Table 12.4
K3 - (u = constants given in Table 12.5
/=

length

h - h = lengths as specified by Fig.


M = bending moment
Ma

12.2

bending moment in a ring girder

N = number of bolts

n: f,/f.
R = radius

f:

bnsile force on foundation

= torsion moment in a ring


, = thickness
To

t"

girder

equivalent thickness of anchor bolts

V = shearing force

: shearing force in a ring girder


W : weight
o : shess
Ve

REFER,ENCES

l.
t

Wood, R, H, , Pla.rric aal Elattic Design of Slabs 4nd Prater, Ronald hEss, New York, 196l .
Wichman, K. R. , A. G, Hopper, ad J. L. Mershon, "Local Stiesses ir Sphericl a|ld Cylin&ical Shels due to ErteErl lradings," BAC Barr"ri, 107, Welding Resarch Council, New

YorL. 1965.

Zic}' L. P.,

it

Large Horizortal Cylitrdrical Pressur Versls otr T\a,o Saddle


"Stsss
Suppons" in Prr$rr" Vesscl dnd Piphb DesigL, Collected Pqert 1m7-1959, lJreicat
Society of Mechanical Elgircers, New York, 1960.

Ro8rk, R, J.,

aodw. C.Yot

t915.
Uteful ltdomation
American lron

g, Formulasfor S''ast and

ol the Design of Plate Structwes,


ad Steel Institute, New York.

Stain,sthed., Mccmw Hill, New York,


Steel Plate EnE Bering

Data, Vol.2,

PART

THEORY AND DESIGN


OF SPECIAL EQUIPMENT

459

''"' 'rii tir

CHAPTER
a
T

't

I3

FLAT BOTTOM TANKS

.!

I
z5
,l

'b
!

*
p
g

461

462

fl.At toTIoM

I3.I

INTRODUCTION

TANKS

Flat bottom tanks are normally constructed according to one of the following

four standards:

1.
2,
3.

API 650. Welded steel tanks for oil storage.


API 620. Recommended rules for design and construction of large,

welded, low-pressure storage tanks.


ANSI 896.1. American National Standard for welded alumrnum_alloy

F*

llr.rF.=
< ld..l

oZ

F-

< | 42

XXX

o.l

-i -i

storage tanks.

4,

AWWA D 100. Standard for welded steel elevated tanls, standpipes,


and reservoirs for water storage.

Table 13.1 shows a general comparison between the requirements


of the various
standards. The values in the table serve as a general comparison;

txz

however,
specific requirements and limitations are obtaiied from the standards
them_

.- q. q.

a.l

\o

selves.

I3.2

cl cl

xxx

'6bE
qa- 9-

:.:

zzz

9e

*9.9-

-t

zz

tz

zzz

'6

.- Irr ,-

API 650 TANKS

J t-z
The requkements of API 6501 are for flat bottom tanks containing
liquids with
litde or no surface pressure. The design criteria are based on simpti"fied
equations
with a minimum amount of analysis.
|

3.2.

(,)

ao

Roof Design

.+

Flat bottom tanks with large diameter and fixed roof normally are
designed with

column-supported roofs. As the diameter gets smaller, seif_supporting


roofs
become more economical. Dome and cone ioofs
th" -ort popolar iypes.
-"
The following equation for designing self-supporting do-" .ooi.
is obtained
^ Eq. 9.2b, which is based on a fairor
from
ot saiety (FS) four:

o
(t
E
(t

co

d,

'^

P=-

0.0625 E
(n111'

(13.1)

E<
\o

< txd

:
=

25 psf live
0.315 psi

load

-o

o
F

F
frR g
9:-?,
6 EE ;
290F
'H

^" 3
H.c ; ::

r.)oo
a

E3
^\ Es 8.9

E
EE^
EEH
v 5t
.9*

E e 8-:

EtrEE

e .<

.E A.{l

EFsE

20.4 psf dead load

.E
}!'EU

<zx-..;

o
o

XXX

tsFEE

ERE

*.E

E
'o
l

ed

5?)XF-

an

The required thickness is obtained by assuming that the maximum pressure


consists ofa live load of 25 psf, which is the assumed maximum snow load,
and
a dead load of a maximum roof thickness of 0.5 in. as allowed by ApI.
Hence

aa

:.9

XXX

gsEEctg
| , ,t

Ve
,= .9

>

Fe{ife
aEitE
ErEb::e
E r F3::i
g s.2

?sEFEfE
4
aa6e
5 e*ff

trtrtrE

a6.l

ttAt lOnOiit IANK!

tptting

f-

I3.2

29 X lOi psi, expressing R in fcet, and r in inches, Eq. 13.l is

'

200

= /Pncos0\/a\
| -------:- || ^ |
\ z / \zo/

(13.2)

which gives the required thickness of a dome roof.


- The roof+o-shell junction has a stiffening ring to provide for the discontinuity
forces shown in Fig. 13.1. Force 1l is
u,

"*pr".rJa
11 = Ndcos d

DR

= 4t/(P

H(D /2)
^_

o)

.DR

(13.3)

and the required area needed to resist this tensile force is given
by

"."

API 650 assumes a maxirnum value of o for head-to-shell rings of 15,000 psi.
The value of P can be taken as 0.315 psi. The maximurn value of cos 0 for R
is 0.8D and is equal to 0.909. Expressing R andD in feet andA in square inches,
the required area is

PR

zcos0

API 650 TANKS

^: ux
API uses the equation
DR

'-

(13.4)

(13.s)

1500

for the required area at dome-to-shell junction.


The required thickness of self-supporting conical roofs is based on Eq. 9.19
and is

P"

E-

2.61(t sin 0/D)25

/2D)
10..14 /r sin 0\x5
= FS(,* g)\ D
/

Substituting

t = 29 x

106

FS(L

psi and

P"

0.315 psi in this equation and express-

ing D in feet and t in inches results in

. D lcs(tan 0)lo4
'= u" g zza,sq

13.6)

Figure 13.2 shows a plot of this equation for various factors of safety. A more
simplified equation used by API is

,: 400
-J sin 0
where 1 : pquired thickness of cone roof
Fis',.o 13.l

(in.)

diameter of tank (f0

angle between cone and horizontal base (degrees)

(13.7)

rt,2

Alt $0 rAHKI

A= 2645
-3:sin 0.
API uses the simplified expression
D2
3000 sin 0

(13.9)

for the required area at the cone-to-shell junction where

A = rcquired area (in.2)


D = diameter of tank (ft)
0

angle between cone surface and horizontal base (degrees)

For tanks with small intemal pressures, the maximum pressure is limited to that
which does not cause the uplift of the tan} in the ernpty condition. Hence ftom
Fig. 13.3 the upward force due to pressure is equal to the downward force

resulting from weight of shell plus roof:

Pt?2=w.(q)(')
4

r. -.2r.

Flgure | 3.2

The required area at the cone roof-to-shell junction


is obtained from Eq. 13.4.
H for a deed load condition is liven Oy

In this caee,

PD
n= 4sin0
and

A=Dz

g:

Using
1.5,000 pi p = 0.315
equare inches, the rcquired area is

8c sin 0

(13.8)

psi, and expressing D in feet and.4 in


tlg0re 13.3

'*""'-

*-^ffi**Yffiiffiitnmr
13,2
or

lrtting a = 20,000 psi and I = 490lbfit3,

:
D:
t/r :
YW

{i60

this equation reduces to thc approx-

30,8004tan0

r'N=--2

^6th

(13.1 1)

pressure (in. of water)

where P = intsmal pressure (in. of water)


A = required area at roof-to-shell junction

weight of shell (lb)


diameter of tank (ft)

=
D=
4=

thickness of roof plate (in.)


49o

TANKT

Imate equation

4
P==6w+h't

where P = intemal

API 630

lbttr

The equation for maximum pressure is then

P*":W

t,,

PD ,D
.,
v=__;__\th.l)-;

angle as defined in Fig. 13.3


diameter of tank (ft)

roof thickness (in.)

Equation i3.11 may be rewritten to calculate the required junction area -A as


(13.10)

The stess level at the head+o-shell junction must also be checked. In reo Fig. 13.3, vertical force V is given by

ferring

.
A:
--

whete

=J
tan 6

1 IPD
H: ta'J9L4
-thrDf
4l
rcquired area is

(r3.r2)

30,800 tan 0

=
A=

r.6P

4.8r,

(r3. l3)

failure pressure (in. of water)


desigp pressure (in.

of water)

roof thickness (in.)

The sepond tenn in Eq, 13.13 is an adjustment factor that corrslates this equation

with experimental data.


When the roof-to-shell junction is designed so that failure because of excessive surface pressure occurs at the junction rather than the roof or shell, the
junction is called frangible. A frangible joint design equation can be derived by
substituting Eq. 13.10 into Eq. 13.13, which gives

HDlz
(f

Dzl\
=#4r-to1

^ Mo tan d
r=--jr-+thy

P1

,P

Dz(P
8t,\
--------:------'-

API 650 assumes failure to occur when the stess in the junction area reaches
32,000 psi. This is an increase of 60% over the allowable sness of 20,fi)0 psi
used in deriving Eq. 13.11. Hence failure pressure can be expressed as

4:
H

(in.'?)

ryY .

Bh,

= 1.u,

o.r u

e=ffi+tt,

It.2
Sub8titutlng thia oquatlon into Eq, 13.12 givcs

0.153 W
30,800 tan 0

(r3.14)

:
d:

At point X the hoop stress is given by

.PD
-2t

weight of shell
angle of roof with horizontal axis (degrees)

Note that failure of a frangible roof joint is only possible when


the wetding is

or

from one side.

13.2.2 Shell

TANKT ilTl

which is the circumferential oeam between courses A and B, This mcthod


considers that the bottom plate on course B stiffens the next course at point X
0nd the maximum stess occurs at a location higher than X. This location is
arbiharily set at "one foot."

where .4 : required tangible roof-to-shell area (in.2)


17

AFI 610

-_Gy(H-t)D
25

Design

API 650 includes two rnethods for the design of shells. The
first is called the
"one-foot method," which consists of calculiting Ae re4uir"O
ttrict<r,"ss of sn"l
course A in Fig. 13.4 based on the hydrostatic pressure
at I ft above point X

Defining y

gtves

62.4 pcf and adding the corrosion allowance to this expression

t:2.6p(H_-

r)G

+ cA

(13. r s)

where CA : corrosion allowance (in.)

:
G:
I1 D

=
I=

diameter of tank (ft)


specific gravity of liquid

liquid height (ft)


allowable stess (psi)
required thickness (in.)

The second method, the 'variable point method," is an extension of the


one-footmethod in that it calculates a more exact location of the maximum stress
near the junction of the bottom or shell courses with differing thickness. In this
case the bottom course is assumed to be hinged at its junction with the bottom
plate. Hence the deflection due to intemal pressure at the junction is equal to the
deflection due to an applied shearing force as shown in Fig, 13.5. From Section

{t

4:6p
V PR2

TFo= n
Fisure 13,4

..
'=

ZB3DPR'

E-

?AI'IKS

13.2

'IAT 'OTTOM

APt 650

TANKS

473

'l'osts have shown that this equation is too conservative because the maximunl
strcss can be many feet away from thejunction where the pressure is reduced and
the stiffness ofthe second course becomes signincant. Accordingly, the equatbn
lirr the desisn of the bottom course is modified to read

13.

l6)

The thickness of the second course is determined from the following equations;

t, ir +<r.37s

.2t-=t^

Fieur 13,5

.L

- ,r*--,1 ir l'375 <;;<2'62s


t,. it L-z.ezs

.2-

The hood stress at any point along the cylinder close to


the junction ls given by

Na=pR(l_Ca.)

h. -l

I
+ (t. -t^\l
'4/t 7l
-''

where

t2

=
lz =

where.c& is given by F{,. 5.23. Taking the derivalion of


this equatlon with
it to zero gives the point of maximum Nr.'This occurs

/z

respect to .r and equating

at

h,

(t3.r7)

thickness of first course (in.)


thickness

of second course (in.)

thickness of second course calculated from the equation for upper


course (in.)

ftr = height of first course (in.)


r = radius of shell (in.)

3tr
4p
and

Design of the upper courses is based on the equation

lr, = rn(r
=

"n,to

"o"3!)

1.06 PR

2.6DlH - x / 1,21G
: ___+ L]A
s-

(13.18)

where "r is the variable design point that is a function of the thicknesses of layers,

tank radius, and liquid height.


In referring to Fig. 13.6,.r is the minimum value of .r1, -r2, and "r, obtained

Hence

t=

Ne/S

from the following equations:

q = o.6r{E + 0.32 ch,

1.06 pP

s "'

or using the terminology of ApI 650

x2

xz

= l '22lrt"

Ch"

where

'=

rr.oor(a!429)

t ={.*,(*=-!
I + K\/K

--* nr-Tfflffiffiiifrir

r3.2

Apt 6t0

TANKS 47t

_ 2.42E ( (t/o)rt 1
Fs (r - *zltte \n /o - o.4s \/;lDl
or for long cylinders with E : 30 x 106 psi and p = 0.3,
P

locATtot{
OF
CF TAN(
TA

3
VARIAELE

SHELL

oEstcit Fo[{T

0.61

iflN. Hrr. OF xi
WHEl,l

fr/

+'1.o;c-o.xr

13.6

'll
I

,6+j.-l

where
UNRESTRAIT{ED
GROTITN
GROTIT'TH

towindroadsm'it*.n*d.ri:;lil:J"-Hfr::3*Tilffi

if:#,::;

V2

pressure (psf)

,yses

a__100-mph

specified. Hence

3EI

wind velocity for design purposes unless a higher value is

R3

3EI

-:
"

Fs(R)

F=

PH

where

V = wind velocity (mph)


API

Il = length between stiffeners (ft)


t : thickness of shell (in.)

as

2.0, this equation becomes

ring:

*=?

After establishing the shell thickr

where p = wind

The required section modulus of the stiffening ring necessary for resisting the
lateral pressure is obtained from the following classical buckling equation of a

Elo3fic nrovment oI rhll cour!. ot girth


ioint (Rt. 5).

p = O.00256

25.6 psf and FS

D = tank diameler (ft)

D, \--Etlh,,t1

t.-{//
t

(13.19)

MDIAL

0..'ffi
Figure

Substituting P",

'TnI

r" \u/
" ro.#,l/*)"

H =77.e2

0.3iI Gh,

'"1-:

Hence

PrlilFS)
P = 25.6 Psf

3E

Because the pressure distribution may cause a vacuum


on part of the shell, the

shell is designed to withstand a yaglum pressure of 25.6 psf.


A simplified
expression for the buckling of cylindrical s-hells is given
Uy fq. O. tZ as

FS
z= PHD2
2AE C/D

(r3.20)

1rt

!;rlll.rr{jwlillirfrs

illT tonom

?aNl(t

I3,2

APt 650

TANKT

4ll

API arsumca that tho rstio of thc outstanding leg of a stiffener to thc diameter

of the tank is not lcss than 0.015. Hence, C/D = 0.0075. Usins FS : 2.0.
P = 25.6 psf, E = 29 x 106 psi, and expressing D and If in feet,-the equation
for the required section modulus of a stiffening ring is

Z = O.Offit HD2
where z =

II :
D:
|

requirc.d section modulus

(r3.21)

of stiffening ring (in.3)

height between stiffeners (ft)


diameter of ta.nk (ft)

3.2.3 Annulor

Plqtes

The requircd thickness of the bot8om plate in an

ApI 650 tank is given in Table


13.1. At the shell-to-bottom plate junction, the ApI standard requires a buttwelded annular plate whose thickness varies between 0.25 and 0.15 in. and is
a function of the shess and thickness of the first shell course. The width of the
annular plate nust be adequate to support the column of water on top of it in cas
of a foundation settlement. By referring to Fig. 13.7,

al

*=+

lM

Using plastic analysis,


(b)

4M
tisut

L=

R
Y;

t;fr

L=

yGH

"l

Letring p = 62.4 pcf, a), = 33,000 psi, and expressing


inches, the equation becomes

._

:
/a :
1l:
G:

where tr

195

H in

fe,et and

4 in

L=

\/ GH

thickness of annular pla0e (in.)


height of liquid (ft)
specific gravity of liquid

Exarnple 13.1. The steel tank in Fig. 13.8a contains a liquid at the roof-toshell junction level. Eesign the various tank components if G = 1.1, CA =
0.0, S = 15,000 psi. Use the "one-foot" method for shell design.

Sohtian,

'
Out not less than 24 in.)

For the roof design, Eq.

n80
' 2M -'

API 650 uses a factor of safety of two for the length. The length of the annular
plate is thus expressed as
390

length of annular plate (in.)

tb

\/GH

13.7

0.40

in.

l3.l

gives

2n
Use

7116 in. for the dome roof

(r3.22)
For the shell design the required thickness for the bottom course is given by Eq.

ata

':.!1].:, ., ]''' ',]i!,!r

'ltt

torTors ?A]{t(l

r3,2

APt 6!0 ?ANK3

The required inteffiediale stiffener spacing is obtained from Eq. 13'19

lV'
ae

I/ = 6(100t)
Usins a conservative value of

0.25 in.,

I1 :6(100 x 0.25)

(.)

26.20

o:sV

v\s"/
Zroo

ft

Because this is larger than the height of the tank, no intermediate stiffeners are
needed.

The required area of the roof-to-shell junction from Eq. 13.5 is


Angl

4r4xt

,DR
" 1500
_ (80x80)

1500

4.27

n.2

Use

4 x 4 x 5/8 in.

angle with

A = 4.61 n.2

t = ll4 in.

according to Table 13.1.


Assume the annular plate is 1/4 in. thick. Then the width of the armular plate
from Eq. 13.22 is
For the bottom plate use

YGH

-:ffi

Fisur6 | 3.8

13.

390

15 as

.
'

0.29

in.

Use

r = 5/16 in. for

2JJ79

0.25

in.;

Use a 24-in. wide annular plate

The above details of construction are shown in Fig.

- txl.t)

2.6(80\Qo
15,m0

39oh

L = ------_

(b)

13.8b.

13.2. In Example 13.1, determine (a) the maximum allowable internal pressure and the maximum failure pressure, (b) the required roof-to-shell
area if a ftangible joint is required, and (c) the thickness of the shell using the
design conditions of Example 13.1 and the variable point method.

Example
the bottom course

For the top course

.- _2.6(80X10-1x1.1)

Solation

15,000

0.14

in.

Use

1/4 in. for the top course according to Table 13.1

(a) The maximum pressure that does not cause uplift of the shell is obtained

ftom Eq. 13.10:

-'. -*-ry--'fil?Yffiii irrxr

r3,2

wctght of eholl

= (a0.82)(a)(EO)(tl)(s/16
= 57,800 tb
_ 0.245 x 57,800 ^

U4)

Yrtr

indicates that tz
t2! as given by Eq. 13.17.
Equation 13.18 is based on an iterative process that is initiated by assuming a
value of f2, which can be obtained from the approximate equation

5.71 in. of water


0.21 psi

16.3 in. of water

0.59 psi

15,000

:
r.

p1

C
.r,

4.8 A
(1.6)(s.71) _ 4.s(0.437s)

7.04 in. of water

0.25 psi

xc

,=(t.*: 0.30 in.

80

For the top cowse, the quantity

0,59

0.6tV@l-iZXo5 + 0.32(0.5eX10 x

12)

0.59(10

70.80

1.22Y(40

12)

l2)(0.14)

=10

0.t53 W

Hence -r

3oSoo

l0 controls

and

- x /r2\G
tz=2.6D@ a,2.6(80X10

(c) The thickness of the bottom course is calcrilated


from Eq. 13.16

x
m

rz:

t"" d
_ 0.153 x 57,800
30,800 x 0.577
A = 0.50 in.,

0.463

:29.98

(b) The frangible joint arca given by Eq. 13.14


is

O1n

K=-=1':-;=2.14
t" u. t4

1.6

0.14 in.

From Eq.13.19,

Thus, maximum intemal pressure


0.21 psi.
The failure pressure from Eq. 13.13 is

Pr:

15,000

_2.6x9x80x1.1

as

(30,800x4.61x0.s77)

2.6H- t)' DG

t":
-'

The maximum pressure that does not cause excessive


stess ai the head-to-shell

junction is giveo by Eq. 13.11

IANKS 4tl

l0x12
v(40 x 12x0.3) -10

h1

.
r'*=--lo-+Ex0.437s

APr 630

6x20x80x1.
15,m0

ro/r2)(r.D

15,000
as

6.1a

f.

Because this value is the same as the assumed one, the analysis is complete,
and no additional iteration is needed. Hence. use

h: 5/16 in. for the bottom course


tz: l/4 n. for the top course as govemed by Table 13.1 I

-' -.---ru-*ryffiffiiuffiTtliii
I3,3

r3,3

TANKI 4ts

API 620 TANKS

API 620 tanks2 tend to be more complicated in geometry and are generally
g hiekr-ilptt^pressu'e than Apr 650 tank;. Accordingly, trr!
:llJ9:Id
rquirements of API 620 differ significantly fiom those of ApI 650
because the
mrcknss of the components is obtained from shess analysis that considers
the
biaxial shess state rather than a set of simplified formulas.
_ The shess analysis procedure in Apl 6t0 is based on Eqs. 6.10 and 6.11.
Equation 6. I I for /Vd can be determined- for any shell configuration
by using the
summation of forces obtained from a free-body diagram.-The advantage
of a
free-body diagram is that forces other than pressure cair be accountedlor
without
C:inF tryugh T inregration process. Once Nd is determined, the value of ly'e is
obtained ftom Eq. 6.l0 as

l&*&=o
R2

where

APt 620

Ne

= X of forces at a given

'l

.62,4 pct

(r3.23)

Rr
cross section.

Example 13.3 illustrates the application of

\.

13.23 ro

ApI 620 tanks.

13.3. The rower shown in Fig. 13.9 is filled with a liquid whose
specific gravity- is 1,9 rlp to point d. Above point a the tower is subjectd
to a
gas pr9sswe of 5 psi. Determine the forces in the various
components of the
tower disrcgarding the dead weight of the tower.
Example

Figur6 13.9

and

Solutian

fron 84.

13.23 with R1

Rz

t\o
^,

Roof Forces
The maximum force in the roof is obtained from

a 5-psi pressure is needed to balance the pressurJabove sectjon a_a.


Force lVu
in the roofhas a vertical component V around the perimeter of the roof. Sum_
mauon ot torces in the vertical direction eives

av -

,o,ll o

and the unbalanced force 11.

600 lb/in.

ft,

1440 lb/in.

1309 lb/in. (inwards).

40-Ft Shell
The maximum force in the shell is at section b-D as shown in Fig. 13.10r. Total
weight of liquid at section D-b is

v=!=s"ff
=

48

_PR_ 5x576
- 2-

:
Fig. 13.10a. Below section a_o,

Total pressure at

r-,

is 5

=:rr^;*:X,:,o,

(62.4/144)(35).

P = 20.17 psi

Hcnce

-=ff;;%

Sum of the forces at b-b is equal to zero. Hence,

2,744,s00

(2O.17)GiQaD' + v1ay480;

V = 600 lb/in.

..2iL$tua

' -- "

ffi **ff IYI#iiiSii'ilirr

\,4)"1'nr'

r3.3

(e)

API 620

TANKS

lV:i
+-

c(c)

_c

cb- - -

.-b

Tfr-{-tT
v

o)

b"(d)

Figuro 13.10

----d
and

iV' = 600 lb/in'


In a cylindrical shell R,

oo

and Rz

= R.

Figurc 13.10 (Continvod)

Hence Eq. 13.23 becomes

V:

Ne_pR=(n.n)(?/io)
=

zt84l lbiin.

and

-. =

wo

Conical Trawition

At section b-b force V in the zl0-ft shell rnust equal force V in the cone due to
continuity, as shown in Fig. l3.l0}.

600 lb/in.

:
In a conical shell R' =

co and

600

di6
849 lb/in.

iz = R/sin L

Hence Eq. 13.23 becomes

4T5

'""

-" --ilffi*-"""Tiiftl6ffii'iinn
13,3

&=g0=uo?o:!!)
-srn

6847 lb/in.

600

lb/in.

(inwards)

At section c-c the value of V in the 20-ft shell is the same as V in the cone duc
to continuity. Thus
N1

Figure 13.10c shows the forcs at point c. The weight of tiquid


in conical

*=4rl+R,R,+n3)

-2777 lbli'..'

At section d-d the liquid weight is given by

.^
_nx62.4 x 10..^" l0
xzo+202)

W:

-3
: 457.2100 lb -(Iy+

j,?rr,9oo + (62.4)(n)(r0)2(zs)
3,692,000 lb

and the pressure is calculated as

Total liquid weight is

= lt

,'1llol,ff^",,,',

section is

TANKS 4tt

20-Ft Shell

0.707

The horizontal force at trnint b is Ho

APt 620

2,744jffi +

Pressure at section c-c is

457

,4n =

/6) A\
P=s+l#l(70)

3,201,900 lb

5 + (62.4/ A0@S\.

p = ?A.5 psi

From Fig.

Sumrning forces at section c-c gives


('24.s)Gr|(r2o)2

l3.l0d the summation of forces about d-d is


3,692,W

3,201,900

(v)Giea\ = o

= -2777 tbtin.

0.707

-39271blin.

l/o = RPlsin
'

:
H. :

(compressive)

24'5
0= tZOx 0.707

35.3(r)(r2o)2

lb/in.

l/ = -2177 lblin'

No: PR = (35.3X120)

:4236lblin. I
Stress Criterio

The required thicknrcss of API 620 components in iension is dtermined from the
larger of the values obtained from these two exDressions:

, =N'
-sE

4158 lb/in.
3927

+ v(r)(2$):

which is the same as that at point c.

13.3.1 Allowqble

-.t11''

N6

- The negative sign indicates that the vertical component of iy', is opposite to
that assrrmed in Fig. l3.l0c and is in cornpression Ltner man
6nsion. This is
caused by the^column of liquid above the cone whose
weight is greater than the
net pressue force at section c-c.

35.3 psi

(13.24)
(inwards)

'

.rt{"

,tE

488

13.3

FIAT SOTTOM TANKS

whorc t :

rcquircd thickncss ol'componcnt (in.)

Compressive Stress with Equal Magniludc

API 620

TANKS

489

in the Meridional and Circum-

Ne

hoop force (lb/in.)

lerentinl Dbections

No

meridional force (lbs/in.)

The goveming equation is obtained from Eq. 6.35 for the buckling of a spherical

J = allowable tensile stress (psi)


E = joint efficiency similar to discussion in

shell with a factor of safety of four. Using E

in

the Axial Direction wilh

30,000,000 psi, the equation

becomes

Section 8.1

a= srz,soo(*)

The API criteria for components in compression are as follows.


Compressive Stress

No

Stress

in the Circum-

ferential Directian

which is approximated in API

as

/.\
\^/

The rules for this case are based on the axial buckling of a cylindrical shell as
given by Eq. 5.28. With E = 30,000,000 psi and a factor of safety 10, this
equation becomes

r,ooo.oool;l

(13.26)

13.2s)

This value is 1.8 times smaller than the value given by Eq. 13.25. Accordingly,
the limit ofEq. 13.26 is established as 15,000/1.8 = 8340 psi. Thus oDElc in
Fig . I 3 . I 1 is the criteria used for components having compressive stress of equal
magnitude in the meridional and circumferential directions.

To prevent the stress in Eq. 13.25 from exceeding the allowable tensile stress
of the material, an arbihary value of 15,000 psi is established as the upper limit
of the allowable compressive stress. This is shown in Fig. 13.11 as line OABC
where 4-B is a transition line between Eq. l3.ZS and the upper limit of 15,000

Compressive Stress with Unequal Magnitude in the Meridional and Circum-

,=,.,,,o'(f)

psi.

terential Directions
The criteria for this case are based on the following equations:

at

th

(larger stress) + 0.8(smaller stress)


shess determined fuom OABC tn
Fig. 13.11 using R for the larger force

<

1.0

(13.27a)

1.8(smaller stress)
shess determined from OABC in
Fig. 13.11 using R for the smaller force

< 1.0

(13.27b)

o
o

Compressive Stress in One Directinn and TensiJe Stress in the Other Direction

The criteria are based on the assumption that the capability of a component to
resist compressive force in a given direction is reduced as the tensile force in the
other direction increases. The goveming relationship is derived as follows. Let

o
t

E
Figure

l3.ll

(Coortesy of the Anericon Perrolum Inlritute.)

rrr

actual comoressive stress


allowaDle comDresslve sress
tuom OABC of fin.

--ii_------:-i--------------

t:.tt

fLAt

lotTot

TANKS

I3,3

API 620 TANKS

491

und

Rool

actual tensile

stress
,r^, - r-i-----_:-i_--allowaDle tenslle stress-

ol

l8nk

Then

M2+MN+N2=1.0

(13.28)

The interaction of this equation with Eq. 13.25 is shown


in Fis. 13.12.

13,3.2

Compression Rings

As shovn in Example 13.3 there are unbaranced horizontal forces


at the roofto-shell and cone-to+hell junctions. These forces must be carried
by a com_

p_ression ring region at that location. The region


can be in tension or compression
depending on the direction of the discontiriuity as well as the
troop torces. apt
620 as-sumes that portions of the roof, shell, and cone shown
in He. 13.13 are

ring region._ Th9 total force given Uy tt-e torro*ing

t*^.,.l_Tls assumed
:*pt":tioT
equaron
to be supported by the ring region:

Fisur

13.13

Comprssion rins rasion. (Courtosy of rhe Americon Pelroleum Inslitute.)

Q=Na,Wn+N1'"W"+HR

:
Nr. :
N0, :

where

!
3

I7r,

W"

total force at ring region (lb)

meridional force in roof or cone (lbiin.)


circumferential force in shell (lb/in.)

effective length of roof or cone as determined from Fig. 13.13

effective length of shell as determined from Fig. 13.13, (in.)

:
R:

11

(r3.2e)

(in.)

unbalanced horizontal force at junction (lb/in.)

radius of tank at junction (in.)

t:

The total required area at the junction is determined from

i
B

Flgura 13.

l" *r'o
Sioxiol stress chon for combinod retuion ond comprelsion
3O.Om p3i ro 38,OOO pst yietd srr$s

rt.oh. (Courrory of rh6 Am6ricon petrolsm tmrirute.l

:
=

is,ooo--L

when Q is compressive

when Q is tensile

(r3.30)

'.'

--*""*'ffi **TffiTffi

f irmr

whorc A

roqulrtd

Allowabie tn6ils stress (psi)

a,rpa (in,2)

E = joint efficiency
Details of various ring attachments are shown in Fig. 13.14.

Example 13.4. Deterrnine the required thicknesses of the 20_ft shell and the
conical reducer in Example 13.3. Also detemine the required stiffening ring
arca at point c. I,et S
20,000 psi, E = 1.0, and CA :0.O.

Sohttian
20-Ft Shell
From Example 13.3 the forces at point c are

: -2777 lVn'
ffd = 2940lblin.

No

and the forces at point

are

: -2177 lbln.
Nd = 4236 lblin.
Nt

z
4t

Thus forces at point d control. From Eq. 13.24,

'=

4236
2o"ooo x

lo

0.21 in.

kt

pldl! thi.tn...

Figurol3.14

Then

!,6!y

of

{|.

som

i5 nor

6v.tiir.

tf-

Y-J

. 9.
t=i6-'

f.:

P..niisibl. wh.r. rEf (ft bor+.E)

Fmi.libl.

Not P.rh'.3rbrc

qnd noip6rml$lble

d.lcik ot compr$ioo'ringFiuicturo conJ?udioi. (cour-

Amlricon Peholcum lnrtituL.)

o.oo+z

actual tensile

r*rr

ffi

7530 psi
493

.91

13.3

IIAT IOTTOM TANK!


actuel compressive sress

allowable compressive stess

8zl40psi

from Eq.

ffi

13.25

= l.g x

106 10.5625\

\-m-)=

allowable compressive stress from Eq. 13.25

0.302

4940

0.38'?

+ 0.38 x 0.59 +

0.592

=0.72 < 1.0

use

or

user=9/16in.

t = 11/16 in. for

From Example 13.3, forces at point

o.ts

+ 0.30 x 0.78 +

0.78'?

= 0.91 0K

conical hansition section

shell.

From Example 13.3 the discontinuity force at point c is


are

H = -3927 lb/in. (inwards)


w. = 0.6 (120X0.s625)
= 4.93 in.

N, = 849 lb/in.
Ne
and from

= 5710 Psi
o%u.t)6 /)

Compression Ring

Conical Transition Section

6847 tb/in.

/ rtn \ (0.6875)
|
" = O'6 {;+
\u. /u// '

Eq. 13.24

Wt'
6847
=
' 20,000
: 0.34 in.
Forces at point c are given by

:
l/a :
N,

6.48 in.

Na

2940 lb/in.

No,

= -3927 lblin'

Q:
:

-3927 lblin.
4158 lb/in.

C3927)(6.48) + 2940(4.93) + (-3927)(r2o)


-482,190 lb

From Eq. 13.30,

Lt

", _

t = 11/16 n.
Then

available

, 0.6875
R= 120 = 0.0057
actual rensile rt

"rr

ffi

=
area =

482,190
15,000

32.15

n.2

required area

(0.6875X6.48)

(0.5625X4.93)

= t.25 |It.needed area

6o5o psi

Use 2

in. x

12 in.

ti"g. I

31.25

.23

495

x
- l'8 1q10 6875 = 7290 psi

=W:
7290

0.38

M = ,Ooo = O.SS

TANKS

ru=ffi=0.:o

From Eq. 13.28,


7530
20,000

,o"r. =

actual compressive

+S+O Vsi

APr 620

24.O2 in.2

.9O

ILAT IO'TOM TANKS

I3.4

ANSI

I3.4

896.I ALUMINUM TANKS

The rules for ANSI 896.1 Tanksr follow the same general
criteria as ApI 650
rules. Differences in various requirements between
ai-uminum anJ sieet tants are
given in Table 13.1.
|

3.4.

TANKS

497

lilllowing expression, which is similar to Eq. 13.5:

Y:-,e)I
897 sin 0

, = r"oo
-

(13.34)

Design Rules

The design of dome roofs is obtained from Eq.


9.2b and is based on a factor
safety of 4.0. Hence,

of

ANSI 896.1 uses an approximate equation which, for the design


lrxrf.s, is given by

t=-

o.06258

\R/t)'
Using E

ANS 896.I AI.UMINUM

R-

(13.31)

where r = thickness of dome roof


R = radius of roof (ft)
p = dead and live loads (psf)

4o

(r3.32)

13.35)

angle between cone surface and horizontal base (degrees)

--

PRD

4o

(13.33)

where A = required area at dome roof_to_shell junction (in.z)


P = dead and live loads (psf)
roof (ft)

The required thickness of a self-supporting conical


roof is obtained flom the

(13.36)

diameter of tank (ft)


allowable tensile stress (psi)
angle between cone surface and horizontal base (degrees)

The design of aluminum shells is based on Eq. 13.15, which is based on the
"one-foot" method given by

2.6D (H

I:_----.4

diameter of shell (ft)


allowable tensile shess of roof, shell, or junction
area, whichever
is less (psi)

PD2

8o sin

where A = required area (in.')


P = dead and live loads (psf)

D=
o:

A conservative value of cos 0 is taken as 1.0. Hence,

D=
o=

1414 sin 0

The required area at the cone roof-to-shell junction is obtained from Eq .

O_DRpcos0

4 = spherical radius of dome

\/F

its

The required area at the roof-to_shell junction


is obtained from Eq. 13.4:

^_

conical

where r = required thickness of cone roof (in.)


D = diameter of tank (ft)
P = dead plus live loads (psf)

8,000,000 psi at 400T, this equation reduces to

t=
ToiYP

of

where r: shell thickness (in.)


D = tank diameter (ft)
11 = height of liquid (ft)
G = specific gavity

tt

(r3.37)

498

FLAT

/:

IOTTOM TANKS

BIETIOGRAPHY

ulkrwablc tcnsile stress ol'alurninum (psi)

e = joint efticiency
ANSI B96.1 does not contain mles for intermediate
stiffening
rings. For open
'iilio.
a stiffening ring is required, *hich
is basJ;; a.
i" *,,
is defined as the overall height of the t"*
""*,
,J-E{I.'liio;;";;".

dcsign of components. Instead it outlines the general requirements associatc(l


with design loads, earthquakes, allowable compressive stress in columns, radiographic examination, and so on. Most of the requirements in API 650 can bc
applied to AWWA tanks. Some exceptions are given in Table 13.1.

top tanks,

Il

- _ PHD,
48

(FS)

E Q/D)

(13.38)

In an elastic body,

= Ee

13.3e)

and for a stiffener in bending, the relationship


between strain and curvarure

t=

l.

Weldcd Steel Tanks

for Oil

StoraSe, 7th ed., API Standard 650, American Petroleum Institute,

Washiqton, D.C., 1980.

2.

Recommended Rules

1.

American Nation^l Standard

4.

5.

(13.40)

6,

t
2R

REFERCNCES

for Design and Construction of Large, welded, Lout-Pressure Storage


Tanks, 7th ed., API Standard 620, American Petroleum lnstitute, washington, D.C., 1982.

for welled Aluminum-Allo! Storage fdt tJ, ANSI 896.1-1981,


America[ National Standards Institute. New York. 1981.
AwwA Standotd fot Welded Steel Elev.tted Tanks, Standpipes, and Resen'oirs for water
StoraS?, AWWA Dl00-73, Afterican Water Works Association, New York, 1973.
Zick, L. P., and R. V. Mcclath, "Design of Large-Diameter Cylindrical Shells," presented
at the 33rd Midyear Meeting of the American Pekoleum Institute, 1968.
Karcher, G. G., "Stresses at the Shell-to-Bottom Junction of Elevated-Temperature Tanks" in
l98l Proceedings-Refning Department, 46th Midyear Meeting, American Petroleum Institute, May 1981.

Hence, from Eqs. 13.39 and 13.40

t
2D=f2E

BIBTIOGRAPHY
for Liquid Storase-Steel Plate Engineering Data, Vol.
Institute, Washington, D,C,, 197 6.

Steel Tanks

Substituting-this expression into Eq. 13.3g


and using a factor of safety 2.0, the
expression for the required section modulus
Z becoires

z = 0.084 PHD'

(13.4r)

where Z = required section modulus (in.3)


P : wind pressure on tank (ps|

Il = height of tank (ft)


D=

/:
I3.5

diameter of tank (ft)


allowable stress of stiffening ring (psi)

AWWA STANDARD DIOO

Most water tanks are built in accordance with


the ..American Water Works
As.sociation Standard for Welded Steel
Elevated Tankr, Si_Jpio".,'_o n"r"._
voirs for water Storage.'a The standard gt";,
;;";ons rbr the

f"* ;;";#"

l,

Americao hon and Steel

CHAPTER

14

HEAT TRANSFER EQUIPMENT

Rod bdffle h.or x.honsers. (Courr$y of ihe


Noorer corpororion, Sr. touis.)

501

HEAT TRANSFER IOUIPMENT

Heet transt'er cquipment is used in many applications such as boilers in power


plants, heat exchangers in the petrochemical industry, and condensers and evaporators in heating and refrigerating systems. Heat transferequipment varies from
miniature heat exchangers a few inches in diameter to power boilers over 100
ft long. This chapter presents the theoretical background and design equations
of heat exchangers and boilers.

14.I

raat

'1t'-ii'

----tlll!-i l,-tn
A

ONE PA3s

llr

la-I

!ii!r I
BONNET

Some TEMA Requiremenfs of Closses R, C, qnd B Exchongers

t.l2

Severe

Moderate

General

Corrosion allowance

1.15

-l

Shell diameter

3.3

8-60

Minimum thickness of

4.42

i h.

Minimum tie rod


Prefened gasket
contact surface

in.

in.

in.

6-60 in.
I in. carbon

6-60 in.
I in. carbon

stel

steel

I in.
i io.

-tL---.>

ftxED TutEska6t
IIKT 'N" STAT|oNARY I]EAO

p
OI,i'!;IDE PACKCD FLOATING
'IEAO

+J11------

s
J

----Lfn\

.---LI

$.=.!a_(n===

FLOATING HEAD

WTH

DEVICE

'ACKNG

PUTI THROIJOh fLOATING HEAO

o_||

'1-1-------------\\

,l

fu-

SPECIAL TiIGH PICSSUR CTOSUNE

Figurs

l,(.1

__'ii',

__

w --r-:++:.,:zlTT
6---r=--l
-----t=:E-+ \ lu
xrERft^trY slatED
FIOAIINC TUBTSHEEI

Vorio{rs IEMA component6. (Courtesy of the Tutulor Exchongr Monufoturoi! Alsociotion, Inc.)

in. alloys

atloys
"1

4.71

6.32

!+

None

None

?n.

s j in.

t in.

diameter

LIKt "8" STATIONARY IIIAD

IJ-IIJBf SUNOLE

Service

in.

---{11=i l-\

KETILf TYPE RE'OILEN

rn.

H(AO

fIXED TUBESHEI

TWO PrSs SHEI!


WITTI TONGITIJDINAL AAfRC

Paragaph

longitudinal baffle

ll,l

CIIANNEL II

(cafton steel)

Tuscs8fEr

LIKE 'A" STATIONARY


-lL---,?'-"-'---'JU
!i i:
-_

(NftCRAI

Their rules, which apply to thft different classes of construction depending


on the severity of service, are referred to as R, C, or B. A summarv of the
differences between these classes is given in Table 14.1.

14.l

flxlo

SHETL

-Jl

Tqble

TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

Heat exchangers in the United States are normally designed according to the
Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA)I and the
ASME Code, VI[. In general, TEMA requirements are a supplement to the
ASME requirements, for they tend to include areas not discussed in the ASME.
Most of the TEMA design e.quations relate to tubesheet design when affected by
differential pressure and temperature, expansion joints, bustles, and so on.
TEMA uses alphabetical designation to differentiate between vadous types of
frequendy used components. This is illustrated in Fig. 14.1. The components
can be interchanged to form a wide variety of heat exchanger configurations, as
shown in Fig. 14.2.

aNo

atiEu tYPl5

.'AT|oNARY I{AO TY?II

in.

tolerance

Minimum bolt size

l0.

503

AJW
Fis'lrc

I4.2

l,{.2

(conrinued)

TEMA DESIGN OF TUBESHEETS IN U-TUBE EXCHANGERS

The basic equation for the design of heat exchangers is obtained from Examples
7
and 7 .2
^s

.l

"

o=
Letting G

:'l*:

].o

typicol h6ot er(chons.r confisurorion5. (Courtr), of


rho tvbolor Exchonser /$dnurodurers

|.'APaz

T
0.7 5Pa2

-7=

for simply supported Plate


for fixed plare

2a and solving for the required thickness gives

=ttE {',

rornxedprate

5(M
50s

5OO

I4.2

HIAT TRANS;IR IOUIPMTNT

TEMA OESION OF TUBESHETTS IN U-TUBE EXCHANOTNS

507

whcrc Cr is a constent that is based-on such parameters


as ligament efficiency,
tubc.stiffening effect, and method of edge suiport. n" fiV"e
for the
required thickness of a tubesheet in bending is based
"q""tion_ g.77.
on a t^t6i

C,

Hence.

-_FG
'-7 Vst,
where

(14.1)

= required thickness of tubesheet


G = diameter
P = applied pressure
S = ASME allowable tensile stress
F = factor equal to I 25 for simply supported plate and I
.

plate.

00 for a fixed

Tle $earing stress in the tubesheet at the outer tube perimeter must
also be
checked and kept below an allowable stess. The
tota force W aue io press*e

in the tubesheet of Fig.

Fisurs l,{.3

l4.3is

W=PA

=
p=

d"

The shear area A" through the outer perimeter is obtained


from Fig. 14.3 and is

e,=
Hence the shearing shess

cr( -e)

o ls expressed

perimeter of outer tubes, as defined in Fig. 14.3


outside diameter of tube
distance between tubes

14.1. A tubesheet for U-tube exchanger has a 12-in. diameter and is


subjected to a design pressure of 100 psi. If the tube layout is as shown in Fig.
14.4 and S
17,000 psi, what is the required thickness? Assume the edge to
be simply supported.

Example

as

PA

A" Cr(l -

The allowable shearing s[ess in the ASME Code,

a=

(14.2)

d,/p)

VIII-I,

is given by

0.8S

Thus Eq. 14.2 becomes

w\erc

DL

A=

_ 0.3tDL lP\
0 - dJpt\i)

(14.3)

4Af C
area of tubesheet

within outer tube perimeter

Figuro

l,{,,(

IOI

HIAT IRAN3IIR IOUIPAATNT

Solullon,

F'ronr

Lq.

14.

I4.3

:
Er :

l,

where M7

- _ (r.2s)\r2)
2

=
I=

11

0.58 in.

From Eq. 14.3 with

modulus of elasticity of tubes

mohnt of inertia of tube


baffle spacing as shown in Fig. 14.6
rotation of tube at tubesheet junction

relating effect of baffles on tube-end bending moment

given by Fig. 14.6

and

Thus

bending moment of tube

4 = factor

A = rR2 : 98.17 in.2

509

THTORffICAI ANALYSI5 OT TUBISHEITS IN U-TUBE EXCHANGTRS

Similarly, the radial bending moment in the tubesheet is given by

f,*, = 0.58

r4.9

_ 0.31(4 x 98.17 /34.97, / too \


(1 - 0.7s/r) \17,000/
= 0.08 in.

NErlrF,a,r
,. = __:,M,
TA'l

34.97 in.

M,

ndial bending moment in tubesheet

N = number of tube holes


Ar = radius increment as shown in Fig.

in. I

THEORETTCAI
EXCHANGERS

14.5

a = radius of tubesheet
ANArySts oF TUBESHEETS tN

U_TUBE

Gardner in 1959 published a papef that explained the


interaction between the
tubes and tubesheet in U-rube ireit exchangers. Gardner
assumeJthe interaction

to be represenrd by Fig. 14.5. Hence thJ bending in

,r= -nTt

th";1;.;-

(r4.4)

DX

la.5

(Rf. 2)

3Or

More

4.OO

400

o.2

3.83

3a3

OA

3.69

3.70

o.6

359

3.60

o8

3.52

3.53

3.43

3.46

1.O

F'sur6

Fn
1

3.OO
Figure

1,t.6

(RcI. 2)

14.))

I4.3

I)clining

'= cry#)"'

becomes

dlt

d (.dw\l _ e
drlr dr| El ] - o.'

.,/d,u\
,\d,)

This equation can be solved in terms


ofBessel functions. For
plate, the solution can be expressed
as

. =uJ-{1g1_!1_

Afto@") _

(14.7)

r"(U)t}

1r

D*=
.E'*

pressure

(a

constant of integration

p=

u,:

r*fi{o

a,=

r' fir{o + p.t -

edge

(14.1l)

p+y

elsaul

+9nP4u,]}

The maximum value of M, can be obtained from


boundary conditions and U values. Hence,

Eq. 14.12 for

M'* = Pa2 F.

E*73

tube diameter

- alro14 - 5Or,<rr]}

t'0

"'

9 = rafir,<u)

modified Bessel function of zero and


first order, respectively

effective modulus of elasticity of perforated


tubesneer

r0)

A1

(r4.9)

=
Z = thickness of tubesheet
t,r = effective poisson,s ratio of perforated tubesheet
a = radius of tubesheet
r = radius of a given point on tubesheet
d

( 14.

For simply supported tubesheets, the moment at the edge is not zero because the
outer tubes have a bending moment that is transferred to the tubesheet. For this
boundary condition, the value ofAl is given by

(14.8)

u=tr
10,

for fixed edge

5l

With the value ofA; established for the two boundary conditions, the values of
M,, M,, and Q can be obtained from Eqs. 7.3a, 7.3b and 7.10 as follows:

w = deflection

A=

U.TUBI TXCHANGTRS

uniformly loaded

U.=

TUSTSHETTS IN

for simply supported


a

dw pa3 / -I\
dr= o.\zu2)LU-Alt(utl
P = applied

OI

IIU")

(14.6)

where D* is the modified flexural


rigidity of the tubesheet and ly' is the total
number of tubes. The differential erquation
of the bending ofa plate as given by

Eq. 7.7

THEORETICAT ANALYSIS

where F.

various

(14.13)

coefficient obtained from Fig. 14.7.


The maximum bending stress is given by

lt \T/
' =e!e\

(14.14)

where r; = ligament efficiency of perforated tubesheet in bending

:p -

tube pitch

For fixed tubesheets, the rohti,on


at the edge is zero and Eq. 14.9 can
be
solved forA,:

Also the maximum value of Mr in the tubes can be expressed


maxMT

i(#),",

as

(l4.ls)

,22

.20
.18

.16

74
12
.10

.oa

.ou

""1

234567

.o2 |

rigurc 1,1.8 (ReI.2)

u .t ,

Or-U 6 7 8 9

"
Fisurs

ra.;

10

Equations 14.16 and 14.17 arc combined in a plot, as shown in Fig. 14.9.

Ger. 2l

*lY . 4 =

coefficient obtained from Fig. 14.8.


The interaction between the tubeshe"t
ttii"t n"r. _O tt
oy combining Eq. 14.6 with Il"

= !a: Etvng

Example
e pressure is

14.2.

E* : 9.0 x

illustrated

N= 88
Er=30x

(:)=h
t

r-zts

Find the thickness of the tubesheet in Example 14.1

l=

106

106

psi

lt* :
Ir =

psi

n=

12 in.

T
AA

(14.16)

where

1a\

E+ Iasl
^=ftztl=il4f.Nr,lt/t
L l
Also Eq. 14.13 can be expressed

as

/l\=
\qo/

^'
6F^U2n

ff:

ar.utu

or

5t2

(14.17)

Fisurg

1,{.9

(Ref. 2)

0.3
O'0166

3.46

if

drAr la

srlR laulPMlNT

Solullon. tct ?.= 0.24 in.

I4,4

BACKGROUNO OF THE ASMT DESIGN TQUATIONS FOR IUBCSHTETS

515

Then

(9.0 x
^* _ 12(1 106X0.24)r
_ 031)

11,390

U.:(a=18.78
T=THIcKNESS Or PERFORAIED PIAIE

From Fig. 14.7,

f. = 0.008 (conservative)

,=10--9'7s=0.r,
and from

Eq. 14.14,

o_

(6)(0.008)(100)/

o=

12,000

0.2s
psi

<
(,6

\o.z+)

OK

0.6

o.s

>

o.4

o.s

UI

r4.4_-.BACKGROUND OF THE-li_t4E
DESTGN EQUATTONS FOR
IN

TUBESHEETS

U-TUBE EXCHANGERS

The

ASME Code, VII_I, uses the method


in- Section 14.3 for designing
tubesheets. The tigament efficiencv
4^obtained from
is
sum_
manzed in Figs. 14. t0 and 14. il
. Because the diamet , oiti" ouirt"
tuu.
,o*
ls normally less than the tubesheet
dlameter, an adjustment is made
to
Gardner,s
t4. t4.t3. The tubesheet is assumed ,"
r"or,
a and an outside ring of outer
radius ,. Accordingly, Fig. 14.9

o',D#Jiii.Jrk,

,
"r"riri.ii" iirilr"i"Tllj,.
must be

o.1

02

03

04 05 06

LtcaMENT EFFrcrEt{cY, ?

08

1.o

=+cq

TAIANGULAB PITCH
Figure

14.10

(Ref. 3)

modified

ft"-y,io_ot b/a. A sample of the curves


developed by the ASME
::.J.j:., on
ruSgr_o_up
Heat Exchan8ers is shown in nigs.
r+. r z anJi+ifr rlr. , .r I .os.
r,xpressing Eqs. t4.16 and 14.17
in
rerm's

,
where f = 6F^

c,=+s

",e.J

oi

r;;;;;;;;;;".

g,"".

(14.18)

Also Eqs. 14.16 and 14.17 can be expressed

as

P ,".
T2
a2 )t'rlo'" '

)t2

r, : otl(f)
110

(14.19a)

I4.4

HIAT TRANSITR IQUIPMINT

BACKOROUND OT THT ASME DISION TQUATIONS FOR TUBESHETTS

517

6.00
4.00
3.00
-0.1

\
2.OO

\
SIII'AFE

P|ICII

ROTATED

T-THICX ESS OF PERFORATED

SOI'ARE PITCH
1.00

PLATE

0.80
1.O

0.60
0.50

09

0.40

o8

0.30

o:l
2

C6

0.20

o.6

o
o 05
0.r0

OA

0.04

uI

o3

0.06

a2

0.05
0.04

o.l

0.03

oo

rtl

o.2 0:i
LGAmENT EFFrcrENcy

o4 05 05

, -

PFd'

oa

o.o2

SQTJAFE PITCH

Fisure

l4.l

(Ref. 3)

o.2 0.3 0.40.s 0.6


T/

0.8

1.0

2.O

3.0 4.0

5.0

c^

Triangular pitch

Expressing
Figvre

K'

(Coud6s), ot ihe Amsricon Sociaty of Mechonicol Engineers.)

F4. 14.19a becomes

,:

G
a

and

where

"r*:

14.12

li'
2K'

/*

of

rlZ,,

(l4. r9b)

is obtained from Figs. 14.14 and 14.15.

Example 14.3. Determine the thickness of the tubesheet of Example 14.2


using ASME's Eq. 14.l9b.

t tl

IAT TTANIIII IOUIPMINT

I4.5

t 66

THEORETICAT ANATYSIS OF FIXCD TUBESHEETS

;;

FfiF (/
I*AE / er=6o"
ile\
\7 \

519

\,

,)

2AAeA

ROIATTD SOUARI

SOUARL
P]TCH

P TCH

TRIANGUTAR
PlTCH

(.Ya
Fisur. l,l,l/a

K: bA

Fis'rra l,(.15
(Court sy of th6 Am6ricon Socity oI ntechoni.ol Enginsers.)

I4.5

THEORETICAT ANATYSIS OF FIXED TUBESHEETS

The shess analysis of fixed tubesheets in heat exchangers is very complex due
to the large number of variables that affect the analysis such as difference in tube

and shell strain, the ratio of shell and tubeshet stiffnesses, effective applied
pressure, and relative thermal expansion of shell and tubes. The development of
the simplified TEMA design equations for determining fixed tubesheet tlickness
is based parfly on the theoretical work done by Gardnel'5 and Miller.6 From Eq.
7.9 the differential equation for the bending of circular plate is given by

Tlar
Figure

l,l.l3

SOUARE PIrcH
(Court

.y ot

Soluti^oy._ From Fig. 14.4, a


q = o.25.
From Fig. 14.15,

rh Arn.ricon So<ie, of riG.honicol Engin.er3)

5.0 and

f+
From Eq.

l4.l9b with G

= 6.0.

Hence

K, = t.?

O.2A

in.

(r4.20a)

and
The next sction shows that in a fixed tubesheet the quantity q, which is the
local pressure at radius r, is not a constant. Rather it is a function oftll given by

o.sz

Q:Cz'rKlm-2w)
where g: local pressure
C2 = constant

3.0,

r = 3.0(0.s2)
=

I d [,d lt d (.a\ll g
r drl'drlr dr\ dr/l) = D

(0.25X17,000)

Kr = tube bundle stiffness =


R = bolt circle

Nt(d!;-t)Er

!20

I4.5

HIAT IRANSFIR TQUIPMENT

:
4:
L

lcngth

ol

l'he valuc ol C2 can then be deternlinctl liorn this cqualittn

tubcs

outside diameter of tube

a,:

r = thickness of tube wall

= distance tubesheet edges


}1, = deflection of tubesheet

,,?

\t4.22)

fzzi,,rfr

move with respect to each other.


Now define

Q"

where

(14.23)

FqP

local pressure at radius a.


Then from Eqs. 14.20b and 14.21,

*ffi*2,'fi-*#*,ff**oo=o

qo

Z,(x.)

where

^
-,
,a

, = (4\*
*,/ (r) = Br

=--

,,
h6) - "

x. Zz@.)
2 zi&"\

'

" zl?.)

and from Eqs.

and

I 4.20e

and 14.2Of

p* =

E*73
12(l - p*21

M"
0"

This equation can be solved in terms of


Bessel functions. For symmetnc loads,
the solution can be taken as

q=C2[27@)+HZ2@)]

ffiV,<ol -

Z1@)

+ HLzze)

z+(x)l|

I"

* = r,z&)lt - rffi]

ttt

x4

zl(x") + Hzte")

or

zl(x)

H=ZL@.)

(14.zod)

whcre the Z functions are as defined in


Chapter 7 and C and II are consranm to
be det^ermined from the boundary condidons.
Definrng P as the average pressure acdng
on the fubesheet, its total value is

*o

(l-

-::------r!'zt9a)l
- alz'G)
xa
I
L
I

(14.26')

(14.20e)

L--

rr-,r\
vzltr;l

\14.25)

(14.20c)

.
ft {1", (*)'r-,1 -,f,,<,t - (*1,*111

BD*

(r4.20b)

e=ffifzX,l+Hz!(x)l

lzz6.) +
_

(r4.24)

1-IJ'-"'

\D

",

as

"f-----"----=tt-l
- r'#ll

Equation 14.20a can be written for perforated


tubesheets subjected to pressure
4

521

THIORTTICAL ANATYSIS OT FIXTD TUSESHEETS

(14.21)

The value of 11 is based on the edge condition of the tubesheet. For fixed
tubesheet,

4:

0 and Eq. 14.26 gives

,=-t#

for fixed tubesheets

Similarly, for simply supported tubesheet M"

[zzb) + l0 ,.. = -\ffi]

ttt/x"Vt,- r\

"t

O and

(14.27)

E9. 14.25 becomes

simply supported hrhesheets

04.28\

i|IAI IiAII'IIR

IQUIPMINT

vuluc or',r,,, the H constants can be carculated


from
14.2[1. Constanr C2 c{rn then be determi""d
known, the
of the benolng moment

f1t^u.uiu"n

Eqs. 14.27

and
f.o_fi.'il.;j.",i"i? *a C, ar"
at any rocation in the tubesheet
-magnitude
is obtained from
F4. l4.2oe. The maximum uAu" oi tf,l.M.
*'*t
url g,u"n ,. ,,
---- "" ui
obtained from 84. l4.ZOe and

normally

M^
where

fi

"*p."r."a

u,

pazF^

(14.29)

is obrained from Fis. 14.16.

The maximum bending str6ss is

"

=T (1)'"

(14.30)

For large values of -r, the Z val.uls can


be approximated by those gtven in
"' "'"
Table 7.1 and rhe quantities Fo and F^."n
u"

"ili..r"J ^i

F=
7{l + t/-X.l
F^

1234567A9

for fixed tubesheets

t/i

(14.3

t)

I"rom

and

;O 2\/-2x)
-,-n/4
F''' 2x"
F

Example

14.4.

for simply supported tubesheets

I4.6

-a

Solution

"-\o-)
xa:

x 52.800\o,s
-\/2 ro3"oro-/

9(6) = 6.037

0.25. From Eq. 14.30,

,+P(ort)ro
20,390 psi

o'nr

TEMA FIXED TUBESHEET DESIGN

Development of the TEMA simplified equations are based on Eq. 14.23 and can
generdly$e<fi.r'idedinto.thraseparateieps-..The first is determining an equivalent local pressure on any given tube. The second step is establishing an
equivalent general pressure on an equivalent tubesheet. The third is incorporating the first two steps into the differential equation of the tubesheet that is
considered as a plate on elastic foundation. These three steps discussed in the
next three sections are based on th work of Gardner. ? The notations used are the
same as those given by TEMA.I

D.=q;#H#=103,020
= (^\r'_

(14.32)

Determine the stoess at the edge of a fixed

Fig. 14.16, F. = 0.059 and T

":

tubesheet of thick_
? = 0.50 in. if the eeometry L u, ,to*n?
n!:'il;;?:
= 52,800
lb/in.3. E* = 9 x 106 psr, p*
p = icrii-pri.
=-0..1.
ness

Fieur 14.16

IX"
=-:

=I'0062

I4.6.1. locol

Equivoleni Pressure

One of the main assumptions made by TEMA in the analysis of tubesheets is that
the tubes are uniformly distributed tbroughout the tubesheet. Referring to Fig.

524

HIAT TNANS;ER IOUIPI,ITNT

14.6

14.17, it is seen that the total tbrce 4 in one tube due to


a tubeside pressure
acting on the face of the tubesheet iS dxpressed as

o=

where

r,:r-Z\tt /d. - ztY/


"
:

li

rl# - r(d' i "D'z1 = r#1, - i(+n


n = nAf'

A = ra2/N
a : inside radius of

TTMA FIXED TUBESHITT DESION

number of tubes

4:
t=

tubeside pressure
thickness of tube

Similarly, the total force 4 in one tube due to shellside pressure

(14.33)

P, is expressed

o:*l#-ry1=*+l'-i(*il

tubesheet

4 = outside diameter of tubes


4=

4:

force in tube due to pressure ,q acdng on face of tubesheet

where

[ = force in tube due to pressure P, acting on face of tubesheet


4:

'ti_il ||ttttPs
li
wrl

shellside pressure

Besides forces 4 and 4 a third force F" also acts on the tubes of Fig. 14.3 that
is caused by such factors as thermal stresses, restraint due to other tubesheet, or
other unbalanced forces in the heat exchanger. This force is expressed as

F*= nt(d. where F-

t)on

r4.3s)

tube force

or = longitudinal
Actual Contiguration

(14.34)

nAf,

stress

in tubes

The total summation of Eqs. 14.33,14-34, and 14.35 is equal to an assumed


equivalent force q acting on an equivalent tubesheet of radius r. Hence,

4na2

E- n+

F*

(14.36\

or

s=@f,-u)+\u,-ttot,
The axial stress dr in F4. 14 -37 can be written
Equlvalent Confl gurafl on
Fieuf.e 11.17

,,=!,6,-

(t4.37)

as

u,,",)

14.38)

iIiIO

HIAT TRANSIIR IOUIPMINT

whcrc Ii,

I4.6

[x)dulus ol.clasticity ol.tubcs


longitudinal strain of tubes

i =
pr : poisson's ratio of

wlrcrc

tubes

= clrcumferential stress of tube


a1, = longitudinal stress of
tube

oc,

The circumferential shess due


to

and

:
w:
c, :
L

length of tube
deflection of tubesheet
coefficient of thermal expansion of tube

AI, =
0r

can be expressed by

"1tunt"

in tube length

temperature change in tube

suhstituting Eq. 14.40 into 14.39 gives

"'=(#),'(*)-

q: @t- P,n ++(d.-

Thus Eq. 14.38 becomes

oh: E,eh.

* * Eq.
T"^I1r",9t
tube at a distance r

"[(#),

- (*)-]

14.39 can be.obtained

from the centerline

a,=a-!t-L-o,r,

(r4.39)

Fig. 14.18. The strain of

.r ,r,. lrom
r,."i i_ir,_g".

TEMA FIXTD TUBESHTET DCSIGN

i,j*L*"o

",

rl"(Y-

",4]

(r4.41)

"l(ry)'-(*)-l

lluation 14.41 has three unknown quantities: q, w, and LL..

14.6.2 Generol Equivolent

Pressure

'l he total longitudinal force

W1 in the bonnet due to tubeside pressure


in Fig. 14.19 and is expressed as

(14.40)
Wn

where

W1

: ta'P,

is shown

(14.42)

longitudinal force in bonnet.

If the tubesheet is assumed as an equivalent solid plate subjected to a general


cquivalent pressure P, then the total load on the tubesheet is
Wp

where P =
Wo =
Because W|,

= ra'P

(r4.43)

general equivalent pressure

total load on tubesheet due to pressure P

is not necessarily equal to w', the unbalanced force transmitted

through the shell is

W:

1ra'(n

- P)

(14.44)

where ll{ =

unbalanced force on tubesheet.


The longitudinal shess in the shell can be expressed

Figur6 14.18

w
nt!(Do -

as

(14.4s)
ts)

.,.,6r$g.t,.rr:t,r^tr1rtii4t;ti.

14.6 ilMA flxlD


Flnally, the value of

,r can be

written

as

+ = ^!
whcre

d"

luBllllllr DttloN lt9

",e,

(4,47)

coefficient of thermal expansion in shell

AZ, = change in shell lengtrh


4 = temPerature change in shell
And the value of 4", is

*,=o#*

(14.48)

Substituting Eqs. 14.44, 14.46, 14.47 , and 14.48 into Eq. 14.45 gives

ot=*o.m-ee;ln

(14.49)

Equation 14.49 has two unknowns, Atr" and P. It is also based on Eq' 14.47
which does not take into consideration the strain due to an expansion joint.

FigurE

where D,

outside diameter

When the dhell has an expansion joint, E4. 14.47 must be modified accordingly. In Fig. 14.20a the expansionjoint can be approximated as shown. The flat
plite aD in Fig. 14.?-Ob is assumed fixed at points a and b' The total deflection
of the shell is given by

l,t.l9

of shell

LL"=

= thickness of shell
ob = longitudinal stress in shell

1"

+ La"Q

(14.s0)

r"

where 6 = deflection of

where d,
e6

6=t"+6,
1",o*'1

modulus of elasticity of shell

= longitudinal

sfrain of.shell

ratio of shell
" = Iroisson's
:
o" circumferential sness of shell

6 can be expressed in terms of two components

as

and the longitudinal snain is given by

,*=!6r-

expansion joint.

The expansion joint deflection

(r4.46)

where 6.
6p

deflection due to mechanical load

deflection due to pressure load

(14.51)

Furthermore, the deflection due to mechanical load 6, can be written as

tr

a":

{rw

w,"l

(14.52)

,.n.rnier'_lrti,iirllilrw,

14,6 TIMA

ftXNO TUBrSl{ilT

DllION

tOl

Fisur. 14.21

s
- lMol"
2 EIr
EjIi
2n=Lyra-!(w+w+wet)t3
8 EIi 3

(r4.54)

Similarly, the slope is

+w)lz +MoI
e
-L(w+w"
"' :!w,il2
Ey'i
EiIi
6 EiL 2
where D;
Figur.

where

51

l7r,

:
=

load on shell from expansion joint


1rt,(D"
t,)P"

Substituting Eqs. 14.45, 14.46,14.51, and 14.52 flta 14.50 gives

L!"=
w
-

t/ + ^\ + wF) (r4.s3)
-t&- 4,4 +E(r
L E"r,t,@;4--il*
X)W

gy,iq g/6" can be derived from Fig. r4.2r by


9: to
*..Tf:ilTl5^l1l:.f
assumrng me expansionjoint
be subjested to the forces shown.

obtained from

stucturii analvsis as

Wpj

outside diametr of expansion joint as defined in Fig. 14.19

Ei = modulus of elasticity of expansion joint


/i = mornent of inertia of expansion joint
= 4,24(Dt + D)tj
I - lengtlt of expansion joint

,1.2O

spring constant of expansion joint

oue Io priessurc torce Woy end forceW"

=
l7e; =
4

number of convolutions in expansion joint


thickness of bxpansion

joint

pressure force in expansion

=4tp?4'Letting 0

joint

o?tp.

0 and substituting Eq. 14.54 into 14.55 gives

Thi deflection

Wo",

and end moment M0 can be

(14.55)

u=ffi,w+w^rfr+#@l

]lt

Conpulng thlr oquatlon wlth thc last tom of


Eq. 14.53 shows that

('.*) =r+---at-

Equation 14.54 has two unknowns,l, and P. It is also idontical to Eq' 14.49
lor hcat exchangers without expansion joints, that is, for Si '-+ o.
(14.56)

Between Locol ond Equivolent Pregsure

14.6.3 Relstionship
and

ISj

^' =

,);

.t:ii:tflTri HL

r4'4'

TEMA design equation for fixed tubesheets is based on F4s. 14.23,14.41,


r : 4 it is assumed that the quantity 2w in Eq. 14.41 is negligible.
Substituting Eq. 14.23 into Eq. 14.41 and equating the latter with Eq. 14.49
. tlsult,in the following expression:
Tho

2nl3
r2Ey'i

rnd 14.49. At

P=Pr'-P!+Pa
968,L
2n(D1
D")3

14'48' 14

"
-

sc

(r4.57)

and the expressions ror

w* afr

woi

+=ffi_w*,,,"
*

P) +
$1",<n -

rt"(Do

,sa +

[<o?

- Dhp"]

Ir+"@"-t"t*t"1

LZ4J

'-

_(:)(j#)1,.,ffi])

(14.58)

t,\

L-'- "l1 *
frc

/t

\p

<4

oztn 1r

8"t-\t - 1) - #r(D" - 2t)(D. - ,JP,]

*|.i-t/r-**a

(o--rt'fu!__g!f\
a\ u )\-r+.nq /

un,r,
1p"-

Fe:0.2s+ tr

The values P,',

+/)l
xrolr + 0.,UK(l.s

.. E,t,(D" - t)
n=Effi@"
1s

a2

E"tn(D.

:T*n{o.*lrsp*
-t
I + r(r.5 +/r]

Hence,

LL'
.-:_
=

Pi =

":

This equation can be simplifed by letting

I
J

(14.60)

(r4.se)

- o.ol1e%&(ql]'A

modulus of elasticity of tubesheet material

P:, P:, Pi

can be simplified by letting

d"-t
d-2t

D"-t"-tu:G

.r
-

d.-t
.......:d,

- l

D"'2t"-2a=G
t,(D. - t)
h
(D.-2 z (D"-3t",

.,--_-_.*@"*,1r7@qrr'!l[t|ttEr|Eu|'mnr1*

,,,r..sr.tRtitrrttll]]]{{44e1

14.6

TIMA

llxlD TUllSHllT

DllloN ctt

Honco,

=ffi;n

"'

+ o.dr(r.s

=t*4{o'*Irr's

+nl

+Dr

+ K(1'5

,,-(#+)(w\

(+)('"5)t

the stress in the tubesheet of the heat


exchanger

3:Httf

"ti..L.iftrlate
E : n x ld psi for tubesheet material
and shell
d" = 0.5 x 10-6 in./in."F
Iength of tubes = 144 in.

thickness of tubes

.=

rrzo-*boruees
on'lt"tnntout-lR pttct-t.

0.065 fu.

(assurne a simply supported


plare)
!,ZS

tubeside plessule = 75 psi


concruTent shellside pressure

E, = 30 x 106 psi
d, = 6.5 x 10-6 in./in.gF

(b)

tigor'11.22

15 osi

From Se.tion 14.6.3

operating temperature of shell


= l87T
operating tempexature of tubes
=
ambient temperature
70.F

Solution.

From Eq. 14.57

tt =

f;1n

a _ O6)Q7

"i

K:

ll9?

of

+ 36xo.2sf = o.l6e8

106X0.1698)

-@Xlxl?l)47=6t--

Q7 x rO\(O.2s)(36
(27 x 101(0.06s)(0.75

- 0.25)
- 0.06s)

Fq

o 2s

Fq

+ (, 2s _,

.,|#_qa#ft#%

'8752

and from Section 14.6.1

in.a

165,300 lb/in.

j =, * s(ry?E#H:1]q

32 85

t:t-i(*, 1
rr2o I 0.75

=l- +\
,l
: 0.9146

OI

J=

= 2N.73

0.0304

0.8750

2 x 0.065
35.5

(#;l]'"

!36

HIAT TRANSfTN IQUIPMfNT


NOMENCTATURE

llcncc,

/r'\

(0.0304X200. 73)(1.87

s'

7-)

x [1 + 0.4(0.0304)(200.73)(l.s + 0.9146'
/f,

=_

FLANOED 1I FLUED EXPANSION JOIN'I

16 RO?7r

12.4428.-

""'

'

n.lnn

ilil||tl
___-/uuu\F._______

41.55
15

{o.oro.orooltr.

l-.-------1

EELLOWS EXPANSION JOINT

200.73(1.5+ 0.s75)l

Fisur 1,t.23

9.0304)/ot,; ll r,).I
/\ 3s.52 lJ

l5

= nTarr<s.trst
=

s'

(0.0304x200.73)(1.s7

_ rr.0
\

I4.7

EXPANSION JOINTS

'fhe two most common types of expansion joints are the flanged-and-flued and
the bellows, shown in Fig. 14.23. The flanged-and-flued expansion joints are

0.36s0)

used where the deflection between the tubes and the shell is not very large. The
most frequently used method of analysis is that of Kopp and Sayre.E It treats the

6.57

x [9.5 x

10 6(187

70)

(6.5

10-6)(119

joint as an equivalent rectangular structural frame with some modifications to


account for the inside and outside radii. Many experimental investigations have
been performed to verify Kopp and Sayre's method. The results have shown that
tbr most applications this method is satisfactory.
Bellows are used for large deformations of the shell. The analysis based on
a NASA researche is similar to that of Kopp and Sayre in that the bellows are
treated as a structural frame with hoop stresses resisted by rings or equivalent
plate-and-shell segments of the bellows. A frequently used standard in the
united states is that of EJMA.I0

70)

12.4428

Itll\:r-=

1.48

From Eq. 14.58

P=41.55-6.57+1.48
=

36.46

NOMENCTATURE

From Eq. 14.I

F2G2 P

47"

(1.2r2Q5.r2

36.46

8686

psi

OK

a = radius of tubesheet
b = G/2
D. : outside diameier of tube
F : modulus of elasticity of shell
E,r : modulus of elasticity of tube
G

diameter of tubesheet

530
/I, i:

HIAI

TRANSTTR IQUIP/IITNI

BIBLIOGRAPHY 539

poisroo's r.ittio ol tubcshcct ntatcrial

(r. Milfcr, K. A. G., "fhc

/r* : poisson's ratio of perforated plate


o = allowable bending stress

M, = radial bending moment in a tubesheet


Mr = tangentizl bending moment in a tubesheet

N : number of tubes
P = pressure
4
p
g
J
Z
t
t"
t,

Pla(cs in Hc.rl Exchrngcrs," in

l'r(!$ut? V(tii,l Ml

Mcmo from G- P. Byme, Jr., Secretary ofthe Tubular Exchanger Manufacturcrs Associatk)n
to Members of the Technical Commiftee, dated January 3, 1964 regarding Standards Background Data prepared by Karl Gardner.

8.

Kopp, S. and M. F. Sayre, "Expansion Joints fo. Heat Exchangers," Contributed by the Heat
Transfer Division and presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engitreers, New York, November 27th, 1950.

't.

Analysis of Stresses in Bellorrs, Design Criteria and Test Resubs, Part l, Atomics International Repon NAA-SR-4527.
Standads of the Exponsion Joint Manufacturers Association,4th ed., Expansion Joint
Manufacturers Association, New York, l9?5.

10,

shell side pressure

= tubeside pressure
= rube pitch

of l'ubc

7,

K' = b/a

P, =

Dcsign

P4ing Design Colletted Pape^ 1927 1959, Amcrican Socicty ol Mcchanical lirgirrccrs,
1960, p. 6'72.

BIBTIOGRAPHY
L., "What's lhe Difference Between TEMA Exchatrger Cl^sses,"? Hydroca/bon Prcce$in8, June 1980.
Rubin, F. L. and N. R. Gainsboro, "Latest TEMA Standards for Shell-and-Tube Exchangers,"
Chemical Engineering, September 24, 1979.
Rubin, F.

local pressure

= ASME allowable tensile stess


= thickness of tubesheet
= thickness
= thickness of shell
= thickness of tube
a" = coefficient of thermal expansion of shell
a, = coefficient of thermal expansion of tubes

Yokell, S., "Heat-Exchanger Tube-to-Tubesheet Connections," Cr"nical Engineering, Feh aty

8,

n =(p-d)/d.
REFERENCES
Standads of Tubular Erchonper Manufecturers
Association,6th ed., Tubular Exchanger
Manufacuers Associarion.
york,

Niw

Gardner,

K. A., "Hear-Exchanser

1978.

Tube-shet Dsign_3. U_Tube and Bayonet_Tube


Sheers,..

Jourrnl ol Applied Meclranics, American Soc",y


O'Donrell, W. J., and T. Slot, ..Effective Elastic

lf ,r4""_-Lat"*'i1r".",

,'S#:

Constants fo. Thiciperforatea plates wrttr

Squares and Triangular penet ation panerns,..


A S!4!
;I
Noverbber 197t. American Society of Mechanical
Ensineers.
..Heat
A.,
Exchanger Tube_Sheer Design.,. Journal of
Apptied Mechanics,
Amencar Society of Mechanical Engineers, Decembei
tgag
Gatdner. K. A.. "Heat Exchanser Tube-Sheet
Design_2 Fixed Ttbe Sheets,,, Jounat
of
Applied Mechanics, American s;iety of Mechani.je
nginee..,

J*r;i

9**,

;;;;;;;Ir'#"r'l*^o",

i;;; trr."' "-

1982.

CHAPTER

t5

VESSELS FOR HIGH


PRESSURES
I5.I

BASIC EQUATIONS

This chapter presents some design aspects of solid and layered vessels with
pressures in the range of 10,000 to 100,000 psi and higher. In these high
pressures prestressing, or autofrettaging, becomes an important consideration in
the design.
It was shown in Eq. 8.1 that

t=. sE

PR.

,,,

0.6P

is the design equation for vessel shells. As the quantity (,SE


0.6P) approaches
zero, the thickness approaches infinity. In other words, as the pressure increases,
the allowable stress of the shell material must be increased higher than 607o of
the design pressure for the equation to be valid. This increase in allowable stress
requires materials of high tensile and yield properties. The limitations ofEq. 8.1
for high pressures are usually overcome by using a different equation that is
based on the theory of plasticity as discussed later in this chapter.
Equation 8. 1 is shown in Fig. 5.6 as being very similar to Lame's Eq. 5.9 for
thick vessels. Disregarding extemal pressures, Eqs. 5.9 and 5.10 become
A thick-woll loyercd

vssst (Courres),

of rhe Nooter corpororion, Sr. touis.)

/
,2\
o,=P'lt-41
r-l

(1s.1)

540

ot = P'

541

512

vt33!13 foR HtoH PRtssulEs

r5.2

whcrc

whcre
/,?\

P' = Pl ,!! "l


\r; - rfl

t
;p;Iil f;;;i"
.lt"Jil;i

(sz

o),

strain energy

t,

poisson's ratio

or, cz, 03

(o3

- c1)21

principal shess

bar stressed to the elastic limit in simple tension,


cncrgy of distortion expression becomes
F-or a

02:

a3

0 and the

0 I u\ol
w:--6lror a pressure vessel with the tbree principal stresses given by
cnergy of distortion expression is

i*

oz)2

Ot WAU"S

E = modulus of elasticity

The shess distribution given by Eq. l5.l is


.
shown in Fig. 15. 1 for a vessel
with rJ 11 = 2.2. The max-imum stress is in the
hoop direction and is at the inner
surface where r = ri. As the pressure is increased,
the stesses increase until
they reach a maximum limiting stress where
rainre is assumJ ti oc-cur. r,o. trrin
vessels the ASME Code assrirnes that failure
occurs *f,"oG-ii"ra poin, l,
reached. This failure criterion is conveni*t
*a
tir"'rni*iriut pnocipat
sfess tleory. In thick vessels the crirerion usually""lf"i
mareriats
is the energy of dislortion theory. This trr""q,
tl,;lrrii.o"
-combination
in a body under any
""uor,the
of sfesses begins only when
",
TI,I)oi",
*oCy .I
per unit volume absorbed at trrefiiit
is Squar to tfre
Sstorrion
^s:11 energy of distortion
stain
absorbed per unit volume at any poi* in u
.,r"rr"O
to the elastic limit under a state of.umaxral
stress as occurs in a simple tnsion
"'*
""",
test. The equation that expresses this theory
i, giu"n iV--

* = \!t<r, -

PRESTRESSTNG

-o

Eq. 15.1, the

+ De),

(#
/t + p\",f ,'; .f1tY
=
\l \r;- ri/ \r/

(1s.2)

Itecause Ws,
l4lr, the maximum pressure at which yield is assumed to occur at
the inner surface is given by

'.:($(T)Gl

(15.3)

It is interesting to nole that when the axial strain is assumed to be zero, the
axial stress becomes
o1

p,(21t)

and the maximum pressure given by Eq. 15.3 becomes

or

\/3

rl - r?f ri , \r - 21t'fl-t/z
- 3 I
--l-Ll

(1s.4)

In most applications the difference between Eqs. 15.3 and 15.4 is negligible.

I5.2
.L
Figu.e 15.t

PR,ESTRESSING OF SOLID WALL VESSELS

As the pressure in Eq. 15.3 is exceeded, the inner part of the shell becomes
plastic, whereas the outer part remains elastic, as illustrated in Fig. 15.2. The
derivation of the relationship between dle elastic and plastic regions is beyond

,4

vtt!!t! fot

.,"

o'r"sr'c

HtoH PnlssuRrs

15.2

WAU.S

545

hoop, radial, and longitudinal stress, respectively (psi)

wlrrrc or, o,, a1 =


or, =
r, =
ri :
r=
p=

Rrc,o, 't'

PRESTRTSSTNG OF

yield stress of material (psi)


outside radius of shell (in.)
inside radius of shell (in.)
radius at any point in the shell (in.)

elastic-plastic interface radius (in.)

lklrution 15.7 may be used to determine the lower bound pressure P* at which
ytrl(ling occurs by letting p : 4. Hence
Fisurc 15.2

the s9ory of this book. However, it


suffices to say that the derivation is
on plastic analysis of an incompressible
"*i"i'.nn..based
."r"c-i
*irl,
*."
rr,"
resultant equations are as follows:

Elastic region:

l'his equation gives results very close to those given by Eq. 15.4. Equation 15.7

-2o"

\r5

Itlxnmple
(15.5)

(15.8)

lnn also be used to determine the upper bound pressure P+ at which total
yicfding occurs by letting p = ro. Hence

(+)H ('.!)

@)6 (t -'4\

-1)

".=#(

15.1. A

l?.6 in., and o,, :

lnr

(15.9)

pressure vessel with a solid wall has an 4 of 8 in.,


80,000 psi. Plot o6 and o, when P = P* and when

r, of
P=

({).000 psi.

@e)

Solution. From Eo.

Plastic region:

15.3.

/17.6, .e+ _ 80,000


V5\ 3' )(-''J
8'z

(#X'*1*znt)
(#J(-' * 4.* znt)

=
(15.6)

rrnd

from Eq. 15.1,

o,

@(5"*z'n!)
*:trfl':H[X

?iween

#('

'l'hese two values are shown in

zr,L\
p/

(r5.7)

!g\

= ss+o(r. ,,-/
\

o,=rsno(r

the applied pressure and the elasric-plastic


interrace

-4
f;

36,650 psi

Fig. 15.3.

-ry)
:

80,000 psi, a trial-and-error


From Eq. 15.7 with P = 60,ffi0 psi and o,
t5
5
11.50 in. Hence from Eq.
calculation gives p

t46

Ytlstt3 foR

HtoH PRISSUnES

I5,3

I.AYERED VESSEIS

547

Figlro'15.4

Solution.

The maximum autofrettaging pressure of 60 ksi is less than fwice the


lower bound pressure P*. Accordingly, the stress distribution resulting from a
pressure drop of 60 ksi is in the elastic fange, as shown in Fig. 15.4. FromEq.

RaDrus

t5.1.

lNcH

Fisurc 15.3

"'= -t,*t(rrr, -

qe=rs.72o(t*!g)
r'/
\
o,=rs,72o(t-!g)

P' = -

46,Do(1.427

+ 2rn;3)

/-

o; = +e,loo(-o sz: + z rn

oe: rr.tzo(r.ry)

;)

A plot of

these equations is shown in Fig. 15.3.


i" Fig . I 5 . 3 are significait because they show the
redistriburion
^. ,1.^.y:-p_t"g
or
the stress pattem as the inner region of
the cylinder beco_"a ptu"ti". ato not"
the reduction of rhe stress at ttre inner

surfactrrrd;;il;;;,i'?iL" ,o"r,

the elastic-plastic boundary as the pressure

i, ln"."u."Ji"yoro

ri. f

Example 15.2. plot the circumferential


residual stress a, when the
frettaging-pressure

j: !f-pl:

rs

r.

i, ."o""ic iJr"r,

oeslgn pressure of 45,000 psi is applied.

.ry)

The stress distribution given by this equation is superimposed with that in Fig.
15.3 for a6 at P = 60 ksi. The resultant residual stress is shown in Fig. 15.5.
The internal pressure of 45,000 psi gives a stress of

and from Eq. 15.6

a,=

15,625 psi

oa= -rs,ezs(r

r"/

s.---g-)

;i;

u,

auto_

irlT o, *r,"n u

and the total stress distribution due to this and residual stress is eiven in Fie.
15.5.

I5.3

TAYERED VESSETS

Layered vessels were developed in the United States and Germany at about the
same time during World War II. In Germany they were used in ammonia plants
as well as for producing gasoline from coal. In the United States they were used
for ammonia-synthesis processes for the ultimate production of nitrates. Since

vlssg.s Fon HtoH

PRESSURTS

I5.3
od

LAYERID VESSTTS

ar P=45Ksl

c(

o
o

i,:)SBRINK

(d) ColL

WRAP

Figure 15.6

The earliest reference to layered vessels was made in the 1951 API-ASME
bde. In later years when the API Standard and the ASME Code were separated,
llre layered-vessel criterion was deleted from both. It was not until Jan'tary 1979
that layered vessels were included in the ASME Code. In establishing the new
llyered-vessel rules, consideration was given to the state of the art as well as the
and research accumulated by the industry in the past 50 years. An
"iperience
c l ibrt was also made to provide rules to accommodate all types of known

'?iiLi;i*
Wodd War II the technology of building layered
vessels has improved substantialty..Today layered vesseJi are used ii'",i,ia"i"re"
;i[nfT"."ru."
tions in the penochemical industry
"pp,,""as heat exchangers,

urea
- reactors,
ammonia convenrs, autoclaves. and-such
coal gasificati;;
Layered vessels consist of a multitude of layers
wrapped tightly around an
inner shell to form a pressure-retarnlng envelope,
as shown in Fig. 15.6. The
vent hole system is a safety feature incorporateainio
ttre iay"iJu"."sel
o"_
hon. It consists of a mulritude of small holes
"on.t _a
drilled radiity lntoit fuy".,
extending from the ouiermost layer to and including
"
tfr. i'uy", uj1'u""nt
to tfr"
inner shell. The holes are sized and spaced so
that they do not affect the
structural integrity of the vessel. The venting
,yrt"- uJt, u. u'rnonitor

,#il.

of
potential problems such as erosion and
at -ay oc"urln ti" inner rt
during the operation of the vesset.
"orrosioritt
"tt
Layered vessels are constructed by various
methods. The difference between
these methods is in the thickness of inoiuiaua
Uyeri *.ap-piig

In^ general, layered-vesset


I:l1ilg-r."ryiqy
three categories. The first is

Fr-r

!.-o""ou.",

"nA
construction can be divided inro

the colcentric_ or spiral_wrapped method where


the

l:ryered-vessel construction.
Today most layered vessels are constructed in accordance with the ASME
('ode, VI[-1, Division 2. The majority of the design equations given in the code
lor solid wall vessels are applicable to layered vessels. For fabrication, the
ASME Code, VI[-1, Division 2, gives additional rules for layered-vessel construction. One criterion for controlling wrapping tightness of layered shells is
rhat the area of any gap between two adjacent layers, as measured from the end
of a shell section, must not exceed the thickness of a layer expressed in square
inches. This is illustrated in Fig. 15.7.
Another criterion used occasionally to measure the tightness of layered shells

is limiting the circumferential expansion of the outer layer during hydrostatic


testing to a value not less than one-half that ofan equivalent solid wall thickness'
tlencJ the stress at the outer layer due to internal pressure P as given by Eqs.
5.9 and 5.10 is

layers.consist of segments welded together


in spiral
fashion to
ftickness, as shown in Fig. 15.6a andb. The second
method
is

co

and shrunk on each other to

C,=0

ItTtheft::"guld
shrink

;;;;;;

fit method wherebv layers ."'inOiuiOuutty for_"Jiito


form thl reguired total ,r,t'L"*'ii]g.'is.orl.
"yfmO"r,
rr,"
to. ft: coil-wrapped method whereby
a
.rrti"u""r-J""t
i.
ip
it
i,
ItlO
*ounO
rn a spiral or helical fashion to form a cylinder
as in Fig. 15.4:'

2Prl

= --;--"-r;- ri
Pr?

' r;-

ri

wtt|tt tot

HtoH PR!33UR!3

15.3

t/aYIRED

VISSILS

55t

'l'hc uctusl measurcd growth must not be less than one-half the value given by
r5.10.
A third criterion for determining the maximum permissible gap in layered
rhclls is by relating the gap height to a given shess level. Referring to Fig. 15.8
End Eq. 5.12 and assuming the end to be fixed against rotation, it can be shown
lhd the gap /, can be related to the bending moment by the expressron

l!.

Mo

,F;
a=f

GAp AREA
AREA OF GAP

<

r,.n

!l

TH ICKNESS

bstituting

ex pnesseo rN nl

cb

Figurc 15.7

and from Eq. 2.1,

6Mo

= -- .)-

B=

*: |b, e,' =

p(o, + o)l

,:d+
into Eq. 15.1l gives

9.--DP'J
E(rz.

r?)

- O.55ro,
h=
E

The circumferential growth can


be expressed as

,
_ ,*,
=,#ii
-Ee=A-

Lt

(15. 11)

n-tr', defined as the

mean radius. Then

11

=P--!
-2

,.=n"+|
and the circumferential growth
is given by

t.71rp(Z?.^

t)2(?R^
SERnt

t)

(b)

(15.10)
Figur6 15.8

(1s.12)

5!2

V!!t!ts toR t{toH

PRESSURIS
r

Equati0n 15.12 cannot be used directly becau-se


the quantity o, is not readily
known. This. quantity, however, can be related
to un uiio*udr"-Jt
uy
lating the principal stresses at a layer as
".. "ut"u.

oo: S + pab
a,= -P

llv('I

wlrcrc

'

stresses

= hoop stress
;r, = poisson's ratio
o6 = bending stress due to gap l,
p = intemal pressure

3.0 for carbon steel

2.0 for low-alloy steel

:
n:

,S

S.

o; is limited by

(15.13)

0.3 for austenitic stainless steels

allowable stress:

the ASME Code, VIL[, Section

",o+f,+"=#r.
or assuming S

(1s.14)

analysis. In this case

apiti i"r

"

= S.

of the
s.pilfr!a""ir"'rr,"_pr"rri"

for o6

(1s. r 7)

15. 18)

15.19)

liquation 15.18 becomes

o6=NS.-+-P
and

Eq. 15.12 can be written

'

(15.15)

as

o= o'ss/s"
E fN
L

z^\-

stress as defined in the ASME Code,

15. 15

and

t": *Z

where & = alternating

15. r 6)

.'u:T"KS^

cycles.
. _Ircases where aa is greater than 35, Lut less than 3rn,S,, the rules
ASME
para-sraoh q_rce .q,"

li(luations 15.13 and 15.15 can be expressed as

where K = 3 for indefinite number of

V I,

553

0.2 for carbon and low-alloy steels

,[!-!t"
K: -!t'Va-5s.

oo+]+p<KS^

Code,

')

lrluation 15.16 can be expressed in terms of S" by substituting Eq.


uxl letting m = 3.0 and n = 0.2, which yields

ah=ob+r+p
2, to 3S,. Or in general terms

VESSfl.S

1.7 for austenitic stainless steel

The maximum stress intensity is given by

The maximum stress inrensiry

TAYTRED

by

1-n / o,.
K= I + --:--- l:i-,?(m - l) \JJ6

ot=tyt+)
where o6, cr., ar = principal

5.3

0.5

where N = 25"/KS^
VIII,

and

K is

3 for indefinite number of cycles

:lJ..l

vtttttt tot

HtoH PnrssuRES

r5.3

|AYERED VrSSfl.S

K=-+.,,"[**
& = maximum

allowable alternating stress

S. = allowable stress
E = modulus of elasticity

r=

radius where gap is measured


design pressure

Fisur 15.9

t:.r, A layered vessel with a 42_in.. inner d.iameter


l::10L"
is constructed of
carbon sleet with. E = 29,000.000
psi. D.,.r*in. ,ir" ni"iriorn
iito*uor" g"p

i:r:*ifff:''
f31#fl'

iffi

s' = 20,000 psi,i"d

il:IlTr1

K=-:+

th".;i;;"y;;'iiiii'h"

of the ASME code,

vrr,

".,,"r

irmbining these two equations gives


RZ

'i

RyI h=

Ys

,R1

cos d

2(&+h-R'cosc)

21 x

20.000
29,000,000

_ 0.5 _

4000

'l'he circumferential saain determined from

20,Oo0/

0.021 in.

uulue of anv one gap in a lavered


tl,".Jil;ffi;""1TlTYl
rn a given cross secdon' a
criterion

;;il;;;;

Ia

h(h + 2R.)

3.31

is
n"eteo to tar.e uc"u,nui"##;:1""91t
tT9 account' rhis can be accomprished by
91,p'
..X*nsap. rhe toar
st uin
tr,eo zu--'J"";
rn gettrng the strain required to
close one gap, refer to fig. iJ.S

i,

R2

(15.21)

ilJ'#:,li1

ilij};T,=fffifj

ffif:T,:

2Rra
ZrRr

2RzB

Substituting

t= B-

+ yE:

R?

'Rz

and

xE+(Yo-a)2=Rtr

asina
R2

(1s.23)

Fig. 15.9 is expressed as

,1,"r"

x6

(ls.22)

Substituting Eqs. 15.21 and 15.22 inoo Eq. 15.20 gives

Equadon 15. 19 determines the

n"t'"l wh"r.

(1s.20)

rnd

2 x 4o,ooo
^r- 1.21
x 2O,nO

_ 0.55

?aYs

Also from Fig. 15.9

Fis. 5-r10.r, & =

: l.2l

- R?: a2 -

(rs.24)

l!6

VttSlt! foR

HtoH

15.3

PRTSSURES

into Lq. 15.24 yields

r1

o, ='rr,
Rr

_,

/c

sin

a\'l

'="'&1"*""'\ & /l

(r5.25)

-2

_j,P * l*

p,--

TAYERED VESSIL3

) .

The maximum radial stress is given by

o,= -P

The total snain required to close one gap is obtained by substituting Eqs. 15.21

and 15.23 into 15.25, which gives

Hence the maximum stress inlensity is

,=fre+4sin-tc

(rs.26,

co,: oo-

o.

where

A=l4: I r

C:

2(1

2+

h/Rl

+ P < NS,
+
'1*'1r,
r- lL-- e
ri
=l----).
ri-

2(l-cosa+h/R)

(2 + h/R)(h/R)

and

Rr 2(l -cos d+h/R)


+ h/R)(r

cos

d + h/R)

y.=!d(rs.

(2 + h/R)(h/R)

A plot of Fq. 15.26 will show that the lines are a linear function of strain
versus /r/R1. Hence, the ASME Code, VItr, Division 2, approximated 84. 15.26

Example
vessel

of

15.4. The following gaps


= zl0 in. and rz = 55 in.

Gap
= 0.109(2a)3

/(1

or in terms of Fig. 15.7 terminology

< 0.r0er4)

\/-/

(rs.27)

Equation 15.27 calculates the strain needed to close any given gap. The total

stain required to close all the gaps is determined by summiig all -the individual
shains given by Eq. 15.27. The hoop stress in a layir due o all accumulated gap
stains is approximated by
ue

=;lt-

,)e

lL--

The total hoop stress due to gap shains and intemal pressure can be expressed
as

=)

were measured after forming a layered

11

by the quantity

(15.28)

Determine

if

/, = 0.3, S.

Height

lrngth

I
2
3

5 in.

6llr.

0.008
0.005
0.010
0.009

9 in.

7 in.

Solutian. Frcm 84.

43.25 in.
43.25 in.
48.50 in.
53.00 in.

in.
in.
in.

in.

these gaps are acceptable 1f E


= 20,000 psi, and N 3.

At Radius

3O

106

psi, P = 6000 psi'

15.27 ,

.,:o.loefi#

=2.33x10-6

., = o.roeff# :2.62

1o-6

.,=o.loe*#:3.25x10-6

vlttl|.s

foR HtOH
eo

PRTSSURtS

=9

I5.4

6(o o09t
UYJJII
= 2. l0 x tO-o

whcrc r/, : radial dellection of layer l, shown in Fig.

1"^

due to interlacc

pressure fl11

| - u2/
,.?D \
-;t
("t - f+,) = rr,.

1O.47

Because total e is less than 10.47

Substituting Eq. 15.30 into Eq. 15.31 gives


*-,r,-

(, x 2o.ooo -

10-6

H#)

1g-d, gaps are safisfactory.

a.-4,:

;i

(Is.29)

transverse shrintage rn welds

rs

o': .4*tRi*t
---J

(15.30)

Weld shrinkage decreases the diameterof a welded layer. This causes a


ravers undemeath it' rhe deflection
equai;;'ffi; ;?::;:"trh
"ompatibitity
pressure between the
welded laver

15.31)

Rr'?-

r)

(1s.35)

as

in a layer

d-dt=4"

Eq. 15.32 and reananging

(Ri. | - RiXR:-2 nsE ____lRL


_ R?)
4.IrRr-j

'lhe stress in layer i can be expressed

Refe'ing to Fig. 15.10, the total radiar


deflection due to transverse shrinkage
ot- a number of seams in one layer

seams

Substituting Eqs. 15.33 and 15.34 into

(1s.34)

yields

^
,i-,:

ft = coefficient of transverse shrinkase


w = width of seam weld

,ns
2t

1s.32)

/15 ?1\

r \n,t,-ni-,-"''/

s=kw

+ ni n.\
, - 4*'R,*,
E /Ri*r
\Rl+,-rR?- "-l
, 4*rRi*r /Ri,r * tRi., , ^ ,\
o'=

tfe gniral or concentric method,of


fabrication, the transverse weld
fn
shrinkage
m me rongitudinat seams causes prestressing
.f ,h. ;;r;;i6#: Such weld
snnnkage is influenced bv
manv
r,.ut input, unJ
ff:"iffilr:'"X.ll,ii,X#ill1ffi:J.T

niiiiil;"',ffiI

NS

'l'he deflection of layer i and all layers beneath I due to pressure 4+r can be
olrtained from Eq. 5.8 by substituting ar = 0 and disregarding the term p'z. The
cxpressions for the deflection, using the terminology of Fig. 15.10, becomes

PRESTRESSING OF IAYERED
VESSETS

where d = radial deflection


n = number of welded

559

15.7, duc to intcrlacc

d. = radial deflection of all layers beneath layer

From Eq. 15.28,

where s =

VESSII.S

pressure ffa1

rotal=10.30x10,6

I5.4

PRESTRESSING OF LAYTRED

Fisure 15.10

(15.36)

560

vt3$tE toR t{toH PRtssuR[s

I5,4

Substituting Eqs. 15.29 antl 15.35 into Eq. t5.36 gives

o' =
Stress

nkwE (RIt

v'nR'n-'

lRi'z

R!.)

Ri)

-i.,,Ri*r

VTSSEIS !6I

und the stress in inner layers is given by

R?\
4*rR?-'
- Ril:E
* = -\t/- **)
4

(rs.37)

Itxample 15.5. Determine the wrapping stress in the-vessel shown in Fig'


l5.11lf n =2,k=o.1',8= 30 x 106 psi, w = 0'375 in'

in the layers below I due to welding i is

"'=
Stress

- 4.iR!*z -

PRISTRCSSINO OF TAYERED

R?\
/. *;,7

Solution. From Eq. 15.37,

il:;r-1t

stress in layer one due to wrapping of layer one is

in any layer due to welding other layers around it is

,,=
{\ 1R?,,-nl
r !-,Ri,.
- -(t\ * x'/

8733 psi

(r5.38)
Stress

Substituting Eqs. 15.29 and 15.35 inio Eq. 15.3g resulrs


in

in layer two due to wrapping of layer two is


2.25 x tO6
or:4igffi@

(21'z

(1s.39)
Equations 15.37 and 15.39 are necessary to determine
the precompressive
sress in a layered vessel due to wrapping Uy *,"
oiri-ira.etnoA of
fabrication.
"on""oG"
In the shrink fit rnethod, the orecompression equations
are the same as
15.37 and 15.39 except that the'qaanniy n*w/2iir"pfuJJy-Jrn. Eqs.

n"*"

, ='#,'

r'

*r,
ra,(i!'!Liul

"'::!f('\.#) + ry#::t
In the coil-wrapped
..
Hence the applied

method, the initial stress in the outer layer


pressure for Eq. 15.lg is

=
Stress

2r\(21.52

21'z\

2l.5'z1

11,365 psi

in layer three due to wrapping of layer three is

ot

2.25

tO6 (2t.52 -

= 4o(o.s)er.sf
=

202\(222

12,487 ps|

(15.40)
(15.41)

i is known.

n-r=#
and the total sbess in the outer layer is

oi= o"

Figur 15.l I

362

vt33!ts Fon HtoH

PRESSURIS

SIBTIOO[APHY

From Eq. 15.39, stress in inner shell due to wrapping


all three layers is

o,, =

:??l

l_]ou

(, .

#) (ffi
_

21.52 - 212 ,
22,
21.52
-r- 2tetF=6\*
n6=65)\

-(179,049)(1.97s)(0.0247

0.0163

0.0120)

-18,737 psi
Stress

in layer one due to wrapping layers two and three is

d' = -17e,04e(l

lnz

\
* ffis,)to.otos

+ 0.0t20)

-9774 psi

Stress in layer two due to wrapping layer three is

o,= -tls,rNs(t +
ff)ollllt
: _4052 psi
Total stress in inner shell :
-1g,737 psi
Total stess in layer one = g733
- 9744 = _1041 osi
Total stress in layer two = I I ,365 4052 7313
osi
=
Total srress in layer three = 12.4g7 psi f
NOMENCTATURE

ITtl

D = tr-T,
E = modulus of elasticity
e = circumferential growth
h = gap
K = weld shrinkage
Mo = longitudinal bending rnoment

n
P

= number of seams in a layer


= pressure

l{ = inside radius as defined by ASME


llm : mean radius
r = radius
rr = inside radius
r,, = outside radius
J = shess
,1. : allowable sfress given in ASME
t : thickness
w = width of weld seam
rr = coefficient of thermal expansion
pn

= change in temperature
c
= strain
p = proisson's ratio

A.r

.,1

(fr

:
:
:

=
=

(f,

:
:

U0

(ft

radius at interface between elastic and plastic zones


bending stress

stess at layer

longitudinal seess
radial stress
stress at layer .r

yield stress
hoop shess

BIBTIOGRAPHY
Armstrong, W. P., and M. H. Jawad, "Evaluation of Thermal Conductivity in Layercd Vessels,"
ASME Jounal Prcssure Vessel Technology, November 1981.

Brownell, L. W., 8trd E, H.


Jawad,

M. H., "Wrapping

\onnl,

Process Equipme t

Deiqn, John Wiley, New York,

1959.

Stress and lts Effect on Strenglh of Concentrically Formed Plywalls,"

NME Publication 72-pvp-7, Seprcmber l9?2.


Prager, W., andP. G. Hodge, Theory of Perfectb Pkstic

Sortrb, John Wiley, l'{e\t York,

5.

CHAPTER

t6

TALL VESSELS

Tollve$el. (Co',rtesy oI rhe Noorer Corpororion, Sr. touj3 Mo.)

564

565

566

TAtt vtssfl.s

I6.I

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

16.2

Special design considerations are required for tall vessels


that are installed in the
vertical position. These vessels may utilize support skirts,
nngs, ring
girders, lugs, and other forms of support attachments
as describid in Chapter 12.
However, the vessel itselfrequires special design considerations
in setecting the
proper thicknesses and stiffening rings, if neided,
to adequately support the
vessel and to resist the applied loadings.
In addition to loadings from intemal and external pressures,
tall vessets must
De capaDle ot.wlthstanding additional loadings
from the dead load of the vessel,
the
inlgmal parts, insulation, piping-, and externA equipment, anA
tiom
9onte.nt1
earthquake loading and wind loading. Thi tall vessel,
as we as'most otner types
of vessels,
T9y also be subjected to applied forces and morneni, fro- tt errna
expansion of the piping. The niost critical combination
of loadings that cause the
highest stresses may not occur when all of the loads
are appii.j u? ttr" .a-e ti-e.
Certain loads may cause critical stresses during the time
of
of
u".r"t,
whereas other combinations of loadings ma! cuuse critical
".""tion
stre;ses when the
vessel is filled with its contents. The propei design of
the veJmay require
examining several different loading conditions to Jstablish
the proper thickness
and other requirements for a safe desien.
Some of the cornbinations of loadirigs requiring careful consideration

sffirt

t"

are:

l.
2.
3.

Vessel. installed in place but not operating (no contents,


internals, or
insulation) and not under an applied earth{uake or *inJiouotng.
Vessel under intemal pressure with contents and other
dead loads with or
without earthquake or wind loading.
Vessel under external pressure with contents and other
dead loads with
or without earthquake or wind loading.

for a specific vessel, may be a worse combination than any


or
^t;*:::::,b,:l!:y:
me condltons listed above. The designer must be certain
that all conditions
aretxamined for determining the controlling condition.
The required thicknesses and other desigi requirements vary
somewhat de_
pending upon the design theory chosen. Thi .*i-u,
,o".r ,fi.o* is used for
Ine oeslgn ot most tall vessels. This theory is used in
the ASME Code. VI[_I,
and the API 620t and 6502 design rules. Tie effects
of using other theori"s a.e
discussed later.
The two-external loadings that are important in the design
are those due to
e:mnquake toadrngs and wind loadings. AJthough the ASME
Code, VI[_ | , does
not specify design methods or design codes th-at are considered,
application of
used design ruGs is discussed. nememUer,'ii'ile
specinc
rocauon where tie tall vessel is to be_ installed, as given
il the design specifica_
tion or purchase order, the design rules may be so-mewhat
oimere# tom eitrrer
()1 me two rules described
here. Local requirements are always considered.
Once the extemal loadings and overtuming moments
are determined, they are

*^y: :"lryPt

IARTHQUAKI

LOADING

567

cornbined with the internal and external pressurcs and any other kradings that arc
lpplicable to the tall vessel. The following sections describe dift'erent methods
lor establishing the forces, moments, and overturning moments from extcrnal
kradings. In addition, methods are given regarding how to combine those loadings with other loadings in order to determine the highest stresses and to satisfy
tid-22 of the ASME Code, VI[-1. Included also are methods ofconsidering the
rlynamics effects of the wind loading and wind velocity on vortex shedding and

ovalling vibrations.

I6.2

EARTHQUAKE LOADING

ln the design of tall, vertical vessels, one cause of stresses in the v-essel wall is
lhe overhr;ing moment from the lateral force of an earthquake loading' Although most disign standards require vessels to withstand earthquakes, usually
no sfecific applicible rules are given. The purchase order or design specification
,hould list thi applicable code to be used for earthquake design, such as the

ANSI A58.1, "suilaing Code."r the Ilniform Building Code,a ot some otler
applicable building cod;. Additionally, the location ofthe installation is required
^determine
the appropriate earthquake factor. Figure 16.1 shows a typical
t;
Earthoarthquake
-up aicording to the Uniform Building Code (UBC)'
"one
procedure
The
different.
may
be
standards
given
building
other
in
quakj zones
lbr determining the lateral earthquake loading is similar in most building standards and is G same in both the UBC and ANSI standards Some coefficients
in the formulas and the zones on the earthquake zone map may differ in various
standards.

For both the UBC and the ANSI standards, the total lateral earthquake force
is calculated by the following formuia:

(16.1)

ZIKCSW

depending upon the earthquake for the location of


installation. For ANSI A58. I for zone O' Z = | /8 ' For both the
UBC and the ANSI 458.1, the following apply: for zone 1'

where Z = coefficient
Z=

/16

zone 4.

Iv = total

Z:

for zone 2, Z

3/8; for

zone 3,

: 3/4; and for

1.0.

dead load of vessel and contents above plane being consid-

ered 0b)

I:
K=
C

importance factor; assume

I=

arrangement factor; assume


base shear factor

1'0 for vessel

= 1/15\/7 =

2.0 for vessel


0.12

? = fundamental period of vibration of the vessel assuming a uniformly loaded cantilever beam fixed at the base by the following:

16,2

IARTHOUAKE IOADINO

zn t;n"
^' 3.52
\ EI,s
Substituting

569

(16.2)

I = 386.4 in./sec2 gives

r = o.osos.g.

(16.3)

h = sfraight length of shell from tangent to tangent of shell-to-head


lines (in.)

w = W/h = average unit weight of shell (lb/in') of straight shell


length

E = modulus of elasticity of vessel material at design temperature (Psi)


/* = moment of inertia of shell cross section (in.4)

1,:

(v/8)(tl +

L = O.Oa9@2 -

+ t)/t < 20
dt when (d + t)/t > 20 (in.)

t)3t when (d

r = nominal thickness of shell (in.)


4 = outside diameter of shell (in.)
d = inside diameter of shell (in.)
S

site-sFucture resonance: assume S

1.5 unless an exact value is

known.

'hdrdhh|'b.dlol

Figuro I 6. I Rirl zorc mop ot rhc Uniied $ort" (Reproducld


tro,n thc Unifrofih Building Code, I 9g2 Edirion,
CoPy'iglt 1982, wifi pcrminion oI th. p!bti3h6r, Thc Inr,arnotionot
Confera"* J g;tdr;Offt.uL.f

O.l2 < KC s 0.25 for UBC.


O.l2 < KC < O.29 for ANSI, zones 0, l, and 2.
O.l2 KC < 0.23 for ANSI, zones 3 and 4.
=
CS < 0.14 for UBC and for ANSI in zones 0, 1, and 2.
CS 0.11 for ANSI in zones 3 and 4 when.l = 1.5.
=
KCS need not exceed 0.3.
When KCS

= 0.3 is substituted into @.

16.1, the total lateral earthquake

force becomes

V=

O.3O

Zw

(16.4)

When the vessel is rnade from shell sections with different dianieters and
thicknesses, the lateral earthquake force is determined for each cylindrical shell
section above the plane being examined. However, for a cylindrical shell of
uniform diameoer and thickness, the total lateral earthquake force V is distributed
as follows:
s68

570
1.

lAt I

vrlslt

I6.2

At the.upper head-to-shell tangent line, apply a concentrated


horizontal
force determined as follows;

4=

2.

n shall not exceed O.Z5V and Fl


shall be considered zero for ? = 0.7 or less

(f6.5)

where ? is given in Eq. 16.3 and V is given in


Eq. 16.1.
Along the straight length of shell,

(16.6)

For a shell of uniform diameter and thickness, this gives


__
a triangular load
disnibution with the
pointing downward. fo.
tie momenr,
_apex
assume a concentrated loadine of (V _
"ul1ufutirg
applied at the
centroijof the niangle
fl
that is equal to 2/3 tr from the-lower he"j_t,i'rr,"rr
arg"riiiJJri Jio*n rn nig.
t6.2.
Ongg A9 values of d and .{ are determined and
the moment arms
respective forces are known, the overtuming moment

M": 4(h). n(!^)

w = total weight : 34,240lb


/r = 360 in.
w = Wlh:34240/360 = 95.1 lb-in.

E:30x106psi

^ (V - hw.h.
n,=--;f,

is determinel

= 7r(30F(360)(35 /1728) = 20,620 lb


in heads = (4/3)n(30)3(35 /ltzt1 = 229916

fluid in shell
fluid

0.07 TV, except

EARTHQUAKETOADINO

d+t
'

60

0.5

U.J

-f

to the

as

(16.7)

Example

16.1. A

vertical vessel with a cylindrical shell and hemispherical


i ftlnril aiurn"t"r,

heads is installed inside a building in Boston.


fhe sheU is
0. 5 in. noninal thickness and 30 h
from t"rg"nitl i-t"r,t.
,

ft uiJ."r
"ontuio,
tfi" UsC"b" i"llowed
for
ro.", ur"a ro. t c"rigor
"

a fluid at 35- lb/ft3. The purchase order speclfies


tf,"t
earthquake design. what are the lateral earthquake

Solwion. The UBC specifies that the total lateral earthquake


force is calcu_
lated from Eq. 16.1 by the followrng:
v = zIKCSw
Z = earthquake factor
earthquake zone 2
where Z = 3/8

depending upon site location. Boston is located in

-+
I

1= 1.0
K=2.0
W

total dead load of vessel and contents is

shell weight

n(30.52

weight of heads

30\(360)(490/1728): g7gs16

= (4/3)n(30.53 _

3O?)(4gO/

|TZS\:

1630 lb

Figure

16.2

Eonlquoks lood distribulion on o toll vos!|.

571

312
/, =

tAtt vrlstts
9.949161r

r = 0.0908

"

=r

16.3

= 43,400 in.a
(95.lx360f
(3d-i06x43/00 = o lo06
600)

0.2102;maximum is C

16.3 What is the equivalent

earthquake force in terms

Azswer.'

0.12

16,4 What is the equivalent

v = (3/s)(t)(0.28)(34,24o) _

Answer:

16.3 WIND

3600 tb

Therefore, V

3600

lb

and

Example 16.2. The tall vessel described


in Example 16.l is to be supported
at the lower head-to-shell iunction.
Dete-rmin" ,fr" i"""".frg'iro-"n,
- -'i-'i''|b 'n
u,
support line from the lateril earthquake
forces.

*"

show that the period of vibration places


all

&e horizontal earthquake force to-be


applie;
the vessel in Example 16.1, this grves

M" = (3600)(20

;t;r-""',,#;;i#loaoing.

of

For

rZ) = 864,000

in.{b

Eafihquake force is 0.289.

TOADING

16.3.1

Externol Forces from Wind Looding

As with earthquake loading, many different design lnocedures determine the

wind loading and its applica:tion to i vessel. The two most widely used standards
are the ANSI A58.1 Code and the Uniform Building Code'
Although there are differences in tle procedure for determinilg the wind

betieen the ANSI A58'1 Code and the Uniform Building code' both

site'
methods use the same rnap for determining the wind velocity at the location
Code'
Building
Uniform
for
the
as shown in Fig. 16.3

When the ailst A58.1 Code is used, the basic equation for determining the
velocity pressure q, at various heights z is calculated from

What is the total lateral earthquake force


using the ANSI A5g.l Code for
the following vessel? A vertiial vess"t
*irh ;-;;;l;;.il-o.on"o o,
lower head. The shell is a seaml"r, pip"
*i;h
inrialtii.am","., ,.0
in. thick,.and 40 ft. long wirh 3_in.-ih'i.k
ri;;;J#;.
rd"uJrlr"r
gas at ambient temperature.
The vesset is instJleJin
"ont"tn.
--.*mqo"k" ,on"
4 where Z = l.O.

;_i;:

Answer:
16.2

Earthquake force is 0.229.

Two distinctly different kinds of design considerations are generated from wind
Ioading. First, the static force from the wind-loading pressure against the vessel
ou".to-ing moment that must be considered in designing tall vessels
"our"a'installed in the vertic-al position' The second consideration is the dynamic effect
from vorlex shedding of wind passing arcund the vessel'

loads

Problems

16.1

of g for the vessel in

Problem 16.2?

= (0.12)(1.5) = 0.18; maxrmum is CJ = 0.14


KCS = (2)(O.M) = 0.28; maximum
rCS = 0.3
yis determined by using
Eq. t6.l and KCS : 0.2g as follows:

Sotution. previous calculations

573

earthquake force in terms of g for the vessel in

CS

4 = 0 when ? is less than 0.7 (T :0.1006).

IOADING

Problem 16.1?

KC = (2.0)(0.12): 0.24; maximun is r(C


= 0.25

4=0. I

WIND

q"

*"

Lateral earthquake force is 3910 lb.

Consider the exact same vessel given


in problem 16.1. What is &e total
lateral earthquake force using tri'"
u.ii"""-i",rar"!'C"iJ.ll"r,

Ansu,er: Latel-3l earthquake force is 4970


lb;

where q, = veloclty

=
y=
1

K,

0.OO256

K,(tv)2

pressure (Psf)

importance factor; assume 1

1'0

design wind velocity (mph) from

veloc8

(a)

Fig' 16'3

Pressure coefficient

In addition, it is necessary to modify Eq.a by the force coefficient C1' which is


the gust factor G, for the height of the vessel above
0.6 for a cylinder, and by
-basic