1t.
,';i::::
STRUCTURAL
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT
.r,..';;,r&.
Mqon H. Jowod
Nooter Corporation
St. Louis, M issouri
Jomes R. Fqrr
Babcock & Wilco.r Company
Barberton, Ohio
A Wileylnterscience Publicqtion
.r/C*
N*w York
Chichester
Brisbone Toronto
Singopore
To Our Wives,
Dixie and Barbara
Copyright
1984 by
Canada
',
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arrl conslroction
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lq8l 660.2'83
lslJN (,
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L Farr. James R
83 12475
l09lJ/r)'il1
PREFACE
We wrote this book to serve three purposes. The first purpose is to provide
structural and mechanical engineers associated with the petrochemical industry
a reference book for the analysis and design of process equipment. The second
is to give graduate engineering students a concise introduction to the theory of
plates and shells and its industrial applications, The third purpose is to aid
process engineers in understanding the background of some of the design equations in the ASME Boiler and hessure Vessel Code. Section VIII.
The topics presented are separated into four parts. Part 1 is intended to
familiarize the designer with some of the common "tools of the hade." Chapter
I details the history ofpressure vessels and various applicable codes from around
the world. Chapter 2 discusses design specifications furnished in purchasing
process equipment as well as in various applicable codes. Chapter 3 establishes
the strength criteria used in different codes and the theoretical background
needed in developing design equations in subsequent chapters. Chapter 4 includes different materials of construction and toughness considerations.
Part 2 is divided into three chapters outlining the basic theory of plates and
shells. Chapter 5 develops the membrane and bending theories of cylindrical
shells. Chapter 6 discusses various approximate theories for analyzing heads and
transition sections, and Chapter 7 derives the equations for circular and rectangular plates subjected to various loading and support conditions. These three
chapters form the basis from which most of the design equations are derived in
the other chapters.
Part 3, which consists of flve chapters, details the design and analysis of
components. Chapters 8 and 9 derive the design equations established by the
ASME Code, VI[l and 2, for cylindrical shells as well as heads and transition
sections. Chapter 10 discusses gaskets, bolts, and flange design. Chapter ll
presents openings and their reinforcement; Chapter l2 develops design equations
ftitAct
cquations for analyzing hest transfer equipment. Chapter l5 describes the theory
of thick cylindrical shells in highpressure applications. Chapter l6 discusses the
stress analysis of tall vessels. Chapter 17 outlines the procedure of the ASME
Code, VI[l, for designing rectangular presswe vessels.
To simplify the use of this book as a reference, each chapter is written so that
it stands on its own as much as possible. Thus, each chapter with design or other
mathematical equations is written using terminology frequently used in industry
for that particular type of equipment or component discussed in the pertinent
chapter. Accordingly, a summary of nomenclature appears at the end of most of
the chapters in which mathematical expressions are given.
In using this book as a textbook for plates and shells, Chapters 3, 5,6 md7
form the basis for establishing the basic theory. Instructors can select other
chapters to supplement the theory according to the background and needs of the
graduate engineer.
1 and
ASME Code, such as the Power and Heating Boilers, no consideration is given
in this book regarding other sections unless specifically stated'
MAAN JAWAD
JAMES FARR
Saint Louit, Missouri
Barberton, Ohio
September 1983
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We are indebted to many people and organizations for their help in preparing this
book. A special thanks is given to the Nooter Corporation for generous support
rluring the preparation of the manuscript. Also a special thanks is given to the
American Society of Mechanical Engineers for supplying many of the illustrations used in this book and also to the American Petroleum Institute and the
Tubular Exchangers Manufacturers Association.
We also give thanks to Messrs. W. D. Doty, G. Hays, G. G. Karcher, T. W.
[,odes, H. S. Olinger, and R. F. O'Neill for reviewing the manuscript, and to
Mr. W. H. Schawacker for supplying many of the photographs.
We would also like to extend our appreciation to Mrs' Y. Batteast for typing
portions of the manuscript.
M. J.
CONTENTS
PART I
Chopter I
l.l
1.2
3
4
States
1.3
Pressure
Organization of the ASME Boiler and
Vessel Code
1.5
for Pressure
Organization of the ANSI B31 Code
Piping
Standards
Some Other Pressure Vessel Codes and
1.6
1.4
References
BibliograPhY
Chopter 2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
9
'r0
ll
l3
14
14
l5
l5
t6
16
CONTINT!
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
CONTENTS
Dcsign Data tbr Ncw Materials
't7
Factors of Safety
17
t7
l9
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4
4.6
4.7
References
2.11
References
Chopter 3
29
5.1
5.2
Strength Theories
30
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
Design Criteria
Design Equations
3l
Chopter 4
4.1
References
Bibliography
43
Moteriqls of Construction
45
Material Selection
4,l.l Corrosion
Ferrous Alloys
46
46
49
52
53
53
3J
56
56
60
6l
Brittle Fracture
4.5. I ASME Presssure Vessel Criteria
63
68
4.1.2
4.
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
33
33
35
39
42
ForceStress Expressions
Strength
.3
Material Cost
Nonferrous Alloys
4.2.1 Aluminum Alloys
1
PART 2
Chopfer 5
3.1
StressStrain Relationships
StrainDefl ection Equations
Bibliography
22
22
26
5.3
5.4
Chopter
6.
6
I
xlll
70
74
75
76
77
78
79
ANAIYSIS OF COMPONENTS
8l
83
References
r38
Bibliography
139
141
Hemispherical Heads
6.1 .
Various Loading Conditions
6.1.2 Discontinuity Analysis
6.1.3 Thermal Stress
142
146
158
6.1.4
159
Buckling Strength
r52
xiv
CONTENTS
xv
CONTENTS
6.2
6.3
6.4
Ellipsoidal Heads
Torispherical Heads
Conical Heads
163
243
9.1
Introduction
244
9.2
Chopier 9
167
r68
183
7.1
Introduction
184
7.2
7.3
7.4
Circular Plates
184
Rectangular Plates
193
197
References
200
201
201
Bibliography
6.4.1
Junction
6.4.2
6.4.3
Discontinuity Analysis
Cones Under Extemal Pressure
Nomenclature
References
Bibliography
Chopter 7
References
Bibliography
PART 3
Chopter
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
DESIGN OF COMPONENTS
169
172
175
178
'r80
t8t
203
9.3
9.4
Chopter
l0
205
206
208
218
226
23r
References
235
238
240
240
Bibliography
241
249
255
256
256
26r
261
265
266
267
l0.l
Introduction
270
ro.2
274
and Covers
276
r0.3
Design of Cylindricol Shells
247
10,4
10,5
10.6
Contact Facings
278
278
279
1O.7
Gaskets
281
281
281
282
283
285
CONTENTS
CONTENTS
1O.7.6
10.7.7
10.7.8
Jacketed Gaskets
10.7.9
I0
I
10. l2
10. l3
10, l4
l0.l
Reverse Flanges
Bibliography
285
285
285
286
287
288
290
I I.5
I 1.6
Shells
387
Pressure
.7.1
392
394
394
1.7.2
407
292
References
294
Bibliography
415
416
417
Vessel Supports
421
12.1
Introduction
12.2
422
423
434
438
442
443
449
456
456
457
298
307
310
1t.7
Chopter
l2
317
317
324
330
332
332
Extemal Loadings
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
Saddle Supports
Nomenclature
References
Bibliography
Chopter I I
ll.l
General
I 1.2
I 1.3
'
1.4
Section
335
336
338
343
346
349
PART
Chopter
4
l3
13.1
13.2
l.4.3
II
I
.4.4
L4.5
VIII, Division I
xvii
379
383
13.3
SPECIAL
459
461
Introduction
462
462
462
470
476
482
487
490
496
496
Annular Plates
13.4
AND DESIGN OF
EQUIPMENT
13.2.2
13.2.3
359
368
THEORY
3.3.2
Compression Rings
Design Rules
xviii
CONTENTS
coNTENrs
13.5
Chopter
14
l4.l
14.2
of Heat Exchangers
TEMA Design of Tubesheets in UTube
TYPes
Exchangers
in UTube
Theoretical Analysis of Tubesheets
Exchangers
14.4
14.5
14.6
Equations for
Background of the ASME Design
Tubesheets in UTube Exchangers
Theoretical Analysis of Fixed Tubesheets
l4'6'2
14'6'3
14.7
15.l
15.2
15.3
15.4
for High
Pressure
Basic Equations
Pres$essing of Solid Wall Vessels
Layered Vessels
Prestressing of Layered Vessels
Nomenclature
Biblio$aphY
Chopter
16
l6.l
16.2
16.3
505
508
Toll Vessels
DesignConsiderations
Earthquake Loading
Wind Loading
16.3'1 Bxternal Forces from Wind Loading
Chopter
17,1
17.2
17.3
17.4
17.5
533
541
541
17
17,6
17.7
17.8
17.9
t7.to
543
565
566
567
573
573
References
593
593
Vessels
Types of Vessels
Rules in Codes
Openings
in
Section
596
Ligament Efficiency
Openings
for
Constant Diameter
601
10.2
603
606
610
612
619
626
627
630
633
633
APPENDICES
A
B
Appendix C
595
601
Rules
References
Bibliography
Appendix
Appendix
585
588
591
I 7.
558
562
563
581
Loading
Code
547
577
Bibliography
514
519
523
523
527
538
539
BibliograPhY
Vessels
502
537
References
15
6.3.2
501
537
ExPansion Joints
Nomenclature
Chopfer
16.4
16.5
Loading
14.3
498
499
499
635
Codes
Guide to Various
Sample of Heat Exchanger Speciflcation
Sample of an API Specification
Sheet
Sheet
636
U6
648
II
CONIENTS
D
E
Appendix F
Appendix
Appendix
Required Data
Section
Appendix
H
I
J
Appendix K
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
VIII
Code
Corrosion Charts
Various ASME Design Equations
Joint Efficiency Factors
Simplified Curves for Extemal Loading on Cylindrical
Shells
Appendix
INDEX
652
668
Conversion Tables
675
678
683
686
689
698
PART
BACKGROUND
AND BASIC
CONSIDERATIONS
CHAPTER
HISTORY AND
ORGANIZATION OF CODES
OtD
2
iuroly
,",r,,, , ,"r,,,,r,,,1
Y
I.I
'I'hroughout the world, the use of process equipment has expanded considerably.
ln the petroleum industry, process vessels are used at all stages of processing oil.
At the beginning of the cycle, they are used to store crude oil Many different
types of these vessels process the crude oil into oil and gasoline for the consurner. The vessels store petroleum at tank farms after processing and, finally,
scrvc to hold the gasoline in service stations fol the consumer's use. The use of
Droccss vessels in the chemical business is equally extensive. Process vessels are
uscd everywhere.
Prcssure vessels are made in all sizes and shapes. The smaller ones may be
no larger than a fraction of an inch in diameter, whereas the larger vessels may
be 150 ft or more in diameter. Some are buried in the ground or deep in the
occan; most are positioned on the ground or supported on platforms; and some
lctually are found in storage tanks and hydraulic units in aircraft
The internal pressure to which process equipment is designed is as varied as
thc size and shape. Intemal pressure may be as low as I in water gage pressure
to as high as 300,000 psi or more. The usual range of pressure for monoblock
construction is about 15 to about 5000 psi, although there are many vessels
designed for pressures below and above that range. The ASME Boiler and
Itcssure Code, Section VIII, Division t*, specifies a range of intemal pressure
liom 15 psi at the bottom to no upper limit; however, at an intemal pressure
abovc 3000 psi, the ASME Code, VIIII, requires that special design considcrations may be necessary.r However, any pressure vessel that meets all the
rrquircrncnts of the ASME Codc. regardless of the intemal or external design
prcssuro. rnay slill bc acccptcd by thc authorized inspector and stamped by the
nrlrnrllclurcr with thc ASMI'l ('rxlc syrttbol. Some other pressure equlpment,
srrch as Al'l'' sl(nagc t Dks. rrriry bc dcsigned and contain no more intemal
pf('ssur( llriur lhitl gcncrirlc(l l)y lllc sllllic hcird of fluid contained in the tank.
I,2
llr( lrlr' lS(X):, ;rrrrl lrrtlv ltX)O\. (\l)losiotls in boilers and pressure
vcsscls rlcrc lr({tr{nt /\ lrrctrllx lrorlt t trplosiott tlrr thc Mississippi River
:,1{rlrlx);rt .\rtlt,ttt,t.t '\1rrrl .'/ lStr5. rcsttllctl itt thc boat's sinking within 20
llrt(,rt1lr
r,l r rrtrr,,tr,rlrlrl r.trltttttr'rl un,rl)irl( (l rrrlo tlrc clrr'ly 1900s. In 1905, a destructive
, rlrl,,.r,,rr (,1 .r lr, lrlr( l!,rl(r rrr ir sllrr'' lltellrly in Brockton, Massachusetts (Fig.
I l r. l rlllrl ''Il rr ,'r'l( . rrrlrrr, rl l l / otlrcls. and did Xi400,000 in property damage
r,\r \'.Alt r,rl, \'lll l,rrrrl VIII .'. rsrrrie(l lo (lcscribc thc ASME Boilcr and I'rcsstrrc
Vi....tl(,trit ,, l',," \'ftl ffl\, r'r l. /,,,'r.vt( V, rfry'.r, and l)ivisitttl2, Alk'r'ttttiK tttll li'r
'1,' rlL,
/!,11r,,
l,
\, /,
l.l Firerub boiler explosion in sho focrory in Brockron, Md!3ochuseits in 1905. (Courlesy Horrford
St@m Boiler Inrpection ond Insurdn.e Co., Horrford, Cr.)
Fisure
].4
irr dcalh,
sure Vessels, and another new part was issued, which was
Seciion VI II, Division
of
vessels.
In the United States most piping systems are built to the ANSI/ASME
Code
P.ressure Piping B3l . There are a number of different
piping couc sectrons
for different types of systems. The piping section that i" ,ir".i tiu.
boiiers in
combination with Section I of the ASME Boiler and pressure
Vcsscl (ixle is the
fo1!o1er Piping, 831.1.5 The piping secrion thar is olicn uscrt with
!o09
Cheniical
Section VIII, Division I , is the code for
piant and lretnricLrrrr t{clinery
Piping, 831.3.6
for
PIPINO
cqUipl cl{ irrrtl ir;lrlielrliorr; olllcrs fctalc lo sl)ccilic Illillcliltls all(l tlrclll{xls l()f
()l
applicatiOn rn(l cot)trol ol cclt'tiprnctrt; lnd tlthcrs rclate ttt care !lnd inspoctioll
'l'hc
boiler
and
relate
to
specifically
tirllowing sections
installed cquipnrctrt.
pressure vessel design and constructlon:
Section
Section
I.
III
Division
Division
Code
1.
2.
Case
N47
Section IV,
Section
Section
VIII
Division
Division
1.
2.
X.
A new edition of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is issued on July
I every three years and new addenda are issued every six months on January I
and July l. A new edition incorporates all the changes made by the addenda to
the previous edition; it does not incorporate, however, anything new beyond that
coniained in the previous addenda except for some editorial corections or a
change in the numbering system. The new edition of the code becomes mandatory when it appears. The addenda are permissive at the date of issuance and
become mandatory six months after that date.
Code CasesT are also issued periodically after each code meeting They
contain permissive rules for materials and special constructions that have not
been sufficiently developed to place them in the code itself. Finally, there are the
Code Interpretations8 which are issued every six months These are in the form
of questions and replies that further explain items in the code that have been
misunderstood.
I.4
83I
CODE TOR
PRESSURE PIPING
I,3
VESSET CODE
PRESSURE
"
In the United States the most frequently used design rules for pressure piping are
the ANSI 83l Code for Pressure Piping. This code is divided into many sections
for different kinds of piping applications Some sections are related to specific
sections of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code as follows:
R!1.1.
related to Section
VIII)
The ANSI B31 Piping Code Committee prepares and issues new editions and
addenda with addenda dates that correspond with the ASME Boiler and Pressure
Vessel Code and addenda. However, the issue dates and mandatory dates do not
always correspond with each other.
I.6
CODES
Tu_
I.6
different countries:
Australia.
I.5
In addition to the ANSVASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the ANSI
B31 Code for Pressure Piping, many other codes and standards are commonly
used for the design of process vessels in the United States. Some of them are:
Australian Code for Boilers and Pressure Vessels, SAA Boiler Code (Series
AS 1200): AS 1210, Unf.red Pressure Vessels and Class 1 H, pressare
Vessels of Advanced Design and Constuction, Standards Association of
Australia.
Belgium.
Code
for
Good Practice
for
France.
Constructton Code Calculation Rules for Unfred pressure Vessels, Syndicat
National de la Chaudronnerie et de la Tuyauterie Industrie e (SNCT), paris,
France.
Germany.
t0
BIBTIOGRAPHY
ll
,ltpun.
8.
Japan
sffi
"r
Netherlands.
f,:;:#i:"*e
Sweden.
Swedish Pressure Vessel Code,Tryckkarls
kommissioner, the Swedish pres
United Kingdom.
A.
;'r#J
of
of iti. p_ug.upt,
# ,ti .o0., ur.o
REFERENCES
f.
2.
"aT.:
l,
pressure Vessets,
"R""",*";;;'R';:"i."iiirT"firi,"ffilffi;TiJi:i,*Li.;,
tanks," ANsr,/Apr srd. 620,;.;;;";;;;;;;
j::::"[iJ:**
i,i.tr"iot", wu,r,ing_
.;:
Apr srandard 620,
1951.
S,
ol
6.
7'
Mechanicar Engineers,
Niwyork, 73l;;"'0"'ANSL/ASME
B31
l'
American societv
Socicty
19g3.
pressure
BIBTIOGMPHY
' Steel Tanks for
l,
Iron
CHAPTE
SELECTION OF VESSEL,
SPECI FICATIONS, REPORTS,
l3
l4
2.1
SELECTION OF VTSSI
rtlr",lrr'., nND
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
Although nrlrrly lttr l t. ,,'rrlrl,rt, 1,, llr( \( lL'clion of pressure vessels, the two
basic r.r;rrirr.rrfrrt,, tlr,rt ,rll,, t tlr, ,( [.r lion are safety and economics. Many
it(.Drs ir. r rr,,rrI r,,l rr,tr,r', rrrrrtcrials' availability, corrosion resistance,
lrltllrrl,, rrr, rrl,tlr r11, . .rr,l rrrrrgnitudes of loadings, location of installation
rr, lr,lprl, ( rnl I,r.r,l'rt' ,"r,t r.rrr'(lrquake loading, location of fabrication_(shoD
"r 1., l,lr t", rrr,,r ,,t \i.,,s(.1 installation, and availability of labor supply at the
\l
rrt, rrr, r, ,r'.rrr1' rrsc of special pressure vessel in the petrochemical and other
rl, , rtr. ;rvrilability of the proper materials is fast becomrng a maJor
1,r,,t,1,,,' I lr(. nrost usual material for vessels is carbon steel. Many other special_
r,,, l r r,rr{ rlls iLre also being used for corrosion resistance or the abilily ro conmln
rrr,lrr
r'. I x (.vl
field.
For thost. vcssels that will operate in climates where low temperatures are
encounlcr((l r)f contain fluids operating irt low temperatures, special care must
be takc rr Ir crrsure impact resistance of the materials at low timperatures. To
ohlirirr tlrs l,r()l)crty, the vessel may require a special highalloy steel, nonferrous
rrrirlcrirrl, rrr some special heat treatment.
2.?
2.4
2.3
l5
Currently, the only pressure vessel code, exclusive of the ASME Code, IIIlNB, Nuclear Vessels, which specifically requires formal design specifications as
part of the code requirements is the ASME Code, VIII2, Alternative Rules for
Pressure Vessels. This code requires a User's Design Specification to be prepared and certified by a registered professional engineer experienced in pressure
vessel design. This certification by the professional engineer is given on the
ASME Manufacturer's Data Report, Form A 1. The manufacturer is responsible
for retaining the User's Design Specification for five years.
For other codes and standards, design specifications and design requirements
are not well defined. For the ASME Code, VIII1, there is no specific statement
that any design specifications are required. The only indication of some sort of
design specifications is the list of minimum loadings in UG22 that is considered
for all construction . Sectron l, Power Eoilers, is less definitive on what loadings
are necessary to consider and what shall be included in a design specification or
purchase order. PG22 of Section I states that loadings that cause stresses to go
higher than 107o above those stresses caused by internal design pressure shall be
considered. The Manufacturer's Data Report, Form U1 for the ASME Code,
V I1, requires many items to be listed, which means that most of the basic
design information must be given in a design specification or purchase order.
Although some codes help the purchaser regarding what data are needed for
inclusion in the design specifications, this is usually done by mutual agreement
between the purchaser and the manufacturer.
"For those process vessels that do not have a "suggested" list of items in design
requirements and specifications as part of code requirements, it is necessary to
establish them in the purchase order or contract agreement. The contract information is supplied by the purchaser or user with the manufacturer's help as to
what is needed and what shall be considered. Some design standards help the
user and manufacturer by offering fillin forms that specifically list the requirements for designing a process vessel. Design specification forms for a heat
exchanger built to the standards of the Tubular Manufacturers Associationz are
given in Appendix B and lor an API Srandard 650 Storage Tanki are given in
Appendix C. It is always necessary to maintain a document containing design
speciflcations so that a permanent record is kept for reference. Often on a large
process vessel, some loadings from attached or supported equipment are not
known until after the job has started.
2.4
16
l,
lx' *,u,.,,
STRTSSES
2.9
ASMI
CODE
17
rrrrrl rr srrrtirlrlt.
and
s[pl)oll lor.rrtiorrs rlusl bc listed as well as any iocal loads
from supported
crltip,rc,t rrrrtl piping. Site locatiorr is given so that wind, *o*,
una
lcquircntcots ctrn lre determined. Impact loads and cyclic
"u.tnquut"
requirements
are also
2.7
inclurlcd.
lirr
2.5
ire
(raclutl
2.6
greements.
2.8
FACTORS OF SAFETY
In order to provide a margin of safety between exact formulas, which are based
on complex theories and various modes of failure , and the actual design formulas
used for setting the minimum required thicknesses and the stress levels, a factor
of safety (FS) is applied to various materials' properties that are used to set the
allowable stress values. The factors of safety are directly related to the theories
and modes of failure, the specific design criteria of each code, and the extent to
x.hich various levels of actual stresses are determined and evaluated.
2.9
As previously discussed, the basis for setting the allowable stress values or the
design stress intensity values is directly related to many different factors depending upon the section of the code used. The criteria for setting allowable
tensile stresses for each section of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
MATTRIALS' SPECIFICATIONS
All
stress
o;i.;";;,
Boiler and
When design data, such as allowable stresses, are requested for a new material,
that is, one not presently in the code, extensive information must be supplied to
the Code Committee for evaluation. The ASME Code Committee lists this
information to develop allowable stresses, strength data, and other required
properties for accepting a new material into the code. Each section of the code
contains an appendix listing these requirements such as the one for the ASME
Code, VIIII, in Appendix F. The code also provides data to establish extemal
pressure charts for new materials; this is given to those who want to establish
new external pressure charts. The required information is given in Appendix G.
It is the person's responsibility requesting the addirion to supply all the data
needed to establish those properties required in the code.
V"rr"iCot
are as follows:
For Section I, Power Boilers, the ASME Code, YIlll , Pressure Vessels, and
Section III, Division 1, Subsections NC, ND, and NE, except for bolting whose
strength has been enhanced by heat treatment, the factors used to set the allowable tensile stresses are summarized below.
At temperatures in the tensile strength and yield strength range, the least of:
I8
SEI.TCTION
4.
OI
AND AttOWABtE
STRESSES
r{
At temperatures ip the creep and rupture strength range, the least of:
l,
2.
3.
l00qa of the average stress to produce a creep rate of 0.0l per l000 hours
(l7o in 105 hour).
67Ea of the average stress to produce rupture at the end of 100,000 hours.
80Vo of the rninimum stress to produce rupture at the end of 100,000
hours.
,_
In the temperature range in which tensile strength or yield shength sets the
allowable stresses, higher allowable stresses are permitted for austenitic stainless
steels and nickelalloy materials where gleater deformation is not objectionable.
may be increased to
! spicified minimum
yield strength is still maintained.
For the ASME Code, VIIII, bolting material whose slrength has been en_
hanced by heat treatment or strain hardening have the addition; criteria of (l) j
of the specified minimum tensile strength and (2) t of the specified minimum
yield strength.
For the ASME Code, VIII2, and Section III, Division 1, Subsection NB and
NC3200 of Subsection NC, the factor used to set the design stress intensity
values for all materials except bolting is the least of:
paragraph.
2.IO
STRESS
I9
following: (1)  of the specified minimum yield strength and (2) j of the yield
strength at temperature.
For Section IV, Heating Boilers, the criterion for setting the allowable
(1) I /5 of the specified minimum tensile strength.
2.IO
Within the ASME Boiler Code, simplified methods are given to determine the
maximum allowable external pressure and the maximum allowable axial compressive stress on a cylindrical shell without having to resort to complex analytical solutions. Various geometric values are contained in the geometry chart,
whereas materials' properties are used to develop the materials charts.
Allowable stresses in the materials charts are based on the followine criteria
For cylindrical shells under external pressure, the least of:
l.
2,
33Vo
33Va
perature.
3.
4.

For spheres and spherical portions of heads under extemal pressure, the least
OI:
l.
2.
25Eo
25Va
perature.
Higher design stress intensity values are permitted for austenitic stainless
steels and nickelalloy materils where greater deformation is not objectionable.
In this_ case, the criterion of J yield strength at temperature may be increased to
as high as 90Vo yield strength at temperature or any value beiween and gOVo
!
yield strength at temperatue depending upon the acceptable amount of deformation. However, the factor of j specified minimum yield strength is still
maintained.
There are two criteria for setting bolting design stress intensity values in the
ASME Code, VIII2. For design by Appendix 3, the criteria are the same as for
the ASME Code, VI 1, because these values are used for the tlcsign of bolts
for flangjs.
Ior
III,
3.
4.
(17ol100,000 hours).
IOOVo of the allowable stress in tension.
l.
2.
ol
perature.
3.
1007o
(
4.
t)
rrtttl
;6 ;5 ;6
iAil
ltltitll
t. F a tr
\o
\o \o \o
i i .l ^'
rltl
.i "i ; .'
Ed
0rt5
tItl
ta
a cr
\o
\o
.9
o
ttl
o
@
g
g
eq
q,
ttltl
g
='
6E <q
c!o
r sgss
s3ss5ss
tF
F:
.oP.ocoto
'\j'\'\'\
NONa{:
=
o
o
>
ii>;h\>
.:9
o
o
.o
.E6
!ao
()
.o..).o.i66+
:
.\..\\.\
3Eq
(/)F
i;
20
oo
n=
do
F>
Z.
a
*9.
d':
ov.
5d
3.!
az
.\.\.\.\
.=9
. o6;
?!:
;i
>'<
\:'
6 ri
O.
..'\fra\ot\ooo1
g?
go :is
9 d*
c3 la
I ."4 .0
F ;
.0.q.i
"
E .i
gv
E u)
v)
5oN
.;T
tE
ir
.9ir^l$;c===
Eg Et5;;'
:EH3;E6EE
:E!l.r'!55::E=
O o o o 6.
P+tstE333E,
!,
a
eEeEg,:EiEEfEEEE
ao
120
.9* Ea E=
Ee
=g+ ;.:!do0EEEE
.Eo,;
4t4il
Eoo+
'H; i.g ioi.lR4
I.g PF H i.=.=.r
:, .o
=<
t.
E;
*s
,. i
.:Y
.g
oo
{
bo
E(aG6.6*dEG?q<<<.
do
inEG*rj
'i
,5
qO
,5
=P
E
F3trF
;d
ctrEEEE2CCCq
E I CCE E E
'
CJ
=r5===S=55E=g=3
21
22
2.I
STI.TCIION
Ot
AND ALLOWABIE
STRESSES
2.12
23
Australia
PIPING 83I
2.12
Association of Australia are called the SAA Standards Series AS 1200. The
factors of safety used to set the allowable stresses for the various sections are:
UTS
rs
AS 1210_1977
Pressure Vessels
1.6*
Class lH1979
AS 12281980
Boilers
2.4
1.5
1.6
na
2.7
1.5
1.5
n
n
Belgium
ALLOWABLE STRESS IN OTHER CODES OF THE WORLD
Throughout the world, various factors of safety are applied to materials' data to
establish allowable shesses for the design of boilers, pressure vessels, and
piping. For the temperature range to that temperature where creep or rupture sets
the allowable stresses, the universal factor for setting allowable stresses is based
on yield strength. In some countries, a factor is applied to sets of data that have
been established from many tests; in others, the data are determined by the low
yield point or the high yield point. In still other countries, the actual data for the
component being designed have its yield strength determined by tests . The actual
data of the part are then factored into the design formulas. Not all countries
choose to use the ultimate tensile strength as a criterion for setting allowable
stresses. When they do, the factor of safety between various countries rs sometimes very different. In order to show these differences, a discussion follows
regarding the allowable stress basis of several different countries.
The ierms, symbols, and definitions used are as follows:
UTS
The rules used for the design of boilers ald pressure vessels set by the Standards
set as follows:
'
Boilers
Liquid gas
Air receivers
Pressure vessels
UTS
ys
3.2
2.7
1.6
1.5
1.6
1.8
Czechoslavakia
temperature)
perature)
na :
n:
depend usually upon the codes used. However, the basic allowable smesses are
The Belgian rules issued by The Belgian Standards Institute (IBN) permir a
mixture of code rules from various other countries. The allowable stresses
in
100,000 hours
not applicable
none or not used
in
Czechoslovakian rules are extensively detailed for all types of vessels with
different allowable stresses used for intemal pressure as compared with extemal
pressure. For the design of boilers and pressure vessels, the allowable stresses
are established by the least of:
100,000 hours
*l.5
at temDerature.
24
2.I2
UTS
Intemal pressurecylinders
wall
wall
Castings
Heated
Unheated
n
n
1.6
1.6
2.0
1.6
l.)
2.0
Extemal pressurecylinders without stiffening rings
All walls
2.0
2.0
Castings
2.5
2.5
n
n
UTS
ys
n
n
n
2.0
2.5
l.)
1.5
Cast Steel
1.0
1.0
1.25
DIN
1
Tested
DIN2or
1.5
n
n
1.35
DIN
1.7
n
n
n
I
Tested
DIN2or
J.f
1.5
4.0
1.5
1.5
2.5
n
n
F rance
Italy
The French rules for pressure vessel design establish the allowable shesses
depending upon the inspection and the compliance with the SNCT (Syndicat
National de la Chaudronnerie et de la Tuyauterie Industrielle) rules. The allowable stresses are established by the least of:
The Italian rules for boilers and pressure vessels establish the allowable stresses
by the least of the following:
UTS
v,5
SNCT w/insp.
SNCT w/insp.
1.6
and analysis
1.6
Boilers
vessels
1.0
Pressure
2.7
1.6
1.5*
1.6
1.5
1.0
1.0
1.6
2.7
1.6
1.6
1.0
2.4
1.5
1.6
1.0
Not SNCT
w/insp.
Not SNCT
w/o insp.
Japan
1.9
1.6
1.0
Gennany
The three types of pressure vessels recognized by the regulatory agencies in
Germany are fixed pressure vessels, mobile pressure vessels, and boilers. The
allowable stresses are established according to a specific DIN (German Industrial
Standard) certificate or by testing. The allowable stresses are set by various
factors of safety on the yield strength with a constant factor of safety on rupture
as
The Japanese government does not have one group to develop their design
codes. Rather have several different rules for designing boilerJ and pressure
vessels. Although they are published by different groups and generally written
by the different groups, all codes are under the control of the Japanese government. The basis for setting allowable stresses is the least of:
1.6
Boilers
follows:
Pressure vessels
UTS
DIN2orl
Tested
2/(1.6
ys
1.67 av.
 jI
Altemative
n
I .:)
1.5
1.8
1.5
Ll
1.5
pressure
vessels
'whcrcT:
YS/TS
<
O.7.
1.5
1.0
25 min.
1.5 av.
I .25 min.
DIN
rs
UTS
1.0
26
AND ATTOWABI.E
STRESSES
27
REFERENCES
Sweden
ANSUAPI Standard 650, Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage, 7th ed., American Petroleum
Institute, Washington, D.C., 1980.
The Swedish rules for the design of boilers and pressure vessels set the allowable
stresses using only the yield strength and the rupture strength as follows:
ys
UTS
All
1.5
1.5
Unilctl Kingdom
The British rules for the design of boilers and pressure vessels are collectively
called British Standards. The basis for settine the allowable stresses is the least
of:
UTS
ys
2.7
1.5
I _.'
Carbon steel
2.35
Stainless steel
2.5*
1.5
1.5
l.J
BoilersBS 1113
Pressure vessels
BS 5500
I _J
RTTTR.ENCES
l.
Srrrrlcn, A. M., and J. R. Mase, "ASME PressureVessel Code: Which Division to Choose?",
('hrt\k\tl litineering, January
1982.
ll,
lnrthorlt
lrrllrrrr
oJ
rl,JJ [l lcnrt(rrlrtrr.
Dll,lr,
2f
'Fxy
CHAPTER
l+u)
STRENGTH THEORIES,
DESIGN CRITERIA, AND
DESIGN EQUATIONS
i,=#n(*
r1
"
.,&*)
= q.C/afu*razn1
,,'I
i 2 (l p'J \ayz
^J
t"
a_w
211*u;
a*aY
L.
i
29
30
3.I
STRENGTH THEORIES
ln the design of process vessels and pressure equipment, two basic modes of
failure may be assumed: elastic failure based on the theory of elasticity and
plastic failure based on the theory of plasticity. Except for thickwalled vessels,
elastic failure is usually assumed for the design of pressure vessels. It is considered to occur when the elastic limit of the material is reached. Beyond this limit,
excessive deformation or rupture is expected. These limits are usually measured
in terms of tensile strength, yield strength, and, to some degree, rupture
strength.
Of the many theories developed to predict elastic failure, the three most
commonly used are the maximum principal stress theory, the maximum shear
stress theory, and the distortion energy theory. The maximum (principal) stress
theory considers failure to occur when any one of the three principal stresses has
reached a stress equal to the elastic limit as determined from a uniaxial tension
or compression test. The maximum shear stress theory (also called the Tresca
criterion) considers failure to occur when the maximum shear stress equals the
shear stress at the elastic limit as determined from a pure shear test. The
maximum shear stress is defined as onehalfthe algebraic difference between the
largest and smallest of the three principal stresses. The distortion energy theory
(also called the maximum strain energy theory, the octahedral shear theory, and
the von Mises criterion) considers failure to have occurred when the distortion
energy accumulated in the pad under stress reaches the elastic limit as determined by the distortion energy in a uniaxial tension or compression test.
Engineers have known for some time that the maximum shear stress theory
and the distortion energy theory predict yielding and fatigue failure in ductile
materials better than does the maximum stress theory.r However. the maximum
stress theory is easier to apply, and with an adequate safety factor it gives
satisfactory designs. But where a more exact analysis is desired, the maximum
shear stress theory is used.
Two basic theories of strength are used in the ASME Boiler and hessure
Vessel Code. Section I,2 Section IV,3 the ASME Code, VI[1, and Section III,
Division 1, Subsections NC,4 ND,5 and NE6 use the maximum stress theory.
Section III, Division l, Subsection NB7 and the optional part of NC, and the
ASME Code, VtrI2, use the maximum shear stress theory.
In the two sections of the ASME/ANSI Code for Pressure Piping 83l that are
used primarily with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, both ANSI
83 l. l6 and 83 1. 3e use the maximum stress theory. 83 1.3 is unique in that it uses
the maximum stress theory but permits allowable stresses to be established on
the same basis as the ASME Code, VIII2, which requires use of the maximum
shear stress theory. The other sections of 831 also use the maximum stress
theory. They require that in addition to the stresses caused by intemal and
cxternal pressures, tiose stresses caused by thermal expansion of the piping are
to he considered.
3.2
3.2
DESIGN
CRITERIA
3I
DESIGN CRITERIA
The design criteria for both Sections I and IV basically call for determining the
minimum wall thickness that will keep the basic circumferential stress below an
allowable stress level. Additional rules and charts are included for determining
the minimum thickness of various components. However, in general, a detailed
stress analysis is required only for special designs. Sections I and IV recognize
that local and secondary stresses may exist in some areas of pressure vessels;
design details, however, have been established to keep these stresses at a safe
level with a minimum of stress analysis investigation.
The design criteria of the ASME Code, VI 1, and Section III, Division l,
Subsections NC except NC3200, ND, and NE, are similar to those for Sections
I and IV except that the ASME Code, VI[I, and Section III, Division l,
Subsections NC, ND, and NE require cylindrical shell thickness calculations
based on both the circumferential and the longitudinal directions. The minimum
required thickness may be set by stresses in either direction. In addition, the
ASME Code, VIII1, permits the combination of primary membrane stress and
primary bending stress to go as high as 1.5 S at temperatures where tensile and
yield strength control and 1.25 S at temperatures where creep and rupture
control, where S is the allowable tensile stress values.
The design criteria for the ASME Code, VIII2, provide formulas and rules
for thd?nore common configurations of shells and formed heads for temperatures
when the allowable stress criteria do not exceed the yield strength and tensile
strength range. Requirements include detailed evaluations of actual stresses in
complex geometries and with unusual loadings, especially if a cyclic loading
condition exists. These calculated stresses are assigned various categories and
subcategories that have different allowable stress values as multipliers of the
basic allowable stress intensity value. The various categories and subcategories
are:
Primary stress is caused by loadings that are necessary to satisfy the laws of
equilibrium between applied forces and moments. Primary stesses are not
selflimiting .
Secondary stress is developed by selfconstraint of the structure. Its basic
chamcteristic is that it is selfJimiting. That is, rotation and deformation or
deflection take place until the forces and moments are balanced even though
some pennanent geometric changes may have taken place.
Lastly, peak stress is the highest stress condition in a structure and is usually
32
loadings.
The basic stress iniensity limits for various categories relating to an analysis
according to the ASME Code, VIII2, and Section III, Division 1, Subsection
NB, and optional Part NC3200 of Subsection NC are:
Factor
Based on
Stress Intensity Category
Allowable
Yield
Value
Strength*
3.4
STRESSSTMIN REIATIONSHIPS
3.3
DESIGN EQUATIONS
Once the allowable stresses are set, the basic design equations must be devef
oped. The design of process equipment is based on the assumption that the
material generally behaves elastically at the design pressure and design tem
perature. Accordingly, most of the equations are derived from the theory of
elasticity and shength of materials basis.
3.4
STRESSSTRAIN RETATIONSHIPS
by
Factor
Tensile
Strength*
ks,
UKS^
Pd liks.
1(
(PM+PB+Q)
3s,
s)
s,
25,
!c
e,
I
: ;lo,I1
+s,
^lv
(r+
2(1
 .O.
,\,,,
III, Division l,
Subsection
i',nrl pIr I {rl S hsr(.li()n NC, and thc ASMts Codc, VIII2 (psi), S" = yicld strength
't{
,\,
tt)(1
Ii^,
" ltl
2(l +
1t)
1t)
i
(1,+p.)(1
T, :
(3.1)
zp.)
1.t)
[e,(l
2tt) [e,(1 
(l + p)(1 
+AiiurriflI lhrt
I o)l
tt(o,2(1
o^)J
2(l +
V 1t) rn
.t/, =
liorrs.
url
ploz 'r
ELor
S
In the ASME Code, VIII2, and Section III, Division 1, optional Part NC3200 of Subsection NC, a factor of ft is applied to various loading combinations
somewhat related to whether or not the loading is sustained or transient. The
laotors are k = 1.0 for sustained loads including dead loads and pressure;
k  1.2 for sustained load plus wind or earthquake loads; t = 1.25 for hydro$tiltic tcsts; and k  1.15 for pneumatic tests.
'I'hc dcsign criteria for Section III, Division l, Subsection NB, are very
sinrillr lo thoso for the ASME Code, VIII2, except there is less use of design
lirrrrrrrlrrs, culvcs, tnd tables, and greater use of design by analysis in Section IIL
'l'h(. cfllcgorics ol slrcsses and stress intensity limits are the same in both sec
(plri).
t.
rs
,DGE
+s"
p(oy + ozl)
ELo,
er
(P,)
1.
e,:
Based on
LIL)
[,(1
pc)
+ p,(e, + e,)]
p) +
p.(e"
e")l
 pr,)+p(e.+er)]
(3.2)
34
t2
3.5
STRAINDEFTECTION EQUATIONS
equations reduce to
'
f1>
@
I
t4
35
e,:
<f3
1.
E\ox
psr)
t.
q= i\ar
t"l
Po')
(3.3)
,: Elo' + stl
2(1 + tt)
r"t
f"y = EOr, in a different form,
o,
EvL\r t trL)
Tn : ;:;,.._
where
e,:
=
"y,!, yr,, y =
eb ey
oo
re,
o,
rz,
oz
rp
',=76+ iil*
3.5
STRAINDEFLECTION EQUATIONS
t,=adr1\
(3.4)
tL)
p'es
c,:0
F.,
r, = zG;
* *rs
+
lL
Figure
,1u"
o,:;\1e,
t
I
(b)
!
Lp
poisson's ratio
In most pressure vessel applications, the values of o,, rr,, and r,, are relatively
small compared with o, and or. Hence, they are normally ignored and the
tz:
dstt +
.*r(r  4)
\ r./
,":
lrl,
lt
36
3.5
STRAIN.DEFTECTION
EQUATIONS
37
However, because the quantity dw fdx is smal! compared with unity, the expression above becomes
d2w
X': 77
Hence, Eq. 3.5 may be written
.
a;to
Xt =
d2w
7F
(3.6)
as
*=T+1^+
peo,,(#.  *fu)l
drr\'l
ldzw,
ot: T7E I + Pew  '\dy,
 It dr') l
(3.7)
*.leb
3.2
Cross sction
"l'Y:"loq+a+P
Substituting the values of lr and lz into the above and deleting all small terms
results in
.:
or
(t
l\ : e0,_
_ ,\,:_
i)
is the shearing stress due to inplace forces and d and B are due to
Also, from the figure,
moments.
twisting
where
z. x\
7qry
(d/ d\'ldv
.
dsrna
__6:
du
(dD/?x)dx
0a
ou
IJsrnP
r l\
= es  z' xt
,\4 i)
+
o,: ,:Lr"
tltti
q ,lvt
t lL
peo!
z(y"
du
f,t: Ioq, dy
trt'yt)
(3.5)
l"r*
z(Xr+
PX')
=A
and
d,
dy
dx2
/
x'=tt+kt"4'hffn
0a
(3.8)
a,
From Fig. 3.30, which represents the middle surface, the rotation is given by
@w I Ai. The minus sign indicates counterclockwise rotation. As a result of
this rotation, any point at a distance z from the middle surface will have a
deflection of
dw
dx
38
3.6
39
FORCESTRESS EXPRESSIONS
^,
",=c("*
3.6
*#)
(3.9)
FORCLSTRESSEXPRESSIONS
The forcestress relationship for the cross section shown in Fig' 3 4a can be
exDressed as
\
,/./,?
z
t,',..'7
t _,

t
u....
n"=[,"(ti)a"
u,=1,,,\tz)a'
_,
l_
(3. 10)
z
Figura
tD,
3.3
Shor dolormdliom of
u.=
[".'lt 
z)a"
,, = [ ,,'lt  1)a"
u*=
Similarly,
D
[,,",(t4;,
dte
= Zdy
In the majority of cases, the quantity z/r is small with respect to unity and can
thus be dlsregarded. Also, substituting Eqs. 3.7 and 3.9 into 8q 3 10 gives
40
3.6
4l
FORCE.STRESSEXPRESSIONS
,.:&(#.#)
u,=ffi\(*tu.
Eilt l2ll 
,.
(3.1 r)
,*tu)
tL) drw
lt2t ax dy
opening?
Solutian.
Using the equations given under Eq. 3.2, the stresses are determined
AS
,/
,oq
o,: ;#1Q60X0.7)
( r.Jrw.+.,
,qq
' *l(180)(0.7)
",:
t r.JJ(u.+,
0.3(180
230)l
13'630 psi
0.3(360
230t1
9499 O.;
?qo
"'' tr?10rr0.7)
= (1.3x0.4)"
""' + 0.3(360 + 180)l :
60
psi
3.2. What are the stresses in the two principal directions of the
cylindrical shell with the o, = gt
Exanple
Et
N. = r
rlJ' r(0r+
Ft
N,}
2(l
lL'
1'u,Et
1t)
Using the simplified equations given under Eq. 3.4, the stresses are
determined
as
/,q,
N, :
l
Solution.
', =ffioso
o, =ffi{rto
+ 0.3 x
180)
13,6oo psi
+ 0.3 x
360)
9460
psi
42
Problems
3.1
Answer:
e,:
i:
*498
+117
x 106
x 106
In the tube of Problem 3.1, what is the strain in the z direction? Usins that
answer and the other answers in Problem 3.1, what are the calcrilated
stresses in the three directions?
Anst'er: a" =
17,500 psi
o"=o
REFERENCES
Criteria of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for Design by At],',ltsis in Sections
and VIII, Division 2, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New york, 1969.
III
York, 1983.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section
l,
York. 1983.
ASMII Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division l, Subsection NE, Class MC
(i)tnpt,nt',ttr, ANSTASME BPV IlNE, American Society ofMechanical Engineers,
New
7.
Y,nk, 1983.
ASMIj lllrilcr and
(.
43
BIBTIOGRAPHY
3.2
BIELIOGRAPHY
l()8l
Brownell, L. E., and E. H. Yoi{Irlg, Process Equipment Design, John Wiley, New york, 1959.
FattWI, J, H., Engineering Design, John Wiley, New York, l9&.
Ha0ey, J. F., Theory and Design of Modern Pressure Vessels,2nd ed., Van NostrandReinhold,
Princeton, N.J.
Seely, F.
1952.
CHAPTE R
MATERIALS OF
CONSTRUCTION
44
MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
46
4.I
MATERIAL SETECTION
The vast majoriry of vessels are constructed of ferrous and nonferrous alloys'
used
Ferrous alloys are defined as those having more than 50Vo iron They are
steels'
lowalloy
and
carbon
include
2,
and
and
VI[l
in the eSME Code,
steels'
stainless steels, cast iron, wrought iron, and quenched and tempered
zirconium
and
titanium,
nickel,
copper,
aluminum,
include
Nonfenous alloys
The ASTM designates all ferrous alloys by the letter A and all nonferrous alloys
the ASME
by B. ASME uses the prefixes SA and SB, respectively ln most cases
the
ASME
to
unO eSfV specifications are identical. However, vessels built
Code usually refer to the ASME specifications'
Nonmetilic pressure vessels may also be constructed to the ASME Code'
plasRecently, ASME Section X was published to include fiberglassreinforced
Concrete
46'
tic (FRij vessels. Details of construction are given in Section
rules are
vessels are also being considered by the ASME However, no specific
available at this time.
and
Selecting materials that are adequate for a given process is complicated
depends on many factors such as corrosion, strength, and cost'
4.1.1
Corrosion
Corrosion,whichisdefinedasthedeteriorationofmetalsbychemicalaction'
A
is probably the single most important consideration in selecting materials
sigcan
given
stigtrt ctrange in the chemical composition of a
environment
in
nifi'cantly cilange the corrosive behavior of a given metal This is illustrated
on
different
effect
their
and
epp""Oi* H, i,trich lists various environments
Fisure
4.1
Cotroded corbon sleel lubesheet. (Courl$y of the Nooter Corp., St. touis, Mo.)
insl;rllaliott.
Frrruro
4.2
4.I
49
MATERIAT SITECTION
4.1.2
Strenglh
The strength level of a material has a significant influence on its selection for a
given application. This is especially true at elevated temperatures where the
yield and ultimate strength are relatively low and the creep and rupture behavior
may control the allowable stress values. In the ASME Code, VIIIl, the criteria
for allowable stress at elevated temperatures take into account both the creep and
rupture behavior as discussed in Section 2.4. In applying the ASME criteria for
allowable stress as given there, the following procedures are used.
Specified Minimum Yield Stress
In obtaining the minimum yield shess of a given material, test data are plotted
at vadous temperatures as shown in Fig . 4 . 5 . A smooth trend curve is then drawn
though the averages of the data for individual test temperatures. The specified
minimum yield stress curve is obtained by applying to the yield trend curve the
ratio of the specified minimum value, as given in the material specification, to
the trend value of 80"F.
Fisure
4.3
o
Fisure
48
4.4
200
400
600
800
1000
temperature,"F
Crock in
Figure
4.5
1200
1400
1600
!0
MATERIATS
OI
CONSTRUCTION
4.I
5l
MATTRIAI. SETECTION
Rupture Slrength
Test data are normally plotted as shown in Fig. 4.7. In some cases the data need
to be extended to 100,000 hours and must be done with extreme care to extraD
Creep Rate
In order to establish the creep rate of lVo /lffi,O}} hours, data are plotted as
shown in Fig. 4.6. Interpolation and extrapolation may be needed to establish
the creep rate for various temperature levels.
olate accurately.
Example 4.1. A user is requesting code approval for a new material that has
a minimum specified tensile stress of 120 ksi and a minimum specified yield
stress of 60 ksi at room temperature. Tensile and yield values for various heats
and temperatures are shown in Fig. 4.5. Creep and rupture data are given in Figs.
4.6 and 4.7, respectively. What are the allowable stress values at 300 and 1200'F
in Section 2.4?
1,000
.0001
Llle llrs.
Figur
,{.6
Crep strengrh.
Figur
4.7
Rupture strengrh.
MATERIATS OF CONSTRUCTION
52
4.2
NONFERROUS ATLOYS
Solution
Conslruction
l.
2.
3.
4.
Type
.3
Moteriol Cost
llt'r'rrrrsc costs of materials vary significantly, the designer must evaluate materiirl (osl vcrsus other facton such as corrosion, expected life of equipment,
Ivrrilirl'ility ol material, replacement cost, and code restrictions on fabrication
rrrrl rr'1ririrs. n summary of the cost of some frequently used materials is given
rn l irlrlt ,l.  . With the large difference in cost, the designer should consider the
lrx l(xs ltfior' 11r sclccting a given material.
Carbon steel
0.30
Lowalloy steel
0.7 5
Stainless steel
0.902.50
Aluminum
1.50
Copper, bronze
t.'7 5
Incoloy
4.00
Monel
5.00
Inconel
Hastelloys
15.00
Titanium
Zirconium
20.00
Tantalum
250.00
'As of
4.2
Cost in
Dollars/lb
6.00
15.00
January 1983.
NONFERROUS ATLOYS
The 1983 ASME Section VIII Code, VI[1, lists five nonfenous alloys for code
construction: aluminum, copper, nickel, titanium, and zirconium. These alloys
are normally used in corrosive environment or elevated temperatures where
ferrous alloys are unsuitable. Nonferrous alloys are nonmagnetic except for
commercially pure nickel which is slightly magnetic.
MATERIATS OF CONSTRUCTION
54
Tqble
4.2
Jf
NONIERROUS ATTOYS
Toble
4.3
EXAMPLE+
C ST'TG
FLITES
(n^?{ sElraEss
NE
frTtta
DEGREE
C@,ITFOL OF
TE]FER OR TO IENTIFY
A STECIAL s,ET G MECH
F4t5, A4AS
a $aPEli
cErE EF a ,/17
E(U{A'GF ltE
ffiffi6nE
DIE
TUTO
Fffi'TS
,.ffi"ffi#*EffidF
2 nLUT
At'tt.ALm
TO.J HT TI]EN
Jfit<,6lLlfY.
3
"'ffi,#P.*,fffr4ffi..ffisffi*
6
9
Annealing.
Consists of heating the material to a given temperature and then slowly
cooling it down. The purpose is to soften the material in order to remove cold
working stress.
Norm.alizing.
Consists of heating rnaterial to a temperature slightly higher than the annealing temperatue and then cooling at a rate that is faster than annealing.
S o lution
H eat Tr eatin g.
Stahilizing.
a.ffiiig,rri;p:::ffi!*r
fFEATAaE ILLOY.
designation, and temper designation as shown in Tables 4.2 and 4.3. Some of
the terms in the tables are defined as follows:
COLD V@KEO
Stain Hardening.
Modification of metal structure by cold working resulting in an increase in
strength with a loss in ductility.
Thermal Treating.
Temperature treatment of an alloy to produce a stable temper.
4.2.2
Most copper alloys are used because of their good corrosion resistance and
machinability. They are also homogeneous as compared with steel or aluminum
and thus not susceptible to heat treatment' Their strength, generally speaking,
may be altered only by cold working. The alioy designation system serves to
identify the type of material as shown in Table 4.4. Alloys 101199 are normally
a high grade copper with very few alloys added. Alloys 201299 normally refer
b brass products that are mainly copper and zinc. Alloys 501665 are bronze
products composed of copper and elements other than zinc. Other properties of
copper alkrys are also sbown in the Table.
E
E
ra ra
MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
56
Tqble
4.4
Copper AlloYs
Alloy Designation of
301399
401499
701J30
U)
U) tan
di\J
\o
\O
d
\O
@
U) u)
ca
a
\D
\o
T 5
a
co a':
of
co cD rq
EoS E g,.E$
HFr"
.3;o
.t2 ax
Coppers
601645
64s665
666699
\o
oO
I
I
CoPPers
l0l199
20tJ99
501599
Eo
dicc
a\)a
\o
5
Ecco e
ca rq...j
u1 v u) rh a
a
\o
\o
\or
\o
II
U'
rI
IQCQ
.J1 U)
rr
\oi
ir)
aa
+
+
+
a
a@
:
t4
\o
sf
\o
I

Coppernickel alloys
ColdWorked TemPer Designations
B;=
a. ,B t:
Approximate 9o Reduction
bY
\o
\o
\o
ta)
tt)
C+
O<f r)
av)
Cold Working
0.9
Qua(er Hard
Half hard
20.7
Threequarte$ hard
29.4
Hard
31
Extra hard
50.0
Spring
Extra spring
60.5
lv)aa
vt(hu)l
.l
>doF
68.7
<AE
IIi
ao !v Q
6 nG
v v>
'r,
88
Most copper alloys are distinguishable by their color except for CuNi alloys
that tend to lose their color as the amount of Ni is increased
4.2.3
Nickel and highnickel alloys have excellent corrosion and oxidation resistance
that makes thJm ideal for high temperature applications with corrosive environ
Y
<
6=aa.i,:,i,9
ments. Products are normally called by their commercial names rather than their
ASME designation number as shown in Table 4 5'
4.2,4
JVCq9vYii
flSd
2222222222
Titanium and zirconium alloys are used in process equipment subjected to severe
environment. In the ASME Code, VIII1, unalloyed titanium is listed for grades
grades also
I , 2, and 3, and alloyed titanium is listed for grade 7. Two zirconium
705'
alloy
alloyed
and
702
alloy
unalloyed
given in the Code are
The modulus of elasticity for both titanium and zirconium is about half that
ol stccl. Also the coefficient of thermal expansion of both is about half that of
stccl. I'hc dcnsity o1'zirconium is slightly less than stcel' whereas the density of
lilrrlirrrr is irlrottt 0.5ti lirttcs thltt ol stccl.
9B
n^:i^
zF
l= I
v6 Vo zz
z
F
Z\J ZY >v
ccg,,56
I ; r'i XEE i
da 2e 2a2^::;. F
23888A838:E;8t
z zcz44aa3z4
=e
$na*$qfi
ra33383nltsa
s?
aEP
3EE
&
(./t
u)all
$na$$qqqqq
t3,38nA3nn3F^
H5 g
al
E)
o q
= *A
q
EEU*
3 g ? qlnlqq
$3e
$
AAenE3a
ao
AA
q s$3$$$$$ qq
sAAEn'n3333a3383
t83
Yq
rarartl
q
3
s$$nHfiH$$+q
nAaeBSaaSSa
n  3
I'i :SX
ii
ocq
tr
ttt ca u)
F



ra)
v'
tY
a
\o
l(ha
; g nE H
El
e&"
r.)
c.r <l
iisiotidooozx
.J
i\
^r
to
nl
CJ
al
R=
><> )<x
i{
5
C)
gg
a^r'i==
O
EEEEtt
giss!ig$gqB
622t2322222
U
O
26
II.
t!
n*i
.i+t
zzz
,9,
,9
;i
/\/tx
X XE AH O:'
.rrrr{a
ln
EuEt sc ig ig I5
ic
kc
ic Ig Ig
;Qo;FQ;Fe36g.S
JJ.o i6\
d)i dliH
C:F
3g5Eg6s9lsd
59
MATERIATS OF CONSTRUCTION
4.3
4.4
HEAI TREATING OF
STEETS
6I
steels. lhese elements enhance the steel for high temperature applications and
FERROUS ALTOYS
in hydrrigen service.
Iron alloys with carbon content of less than 2qo arc known as steels and those
with more than 27o are known as cast iron. Steels are further divided into those
with carbon content of more than 0.87o, called hypereutectoid steels, and those
with carbon content of less than 0.87o, known as hypoeutectoid steels. Most
steels used in pressure vessel applications have a carbon content of less than
0.47o. Steels with carbon content of over O.4Eo are very brittle and hard to weld.
Cast iron used in pressure vessels dates back to the nineteenth century.
However, because cast iron is very brittle and because it cannot be rolled,
drawn, or welded, its use in pressure vessels presently is limited to complicated
components and configurations. The ASME Code, VIIII, also imposes limitations on the pressure and temperature ranges and the repair methods.
Steel alloys can be produced with a wide variety of alloying elements. Some
of the common elements and their effect on steel products are shown in Table
4.6. The ASME Code, VIII1, divides steel alloys into the following categories:
HighAlloy Steels.
These are commonly refened to as stainless steels. They have mainly chromium (over lOVo), nickel, and molybdendm alloys. The basically three types
of stainless steel used in process equipment are as follows:
M artensitic Stainless Steels.
This group includes type 410, which has a low chromium content of slightly
above lTEo. They behave like steel, are magnetic, heat heatable, and difficult
to fabricate.
Carbon Steels.
These are widely used in pressure vessels. They have mainly silicon and
manganese as the main alloying elements and are limited in temperature
This group includes all 200 and 300 series and are chromiumnickel and
chromiumnickelmanganese steels. They arc nonmagnetic and not heat
Ste e ls.
heatable.
LowAllny Steels.
These are essentially cbromium (up
Tqble
Advantages
Aluminum
Strengtheqs annealed
Chromium
Incrcases resistalca to
corrosion and oxidation
Increases hardenability
Adds strength at high
temperature
steels
MirrUlocsc
Molylrk
rrrrrrr
Counteracts sulfur
brittleness
I ncrcases hardenability
l{ iscs graincoarsening
carbon steel.
Prevents formation
austenite in high
of
depletion of chomium
in stainless steel during
chromium steels
reslstance
Increases hardenability
Strengthens steel
illrrlcrircls tcndency
long heating
Vanadium
The lattice structure of steel varies from one form to another as the temperature
changes. This is illustrated in Fig. 4.8. Between room temperature and 1333"F,
the steel consists of what is known as "ferrite and pearlite." Ferrite is a solid
solution of a small amount of carbon dissolved in iron. Pearlite, which is shown
in Fig. 4.9, is a mixture of ferrite and iron carbide. The carbide is very hard and
Prevents localized
Improves oxidation
l('lll)crilturc
(
britde.
In Fig. 4.8 between lines A1 Qower critical ternperature) and A3 (upper critical
temperature) the carbide dissolves more readily into the lattice that is now called
"ferrite and austenite." Austenite is a solid solution of carbon and iron that is
denser than ferrite.
Above line 43 the lattice is uniform in property, with the austenite the main
structure. The actual temperature for this austenite range is a function of the
carbon content of the steel as shown in Fig. 4.8.
With this brief description, we can now discuss various heat treatments of
Toughens steels
Titanium
4.4
Increases hardenability
Rcsists tcmpcring
Normalizing.
This consists of heating the steel to about 100"F above the upper critical line
and tben cooling in still air. The purpose is to homogenize the steel
structurc and oroduce a harder steel than the annealed condition
Ai
MATERIATS
62
Of
CONSTRUCTION
4.5
63
BRITTTE FMCTURE
'ri
the part.
iAiu.,
Tempering.
they are heat
Ouenched steels are very brittle. In order to increase toughness'
;;;;
il"* ;.;d
4.8
4.5
BRITTTE FRACTURE
occasionalllfail:ht
i*tir;at"d,=A;"."p:.Iormalopqr3tingtdlFPeratureatalnressurewell
illiiffi=0.;;ftJG d*i i"ir'* $"Jutt! o'"u'' ut to* !;'i{'n"'1r ioo
amountofinformationavailableandtherequiredreliabiljtyolaglvencomponent.
ANNEALED
PEARLITE
PEARLITE
Figure
4.9
Parlile 3tructure.
llrrr r'orrrisls ol lreating the steel to about 50'F above the upper critical line
,4, lrrrl tlrlrr ltttttittt cortling slowly. The purpose is to refine the grain and
rtrlttr'r srtllttr'ss
The Cv test is the simplest and most popular method of qualitatively determining
ffi'rrl."iGrl^cF*T
of
9n:sl:dJp.j"r_Tglllg: lljS
impact teslrn_g
ASTM A370_and consistf
taken from a spbcifib location of a product lorm. l he speclmen ls srucK wlln a
falling weighi(Fig.4.l}b) and the energy required to fracture it at various
tempJratures is recorded. Figure 4.11 shows two typical plots of the temperature
versus absorbed energy. The magnitude of measured energy, shape of energy
curve, and appearance of the cross section of tested specimens are all significant
in evaluating material toughness.
4.5
ffil
fn',n
 '*nn
BRITTTE FRACTURE
.ro"ttgm;f"@Slt
as sho_wnin_Curve,4 qf Fig. 4 1 l. @
. assharu!_!J_ rfrrvx grn\E:.4.1t. This slight increase in toughness makes the
Cv test impractical to use in high strength steels.
The
of dull and
areas in the cross section of tested
(Fig. 4.10c).
Fig'rre
spc'men.
Research. Laboratory
The DWT procedure is given in ASTM E208 and consists of welding a brittle
bead on a test specimen. The bead is then notched and the specimen impact
l$ted at various temperatures. The NDT temperature is obtained when the
specimen does not break upon impact.
In testing the specimens, deflection can be limited such that the stress at
failure does not exceed the yield value. Thus, a direct correlation is established
between the NDT temperature and yield stress. Such information is used in
constructing the fracture analysis diagram (FAD).
cuRvi(A)
CURVE(s)
Fisure
4.ll
64
/
66
MATERIATS OF CONSTRUCTION
4.5
BRITTIT
FRACTURE
67
mpAcT
ERiP
Figure
0{DT+60"F) (
urd
YIELD
srnEss
lKl
M tet
L_________J
FLAT"
BULGE
&
FRACTIJRE
FRACTURE
Figurc
Diosrom of specimen
DT+120'F)
TEMP+
"
4.13
4.12
lft\
tL)
,BULGE'
&
PARTIAL
"BuLGE"
FRACTURE
TEABS
ls
lz
T
ll
&
SHEAR
riloT
Fisuro
4.14
(NI'I+3o'F)
TEMe.
(NDT+60'F)
(NDT+r20'F)
MATERIATS OF CONSTRUCTION
4,5
69
BRITTLE FRACTURE
1.
2.
thicknesses require
special evaluation and it has been proposed that the FTE temperature for
thicknesses over 6 in. should be taken as NDT + 120"F rather than
210"F instead of
NDT + 60'F. The FfP temperature should be NDT
NDT + 120'F. This indicates that for thick sections, Fig. 4.14 is on the
unconservative side and the safe operating temperature should be greater
than those indicated by the figure.
60
50
,4O
":l
Cl
El
El
4l
l
ul
Ft
such material?
o
1o
20
30
50
60
Solution. From the CAT curve in Fig. 4. 14 the minimum safe temperature is
at NDT + 30" or 1ffF for a stress of onehalf yield. Thus, startup temperature
is on the unsafe side because it is less than 10'F. If startup temperature is
critical, the shess will have to be decreased or a better impact material selected. I
ASME Pressure Vessel Criterio
The ASME Code, VIII, uses a different approach for preventing brittle fracture
in pressure vessels with carbon steel construction. Division 1 prohibits the use
of some carbon steels below 20'F and requires impact testing of all others that
are subjected to temperatures below 20"F, with some minor exceptions. Division 2 uses a more refined approach that takes into account the effect of
material type, thickness, and temperature. Figure 4.15 is a simplified version of
the code approach. It exempts some tough materials of a given thickness from
impact testing when the service temperature is above a specific value given in
or11+22+3
THICKNESS
the filure.
10
_40
Solution.
4.5.1
30
20
GRoUP
A:
GRoUP
8:
GRoUP
GRoUP
Figure,l.l5
lmpdci test exemption curvos for some corbon sreels. (Co'rrte.y of the Americon Society of
Mhonicol Ensineers.)
The above approach, although different from the FAD concept, is a practical
tool for preventing brittle fracture without requiring elaborate analysis; it is
based on test data.
The FAD and ASME criteria are applicable to lowcarbon steels where the
effect of temperature is prominent. Toughness of higher strength steels or materials such as stainless steels, aluminum, or titanium is independent of temperature. Thus, a different approach based on the mathematical theory of fracture toughness is used in establishing adequate toughness.
4.4. A 3.Oin.thick pressure vessel is made of SA533 Gr. B material with an NDT temperature of 0'F. The design temperature is 50"F and the
design membrane sffess is threefourths of yield. What are the code fracture
requirements of this vessel if it is constructed in accordance with (a) Division I
of Section VIII, (b) Division 2 of Section VIIL
Example
MATTRIALS
Of
CONSTRUCTION
Solulian. (a)
tory. I
4.5.2
4.5
&=oF
where F
Basically the brittle fracture theory assumes that stress at the vicinity of a crack
(Fig. 4. 16) due to a load applied perpendicular to the direction of crack is given
by the following expressions:
. 0 30\
'... . ... ,, I
stnstnl
#(*":)(' srn;
.: #(*":)(' i,a30\
"
".:
/
srn
K,
,/ ,
=
r, 0 =
7ry
Kt
3a\
tft
7l
BRITTTE TRACTURE
(4.l)
Fracture theory is one the most accurate methods presently available for
evaluating maximum tolerable defect size. The main drawback is the difficult
task of obtaining I</c factors for different materials. Economics might dictate a
simplified approach like FAD or the ASME criteria with a small permissible
defect size rather than a fracture theory approach that might allow a larger
tolerable defect.
Relatiaiship Between
K1g
and Cy
Determination of K1c values is tedious and expensive especially for low strength
Toble
4.7
Some Approximofe
K7a
Volues
JK/c
Material
Figure
4.16
tip of
300"F
(ksi\inJ
200'F
100"F
A302Gr. B
25
34
48
,A.5l7Gr. F
34
44
7'7
38
50
A.533 Gr. B
35
40
HV80
55
83
46
78
Tqble
case
l:
4.8
Flovl
Tqble
Case
4.8
l"
3t . If
F=V
ra
se 5 : Singl e
o
( Ref. 2, p. 49
I
terna
ci rcul
Itl
lll
l,ihere
La
Case 2:
.a2
E_
E'g_
6 E
edge
Rer'
is the maior
notcn.
wi dth
F=CVir.a
c=1i1'iF+o227+ roa(i)'zasz(if
+4272
l1'2
tan @wl
\4
t+l
\r /
(
case
( Ref. 2,
thick
pl
s0
crack
328
ate.
F=zVT
"a" is radlus'of
XET
F=
where
to
r
F=Fr.L#
Clse 3:
axl
o.ztzo2f or2
Ref.
3, P. 39 )
31
73
74
MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
Krc:155Cvtl2
(4.2)
f&Y:4ofQo.r)
\ov./
\sr
/
(4.3)
where Cv is in ftlb, o" in ksi, and K1g in ksivG. Equations 4.2 and 4.3 are for
medium strength steels such as 4.517 Gr. F and 4302 Gr. B.
4.5.3
Hydroslotic Testing
4.5
75
BRITTTE FRACTURE
4.5.4
Many factors such as torch cutting, arc strikes, and cold forming affect the britde
fracture behavior of metals and should be considered in fabricating pressure
vessels. Torch cutting or beveling of the plate edges may lead to hard and brittle
areas. In cases where this condition is underdesirable the plate should be heated
to minimize this effect. Grinding the edges eliminates the hard surfaces.
Arc strikes can create failure by brittle fracture especially if the strike is made
over a repaired area. It is desirable to grind and repair all arc strikes before
hydrotesting, especially at low temperatures.
Cold forming of thick plates may lead to fracture in areas with stress raisers
or plate scratches. All stress raisers should be ground off to minimize their
effect. Hotforming substantially improves the situation because it increases the
NDT temperature and thus prevents brittle fracture.
Hydrostatic testing of a pressure vessel is the best available method for determining maximum tolerable defect size. Thus, if a thick pressure vessel is
hydrotested at a pressure that is 50% greater than the design pressure, the critical
K1 is given by
Eq. 4.1
as
= oF
'^
Krc:
/ I;\
120(1.88'z
r.88r
1.034':)
r.034,
r.(r\/;J
t.5
a\Rl  Rl)
Rl  Ri
Krc
Maximum defect size
"',('fu)
"
(,
l1f/
1.12\4;Xo.o5)
or
  t t<^
Hence, a crack that is discovered after hydrotesting can grow 2.25 times its
original size before causing failure. This fact illustrates the importance ofhydrotesting and is based on a hydrostatic temperature that is the same as the lowest
operating temperature of the vessel.
Hence,
40/0.359
0.359
111.4 ksi
^ tll.4(t.88)2 t.0341 :
maxr:
ll8' r l034':
'l'hcrclirre liacture toughness criteria control the
14Jl(sl
design.
77
NONMETATTIC VESSEIS
MATERIAIS OF CONSTRUCTION
76
to be used
4'6. An A302B material with a yield stress of 50 ksiofisthe
percent
an
examination
and
15
ftlb
The Cv value is
irl
in the
a
temperature
"".r"1.
indicate
".!*"*
specimens
#"i^il;; .rott ...,i* of tested
Examnle
K1g
15(15)0
= t9 ksiVin
F=
1C;Yr Mo Stccl
\/;ajzr
;ts+l;ts,,oI25/orus"  ""
x So = r:
41 ksi Actual stress :
'l
i.fl*fit"rt it l_es's,rtan the critical brittle stress Therefore' operation of the vessel
is safe unless the defect grows in size l
Hence, from Eq' 4'1,
4.6
o: 19/0'46:
HYDROGENEMBRITTLEMENT
l.
Hydrogen
Fisure
4.17
of teperutu."hd
in Fig. 4.17.
2.
'
Hydrogen
attock.
een
;;;;;;;qt"
soft
4.7
iIONMETALLIC VESSETS
BIBTIOGRAPHY
MATERIATS OF CONSTRUCTION
must be cycled 100,000 times between zero and design pressure and then burst
at a Dressure not less than six times the design pressure'
REFERENCES
Pellini, W. S., "Principles of Fracture Safe DesignPart l" ln Pressure Vessels and Piping:
New York' 1972
Design and A'',,lysis, Vol. l, American Society of Mechanical Engineers'
Tetelman.
York,
A. S.,
and
1967.
N.J.,
Water Reactor
Riccardella, P. C., and T. R. Mager, "Farigue Crack Growth in hessunzed
Society of
Vol
l,
American
ye
and
Analysis,
Disigtl
ssels and Piping:
Vessels" in Pressare
Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1972.
"Fracture Mechanics Technology as Applied toThickWalled
Vessels" in Pressure vessels and PipitlS: DesiSn and Analysis'
American Society of Mechanical Engineers' New York, 1972
ttu"t" pa".*,"
R Magel,
vol l'
f''
BIBLIOGRAPHY
aM Data, Alrmin'um Association, Washington, D.C., 19'19.
Alner, S. H.,Introduction to Phlsical Metallurgy, McGrawHill, New York, 1964.
Aluminum Standards
t91l
Thielsch, H., Defects and Failures in Pressure Vessels akd PipinS, R. E. Krieger, New York,
1965.
PART2
ANALYSIS OF
COMPONENTS
8l
CHAPTER
STRESS IN CYLINDRICAL
SHELLS
Atr'0th,t.otcylndrcolh!hinochomicolPon'(courg,yofE..dUPontdaNomoursondco.)
83
11
5.I
3,I
85
TO INTERNAL PRESSURE
Thc classic equation for determining stress in a thin cylindrical shell subjected
to pressuris obtained from Fig. 5.1. Summation of forces perpendicular to
plane ABCD gives
PL.2r:ZoeLt
Figur 5,2
ot= Pr
(s.1)
Also,
dw
where p = gssure
Z = length of cylinder
o, = hoop stress
r = radius
I = thickness
(s.3)
ar
cvllnoers
(s.4)
The stain
ee
is defined
as
where
E = modulus of elasticity
>
0=
2t(rIw)2rr
z1fr
;
(s.2)
ae
o,
do,
= dr
(5.5)
Frcbody diogrom
\.
o,
(l + rr)(1  2*rl+(t 
1t)
p,(e,
+ e)l
as
I
I
5.I
86
STRESS DUE
TO INTERNAT PRISSURE
87
t . *nt=A
lr'(t  t,  ztt\(Er?  p,r) + r?r1{o + D(n  p")l
.1
(5.8)
Once w is obtained, the values of o6 and d; are determined from Eqs. 5.2, and
5.3, and 5.6 and expressed for thick cylinders as
_
aa
pr?
_
=
p,r? + (pt
4rZ
Fisuro
5.3
Cro5s
(1
+pXl
[er(lp)+pr(e,+e)]
(s.6)
.r.^ [r(l
:
4:
and
.B
(s.7)
whcre A and B are constants of integration and are determined by first substituting Eq. 5.7 into the first one of Eq. 5.6 and then applying the boundary
conditkrns
at
r, =
r=
extemal pressure
inside radius
outside radius
The distribution given by Eq. 5.9 of the shesses through the thickness of a
cylinder due to iniernal and extemal pressues is shown in Figs. 5.4 and 5.5,
w dzwr ldw
 't
ar rar  r = v
o,: Pi
hoop stress
p, = intemal pressure
p,
Substituting Eqs. 5.2 and 5.3 into the first two expressions
substituting the result into Eq. 5.5 results in
respectively.
A comparison between Eqs. 5.1 and 5.9 is shown in Fig. 5.6. The figure
illustrates the adequacy of Eq. 5. I for r,/4 ratios of less than or equal to 1.1 (or,
conversely, rt/t > lO).
The longitudinal stress in a thick cylinder is obtained by substituting Eqs. 5.2,
5.3, and 5.8 into tle last expression of Eqs. 5.6 to give
r=
ri
rnd
o,
= _p,
 ,l
(l + p)(1
E
(5.9)
nrl + (n  n)blrl/rz)
tb)
od
o!
p")(r7r3/r2)
4:i,"
la'
4r?
P"r'z.
,2_.?
(5.10)
With or known, Eq. 5.8 for the deflection of a cylinder can be expressed
as
"'=++r(#)
Ar Inne.
surr.ce
+=t+
)=t
Ourer
surraco
.Ai
+="#
ft=o
Figurc
5.4
Slrca! dishibdion in
Fi9ur6
,,=#e#)
At
fnnersurtace
"r=ffi
ft=o
aroorersurfaca
"r#ifl
9=_r.o
P"
Figuro
88
5,5
pr.3sur.
5.6
o cylindricol
5hcll.
90
STRESS tN CYr"tNDRtCAt
l(Ptri
+ (h  t',,)rlrl,(l
Lr\r;  ri)
P,,r!,)lt
zr.t)
rt)
SHtrrs
(5. 1 1)
5.I
STRESS DUE
_rl+
P rl
ot
The deflection pattem for external and intemal pressures is shown in Fig. 5.8.
Example 5.1. The inside radius of a hydraulic cylinder is 12.0 in. What is the
7500 psi and a6 = 20,000 psi?
required thickness if P
Solulinn.
, = /l
t=:
Pr
oo
:
7500
12
20,000
= 4.50 in.
5.2. A cylinder
pressure of 50 psi
psi, 1.r :
r!
+p
loe
=
"\ /
5.80 in.
22Eo.
0.3, and E = 30
Solution. From
r?
Example
lnternal Pressur
9l
TO INTTRNAI PRESSURT
stress is 1 5 ,000
10o Psi?
50x72 :
*=!"il+##tdl
15,000
0.24 rn.
x 722
30x106x0.24
50
w.=E:tfl2:lll
'E(ro"r;")
0.0360 in.
Using the thick shell theory, we obtain the required thickness from Fig. 5.4
External Pressure
as
')
O.24 in.
5.8
Rodiol deflftrion du
lo
':
=
w,=B:dJiJ2:t)
EGTil
 20.3 \
30 x rgu \tf*  rV1
(5q?2f
0.0305 in.
Examples 5.1 and 5.2 indicate that Eq. 5.1 is adequate when the ratio
sreater than 10.
rlft
is
5.2
93
OISCONTINUITYANAIYSIS
Problcms
to an intemal
of 10,000 psi. Using an allowable stress of 25,000 psi, determine
dx
+ 4!!.i ax
Answer:
5.2
t:6.33
dx
Answer: p1 =
5.3
dox
?t
in.
7690 psi
occur?
l{o
Answer:
5.2
o6:
dx
o,
= 5000
at
(b)
Figore 5.9
DISCONTINUITY ANALYSIS
All the previous equations were based on the assumption that the cylinder is free
to deform under pressure. In practical applications, the cylinder is attached to
end closures that reshain its deformation. Other items such as stiffenirg rings
and internal bulkheads affect the cylinder deformation and introduce local
stesses. These local shesses can be evaluated by a dicontinuitytype analysis
using the general bending theory of thin cylindrical shells. The theory assumes
that the loads are symmetric around the circumference and that the thickness of
the shell is small compared with its radius. It is also assumed that the inplane
shearing forces and moments are zero. The problem then reduces to that of
solving the forces shown in Fig. 5.9. The relationship between these forces can
be obtained from statics. Hence, from Fig. 5.9,
N,:0
Also,
>4=0
d?'+at=r
>4:0
dxr
Similarly,
ff*,ar=o
2M,=o
(s.12)
94
5.2
95
DISCONTINUITYANAIYSIS
or
*a.=o
(s.l3)
ee=
ax
i
(5.18b)
N, + d2M,
:l : r
r ta
(5.14)
expressed
This equation has two unknowns, N6 and M,' Both unknowns can be
given
by Eq'
is
w
M'
and
in t"., of,h" O"flection w. The relationship between
3.1I
du: /w\

=
dx lLl\r/
as
Also,
'(#..?)
Et'
D,= rro=E
Because the rate of change of deflection in
symmetry, the above two equations reduce to
(s'15)
(5.19)
(s. 16)
u4*r(*\:,
r'
and
",:
_*(#)
Me
ax
Lt
4r2DJlt
".il
 lL)
r2t2
(s.20)
(s.17)
the differential equation becomes
'l'hc cxprcssion for No is derived from the axial and hoop strains' In refening to
liil, 5.9, thc uxitl strain is given by
du
\dx+
Defining
no:
= FM,
Pe)
r(**)
".=
Et
Ns:7rp ,\es+
(5.l8a)
ffi*oon*=+
(5.21)
tTRlSt
96
5.2.1
tN CYUNDRTCAT SHlrtg
5,2
and
Long Cyllndorr
One of the most practical applications of Bq. 5.21 is for long cylinders subjected
io end shears and moments as shown in Fig. 5.10. The force and deformation
distribution at any point r along the cylinder due to O0 and M0 can be obtained
= 0. Hence,
a.l._,= n"=
.'.'*"".",
_ l
+
^ct=;;7i(Qo
;i+4p.w:o
A solution of this equation can be expressed
'"
= ::lg
l :1. **!.gz;it
p*t +

LP tl
ytc'e$
LL.
and Me approaches
Thus the constants C1 and C2 must be set to zero
a=,
\L*?E:p"  '""
@6
w=
;i = etu(q cos B, a
Bmsli
'Ms
as
,(#)1."
Hence,
aw
'
i7
DISCONTINUIIY ANAIYSIS
Ca sin
]6rl?tvtobin
Bx
cos F.r)
cos Fx].
(s.22)
By defining
M.
.=o=
Mo=
{*
!*
=
=
Cs =
Ds =
'e;1.="
ee(cos Br
sin Br)
e&(cos Br
sin
pr)
(s.23)
P
"o"
etu
P
"in
s$t
, :;fu<oro"*
#=
+ escp)
*1roU""ctu+
S.AP)
(s.24)
t:=$aor"os+zeoD,,)
jour,De'
enBB,)
Values of Ap,, BB,, CB,, ar]d Dg, are given in Table 5.1.
Using the terminology of Eqs . 5 .23 and 5 .24 , the expressions for M, arfi Q,
Figur.5.l0
are represented by
98
Tqblr
5.f
B,
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.9976
o.9025
0.9500
0.0475
0.10
0.9907
0.8100
0.9003
0.15
0.9'19'7
0.7224
0.8510
0.0903
0.1286
0.20
0.9651
0.6398
0.8024
o.1627
0.30
0.926'7
0.4888
0.707'7
0.2189
0.40
0.50
0.8784
0.8231
0.3564
0.6174
0.2610
o.2415
0.5323
0.2908
0.55
0.7934
0.7628
0.1903
o.4919
0.3016
0.1431
0.4530
0.3099
0.80
l_00
0.6354
0.0093
0.1108
0.3131
o.3223
0.1988
0.3096
1.20
0.3899
0.2807
0.2849
0. 1716
0.201l
0.1091
1.40
0.0419
0.2430
1.60
0.1959
0.1234
0.0059
0.0376
0.2018
1.80
o.2077
0.1985
2.00
0.0667
0.r794
0.0166
0.0563
0.0658
0.0493
0.0283
0.1231
0.1149
0.0563
o.0177
2.50
3.00
0.0423
3.5
0.0389
0.0258
0.0045
4.0
5.0
6.0
't.o
0.0017
0.0031
0.0024
0.0013
0.0001
0.0007
0.0006
0.0019
fi<zou,ea
M"
2 oB2.t
qo
llo
8o"
""
t4o C^b"
E;r'
0o
zlioB2.r.Br,
Qx
26.
tito ,
DBx
46 3. 0, A0
282 .D.e o
Ao(2Cax8Bx)
C
28'D
0o
iPo
B
Ne
28. D. eo
E.t.Ao
Qo
Qo
q9
28. r.
z8do ( ABx
^p,
cBr)
zB2.o,t4lrr cr,
D
FX
!1.
Qo. CBx
ao ( 2ce
4B3D,aJ
Q6. Bgx
? ttu'tu''
eo {ABr(
?$ D'ed
2CBx)
DB, aB")
8"
" 8." :.t.00(c^
F3 p'
B6x
DBx)
tB2. D.
oo ( 2DBr+B
B)(
'clockwise moments and lotation arc positive at point 0. Outward forces and deflections arc
positive at point 0. Me
2eoDB,)
(5.25)
Exarnple 5.3. A long cylindrical shell is subjected to end moment M0. Plot the
value of M, from F, : 0 to p, : 4.0. Also, determine the distance .r at which
thc moment is abort 7Vo of the original applied moment M0.
= tir..
plot of M, is shown in
7Vo
of Mp
Bx
2.00
or
2
e
and
.r:
5. 1 and a
zB2.o.to
r.
26.
,F.o
2Bz,D
0
Ne
B3A
t4^
Qq
2
tlo
F
Q,=QBMnDyQoB*)
The relationship between M,,
tions is shown in Table 5.2.
ilo
0.0070
0.0120
\ax
0.0491
0.0019
0.0084
_r(+\ =
,F;
0.1610
0.0106
0.0139
0.0065
0.0007
M"=
5.2
DB,
Cp"
0.5083
99
DISCONTINUITYANATYSIS
Toble
0.05
0.60
5,2
1.56\G
(l)
It shows
r00
3TR!35 lN CYllNORlCAL
Sl{llts
that 0 momcnt epplicd at thc cnd dissipatewery rapidly and reduces as much as
l.56Vrt. This indicates that any other force
94% ofthe original momcnt atr
applied ot that distance x can be analyzed without regard to the applied moment
Mo'
5.2
To find the maximum moment M,, the above equation can be differentiated
with respect to r and equated to zero. Hence,
*,
5.4. A long cylinder is subjected to end shear ps. Plot the value of
M, as a function of C0 from Fx : 0 to Fx = 4.0 and derive the location of the
maximum value of M,.
Example
Solutinn,
't0l
DISCONTINUITYANATYSIS
ff
3.e&
=o=
sinA
ftrOu*
sin
Bx
Betu
cos Bx)
,'=*o^
Referring to Table 5. 1 for values of D p,, a plot of M,/ (Qo/B) can be constructed
as shown in Fis. 5.11.
and maximum moment is given by
_ o.34Qo
Solutinn.
it
7'1,
PrEtlw\
r/
z rF\"lexr lrl
==:and
pr=,E' ,(Y*
r  rr'\r
ur,\
Pr
''Et2
q
'ry
(l 
2tt)
and
Figura
5.1I
'#(' t)
(l) I
t02
5.2
(a)
(b)
+rrtr
The discontinuity stress in the shell with the ring assumed to have
infinite rigidity .
The discontinuity stress in the shell and ring if the ring has a thickness
of 0.375 in. and a depth of 4.0 in.
oo
"I
Figuro
5.13
Sign conv6ntion
oi poini 0,
{odo
clockwiss 0 ond i4"
D=
ore + ,
outword w dnd Q.
oro 
Solution.
(a)
r03
DISCONTINUITYANATYSIS
0.00143 E
B=03636
Hence the deflection compatibility equation becomes
5. 13,
Modeflection due to P
deflection due to Qe
deflection due to Mo
The deflection due to P is obtained from Eq. I in Example 5.5, whereas the
deflections due to M0 and Qs are obtained from Eq. 5.24. Hence
tl(rE\ 4 +!!=:o
E.r \'
21 2B3D zB'D
rotation due to Me
QoZBUo:g
4" x 3/8" ri
ng
Solving Eqs.
and 2 gives
Mo
321'4 in.Jb/in'
.=N.ry
=
40,900 psi
(1)
2'75OQo= 321'39
Me
96.4 in.lb/in.
as
e)
tTRttt
l0.l
tN cruNDRrcat
sHttls
But because w
t0t
DISCONTINUITY AI,IATYSIE
Due to 00,
,
"r
!.2
2Qor(r + 2)
'= 
Etw
0=0
*:T*,",
O)
bdE
w=0
d=0
The deflection comPatibilitY is
Due to R
1',
,  p,' ='#l'
i)
",
?Y'oo'
L'=o **
wp
,i(  t) 
wQo*
,*]"'  ,o + *roof^"
#. #=,*#!".'3e#2
Mo
 4.0@o: 296'8
ilao
(3)
Sirnilarly,
f0, +
0oJn*
Due to Mo,
Mn
':t9o
Mo
@
The ring deformations are expressed as follows:
Due to p,
pr(r + d/2\
n=
0=0
dE
and
2BMs20=g
Solving Eqs. 3 and 4 yields
Mo
Oo
152'0 inlb/in.
110.6 lb/in.
(4)
t06
STRESS tN CYUNDRTCAT.
SHfttS
5.2
t07
DISCONTINUITYANATYsIS
is
pr
2Qor
O,:  r, :aDa
= 1250 + 7370
Pr
oe:::20'000Psi
Problams
8620 psi
5.4
O'=
Pr . A6Mn
zt 
I
A long cylindrical shell is welded at one end to a rigid bulkhead such that
the deflection and rotation due to applied pressure are zero. If r = 36 in.,
I = 0.5 in., p : 240 psi. lt: 0.3, and E = 29 x 10" psi, what is the
maximum lonsitudinal stress?
.
Pr :E 3Pr
Answet: a= zt
n'T tv3\t _
0.25
24,600 psi
f,.f,
p2)
40,015 psi
The shell in Problem 5.4 is welded to a thin bulkhead such that only the
deflection is zero due to applied pressure. What is the maximum
discontinuity stress?
where
Answeri
w=lt,pwgo*wyo
Q, *
_ M7,500
E
2238 lb/in.
Short Cylinders
,
0.25
2238
6(0.3
13,300 psi
behavior enables the designer to discard the interaction between applied loads
when they are far apart. As the cylinder gets shorter, the assumption of long
cylinders does not apply and constants C1 and C2 in Eq. 5.8 must be considered.
Consequently, Eqs. 5.23 and 5.24 have to be modified to include the effect of
all four constants. Equation 5.8 may be rewritten in a different form as
No . 6Me
oe=1rT
T
5.2.2
18,740 psi
It was shown in Eq. 1 of Example 5.3 that the applied edge forces in a long
cylinder dissipate to a small value within a distance of l.56Vrr. This basic
.. = E (0.25)(447 ,sOO/ E)
50
'", =
uo
0.966Pr
o= Pr
z *;'Fyt  u31
0.252
rsz)
6.26)
1.2
5d
dld
:
t>.
:s,1,
+<'
<
:E $16
i=._, :
Solution:
At.r:0
66aa
".A.E.E
k k,al ,5
_,(*\
'i dlu
r s ",>'
dl6 +
riltiril6
+ f,
* >dld
ru,
i i ..i..
d.d.&&d.d{d
e.eAP)'eAAe
s.d.&6.{&ds.
iiifriEEE
E5r!666a
c
3
tI T,rl
t_,Y
"l
(t
S r='1
t>rrS+
.=
s I s 6le i
dlu if  + Hlu+9lri>s51s
s "i rJlr.r
 r'J,v
 ."T..v,
dl.:
s
t l. tTlri :g
dt6, E s'
sls slSE=;+
I
ht
,(*\:
\ax /
_,(*\:o
\ax'/
R $l* i
rli r"r
ltltllllllllllll
jj :
's":ss)s
dl6
dl6 dl6 dl6
+ +  :ys:gvr
u'16
dl6 sl6 dl6 dl6
;s
 +   dl6
:ss)9;S+
dlu
dlu dlu d'lu
L;,!t,: s,
,
P
lF.ils
o,l$
ll$ 'dl.q R '"'",
d
atx:
5ss>":lss:s
>,' _ ,u
LJ
(JlU
s;' >"
)J .:
dlu
dlddlu F f  S
,(*\
\dx' /
l+ri
f i.ir
f"iclo
dl6<ilr,
*.. sr tilri
f
,
lcq
=,"
\ax,/
S . '=.ir ,:
dU }  ":"*
Ec:i
t09
1. s
i<'F
(a,
: r
ANALYSS
Example 5.7. Derive Np for the case of applied bending moment M6 at edge
r = 0 for a short cylinder of length l.
5
,Tlri
dld,, dl6
,..Jr ulu v:{v
UIU :9 dle  +
r $16 +F
:s
otscot{TtNutTY
Ztte,
cos Bx cosh Bx
Aa sin Bx sinh
 A3 sin pr cosh pr
pr)
(l)
ac,
aa
ca cc +
.= .E aa
,1J
u,
. 
cq
,,99
.'
'da6daa
ltlillllllll
.: .l ,i .1 ,1 rt
Z!3lAr(cos px sinh
ail I = a
Substituting Eq.
pr
sin
pt
cosh Bx)
.
q,
_M^
2D
B,
Az: At
9
.o
q
F
108
and from the third and fourth boundary conditions the relationships
(2)
il0
A3
Mo
Dtr
I.2
ltl
DISCONTINUITY ANAI.YSIS
\GF7t:;tnT
and
e^ =
M"
/ sin2 61
zaB,
\.l"[tB,
sinh'? B/
]t"t}
are obtained.
N,
Et*
r
Ft
= 1(Ar
+
sin
A3 cos
N, =
ft
A3,
c, t'r f
sinh
Br sinh Bx +
A+ cos
Fr cosh Fr)
frcos
Bx cosh Bx
(b)
* !v,
ct
!v,\
Lt
,/
Solution. A
1.1164
0.5481
0.4568 Ce = 0.6596
U=o.272r yl=0.4006
Vq = 1.4984 V: 0 8707
%=0.5986 V=0.949s
C5
Example 5.8. Determine the maximum shess at point A of the thin cylinder
in Fig. 5.lzla. I*t p' = 9.3.
obtained:
,,
Cr = O.2028 Cz
Ct = 1.5444 Cr
Fx cosh Pr
ZrMoF'( v,
\
l_*
t
or
n, =
"r
Figure 5.1,1
C"
(3)
ft * Az sin Fx cosh Fr
w: toolrn
The deflection compatibility equation at point A is
=6,
or from Tables 5.2 and 5.3 with
r:
0,
tt2
5.2
DISCONTINUITY ANALYSIS
t3
and with B2
144'O2P
nd
D2
288'S2Qo
436'59M0
1.0495
2983OQo
"
313 'O7Mo
=ry
or
Mo
5 '2O6Mo
^=
A
"P
(1)
4'M7Qo: P
=*n';t'
{wo^
'to
wroy
t'
Hence,
lezt.tu
u' '
84.53)
2.53 P
No.6Mo
:' r ;
t:
OO
 
Et2lo.og P o.27 P\
R \ zBiDz 2giDz /
429.33P {
0.08 P
 Etw
_T
we=
as
or
t')=o =
= drI" =
r'
a. \
p //_l:!U
+;Vl
+
2q1Dt\ct ' L1 Lt /
=u4
t,
0.252
2.53 P
.,
0.25
6(0.08_P)
0.25'
17.80 P
Probbms
5.6
l
or
a1a aa P
896.45M0
436.5980
= 657.r3Mo +
Find the discontinuity stess in the figure shown due to an inlemal pressure
of 375 psi. I*t E 29 x lff psi and p = 9.3.
3l3.wQo
which reduces to
l2'58M0
Solvlng Eqs.
Qo
3J '48 P
(2)
and 2 yields
Mo
0o
= 0.08
0.27 P
P
Probbm 5.6
STRESS IN CYTINDRICAT
l4
5.3
SHEtts
5,3
as dead
Most cylindrical shells are subjected to various compressive forces such
shells
of
cylindrical
The
behavior
vacuum.
weight, wind loads, earthquakis, and
pressure'
intemal
under
from
those
is
different
undlr ih"se compressive iorces
In most instancei, the difference is due to the buckling phenomena that render
cylindrical shells weaker in compression than in tension'
rvr6" +
Sturm3 used the system of fbrces in Fig. 5.15 to establish the buckling
forces'
characteristics of cylindrical shells subjected to extemal compressive
Using
deflections
and
strains
between
From the figure he derived a relationship
relates
equations
of
system
a
obtained
l,
he
this relatioiship and Eq. 3. 1
.that
r"re
*$oe
r.r"=+
lrx +
So'
rvp"
+$ae
@o"
Sox
Ne=Pr+f(x'0)
.x and 0, which expresses the variation ofN0 from
w of the shell is very small,/(x, d) is also
deflection
the
Wtten
tt" an".uge uutue.
stresses are expressed by
shear
and
axial
the
u.ry ,u . Similarly,
where/(x, g) is a function of
N,:0+g(ir'0)
Fisuro 5.15
Ne':O+h(x'0)
N'p=0+i(x'0)
n.
Substituting these expressions into the four basic differential equations for the
buckling oi cylindrical shells, and using boundary conditions for simply supoorted J.rds. tire solution for the elastic buckling of a simply supported cylindrical shell due to uniform pressure applied to sides only is given by
c.: rB(!\
.,2:
L2
6.27a)
where N
Pressure
dr1
N2
/ = thickness
D" = outside diameter
L2
N2L2
Er
"'(?)
n=
n'r' ,
modulus of elasticitY
K=KtI
+affoo
re+affae
forces and moments to deflections. These equations together with the equilibrium equations determined from Fig. 5.15 result in the four basic differential
5.3.
aSoe
poisson's ratio
l6
5.3
tt7
/nl
fi"T
$d
\J/
,1,
0r4
Fisure
Eds6
5.r7
corop,e
0.6
c..n"""" *
rird
4610
*o.il'Ji'i;
20
40 60 100 m0
r,.",,,.".",,r.,.nry,
Symnrri.ol Aboul
Figur. 5.16
F=N2r*ltL
d Aa rlt
buckling of cylindrical shells, and using boundary conditions for simply supported ends, the solution for the elastic buckling of a simply supported cylindrical shell due to uniform pressure applied to sides and ends is given by
1tzlt)ta
r)(2 p)] 1]
(l P,r\
'{(t  $}tctt
 pl + (1 + ri\
Ltl
t\
{N'?[l +
(^
moment of inertia
only)
+ a + 1 + p}I
E
t
*1;r"u.tr
 \u,
tLL
r\
t
: 4
12
A plot of the ( value in Eq. 5.27a based on the first two terms of expression F
is shown in Fig. 5.17.
5.3.2
The values of No, N,e, and N6 are the same as those for pressure applied to sides
*^=+rge.ol
Substituting those expressions into the four basic differential equations for the
"=
where
": ",.
^::
^tF
*(;l
(s.27b)
&(Dj)
ll7rl2L\
F
A4 : A?;;;F
'
+ (n'r'/2Lt)
A plot of the K value in Eq. 5.27b using the first two terms of expression F
is shown in Fig. 5.18.
STRESS IN CYLINDRICAT
l8
SHEtts
5.4
THERMAT STRESS
5.4
K
l9
P".
P".
= ll3 psi
r6)(2e,ooo,r*,(q#)
THERMAL STRESS
If
r lr
ttr
ttl
20
4610
0* 06 I
vatues of
5.3.3
of round
,10 60
r00
200
in temperature. To determine thermal stress, the restraint is first removed and the
bar allowed to deform due to change in temperature. A force F is then applied
to produce the same but opposite deformation. The thermal stress in the bar can
be calculated from the compatibility equation
&:5o
Ne=0+f(x'0)
N" = t' + g(x' 0)
:
6r :
where 6r
No'=O+ h(x'
N'o = 0 +i(x' 0)
0)
values
and the four differential equations are solved for the value of P", For small
as
be
expressed
can
stress
or
of tfr, the critical compressive longitudinal
o,:n':
't\r/
o.6oE(t)
5.9.
Solttlirtlt
tr
2:
t
o=
(5.28)
where o =
:
AI :
d
and
E7
q LTE
case
(5.29a)
E = modulus of elasticity
q.o
roo
If the same bar is restrained in two directions as shown in Fig. 5.19, the
(lcli)nnations due to 4 and 4, are calculated in the same manner as the uniaxial
tlolirrmation. The two compatibility equations then become
t20
H
.lN
+&r
\F
ti
fI
\____J.i
l
'l*'l
l.,l
l2l
THERMAT STRESS
= l (o""
_,
a LT = ; (tr, aLT
]t i
{ li'
il'11
\N
5.4
L,,
L,.
Ut
Tl
'r t
is obtained.
llr
lll
I
L
In
triaxial case, the thermal stress can be determined easily from the theory
e: a LT in the first three expressions of Eq. 3.1
results in
L
rl+
_J
llt
o; 
of elasticity. Substituting
l*1,*'
o,: ct =
(b)
d = coeff. ol .rp.hsjon
dr ch.nse 1n tenp. (positlve Hhen tenp. lncre.s.s)
T = Polssot's rrtlo
ATE
= a
_
",  Zl"
&6r'+/'6"r=0
&+p8r,6"r=0
max
LTE
0:
31,400
(5.29b)
tL
5 29a
nd
level is obtained when the number of restraints are increased Hence, for a bar
with
r.r.
tcsttlls:
E La AT
= (28 x
= proisson's ratio
6i", = deformation due to force 4
(5.29c)
psr.
g,
6p,
Figur.5.r9
where
p,rr,)
6t o.llE
(")
Lro)
Fisure 5.20
109(9.s
psi
6.7)(10 9(400)
122
l.)xumple5.ll.Anintcrnustuinlcsstrayiswcltlctllrrthcinsitlctr.acarbtln
stccl vcssel as shown in l'ig 5 2la. ll'the coeflicicnt ol'thermal exprnsion is
5,4
THERMAL STRESS
what
x l0 6 in./in."F for the tray and 6.7 x l0 r' in./in.'F fbr the vessel,
:
x
106
28
E
Use
is the stress in the weld due to temperatunj increase of 400"F?
:
0.3.
psi and pr
g.5
answer can be obtained by assuming the tray attachment to be rigid. Because the weld is subjected to both hoop and axial stresses'
it can be treited as a biaxial condition Hence, from Eq' 5 29b
Solution. A conservative
(a,,)(AD(r)
Fl
F,r
+'#tt
 p):
(a,,)(An(r)
Ft
F,
l 4
rrn tifi
If
From Eq.
From Eq.
From Eq.
Mo
{t)
as
Mo
(2)
Monu
I
2PrD BD:
Ii+F +4:0
6.7X101(400)
_44.800 psi
(3)
(4)
2, \:2FMo
3, n: 2BMo
4, 4: 4FMo
(a) ft=6r
(b) 0r=0
(c) 0z=0
(d) )F=0
From the above four equations, the four unknowns
4,
#]
^l#.
obtained.
as
or o:
618 lb/in.
1a",
I=
a,,)(Af(r)
(5)
The value of618 psi is significantly lower than the conservative value of44,800
psi obtained from Eq. 5.29b because of the ffexibility of the cylinder. If the
3.0 in., then Eq. (5) gives
thickness of the cylinder is r
ollMo
fn
\_/ 'l/fr
.*F3
This value indicates that as the cylinder gets thicker, the stress approaches that
of Eq. 5.29b. In fact, if the cylinder is taken as infinitely rigid, then Eq. (1)
becomes
,hFz
I
i,o
(a,,XAO(r)
@l
(b)
Fisure 5.21
4:
* H<t 
p.)
(aXA?.)(r)
5.29b.
t24
5.4.1
5.4
t25
THTRMAI. STRESS
M0 can be obtained tiom the second compatibility equation whereby the skrpc
in F\g. 5.22a at the interface is equal to the slope in (b). Or
Mo
_Mo,
__!,
Hs
0.
and Mo
The circumferential force in the pipe due to I1o is obtained from Eqs. 5. 19 and
5.24:
5.12. A pipe
H: c"
t't':4'
r 2BtD "w
Maximum value of Cp. is obtained from Table 5.1 as 1.0. Hence,
requires that the deflection in (a) equals the deflection in (D). Hence' from Eq.
\)L
N.:
2565
M":
lb/in.
at interface
Also
(axA7i)(r)
M^
H"
ffi* ffi=
t")tAl'ttn *
HN
Mo
rp'o* ,Bo
and
from which
Hn
Max
= @)(Lr1 AAX/)@)(D)
(6.s
144
106)(240
30)(6X1.4843f(5366)
o:
t\6<
=
o.rrr
20.500 psi
The maximum bending moment due to I{0 was derived in Example 5.4
as
lb./in.
,=$
'
ili
is
6M (o'34H0\ = l2,ooo
o':v:vx
p/
6
lt
14t"
,. { ' li
= r/4
= n/4 is obtained
"o
( 2 )Liquid ll
o.322Ho
2B"D
Hence,
(b)
Figwe 5.22
Ne
827
psi
lblin.
as
t26
827
#+
THERAAAT
STRESS
127
ln the
oo=
5.4
^
0.3
12.000
10,200Psi
o.$s +
psi. I
and
Example 5.13. Determine the bending stress in a cylinder fixed at one edge
(Fig. 5.23a) due to a uniform rise in temperature of 200"F.
c = 6.5 x
106
Mo: (0.039)Qp2D)
: (0.039)(2X0.46941
in./in..F
E:30xl06psi
p=o'3
Solution. Radial deflection of cylinder if
w
:
:
o=
5.4.2 Grsdient
0.039 in.
zB,D
Qo
6M
:+
= 70,800 psi I
in Axiol Direction
deflection due to P,
Hence
BD
738 in.lb/in.
From Fig. 5.23a the rotation at the end is zero because the cylinder is fixed.
O^
(42.e30)
The stress in a cylinder due to a thermal gradient f, in the axial direption can be
obtained by first subdividing the cylinder into infinitesimal rings of length dr.
Hence, the radial thermal expansion due to 4 in each ring is given by (c)(4)(r).
This expansion can be eliminated by applying an external force
such that
(a)(Afl(r)
M"
#_#:o
E=
deflection due to
",r,
Hence
2PMo
p, = Etan
/1\lMo
and
Hs
Pr
ae: l
taT.
(5.30a)
(b)
Fisur 5.23
* aB'*:EJ$
{!
tlxfl,)
(5.30b)
Itt
5.4
THIR
'tAt
STRISS
129
nT
r =rx
Thc total strcss in thc cylindcr is dctcrmincd from Eqs. 5.30a and 5.30b.
temperature gradient is
and the circumferential stress due to ring action obtained from Eq. 5.30a is
,,= u"(T),
E4uation 5.30b gives
T,:4+4 iT*
onfu
(l)
* o.o* =";;(*),
.="u$(Lf),*",
t
aodF
t,=#
and cr=9
and w reduces to
w=rq.
Tb=
2odF
From Eq. 5.19
{a)
T
x
",=+:*(T)
'lr
e").
Adding Eqs.
rv=(EJ,
t\
t\
J_/
(d
Fhut. 5.21
(2)
and 2 results in
oe= 0
)x=sx
which means that for a linear distribution the thermal stress along the skirt is
zeto.
The slope due to axial gradient is given by
dw= rallT"=;
 = : T,\
dx\r/
gHEtts
3TRr93 lN CYI'INDRlCAt
rt0
I.4
lr,
 r^
Mo
. (rJ",' .
Since B
2.74'1
Mo
106
'
in'lblin'
742
dlt d , .f E ,, *, ..,(41\
,kl;ftt,'",t:
T.;;"tr rt,\i)
,1450 psi
,,=!f",
tL(oo+
*: jl", 
P(at + o)f +
u=b,
p(a,+ os)l+ ar
c)f + ar
uT
o.
32)
(5.33)
as
dww
or
i="
gives
Eal_+ P(r'z
o.
' = :'  tt' r' \16
r?
['" rra,
 ri J.,
[' rrar\
 J,,
/
oa= t
E<x r +
u'
 ttz I \rj
ot =
I de9\
r\a,
r? J,,
""'
rra,
['
J,,"
 rr\/
',=6 "=i
+
4l=0
(5.31)
ee
(s'37)
Solving the above differential equation and applying the boundary conditions
Direciion
e,:
(5.36)
radial direction
Thermal stress in a cylinder due to a temperature gradierrt inthe
be written as
can
3
Eq'
Hence,
elasticity'
of
can be obtaned from ttre theory
^"iii"
$truins can be exPressed
^,(#)
", ''='(*\
and
o=
(s.35)
u,= oolff)<n n
D=
p
do,
t_*to,trdroo)
/ do.\
o,: {rs* r\*)
'"\ , )= B,
0.2142,
lr
THIRMAT 3TRI33
(5.34)
Ea / 2 r,,trar_ \
__l_;__
tl
L p\ririh, ,l
/
(s.38)
t32
Cav
5.4
2r,, + r, l
ov= o, EaT,f
l,
.l
f. ritl
pLJtr.
EaT f r"+ 2rt1
ue=u,=.
  p ll
LJtro f riJ l
Llnear'l'hcnnul l)islrihulion
rwhere d
Substituting
r'LJ
Cfe
'
^
o\r,
 ro)
 EaTt
= C, = ,r,l _
!\r
tL)
(s.40)
EaT
ce: o,: ^Ltt  lL)
rt:
l
r\t
otrr r ro,
 pl L
LAIi I zrt+ ro r"rl
(l  pll3(r1 + r,) r" r,l
t33
THERMAI STRESS
Case
\J.J')
Figure 5.25 is a typical plot of o,, ae, and cz. The plot indicates that o, is
relatively small compared with o6 and o,. For all practical purposes, o6 and o.
are equal.
2.
l"')
t: "/lu
\ln r"  ln r,/
and upon substitution of this expression in Eqs. 5.38 results in
The maximum values of op and ol occur at the inner and outer surfaces. From
8c.5.39.
2(l
"/ffi
#cr.l''^?
u?T:,,
z(r
r1,  p,ntro/nL
'(;)l
*('.
#)'(;)]
(s.42)
2Lnk,t'i,,n/tr)l
r rir;
\/,/l
Again disregarding or as being small compared with o6 and o", Eqs. 5.42
have a maximum value
2(r
z(r
of
 ri
2,1 .
16
\r, /
EaT I.
/a\l
 t"ttt"lJ,)L' ;:'l' 'n\/l
t34
tft:
oe:
(r:
o,
I')tt'li
_ tl
EqT
= Z\l _
lD
3.
t35
Example 5.15, A thin cylindrical vessel is heated by ajacket from the outside
such that the temperature distribution is as shown in Fig. 5.26.1f E
27
106
psi, a
9.5 10b in./in.'F, and p, 0.28, determine (a) maximum thermal
stress using Eq. 5.40 and (b) maximum thermal stress using Eq. 5.41.
THERMAI. STRTSS
From Eq. 5.38 it can be seen that cr, can also be expressed by Eq. 5.46.
,zt<l
5.4
Solution. (a)
Complex Thermal Distribution
4:
ln many instances such as transient and upset conditions the temperature distribution through the wall of a vessel cannot be represented by a mathematical
expression. In this case a graphical solution can be obtained from the thermal
stress. From Eq. 5.38
55,800 psi
oe:

eq ltrr,lf.'t'z[,.rrar!f ,rorr]
r
l *lrz, r, 1,
J,,
u=
For a cylinder where the thickness is small compared to the radius, the first
expression in the brackets can be expressed as
2r
I r trilrt2 p , IrAr :
';'
r;  ri J,,
temperature
10 6)(300)
(l028,
,1 _ 92s1

'':
(5.44)
2n fiTrdr
I trc,
':
rror:
,
l
27Tr r' J,,
106)(9.5
(27 x
109(9.5
2(r
x l0 6)(300)
or2s)
53,400 psi
= 53,400 psi. I
Ea
.^ I)
oo: \1n
I IL
wncrc
:
f:
4n
(5.46)
lt3 + 2 x 10
\ :tr: _ rot
\3(13lo)
= 51,000 psi
ntr;  ril
Ji: Trdr
(27
Fisure 5.26
3TR!!t
It6
tN CYUNORICAI sHEtLs
t37
NOMIIiICTATURI
thc wall is shown ln Fic..3.27 . Find thc msximum thcrmal stress at that instance.
Lct rr
= 0.3, E = 3dx
psi, and
106
a = 6.0 x
106 in./in."F
Solutlon. This problem can be visualized as a biaxial case where the inner
surfacs heats quickly while the rest of the wall remains at 300'F' Using Eq.
5.29b results in
(6 x l06x600  300x30 x
o:ffi
106)
77,100 psi
Temperature
0
0.1
600
0.2
0.3
0.4
400
Area
53.0
43.0
38.5
460
0.5
370
340
320
0.6
310
0.7
305
33.0
31.5
30.8
0.8
0.9
300
JU.J
300
1.0
300
30.0
30.0
35.5
>355.6
tisur' 5.27
sness occurs at the surface only. Thus at
onetenth of the thickness inside the surface, the stress is
(30
10ux9I_!o1res6 _ 460)
\JJu 'uu''
ro!3
= 26,700 psi
The high stress at the inner surface indicates that local yielding
I'
And
= 356"F.
From Eq. 5.46, at inner surface,
(30
106)(6.0
NOMENCTATURE
106)/?56
600)
62.700 psi
196x6:0_x 106)(356
l0.3
14,2100 psi
Fl3
= =:l2(1  tt2)
D, = outside diameter
_ (30
.,
"
"l'l
3oo)
of cylinder
E = modulus of elasticity
K = constant
L : length of cylinder
M, =
will occur.
rtt
Mp
ETRI'I
'
IN CYTINDRICAT SHTTT!
p = pressure
t39
IIIIIOORAPHY
yrrl
2.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler ond Prcssure vessel Code, Sdct/.rn
Rules for Constructiotr of Pressure Vessels, Division 1, ANSI/ASME BVPVI l,NewYork,
3.
Strum, R. G.,
1980 Edition.
P/ = internal pressure
Po = extemal pressure
O, =
r :
4 :
BIBIIOGRAPHY
shearing force
The Amedcan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Ptessure Vessel and PipinS DesiSnColkcted
Papers 1971959, New York, 1960.
Baker, E. H., L. Kovalevsky, F. L. Rich, Stn ctarulAnalysis ofShells, MccrawHill, New York,
1912.
radius of cylinder
inside radius
ro = outside
, = thickness of cylinder
T = temperature
AT = iemperature change
p = deflection
c = coefficient
of thermal expansion
=
=
longitudinal strain
radial strain
lL
= hoop strain
= rotauon
= proisson's ratio
e0
or
=
=
Oe
Ot
stress
longitudinal stess
radial shess
hoop sftess
REFERENCES
l.
Murphy, G.,
ll4t2t.
'anced
radius
N.J.,
1974.
4r1d Shelrs,
CHAPTER
ANALYSIS OF FORMED
HEADS AND TRANSITION
sEcTtoNs
Concohrodconsistingofwoeccgnliccones.(co',rtesyoftheNoolrcorPorgtion,sr.LoUi!,Mlo.)
t4l
r40
142
6,I
6.I
HEMISPHERICALHEADS
eo:
Pm2 = Zmo
1...
ELt
t
lL)1o4,
HEMISPHERICATHIADS
t43
(6.3)
pa,)
The strain displacement relationship is the same as that derived from cylindrical shells:
w
'f
',
2t
Pri
(6.1)
and
dw
where
a=
P:
r=
t=
membrane stress
pressure
radius
(t
thickness
This equation which assumes uniform stress distribution through the thickis adequate for relatively thin heads. As the thickness increases with
respect to the radius, this assumption becomes invalid. Hence, a more accurate
formulation is needed, which is obtained from the "thick head" equations.
From symmetry, it can be demonstrated that at any point in a hemihead
subjected to uniform pressure,
ness,
QfrQo6)
 vfiWS 
o,
21t'o6
 o
(6.4)
,",= l(fi)<,'"t
of
(6.s)
, 'r :
ld\l'
rl;
ll+ +(rro,) 
\dr / Lr qr
I
e,
I.
= E\ot
zlto,)
(t6.2)
i12
(6.6)
o,= n al r:
ri
and
a,: n at r:ro
FisiJr 6.1
Solving the boundary conditions forA and B and substituting into Eqs. 6.5 and
6.6, we obtain
l.l{
6.I
SICTIONS
HIMISPHERICATI{TAD3
[6.dor
\
'
' d. /
Figure 6.2
Jo/f
I
",:f+('*)*('*
rl\
/
06:
r?P'
oo= :ll
r;  ri
lzr'/ 
r3P
;l=lt
r;  /i \
fisurs 6,3
't\
+:+l
2r./
(6.7a\
1.
o.=
_e
or:
max oo
Case 2,
Soltttion.
,:+
atr=ri
 :?.'?r*
Lzlr; 
')r,]n
ri)l
at
r = ri
(6.7b)
maxot=
rnrxa6=
P. at r:r
rlk
ot=  3
ZE:;,
(4000x1s)
1.30 in.
2(23,000)
atr=ri
(6.7c)
rln
l.
,11
o.: _i_1  I _r : I
"
ri, riL zril
6.I
6.1.1
16.31
1.31 in.
147
f :re SrN0
cls:f1 d0
dr  ds .Cos P
2(15t(4000) + 2(23.000X l5 )3
2(23,000)  4000
I{EMISPHERICAIHEADS
r=
ds =
12 sin
r, d.6
!, gN,pt
t4l,
 r,(q#
\ do
r,Npcos d +
16',) = g
/
(6.8)
r'r6e+
N@+tl
Noo +
dQ
do
*F
++
ffi
de
do
Figure 6.4
j6<,N*l
,,(#*
rlNep cos
* r,',) :0
(6.9)
For the majority of pressure vessel applications, the loads are symmetric with
respect to the axis of revolution. Hence, all derivatives with respect to 0 in
expression 6.8 and 6.9 can be deleted. Shearing stresses due to torsion are small
comDared with other stresses. Thus expression 6.9 can be deleted completely'
Tire last equation of equilibrium is obtained by summing the forces in Fig'
6.4b perpendicular to the middle surface:
,i\12rt
a:*Ut=n
(6.10)
I4g
6,I
Substituting oxprcssi()n 6.
l0 into 6.tl
Pasin Q)s\nQdQ
Cl
I
Ar' =
(6.11)
The righthand side of Eq. 6.11 is equal to the sum of all the N6 forces around
a circle of angle d. Therefore we can solve Nd at any given location { by
summing all forces in the {direction. Once N6 is obtained, Nd can be determined from expression 6. 10.
For a spherical shell, 11 = 12 = r. Hence, expressions 6.10 and 6.11 can be
simplified as follows:
Substituting ro
N5
HEADS
I49
givcs
I fr
No: 12. slnI I r, r2(P, cos {,,, @, LJ
HEMISPHERICAT
Dcos A
:=srn @
,r=!1ucos@wsin@)
=
12 sin
(6.14)
N6= P,r
No :
P6 sin @) sln $ d$ +
I
C
I
(6 12)
(6.15)
lt:ucotO6 .5 .
The
EtlNe
f"Na)
Equations 6.15 can be solved for the deflections once N, and Nc are established from Eqs. 6. 12. Table 6.1 shows the solution of Eqs. 6. 12 and 6. 15 for
various loading conditions.
u:4ra6
 w d6t
aQ
Example
1/do
ea=l;l
\ \aQ
h.__
w\
(6.13)
rr./
6.2.
Solutian.
 P"
cos2 Q
P:P,cosdsind
From Eq. 6.12
rl
+l
f(p, "os' S  P" sin2@ cos @) sin A dQ + Cl
sln q)LJ
I
I
r
p"rf
=,.'i'
;l l(cos' d + sin'z d) sin 6 cos 0 dO + C
N^' =
)(
qlJ
a
P", lt. ",1 ^l
:rtt}Lts'n@l+c.l
sm
. :
/vr
id0
Fisurs 6.5
P.r
sin 0
4rC
!l
dl
!l
a
ool
;.t'
e
r;1
l
'1
o.
!l
l+
*il
.lN
'.t
.
+
!'6
!l
!te
.tr
.t
rl
fl
q.
r^r
le
.f;*
o
o
o
o!
o
!
,9,/
+
,{
..l+
+k!
 =  lc
<f
i,
+
\j/
{t
.trrr
NI
I
o
@e
o
l5l
r50
152
6.1
HtMllpHlRlcAt
l'llAol ltl
complicated numbr
the comDatibility equations are taken into consideration, a
is
Oifierential equations result' The solution of these equations
P.
symmetric
imoracticat. however, withouisome simplifications. By assuming
only, the differential equations for a spherical shell reduce to
"i.i*oii*ut
forces
#r.#*rQ
o(cotz
O+
#
(6.16)
rt)=Eto
(6.17)
tD=
and
#**Affio<""eQ
Figor 6.6
Thus, for C
P.;
From Eq. 6.12,
rle: r.r
Yr=
cos'
q+
P.r(cos2 Q
EilBRAI{E
FORCES
L)
= 4cosz
6,
L2
DiscontinuitY AnolYsis
'l'hc rnctnbrane analysis discussed in the previous section fails to Sive adequate
is attached
rcrult$ whon the loais are localized or when the hemispherical section
cases the
these
In
loads'
certain
under
to lnothcr shell that acts differently
is
seen that
6'7
it
In
Figure
the
analysis'
in
hcnding moments must be considered
can be
moments
bending
and
the
membrane
lix u givcn krading condition, the
con$id;rcd us shoin. Proceeding as before where both the freebody forces and
EIIDI NG FORCES
Fig'.rre
6.7
lla
Af{Al,Ygl
ot fotMrD
6.t
^ a ldw
r raQ
in most usual
slope
radial deflection
HIADI ll!
 /d'zo\
EVG)
(6.18)
By a rigorous analysis Gibsont has shown that in Eqs. 6' 16 and 6.17 only the
higherorder terms are significant
HEITATSPHERICAI
r ..,
e
F;lt\
luYA)
The solution of Eq. 6.23 for various common loading conditions is given in
_ Qrz
do'
(e:
dE'
(6.1e)
Table 6.2.
",,
6o
P12
=(l
(6.2r)
ffi++*o=o
pressure rs
,r) sin
(300x50)'?rl
E(0.50)
where
'
_o?l
1,050,000
E
/
,\2
,\a=3(lr1l;/
(6.22)
Tqble
6.2
,//r\
I
Hoftflff)xo
'<l"L/
g:
g^o(c1cos A0
+ c, sin,\@ +
e^o(ct cos,\d
c4 sin
ld)
Once the value of O is determined for a given loading and boundary conditbns, the other quantities can be obtained from
?I
f
lO
2rer1sln{o(cosr.r)tio
z16.f.
?1 e11cotosi
erYsln4ocos
rr+"/+)no
"rtrtn(rr)ru
"^t"o,
rr*nrl)no
n (
ry)ro
Nr Qcot0
= 9
do
N"
M^:2(+\
r \dQ/
Mo
pMo
lr
LrYsi
tT(f""rt"t
to
n0osi
(ry
) Ho
lzre
ry
lto
I,6 rs tiocos{
rF*""o"""t rv*r+l]J
1; tz'F^2utt"
(6.23)
ry+r/a)
+ucos0sinrYl,l
rnro"i n (r.r+r/a)l
ro
rT
/1r,3
\
"rt.o"rr\/
It6
6.r
HlMrsPHtRtcat
HtADs lt7
6,"=s#6
,rr: 3#ro
Similarly, the deflection in the shell due to pressure is obtained from Eq.
Examnle 5.5 as
I of
,='#(' _;,tt\
:ffi,,0.,r,
_
637,500
B=
=
0.1818
E/
n\3
D=ij:j_=0.0916E
ra\t  u.J)
and from Table 6.2.
u,":,#4r"
Figirr 6.8
eo"
aEEm
6rr=yM,
8nd
O.3)(lqoJ
0,"=gfMo
12.038
6,:Wl^
r.r+4pq *
OT
ouo=2f4
8Ho+Mo=995.17
(1)
I58
ANAI.YSIS
OI
6.I
symrnetry, expressed
Sirnilurly,
rotation of head
HEMISPHIRICAIHEADS
as
ZEa
r,.^,,
f ,,\
tt  p)r'\r;  ri ,,
,,
/
Eu l2r3+rl r",,
f,^,,
,\
06: ao: tt Tr.dr  r.Tl
.. J,,
I Tr.dr + J\
^l p)r \r;ri
/
lr'r
O,:lltrArltrArl
rotation of shell
..  165.15.. 60.05..
579.65..
._t
uo  E *o:
Enrt iwo
2t9.tt
159
(6.24a)
\6.24b)
6.4. Determine the circumferential thermal stress on the inside surface of a hemispherical head subjected to an inside temperature of 600'F and
varying linearly to a temperature of 400"F at the outside surface. Let 11 :30in.,
12
40 in.,E
30 106psi, o 7.0 106in./in.'F, and g, 6.3.
Example
rlo
= 0
818 Mo
Mo
179'4 lbin'/in
AS
and
Ilo =
r=6oo_
146.8 lb/in.
N.:
)A2
2tH" +':::M^ +
or
pr
T=12002Or
2
z(r2.o3s)(146."
?g?qg@' !9P
f;
7500
r,,a, =
=
and
J*
trzoor,
 zor3tdr
6.O50.000
The second integral is zero because the limits of integration at the inner surface
are both ri. Hence Eq. 6.24b gives
y^=A=7500
Mo
179.4
lb/in.
(30
x
(1
lbin'lin.
106)(7
x l0 6)
0.3X30t
[2(3ot + (30t..
^^
ro'o5o'ooo)
tffi
and
Me
6.1,3
Lg_rs
53
'8
lb/in'
= 32,800 psi
Thermol Sfress
6.1.4
.l
^^^. (3ofll2oo  ^^
2o(rnj
Buckling Strength
The buckling equations developed by Von Karman and Tsien2 are the basis of
the design equations developed by ASME. Von Karman's equations, which are
substantiated by tests, give a more accurate prediction of buckling strength of
160
6.I
HTMISPHERICAI.HEADS
t6l
Refering to Fig. 6.9, it can be shown that the strain energy due to the extension
of the sphere is given by
u,:
f fYJ^ r)'sin d/d
' Er'(!\o
\r/ Jo \cos a /
Similarly, the strain energy due to bending is expressed
,, _ Lr"ll;
,fcos0 d0 ,\') , /sin 0
_,/,\ T I(p srn
., QlU7:
_ ll+l
tz
\r/ Jo
@d@
lcos
rB
U1: Prit I
JO
P sin'?dcan 0
as
.\,1 .,
A
tlld6 /
(6.2s)
\srn
6.26)
Such an expression can be written as
p is given by
tan O) cos Q
Figure 6.9
dg
o:alrc,1"4)l
L
\ p'/l
(6.27)
(6.30)
The total energy of the system is the sum of Eqs. 6.25, 6.26, and 6.27 . Hence
U=Ut+U2+Ur
a: , fu @  o) dO
(6.31)
JO
(6.28)
^46
wt
;F
of higher order and expanding the sine and cosine functions in a power series,
liq. 6.28 becomes
(6.32)
U E(t/rt rp (0.
,^,
 6'\6d6
:# 4 Jo
Tr"
This expression can be minimized by taking its derivative with respect to Cr and
equating the derivative to zero. This gives
(6.29)
where
0:0
s:B
at 4:0
at Q=B
o:'
and D is obtained from Eq. 6.32.
Pr
(6'33)
I62
ANAI,YSIS
6.2
SICTIONS
A plot ol l!. 6...1 is shown in lrig. 6. l(). 'l'hc nrinirnum value ol ljq. 6.33
crn bc lirund by taking thc derivittivc with respect to B and equating the result
(o zero:
or 4/D\l
Et 5\r/l
fi = o.rtt
+ (3/280)t6/r),
+ t24/3st(6/tP
(6.34)
which is shown as a dashed line in Fig. 6.10. This figure illushates the effect
of 6/t on the buckling shength of spherical sections. The minimum value of
buckling strength is obtained from the figure as
!=o.z+
tt
at 9:9.35
t
The value of 024 can be reduced if the strain energy due to membrane stress
before buckling is considered. Therefore, if Eq. 6.25 is modified to include this
strain energy and if the revised expression is substituted into Eq. 6.29, the
1.2
\l
1.1
\
t,
o.8
,l
ff:
o.tzs
(6.35)
Dxample 6.5. What is the required thickness of a hemispherical head subjected to an external pressure of 15 psi? Let r : 96 in., E : 27 x l0o psi, and
factor of safety (FS) = 10.
Solution.
(FS)o and
o:
Pr/Zt
.15
5\
o.6
o.5
(15X96)110)
20
0.25(27
,r
o.7
o.3
of
'#;*
t,
o9
o.4
Experimental values have shown that the minimum value obtained is of the order
t.o
('R
Et
r63
ETTIPSOIDAL HTADS
106)
0.45 in.
,7
6.2
EttIPSOIDAt HTADS
The governing equations for the design of ellipsoidal and torispherical heads are
obtained from expressions 6. l0 and 6. I l. For internal pressure, P.
P, P6
O,
and the two equations give4
(\
o.2
El tve op,i
,ro:
o.1
.o
64.rc
(6.36)
14
18
Ne: +Prz=j;
%
Fisure 6.10
We can write Eqs. 6.36 in terms of the major and minor radii a and b. Using
l6tl
6.2
rruPsotDAt
HEADS
where
{,(tl ,  * ,1'"(i.
y,  *,(t)
G=
ffi''r)"
,j
\/l
[(a/ br2
1] cos2 7
At any given point on the ellipse given by.re and y6, the angle
Irom
fisure
6.ll
A plot of Eq. 6.37 in Fig. 6. 12 shows that for ellipsoidal heads with a/, rarios
over 1.4, the hoop stress at d = 90'is in compression. The curves indicate that
this compressive force increases as the head gets shallower. Design of heads
based on these high compressive membrane forces iends to give ulhaconservative answers. This is because discontinuity forces tend to lower the
maximum compressive sFess which results in more realistic desims. The ASME
Code uses such an approach in the design of elliptic and torisfherical heads.
a2b2
''
sin2 Q
b2 cosz E1zlz
n2
1a2 5i1z Q
b2 cos2 qlrlz
100 psi.
at6=9A'.
I
^, Po'
^62 @rJfI? AT brrxf, O,7t
,, _ Po' b' 
Example
(a2
 b2) sin2 E
2b2 (a2 sin2 6 i b2 cos2 q1r/z
Sol.ntion. With d
,l
n;t
n W'(Fcosv)
GIu' ulc' l]
nr=t
The radial deflection rll and meridional deflection ll due to intemal Dressure
Pa'
(6.37)
are given by
D^2
can be obtained
"i"Q=ffi
Ellipsoi&l heod.
(az
ryEq
24oo lb/in.
and
%=r#
48oo psi
166
6.3
6.3
TORISPHTRICAI.
HEADS
167
TORISPHERICALHEADS
elo
zlq
!
4Baw
(6.38)
where
B=
Equation 6.38 is similar to Eq. 5.21 for cylindrical shells except that in Eq.
6.38 the quantity p is a function of 12 that is variable along the meridian. This
requires numerical integration of all moment, force, deflection, and slope expressions at angles less than @ : 9g'.
If a discontinuity force is applied at the edge as shown in Fig. 6. 13, Eq. 6.3g
yields the following values.3
.:#rru,n,FoB^Md.
n = Gr"^n, + zBoDe,Mi
u,
h/.
Fis'rr 6.12
7,
z1,f;c
*r=ffi<oupo+
Similarly,
Me
FoBp,Mo)
^oo
Ap"Mo)
t&10
No=+(2brar)
zo=
/lno.r4Rl
ffitz
24,
482)
4800 lb/in.
and
4Rfn
o' = (rf
= 9600
psi
Fisuro 6.13
(6 3e)
I6E
whcrc AA = ., rr'(cos ps +
Be, = e &(cos Bs Cs = s8" t.,t P
Dp" = aFs rin B"
6.4
rh=
.Rt  u\
\la
p=
poisson's ratio
6.4
sin Bs)
CONCAT
HEADS
t69
The forces and deflections obtained from Eq. 6.40 due to some typical loading
sin Bs)
Exampfe
6.7. A conical
pressure, N"
and lr'e
6.40,
Ne
Ps tan
= p. Therefore, from
ft
is
Eq.
6r
CONICAL HEADS
l0
p
and
(1)
cos a
r=ssind
Also
/t=o
P
6.l1
.2
N"=;*d,;+c
12= stard
at
p,s tan d
s=0
N"=0
becomes
Hence
rv"
(6.40)
c= 0
Ps tan
a'
and
Pr
lV":;:
zcosa
6,4,1
2 cos
c!
6.4
CONICAT HEADS
t7l
+
od
I
I
o
d
.
Ao
o
(J
6t
,
AIFr
I
.t.
olsr
AI
NI
:+!
\nP
at4
Etr
r:r
ilN
d.
'I
o
itl
E
v;
*"
lo
Ol
l
l6
old
IE
;lo
ol
t
;l
olN
N I
.l
olq
a,
olp
'l'
""1
o
lt
o
o
o
o
p
3
"i

I
o
d
c
a
^" ? 
(i
rlt
o
F
I
N 
old
(JI
tF
. lo)
of
Fo
o
ld
(/lla
.1.^
alN
I
ilo
f'
d
o
u
o
E
N le
6  .
drN
(b)
Figure 6.15
r:J
 oto
ltld
olN
OIF
Qti
Ull
, tP
".li
PnR2
or
z@@
=PR
2
A, it follows
..
,=
170
PR t^n d
2
that 11 is an inward
172
ANALYSI3
O'
This tbrce H must bc resisted by ring action at the junction The required area
of the ring is given by
.HR
(f
o==
=
ts
PR2 tairr
a'
2o
where A :
P
(6.41)
Nl
@l
Nl
ll
ttN
>l
intemal pressure
NI
o' =
o
9cl
.l
.._:
,4
ol @
ol
.
IE
*'l
e
lo
' o,lN
N l@
tl.{
61
l!
i:r
6.8.
Example
F^
I .\r
l>
Fl+
20x48'?x1.00
2x
2.3O in2
10,000
.
o
o
6.4.2
.ol
t
Discontinuity AnolYsis
tN
>
The derivation of the discontinuity expressions for conical shells is similar to that
for cylinders. The resulting moment and force equations for conical shells are
expressed in the more complicated Bessel function terms. However, approximate solutions for various edge loading conditions can be expressed in simple
form as shown in Table 6.4. In this table,
^t
IJ=',
' srn 4)
@l
.l
NIS'
!l
N
qI
0,
IN
_>
cg
6:
.o *.
=11
173
6.4
t74
CONICAT HEAD5
t/5
f:Hu
F:H(1 U)
/r\
M: HIiIVZ
\p/
where
H:
Figure 6.16
Pr lan d'
2
c')
i + cos'zc'(6 + cos2 a')
cos2
circumferential
ExamDle 6.9. Calcuiate the maximum longitudinal and
P
pressure
intemal
to
16
due
*"r... i" the cylinder shown in Fig 6'
o'(3 *
cos2
_.u
vz=o*"o"2"';
f+F:H
as
Pr tan a'
whereasthemaximumcircumferentialstressduetoMandpressureisgivenby
'l'he deflection compatibility between the cylinder and cone is given by
dclloction of cylinder at junction due to M and
(2)
ffi;;#ili;
,".""ft
=
f
rrlrlcs
to external hydrostatic
The solution of the buckling of a conical section subjected
equation is very
resultant
The
methods
oressure is normally obtained by energy
s Experimental
solution
lhe
for
needed
prociis
the iterativi
Sirrrilutly,
llsirrl
6.4.3
(3)
shells has
the buckling equations of conical and cylindrrcal
of cylindrical
tfti, U*lling of a conicai shell is similar to the buckling
.iro*oiftut"oparing
equal to
radius
a
and
cone
the
of
length
slant
rn"fi.*ift length equal to the
shown that the
,h" un"aog" "radiris of curvature of the cone Research has also
of a cone'
buckling
the
on
influence
qr""tiiy O  Dr/Dr) has a significant
176
6,4
p is the modified
2.42E
177
becomes
f(l  DtlD)
HEADS
as
*,:"('';)
where
CONTCAT
(t
/2r)25
=6_EfnlL/r,o.4sen84
(6.42)
ti
The second bracketed expression can be approximated by the quantity
2
r+ND,
For most applications, the second quantity in the bracketed denominator is small
compared with the first one and can thus be neglected' Based on this, the
as
Using a factor of safety (FS), the allowable external pressure on a cone is given
by
P,
2.6(t"/D2)25
E
4, _
a')25(r)15./, _ 4\
tl1,DtrDtl21'5rU or/
2.6(cos
!V"'
(6.43)
(FS)(Le/Dz)
P.
modulus of elasticity
t"=tcosd
7"=11/2)(t + Dt/D2)
Dl : diameter at small end of cone
D2
Example 6.10, Design the cone shown in Fig. 6.18 for an extemal pressure
of 15 osi. Let FS = 4.0 and E = 30 x 166 psi.
Solutinn. a' =
Fisure 6.17
a' :
,. : T (' *
0.858.
noq)
= 24
3't5 in.
I70
NOMENCI.ATURE
Dr
C : modulus of elasticity
L = axial length of cylinder
L":(h/2)(1 +Dt/D2)
/ = axial length of cone
l' : slanted length of cone
M = bending moment in hoop direction
M = bending moment in meridional direction
=60"
Fisur 6.1S
,": o,(wo1a,ly'
and
P :
pressure
pressure
0.20 in.
NOMENCTATURE
P, = radial pressure
P" = axial pressure in cone
P = meridional pressure
=,,(u?,#i:,'*i"l'
I : """""""': :
cos a'
N, =
N=
N=
end of cone
U.zJ ln.
4
r,
s
?
t
t"
v
w
inside radius
outside radius
=
=
= tcos a'
= axial deformation
radial deformation
179
I8O
a *
e=w
for cylinders
7 =7r/2Q
6 = deflection measured perpendicular to axis of symmetry
A : rotation
^p =\yto=6i/F
= poisson's ratio
o = stress
o = critical buckling stress
o, : radial stress
.r, = longitudinal stess in cone
od = hoop stress
meridional sfess
R,EFERENCES
t.
BIELIOGRAPHY
Bilfington, D. P., Thin Shell Conctete Structures, McclawHill, New York, 1965.
Flugge, W,, Stresses in Shells, SpringerVerlag. New York, 1967.
Timoshenko, S., and S. WoinowskyKieger, Theory of Plates and Shells, McGrawHill, New
Yo*,
for cones
od
BIBTIOGRAPHY I8I
Gibson, L E., Linear Elastic Theory of Thin SherrJ, Pergamon Press, New York, 1965.
von Kaman, T. and HsueShen Tsien, "The Buckling of Spherical Shells by Extemal
P.essue" in Ptessure Vessel and Piping Detign: Collected Papers 1971959, Afieican
Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1960.
Coates. W. M., '"The Stale of Shess in Full Heads of Pressure Vessels" in PressureVessel anl
1959.
CHAPTE
STRESS
R7
IN FLAT PLATES
t83
l8.l
7.1
7.2
t85
CIRCUI.AR PI.ATES
INTRODUCTION
whereas
rectangulir'p."rGffi;i;.
l.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Thickness of plates is significantly smaller than the least lateral dimension of the plate.
Loads are applied perpendicular to the middle surface of the plate.
No forces are imposed in the middle surface.
Lines perpendicular to the middle surface before deformatron remain
perpendicular to the deformed middle surface.
These lines are inexlensible.
These lines remain straight lines.
These assumptions form the basis for developing the bending theory
of plates
and apply to plales where buckiing is not a consideration.
7.2
Fisure 7.1
fr
CIRCULAR PLATES
1dw
rdr
(7.2)
1 1\
 r pl
d,2w
;= 77
! =d2w :
rn dx,2
dQ
dr
(7
.t)
sindat=I
Using the sign convention that clockwise angles and moments are positive
and
\/
(7
.3a)
(7.3b)
Sinilarly,
M,: D(!+
*
ar
\r
= o(9
p+\
dr/
dd\
* p,
ar/I
(7.4)
t86
STRESS
tN r[AT ptAnS
7.2
For a unilorrnly bodcd platc, thc tbrces acting on an clement are shown in
Fig. 1.2u. Taking moments uboul an gives
(M,r
d0)
d1w I d2w_=:
1dw
drr r dr2 12 dr
or
(7
(1
187
*(i)
M,+#rM,'rQr:0
CIRCUTAR PTATES
(7.7)
.s)
dlrdld,/,)\1
:_r:=
drlr dr\ dr / I
as
Similarly, substituting Eqs. 7.3 and 7.4 into Eq. 7.6 gives
d20,ldo o o
a*;ar7: D
.6)
(7.8)
(o+5F dr)
l,lii,rr1= g
(Mr1!!r
Equations
circular plates due to symmetric loading. Equation 7.7 can also be written in
term of the local load as
I d [,d l! d (,a\.ll
drl drlr dr\ dr/l)
(7.e)
Once w is determined from Eqs. 7.7, then the moments are obtained from Eqs.
7 .3 arrd 7.4. The shearing force is determined from Eq. 7.6, and is exDressed
as
o: D(+.!+
 \+\
\ dr r ar r'ar/
(7.10)
Solution.
From Fig.
or
(b)
tiswe 7.2
Pr
nnz
188
7,2
CIRCUI.AR PI.ATES
t89
Pra
r2
Pa2 Paa /6 +
13 + p\t_!_t
Zu
or
o
:, *
'15+u
w: )(az
UD'  ,tll';
Fisure 7.3
\l+p
dltdldw\l
d,l;E(
d, )
dw Pr(,
^ dr l6D\'
Pr
): b
3+p,.\
l+p')
nj*, =_t
^ dw Pr3 Crr
drl6D2r
r = 0. Hence
Cz
____________:_
,
o'696!aq
"'""
(1)
Et3
Pr4
(4)
andwithp=0.30
A second integration gives the expression for the slope that is given by
s^^=
,,=#(T#')
rr)
i
t.os
EtY
The moment expression is obtained by substituting Eq. 3 into Eqs. 7.3 and
(l 
0.30
Paz /3
u\
Cr: 8D\l+,,/
r = d. Hence,
^ = Pat : 3^,
d'8r,(r + p) tP"'
C,rz
w:_L+++C2lnr+,C,
64D4
(3)
Paa
dl dw\:5Prl ^
 '"
d,\' d,)
At
and
'\
 r2l
.a2
.4. Hence
,,=*rt
1t)(a2
u, =
ftbt{z +
p.)
12)
r2(1
(s)
3p.)l
(6)
r90 tliltt
rN trAT
7.2
PtATtt
A plot of Eqs. 5 and 6 for g. = 0.3 is shown in Fig. 7.4. The plot indicats that
the maximum moment occurs in the center and is given by
CIRCUTAR PTATIS
t9l
and
 Pr3
H=++i
l6D2r
M*=3#
C,r
C,
(2)
At the center of the plate r = 0 and the slope is zero due to symmetry. Hence,
from Eq. (2), C, = 0.
At r = a, the slope is zero and from Eq. 2,
6M
l.24Pa2
T
I
Cr= Pa2
8D
Example
7,2.
Also at
r = a, the deflection
l,
Ct:6
Pr4 Ctz Lz
.:64DT ^ ,lll /
f L:
(l)
The maximum
Paa
w='64D&
lt.
2n
and for
{{'o
Pa4
l2(l 
(3)
trz)
P = 0.3,
r,v.*=0.171r9)
\Lt"
00
The moment expression is obtained by substituting Eq. 3 into Eqs. 7.3 and
7.4. Hence,
u,: f,bT
+ p)
r2(3
tL)l
(4)
3p))
(s)
and
I'
h
Figoro
7.4
suppord plolo.
u, =
llt tt + tLt 
121t
tt2
$iltt
tlit
llaT ptATtt
7.3
PrAlt3
RTCTANOUTAR
azMn
^
Answeri
mo( lr = #
zD\t + l.L)
max 0^ =
.,.
16tl
ffi
aM"
u\r
_ft 'f
p)
t9g
at center
at edge
max
M, = Mo throughout plate
m^x
M, = Mo throughout
plate
lffpsi,p=9.3.
.
answer.
o
=naLTE
_ 1.,
=
7.3
Determine the maximum moment in the circular plate shown in Fig. 7.6
if a = 4 ir., b = 2 in., p 0.3, and P 100 psi.
7.5
,nomnt
didrihtion tor
Answerz M'
l.
flgure
f,or
38,600 psi
384.6 in.lb/in.
ft(d plote.
A plot of Eqs. 4 and 5 for p = 0.3 is shown in Fig. 7.5. The plot indicates
the maximum moment occurs at the edge and is given by
tlnt
M,*"= Paz
Fieur. 7.6
and
6M 0.7
o*,=v_vSPaz
Problems
7.1
7.3
RECTANGULAR PTATES
In developing the differential equation for circular plaies, the shearing shess was
ignore.d because the load was symmetric with respect to 0. In rectangular plates
under uniform loads, the shearing stress interacts with the normal shesses in the
.r and ydirections and thus cannot be ignored. This results in a more complicated differential e4uation than that for circular plates. In addition, the solution
of th differential equation of rectangular plates is more elaborate and involves
the use of Fourier series. Because of this, only the case of a simply supported
Ifi
7.3
dQ"
q(x, y)dx dy
d,g _ atu,
dy = dy
If
PIAT!3
19!
(7.12)
W+Q'y=o
plates.
srves
RKTANOUTAR
(7
dxdy
.t3\
Similarly, summing moments around the yaxis and deleting all quantities of
Q, dy
(a..
ff *)', 
(a.
ft,,)*
#.rye"=o
=0
(7.t4)
do, d2M,
azM,,
ar: d*  atfr
q(x,yt+#.#=,
(7
.1,r)
Substituting Eqs.
gives
into7.1l
and using
(7.15)
= MofromEq.3.1l
M"t
Summing mornents around the "raxis and deleting all quantities of higher order
gives
,
q\x,
d,M, 2d2M*+
y,r ;z
 ;i
a2M,
ir,
(7.16)
*$$o'
.17)
3.1I
as
_,(#. _?)
".:
'(#.,#)
Figwe 7.7
(7
^: o
u*'
!'Y^
dxdy
(7.18a)
(7.18b)
(7.18c)
7.4
p,
and3.ll
a8
n.
"=
,*(#.?)
,&(#.?)
(7. l9a)
M*=atrffitm@.*)
(7.19b)
M^."==,?'o,==fq!*a\
1r2(1/ffi2 + /25\2\602' 252f

Example 7.3. Detennine the maximum moment in a simply suppofied rectangular plate of length a and width D if the applied load is expressed as
I*t a = 6O in., b :
Sohttian,
Assume
25
h.,
0.3.
7/
7.4
0 or
az
Hence, the
12(1/602
+ r/25r,6q25)
+ l/b\2
Z@) =
M,:dffi"*Y"o"
Thc maximum value of M, and M, occur when .r
= a/2
'?"7'[(2])ll'
(x/2\o (x/2\8
y = b/2. A
= _ ? *"r(,) =
"'
,X
23ft)
and
61,
(x/2)2 , (x/2)6
_ l?L
(x/2\t2
(1\jx4j'
47W*
/.]l ..,, n!
^' Tx srn
 t \ sln
 t
= >. *,l)ix4i
Ll\xt = Det\x) = S.
6sr1r1
=tE+o.
u :
'"" = }(FaI7FfVj
r.
4o
Qo
y=
0 at all four
,,=
0 and
rrY\
= 40.2 in.lb/in.
txl
w=C rr;\rr
in.lb/in.
3.0(0.7)
M,r
to be of the form
"r= Dr4(1/
145.1
= qssinTF*T)
eo = 3psi, and p =
IOUNDATION I97
t+ _
1lr,
(r/2)'o
f?"'
r^i
a<.t]
.1lr, * ,"5.t,<,t]
r9r ltiltt
7.4
99/rY * 4(?1r\"  . . .
51'? \2)
31'z \2)
d(6) /r\u + "
_ 4{z\ (x\ _ d(4) /.rY _r
,,
?tr\r/
 ...
h:';\1)
Q\n)=
"t
1 fl,2@)
dzz2\x)
:;=zt\x)axx ax
d'zA(x)L4\x) lfi,l?)
= x ':dx' =
dx
 dZlx)
d2z4@)
:t=23\r)axx ax
+r\1)
I I l*.......*l
t*t*1z
TOUNDATTON t99
whcrc
" = /lY
\z) 
"
0.577216
The limits of the Z functions as 'r > 0 and as x :+ co are given in Table 7' 1'
The table also shows the limits for the first derivatives of Zt tltroryh Zq.
The relations between the various derivatives of the Z functions are as fol
as
P=Kow
lows:
Toble
7.1
Limits of Zfunctions
Limit
Limit
as
as
Function
.r + 0
Z{x)
1.0
z2@)
7
f
h6)
0.5
r,
h(x)
2t^+
z
dx
x'
:7
lo
1fu(cosrsinr)
il.(x)
x
_x2
&(x)
dx
&'(x)
x,
dx
E+(x)
dx
cos K
sin
sin
rl,
cos
i,lli,(,#)l=ry
ry'
w=
;!(cosr+sinr)
yx
ft@osi,
sinrli
I'.1x
=:eXD""'=
!2tx  !2
xn
v86
(7.19)
Itr=
nx
1fu(cosg+sin0
Cfl(ar) 'f
where ":
21
Za :
Ct 
Example
Qa
7.4.
C2Z2@r)
C3Z3(ar)
CaZa@r)
^{EJD
Bessel functions
constants of integration
j,t, =
'v26 +i
w:CtZt(ar)iCaZa(ar\
and Zz also
100
tTmll
rt{
tuT ptaTtt
UEUOORAPHY
and
0
=
dr
= Ct
Zi@r) +
Ca a
Zi@r)
w = CzZz(ar)
Mt
M,
My
M,r
P
O
201
dw
* = CtaZS@r)
d2w ^.f
I
I
jj=c*'lzo{or)zi@nl
d3w ^"f
I
I
:zKar)]
7j  Aa'zlozi@r\
Substituting these derivatives into Eq. 7.10 and equating this to F' gives
r
T
t
w
= radius
= temperature
= thickness
= deflection
21 to Za = Bessel functions
= */EJD
poisson's ratio
^F
4azD
REFERENCE
l.
and
'=
and
'fi6t'<*>
BIBTIOGRAPHY
Hetenyr,M., Beams on Etastic Foandation, University of Michigan Prss. Atrn Arbor, Michigan,
F
8rr2D
NOMENCIATURE
Et3
;:;:;:
tz\t  p)'
E
Kq
M,
=
=
=
=
modulus of elasticity
stiffness of foundation
modulus of elasticity of foundation/depth of foundation
radial moment in circular plates
1964.
E., Smith, B, L,, aDd Bernhan, W. D., Analyris of plates, Spaftan Books, New
York, 1972.
Szilard, R., Theory and Awlysis of Prorer, hediceHall, Englewood Cliffs, {.J., 1974.
McFarland, D,
PART3
DESIGN OF
COMPONENTS
203
CHAPTER
DESIGN OF
CYLINDRICAL SHELLS
St tot,,is' Mo
a,' ,'l,rrrrn rower used by o ferlilizer monufocturer' (Courtesv of lhe Nooter CorPorolion'
205
2tJ4
206
8.I
Cylindricul vcsscls ure very liequently used in the petrochemical industry. They
a.re easy to fabricate and install and economical to maintain. The required
As the pressure increases above 0.4 S, Division 2 uses plastic analysis (see
Section 15.l) to obtain
r
Example
8.I
sE
where
t:
0.6P
8.1.
spot radiographed.
r = 0.17
pressure
x 25
17,500x.850.6x100
t==SE PR0.6p

(8.1)
100
in.
R = inside radius
S
(8.3)
find the required thickness according to Section VIII, Division 1. Assume that
all circumferential and longitudinal seams are doublewelded butt joints and are
required thickness
P = inlemal
/R+r\
=ftn \Ri
A pressure vessel with an inside diameter of 50.0 in. is subjected to an intemal pressure of 100 psi. Using an allowable stress of 17,500 psi,
A simplified
allowable stress
A comparison of Eqs. 8.1 and 5.9 is shown in Fig. 5.6. It indicates the wide
range of applicability of Eq. 8.1. The ASME Code, Vltrl, has, however,
limited the use of Eq. 8.1 to t less than or equal toR/2 and pressure less or equal
to 0.0385 S. Various forms of Eq. 8.1 are shown in Appendix I together with
an altemate equation that expresses the thickness in terms of Re rather than R.
The factor E in Eq. 8.1 is an efficiency factor and its magnitude depends on
the extent of radio$aphy performed at the various seams of the cylinder. Appendix J illushates the effect of radiography of various seams on the values of E as
established by the ASME Code, VI[l.
In Section VIII, Division 2, of the ASME Code, the equation for required
thickness is based on the stress at an average radius. Hence,
Solutinn. From Appendix J, with a value ofE = 1.0 (seamless shell), allowable circumferential stress must be reduced to 8070 since the circumferential
seams are not xrayed.
From Appendix
is given by
I,
PR
SE +
O.4P
(15,000
P(R + t/2)
0.31 in.
250 x 15
0.80)(1.0) + (0.4
250)
Probhms
PR
0.5P
(8.2)
8.1
206
8.2
quircd thickness il'thc alkrwablc stress is 20,()00 psi and the design prcssure i$ 2900 psi.
Answer:
8.2
t:
STRESS
CATEGORIES
3.81 in.
PR
SECON DARY
II4ARY
Answer: p = 524psi
8.2
at
STRUCTURAL
DISCONTINUITY
GROSS STRUCTURAL
LOCAL STRUCTURAL
DISCONTINUITY
DISCONTINIJITY
of stress or straln
intenslf{cation which a ffec ts
A source
Fisure
8.1
Example
Flsuro
8.2
ol r.te.honicol
Engineers,)
8.3.
8.5. LetR
15,000 Psi,
L=
2lo
DtslGN
of
8.2
cYLlNDRlCAt SHtLLS
tRlt4ARY STRtSS
limiting.
I'4E14BRANE
as secondary
ls the bending
central
ln
the
staess
portion of a flat head due
An exanple
general prima rY
nn e*'ampte
membaane
of a local
sttess is the
a Shell Produced bY
in
stress
external loadr dnd monent at a
perFanent suppoft or at a
membrane
noz2le connection.
Figure
8.3
menbrane
tufe distribution in
a cylindrical shell.
2) stress produced bY the
tempe rature dIf ference
tempera
shell to
t,Jhich
it is
= 14,300 Psi
o'=0Psi
=
7150 Psi
7150  psi
stress
radial tenperature
distribution in a cylindrical shell
produced by the
8.,{
distortion. ExanPl es of
I ocal thefmal stresses a"e:
I ) stress in a snall hot sPo
in a vessel v/al l.
2) the difference betl/leen th
actual stress and the
equlvalent I i near stress.
3) the thermal stress in a
cladding material.
or
=  71501 psi
Hence, maximum stress = 14,300 psi. From Tables 8.1 and 8.2, the maximum
stress for a general primary membrane sffess is
S,
oo
or
attached.
Eneiners )
Primory Slre$ Cotosoria3 (Courtelv of lt'e Ahericon Socisiv of M3honicol
A.
is associated wi th almost
conpl ete suppression of the
differential expansion and
thus produces no significant
ExamPles of
Figure
Solution
Point
PririarY
stress.
is classified
Point
B.
15,000 psi
>
14,300
Psi
:
o., :
ae
or
14,800 psi
500 psi
7150 psi
O.K
Tobb
0.1
Clorrlflcotlon of
Slrun
(Rrforrncr l)
Tobb
8.2
Sirart
Ee.dlns
!o Pnhe.y or eR0n6.
tt

I,.t*11
i
I i
tP.
F{ s.) I
T\/

  i
I

 r.+   ;
.r/'\ I lI P. Hr.5 s,) llPr+PD+O+ rs. )
lLTr
\__/ ll\__/
i
r
. r /\
L__*f
lP(PD H1,5 s)
\'l
U*
a

i
:
I
i
'
:
!
:
.t
&5iEn load3
lPr +P. +Q +F
Us op.aungloads
H
, s. )
\/
{av.
&dslull sclio.t
Fisure 8.5
212
213
2ta
8.2
r'" = +e)
500
x !'0x2 0625
=
7734 in
Also,
Mt=M,+N,e=M,+7734
......_"
r,
60 +
rh
60
'#:6l.olt3
=
+!
in.
60.5157 in.
B=
Fisur.8.6
3(1
o,
p')
,,1
h/
oe
Figur 8.2
4_r l_2650lpsi
6,_, = l7650lpsi
Hence, the maximum shess
able sffess of 15,000 psi.
Point
ngure,
g .g
9.8465
o.so35E
= ,^'.!o'1
tz\t  p),, =
=._"a
n,
From this
Fisure 8.8
lb/in'
215
216
Dt]Ot{ of cful{DflcAt
3H!U.3
8.2
deflection of head
or
wo
wlsn
wy"
* wql^,"n"n:
wp
w9
wy1l6,
**
It' =
"
^
ar,
r0.86M,
En
47.3822Q
Eo
Et,
Es
N,e 83,991
D,= h
217
m2,987
4A3Mh 6l.t86lM, .
473,213
E6t1r6 Es
^ zA,Q
 188.022Q
O^=
E,)
' Eoh
N,e _ 366,454
t*" = zB'o,=
k
.""
^
aw"=
o 0s: 2p'D
(l)
Pr?
47.3822M,
___Eo
Es
. 4''':
zp"D,
4r3'4s69Q
M"+
Eo
1'.9521Q= 7733.99
Prl .
,242.851
we=EA\t
 lt)= E"
*^ =
'
2'QrA
Eoh
= 262'55 lb/in'
M' : 7221.47 in.lblin.
Mr: 512.53 in.lb/in.
Q
1155.56650
Eo
totaly =
E
M' + r1.1563Q =
l$y
10,150.55
(2)
rotation in head
or
0N*+
0M"
0ol.*.u
: Iun Lal^rc"a
(3)
(4)
2ll
8.3
=!3y:35,000psi
rs
: ff :
ZSOO
219
,,: + = i*'(L)'
psi
Defining
: Y = 720 pri
=
A=
e""
oe x/ tY
220 psi
^: a= ,1;"1
(8.4)
These stresses are divided into two categories in accordance with Table g.2:
l.
Equation 8.4 is plotted as shown in Fig. 8.10. Hence, for any given value ofL,
and, t, a value ofA can be determined from Fig. 8.10.
The allowable compressive stress in the elastic region can be determined from
D",
o6
35,000 psi
o1 :
a, =
the equation
7500 psi
AEo
FS
500 psi
35,500 psi
where FS is factor
From Tables 8.1 and 8.2 the maximum allowable local membrane stress
is equal to
1.5S,
2.
22,599
<
35,500
psi
=
ot =
a6
35,220 psi
+ 720
=
:
8220 psi
35,720 psi
(D,/'XFS)
In the plastic region, ASME uses quasistresFstrain curves similar to those in
Fig. 8.11 to determine plastic buckling. These curves are plotted on loglog
graphs with a factor of safety of two for stress. Because the stressstrain curves
differ for different temperatures, a number of curves for different temperatures
are plotted in Fig. 8.11. Hence, allowable stress is given by
O)
o;: 500+0
500
psi
(factor I
o=T
From Tables 8.1 and 8.2 the maximum allowable local membrane olus
secondary stress is equal to
8.3
,2AEg
overstressed
220
35,000
7500
Dressure
> 35,720 OK
or
2"8
o=FS
If
^ zto
D.
4tB
FS
(D,)
(8.s)
8lolgv:l
tl
:l
!""
5
.."
jE
E
E
8 6
6
g;
V
11 't
a.>
E.n
\ \
JR
\
5:.
c
fq
fiA
tt5
5c;
.:.'
a9
'6
E.E
 s 5F
fl
q 9
; f :('
+Tet
.:J I
'= bt
\
j6
i;+
;bE
da
oE
5g
220
EE9
39PP9
:*
RFR
4
R
Fo
g9
'd
aE 8.
i; !a
221
olsloN oF
cYt"rNDRrcAL sHEtrs
8.3
l.l
P
@"/t)FS
The ASME procedure for the design of cylindrical shells under extemal
!
pressure is complicated because of the various parameters that must be considered. A summary ofthe procedure is shown in Fig. 8. 12 as an aid to the designer.
ASME uses a factor of safety of 3.0 for buckling of cylindrical shells subjected
to lateral and end extemal pressures. Hence, for elastic region (D./t > l0),
2AEo
(8.6)
3(D,/t)
and for elastic or plastic region
(D./t ;
where A = factor
:
D, :
B
r:
For
D,/t
Solution.
6 rn.
4:zzo
t '
D.
t
Then
modulus of elasticity
allowable extemal pressure
p_
values less than 10, ASME uses a variable factor of safety that ranges
t<
(2x0.009_l8..1!Z?
106)
(3)(32u)
(T#  00833)'
2ol.
I \
(8.7)
ur.r:]in.
6
(b) For a factor of safety 2.0, assume
t=
r0.9
psi o.K.
A check is needed to ascertain that buckling is in the elastic rather than the plastic
region. FromFig.8.ll with A = 0.0018, a value of B:2600 psi is obiained
in the elastic region of the curve. Hence, the above solution ;f l0.g DSi is
adequate.
^:
stress
L=1.2s
From Fig. 8.10, factor A = 0.00018. From Fig. 8.11, modulus of elasticity ar
room temperature is 29,000,000 psi. Hence, from Eq. 8.6
thickness of cylinder
from 3.0 for values of D"/t = 10 to a factor of safety of 2.0 for values of
D"/t = 4O. This reduction occurs because for very thick cylinders, buckling
For
(a) Assume
=
P=
Eq
Example 8.4. The length of a cylindrical shell is 15 ft, outside diameter l0 ft,
and is constructed of carbon steel with minimum yield strength of 36,000 psi.
The shell is subjected to an extemal pressure of 10 psi. Find (a) the required
thickness using ASME factor of safety and (b) the required thickness using a
factor of safety of 2.0.
lO),
.t4B,t
= 3(D./t)
(E.lr )
\D./t)'
223
0.3125 in.
Then
4=38a
t
8.3
Cd
l.
o
idtrr"
l..r Lhar 4
L./Do
O.O5
2(0.000t_41_ll?9
10.6
"
Coloulot.! A ad u..
rt,r not.rlol. ofi.r.i, vtLh
106
Oo./t ar
.lO
Ext
3.0
O.K.
1.25 in.
L:
4:
D.t z.o
st.o
2x0.00095x29x106
=
3 x 57.6
I. 2Sl,
psi
ur",:jin.
lo
Solution. It r =
Ia
223
gF.ot.r. thdr 50 ?
DESION
Aanft.t L 4 oolculolar L lo
l.
loulot. Oo/t
Oo./t,
< O.96U ?
:29 x
106
psi,
320 psi
Eq.8.6,
P4x12'oon
,:
3x57n
Try
I. Pol
Figure
224
8.12
r:
278
psi
inadequare
!=sr.o
< Poa ?
and A:o.oo11
226
lJ
'P:
Use
12,400 psi
dx It
don
'=^:"
316 psi O.K.
3 x 52.4 =
r = 1.375 in.
Problems
8.3
The thickness of a l3ft diameter reactor is 5.50 in. and its effective leneth
is l8 ft. Ifthe design temperature is 900'F, what is the maximum allowa6le
external pressure?
Answer: P =
300 psi
Answer: t = 7/16in.
A jacketed pressure vessel with an intemal diameter of 12 ft is subjectd
to an interni pressure of 400 psi and a jacket pressure of 200 psi . The shell
thickness is controlled by the intemal pressure using an allowable tensile
stress of 15,000 psi at 800T with an E factor of 1.0. Determine the
required stiffener spacing from Figs. 8.10 and 8.11.
E
i
F
I
'6
.J
Answer: L
8.6
16.2in.
Answer: T
8.4
+
I
J
+l'
E
E
900"F
+
;
+
i5
a,
,r&
.og
e;
AF
In deriving Eq. 5.17 for the maximum strength of a cylindrical shell under
cxternal pressure, it was assumed that the ends of the shell were simply supF)rted. For this to be true, stiffening rings, flanges, and so on (Fig. 8.13) are
nccded as lines of supports. These supports are assurned to carry all the load that
thc shell carries due !o external pressure. By refering to Figs. 8. 13 and 8.14,
Iotal force in stiffener is
227
DESTON
8,4
Ot CYltNDRtCAt SHfl.tS
,:4P
FS PP"
2 2(t + A,/L)
':
3PD"
a:or,aatra
s
ti ffener
(8.8)
The stiffening ring must also be checked against buckling. The classical expression for the buckling of a ring due to external pressure is
I 2116
U;
E
l1ti I
 A
tf=:
Di,G
+ A,/L)L
8.I.t
Es
PD.L = 2F
I:.
PD"L
o
I'A,/L)
L(t +
PD.
2(t + A,/L)
In this equation it is assumed that the area A" of stiffening ring is ,,smeared', over
the total length z.
Using the terminology of Fig. 8.11 and expression 8.5,
'FS
28
12I
D')"A
+ A'/L)L
becomes
DzL\t + A,/L)A
(8.e)
This equation can be used in conjunction with Eq. 8.8 and Fig. 8.10. In doing
so, a hial A, is normally selected and I is calculated from Eq. 8.8. Using the
value ofB, which already incorporates a factor of safety of 3.0, a value ofA is
obtained from Fig. 8.11. With this A, the required moment of inertia is calculaled from expression 8.9
Because the stability of the stiffening ring is essential in calculating the shell
stability, a higher factor of safety is used by ASME in the stiffening ring
calculations as compared with shell calculations. With a factor of safety of 3.5,
exoression 8.9 becomes
.
t:
DZL(I + A"/L)A
A
(8.10a)
230
8,5
The svuilable / obtuined liom Eq. tt. lOa must be lower than the available
tmoment of inertia of the stiffening ring. This inertia is calculated without
considering the contribution of the adjacent cylinder. If the composite 1of the
ring and the effective cylinder are considered, then a penalty of 28Zo is applied
to Eq. 8.10 and a new expession given by
Example
0.1857 in.
0.67
D
= tt+
1.09
: r
"
From Fig. 8.11,
l0.4psi
0.00018.
:
:
R = : l4 (u187 5
l*t
r
23I
A,
Solution.
r=;t4J\.,/4ooo\
,* l:
(8. r0b)
lo.9
RINGS
Hence,
,, _ DzLa + A"/L)
8,5
0.67 in.
OK
A=
0.00028
21000
psi
Gaps in stiffening rings are normally provided to allow for drainage of vessel
contents or permit piping and other internals to extend through the ring. Examples of various gap arrangements are shown in Fig. 8.16. The maximum allowable gap can be calculated by assuming the distance between points a and b of
Fig. 8. 17 as a simply supported column of length l. The maximum buckling load
that can be applied to this column is given by
lf'I1ol
I'
(8.1
la)
The strength of the column must be equal to or greater than the cylindrical shell.
For large diameter shell the curvature is small and the buckling streneth of the
shell approaches that of a simply supponed flat plate. The riinimuit critical
buckling strength of the simply supported plate abcd (Fig. 8.17) loaded in the
I'c,
.ing..
Fisure 8.15
4i2Enl =4T2EJ
=;r=_ = t'
ttr  ltt
(8.1
lb)
8,5
Grp lnor
233
to.tc..d I rtm.r
S]
L.ngth
.r..sd
Figure 8.17
that of the plate. Therefore, the maximum gap length must be onehalf that of
_l
g_;_;;
_l
Typ.
ot
onttrucrio.
_+
^';
1xa
_ ttD.
(8.
l2)
ASME has developed curves that are based on Eq. 8.12. These curves are
shown in Fig. 8.18. A comparison, however, between Eq. 8.12 and Fig. 8.18
indicales some differences. These differences are due to the fact that Fig. 5.18,
which is used with Eq. 8.12, is plotted using the first two terms of expression
fl in Eq. 5.27a whereas Fig. 8.18 uses all terms. Therefore, the results of Fig.
8.18 are more accurate.
Figur' 8
(Ref. 2).
voriou
nng.
Example
3ubiecd ro exrernor
preasure
with
8.7.
D. =
7.O ft,
Solution
':
t
232
t+
L=
r
a.zs
8.6
lrronr F'ig.
tl.12,
::+
: o.2oD^
(4X4)
!
G
"":#ii
.s
3,6+Id
*"""p;'L;
d;:;
E3
$E
";:
;a
s!
5=
E
=_@i
o5
,=
2N
The slendemess of each column is expressed by the ratio //r where r is the radius
of gyration. Since r is eqtal to t2/\/12 in a shell wall. the equation becomes
t_
r
F
8I 889 S
5.44
N(t/D.)
el
rr
for columns
and
ca
t/y12
234
bet
5
;IJ
g gfig
16.8 in.
EXTERNAL PRESSURC
"+r3
8.6
5.44
N(t/D.)
for cylinders
!:t
where C1
c'
I I
(8. r 3)
N(t/D)
@E
oB
1.57.
/,1
/
fo;
9:
..'
/
/
N(t / D")
/
+ o.ol5N
(8.14)
is found satisfactory. In using the values of C1 and C2 as obtained from tests, the
equation becomes
o,'=8
/t
I
t N(Jf,j "'"
o,
"1
4ls
il
e/l
Ct
tl
Experiments have shown that for constant tfD, ratios, the value of eft
increases with an increase in Lf D.ratios. This, however, applies only in the case
of intermediate length shells. For this range, Eq. 8.13 was found to give adequate results. As the length gets longer, tests have shown than an increase in
L/D"has no influence on ef t. On the other hand, tests have shown that as the
q QE
*:1 t .
I
E=
q 66
o o
ct .0
P6
dF
3{
'i
,9d
Example
8.8.
3.ssps F
tt3R8
Solution
5.60
D= to
t
237
2il
NOMINCIATURI 239
f nnrr
o,: 0.062510
n/t
l
"=Lffi)+o'or5(3)J(o7s)
e
0.39 in.
e:
(8.1s)
ot=
8.ll
using
A = 0.125/(R,/t).
O.53t
Example 8.9. A cylindrical tower is constructed of stainless steel 410 material. Its radius is 6 ft and thickness is 0.5 in. Determine the maximum allowable
compressive stress at room temperature.
0.40 in.
T
Solution
&=3=roo
,
8.7
106
o,=fifo.oazs x
psi
29
106)
12,600 psi
or
= 29 x
.".=*Lo
A:ltEot:99
RJt
u.)
=W:
o.ooo87
as
and
FS(R,/r)
= Il,fiX)
psi
<
use
NOMENCTATURE
area
of stiffening ring
210
DtStON
Oi CyUNORtCAt
= joint efficiency
: modulus of elasticity
F : peak stress as denned in Table 8.2
/ = moment of inertia of stiffening ring
E6
Q:
EIBTIOGRAPHY 241
SHH""S
REFERCNCES
ASME Boiler and Pressue Vessel Code, Section Vm, Division 2, Alrs rnative Rulespressure
Vessels, ANSVASME BPVVn2, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New york,
1980.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VItr, Division l, prcssure Vesrels,
ANSUASME BPVVmI, American Society of Meahanical EDgineers, New york, 1980.
BIBTIOGRAPHY
Windcnburg, D, F., "Vessels under Extemal Pressure," in Pressure Vessel and Piping Desiqtl:
Collected Papers 19271959, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1960.
tk)lt, M., "A Procedule for Determining the Allowable OutofRoundness for Vessels under
External Pressure," in Pressure Vessel and Piping Desiqfi: Collected PaPers 19271959,
American Society of Mechanical Engineering, New York, 1960.
CHAPTER
Inside surfoce
243
2U
9.I
9.I
245
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
A large variety of end closures and transition sections are available to the desisn
engineer. Using one configuration versus another depends on manv factors suih
as method of forrning, material cost, and space
used heads are:
."ihi"tionr.
r.
Some frequently
].'
(a)
FLANGED
(b)
Flanged Heads.
HEI.lISPHERICAL
These heads (Fig. 9.1c) are normally found in vessels operating at low
pressures such as gasoline tanks, and boilers. They are also usedin highpressure applications where the diameter is small. Various details for their
design and construction are given by the ASME Code, VI[l.
Hemispheical Heads.
Generally, the required thickness of hemispherical heads due to a grven
temperature and pressure is onehalf that of cylindrical shells with equivalent
diameter and material. Hemiheads (Fig. 9.10) are very economical when
construcied of expensive alloys such as nickel and titaniumeither solid or
_1
_T
(c)
(d)
ELLIPTICAL
FLAIIGED
&
DISHED
(TORISPHERIcAL)
clad. In carbon steel, hemiheads are not as economical as flaneed and dished
heads because of the high cost of fabricalion. Hemiheads are iormally fabricated from segmental "gore" sections or by spinning or pressing. Segmental
gore hemiheads are economical in thin, large diameter equipment or thick,
small diameter reactors. Because hemispherical heads are thinner than cylin_
drical shells to which they are attached, the transition area between the head
and shell must be contoured so as to minimize the effect of discontinuity
stress. Figure 9.2 illustrates the hansition requirements in the ASME Code,
vm.
of
(e)
(f)
C0NICAL
Figure
g)
9.1
IlISCEL!ANE0Us
These heads shown in Fig. 9.1e and are used in hoppers and towers as
bottom end closures or as transition sections between cylinders with different
diameters. The conetocylinder junction must be considered as part of the
cone design due to the high unbalanced forces at the junction. Because of
9,2
lilc
l
'".ca
<112k,.hl
<1l2las.hl
DISIGN
247
thcse high fbrces, the ASME Code, Vlll1, limits the apex anglc to a maximum of 30" when the cone is subjected to intemal pressure. Above 30'a
discontinuity analysis is done or a toriconical head used to avoid the unbalanced forces at the junction.
Miscellaneous Heads.
Many chemical processes require unusual vessel configurations. The heads of
such vessels can have an infinite number of contours. One such contour is
shown in Fig. 9. lg. The design of these heads is very complicated and there
are no simple methods of analysis. Experience, proof testing, and sophisticated analyses are generally used to determine required thicknesses.
taper./,
may inctude
the width ol the weld
9.2
VI[l,
2SE
where
{cl
Fisure
Ensi'ieers)
iunction. (Courrety of the Americon Societ}' of ldechonicol
O.zP
(e.1)
required thickness
P = intemal
(dl
9.2 Hodto{hell
t:
pressure
.lR
inside radius
allowable stress
B = joint efficiency
This equation with E : 1.0 is plotted in Fig. 6.3 and it approximates the more
complicated Eqs. 6.7 over a large range of r'fri Othet forms of Eq. 9. 1 are
shown in Appendix I.
For external pressure, Eq. 6.35 is taken as the basis for the ASME Code
equations. Defining e". : A, r : R,, and modulus of elasticity as Es, Eq. 6.35
can be written as
{a)
ASiIE
2:1
Es
Head
T
(b)
ASI.IE Flanged
and 0ished
where
A = critical shain
R, = outside radius
Head
fisure 9.3
246
.
"
thickness
0.t25
R"/t
0.125
R"/t
(9.2a)
214
9,3
lixamplc
9.1.
ASME DESION
EQUATIONS 249
a*:
in
Fig.8.ll.
Zt
Solution,
or
n rs
A:ffi=0.00r
l
P.,
= 2%
R"/t=4+
R./t
(e.3)
FS(R,/')
Using factor of safety (FS)
o.0625Eo
(R./ t)'
":*@
(e.2b)
= nt o"
9.3
as:
P"
Substituting B
11,000 psi
The ASME procedure for determining the allowable external pressure for a
spherical section is to detemine fust the A value from Eq. 9 .2a. The allowable
pressure can then be obtained by referring to a stressstrain chart similar to the
one shown in Fig. 8.11. IfA falls in the elastic region, then P is calculated from
84.9.2b. If ,4 falls in the plastic region, however, a value ofB is determined
fust from the chart. The allowable pressure is then calculated from exoression
9.3
and
p _
where P =
Eq =
(e.4)
o",/2
20
= FS(&/r)
(e.5)
B
p= R./t
(9.2c)
: il'. (tl]
(e.6)
DISION
SICTIONS
e
x IE
L_4
tl
o*r
tJ
6t
ti
o ", o.l
1 rffz,tf;r]
:sE
i
l,{oximum ske5s
'o
.!
A plot of this equation is also shown in Fig. 9.4. The ASME Code uses the K
values given by Eq. 9.6 to determine the required stress ratios needed in obtain_
0.2P
(e.7)
6il
t.
'l_
.oo
]a
)to
l
I
d9
"P
:.{
6i
E5
g
j :LLi  lts
)o
l
qo
;i
( to
l t9
{
_! .l
l0^
o
o (.l
l
.a
'tI IO li't^
.,lJ
zSE
lrc
do
;3
ll
li l
C.
9.4
i;
iE,6
\.
:Zt
at6
Fisur
6
rxo0
oxl( ;F
;t$
q
E, tt.
o. o !
.'i
a *,
le nerldlonol EtroBs ot
de eual'oc of knucklo oeo
I
ttl
,^=
6o
do
//
q:
do
a
ct
rt
3*3533
ur^rr
xour
ci
Jo o1ou
allowable stress
6 = joint efficiency
For torispherical heads, tests conducted by H<ihnr and others have shown that
the stress at the knuckle area due to internal pressure reaches the yield value long
before the spherical region does. Hrjhn plotted an empirical equation that cor_
relates well with available test data, as shown in Fig. 9.5. To ivaluate Hcihn's
empirical curve, Fig. 9.5 shows anotler curve that indicates the stress rn an
251
9.3
equivBlent ellipsoidal head whose thickness is equal to the shell thickness. This
curve indicates that Hrihn's curve is liberal for small values of knuckle to crown
radri r/L. Accordingly, the ASME Code, VIIII, developed an empirical curve
that parallels both Hdhn's curve for large values of rfL and the ellipsoid curve
for small r/Z ratios, as shown in Fig. 9.5. The ASME curve can be expressed
by the equation
n =)(z
(e.8)
zSE
where r :
O.zP
10 a 
/r\
\U/
0.442621;l +
'
(9.10)
"',(;i]l('";)]'
:
S:
intemal pressure
allowable stress
P=
9,2.
100 psi,
S:
17,500 psi,
E:
:t
head
ifD =
144 in.,
1.0?
allowable stress
Solutian.
(0, *,,;);.,'(,
,,;)(i)  o 0006
t.zent
K:
nl=
L
where t : required torispherical thickness
L : spherical crown radius
(9.e)
g = joint efficiency
r = knuckle radius
o"/FS
10.26879
253
r = knuckle radius
D = diameter of shell to which head is attached
P = internal pressure
Z = spherical crown radius
M = stress intensity factor obtained from Eq. 9.9
S
PLM
fo.oozw
4.ss246(; + 28.e3318G)
a/b =
3,
0.166712
+ (3.0f1
1.83
2x
=
Example
9.3,
17,500
1.0
0.2
100
0.75 in.
50 psi?
Solution.
L ..
r
r:
E=
1.0,
if
and
9.3
l;rrrn Eq.9.tl.
l
M=zG+vr6)
: 1.75
From Eq. 9.9,
50x240x1.75
t:
'2xl7joox1.o02x50
:
.17
l2:
0.60 in.
Because the thickness is obtained from Eq. 9.9 and because this thickness is
small compared with the diameter of the head, the requirements of Eq. 9. l0 must
be checked.
Etl,plo'dar h.d)
r15
D 240
0.0625
P
;J
50
17,500
0.002857
ln
/r\ :
l;l
\L/
s.54851
;=
o.oo38e
t
,005
Figure
9.6
Required Thickne.s
of
.01
Formed Heods (Courre.y
.02
of lhe Ane.icon
.03
Sociery
of
.04
0.93 in.
used.
_05
9.3.1
/vtechonicol
Ensineers.)
For extemal pressure, the knuckle area is subjected to a tensile stress. Hence the
critical area that is necessary for consideration under extemal pressure is the
I
254
spherical region. Thus the ASME criteria for all ellipsoidal and torispherical
heads under extemal pressure are the same as those for spherical heads.
116
9.4
SGCTIONS
9.4
Code,
Th" ASME
VI[I,
"\
T]
I'
tion is given by
PD
2 cos a(Str'
0.6p)
,S = allowable stress
g = joint efficiency
a = onehalf the included
the cone
+.
l+
I
2raon6
+ilvl_t nT
r
(e.l l)
I
measured
of
_t_
0.49
1.0
in.
ASME Simplificotion
rressur
0.6 x 450)
I
of Discontinuity Anolysis due fo Iniernol
,l
___L
9.7
X=
\l
?
Fig'rr
257
9.4.
9.4.
4.559U2 tan
1.316(V
q'
and
d
2V) tan a
equatron
tr2 tan q
2)
Y\6rt
(e.13)
,=!(o'+x{rz\
""=7(,  rrn
(Y\EIt 
t2tanall
, ['
(9.12)
The ASME Code,
1.5SE and thus
VI[l,
400
(9.14)
258
9,4
t.o
o
S
/
X=O.C
t2
6
,: !(o '',4)
\7
'7Li
2 <=l<ly,o.brri
!Y= 1.3t6<,V  zvz tLonc,.
tO'
30'
40.
9.8
SO.
<
l.sSE
V7=
:A
t
Prl
1.5
Prl
l_==tl
[ssz,
ran q
zSE
l
_.:l
XYr/t
t.s
'l
xt/r,/tl
From Fig. 9.8, it is shown that the quantity X is approximated by 0.012a. Hence
the required area can be expressed as
326.6\/F7SE\
^,=G('_ 
"
1t^"
. P,1 /. A\ t"
o':2sE\'i)
Prl
tan
af
125
'l
L' d,rtl
2sE
(9.r7)
(9.15)
Pr.
SE
where A, = required
(9.16)
Because both expressions include a negative term, the equation for or controls
because X is numerically larger than Z Limiting the maximum compressive
stress to Pr/t, the term in parentheses in the equation for o1 is
o<
=;
area of ring
P = intemal pressure
=
J=
t :
joint efficiency
can be substituted into Eq. 9.17 to give for the small end of cone,
^':
allowable stress
A = 326.6\/FEE
a=
259
""=?(' ",4)
Figure
12
DISIGN
liquation 9. l5 is used by thc ASMB Cirde , Vl ll I , as thc bitsis litr chccking
lllc.ioint bctween the cylinder and the large end of cone due to internal prcssuro.
At thc small end ofthe cone (Fig. 9.7) the circumferential and longitudinal stress
cquations due to internal pressure are
o.e
o.2
where A =
r, =
#('
 *) "" "
*G
radius of cvlinder at the small end of cone
(9.18)
*""W*ffiUfY6ffiU'iii,aibt
Exanple
9.5.
junctions. Lt S
Doslgn thc conc ehown in Fig. 9.9 and check the conetoshcll
= 20 ksi, E = 1.0, and p = 150 psi.
9,.1
HIAD DlllON
261
,=ffi(t1ff)<o.sttt
=
100)
9.4.2
3.70 in.2
The goveming equation for the design of cones subjected to extemal pressure is
obtained from @. 6.43. Using a factor of safety 3.0, Eq. 6.43 becomes
A=
326.6\m
and from Eq. 9.15 the required area at the large end is
^=ffiffi(rff)<os,t
=
P.
=28.28"
0.64 in.2
Es.
ASME Simplificotion
Presgure
A=89
7.71
(9.19)
L"/D,
9.4.3
0.87(t,/D)25
The discontinuity forces due to external lnessurea at the large end of cone are
shown in Fig. 9.10 and expressed as
{irtt*Fisurc 9.9
_:I_
262
9.4
lly limiting the axial stress to an allowable value of SE, the above equation can
bc written for large end of the cone,
u,__p_!t*r{^r,
I
I'''
(e.20)
o'=*'#""1'i(*2.4):]
r\
t/
'&1'"2)
where X
Y
:
=
:
Q:
N,
9.34
Vz
tan
2.57 (Vy 
tt
where
2V2) tan
+g
E
o.o27a
.027
a\/
1f
r2/
t,e
t.6
 Pr. r;N,
1"l/2
t
I'' 
r:;l,t
N/ *
(9.22)
/^
"v;/
area
of
_r,,_r,ill.r.
^t _P,,
or N, s 0, which indicates that at the small end of the cone the axial force N,
must be resisted by a ring with an area for the small end of the cone
(9.23)
1.1
./.
x=bs4vzrLno<
t.2
t.o
X:O.O27d
o.8
o.6
o.+
o.2
o
o" =
"o _ N,rr.sEtzn a
z.o
P
SE
Pr'
'V;=N*l
la
104
E
J
A:
(9.2r)
lhe
.7
rrttt'
'.t'
4
o'
Figure
\to.
9.ll
=o. to6
 zvr,'Lonq^
necessary to design the ring at the junction to prevent buckling due to external
pressure. The procedure is similar to that for the design of stiffening rings in
cylindrical shells. A conservative approach used by the ASME Code, Vltrl, in
designing cylindrical shells under extemal pressure assumes that intermediate
stiffening rings support all the load applied to the shell. Using the same criteria,
the load on the cone in Fig. 9.10 due to extemal pressure can be proportioned
at the large and small end stiffening rings as follows:
f_le. SZ.y
20.
o(
X ond Y voluer for externol
ZnP (r2
r)(r2
3sina
n"t: O!&i#
 r) cos a
2U
NOMENCLATURI
'Ii)t l l()td itt lirrgc cnd duc ttl axial conrprcssitln, prcssurc
on conc, an<I pressure
Ily using
rr1
on cylinder is
, = +tan q +,
tun
o+
tan 0
(e.26)
or
+,
!. eliffi*
F = P(M)
= E,A.
(9.24)
as
Fr
where
t,_r2tana, Lt
ri rl
Total load at small end due to axial compression, pressure on cone, and pressure
on cylinder is
PL,+ 14  r?
^ Prttan c + =/"=
^z
=P
I
br2 t0ll d
r f,
t?trr ct
F = P(N) + f2 tar, d.
(9.2s)
Applying a factor of safety of two in the foregoing equation and using the
Extemal Pressure Charts in ASME (hat have a factor safety two), a design
criteria can be established as follows:
1.
2.
Calculate
3.
Establish
a (factor B)
+:3
lrl
O/2 l&Il (t
Use Eq. 9.26 to establish the minimum required moment of inertia. The
ASME allows a 307o increase in value if the composite ringshell moment of inertia is considered and the equation then becomes
ADZA,
Equations 9.24 and,9.25 establish the maximum applied force at the cone_to_
cylinder junction. The critical buckling stress of a iircular ring is
o"
Lj + e,
A' =
+
+
Lj + e,
A' =
+
+
15.6
3Eol
nr,
strain A.
4.
where
rv=?tun o+L:
(9.27)
NOMENCTATURE
A:
At :
,B =
D:
D1 :
Fig. 8.11
diameter
base diameter at small end
of cone
26
OISION
O' IORMID
l)r
= joint efficiency
of cone
8s = modulus of elasticity
, = head depth
I = moment of inertia
lK : factor for ellipsoidal heads as determined from Eq. 9.6
Z = spherical crown radius of flanged and dished heads
Z' = effective
L" :
=
M=
70
+ Dt/D:.l
factor for flanged and dished heads as obtained from Eq. 9.g
P = pressure
P" = allowable extemal
pressure
It = inside radius
R, =
outside radius
r = knuckle radius
rr : base radius at small end of cone
/2 = base radius at large end of cone
S = allowable stress
r = thickness
t" = effective thickness of conical section
tcos d
stress
REFERENCES
L
2.
Bf
Brownell, L. E., and E.H.Yorlll.g, Process Equipment Design, lolmWiley, New york, 1959.
Shield, R. T., and D. C. Drucker, "Design of ThinWalled Torispherical and Toriconical
PressureVessel Head,s" in Pressure Vessels anl Pipirrg: Design atd AnatysisA Decade of
ProSleJr, Ameican Society of Mechaoical E4ineers, 1972.
sf.tooRAPHY
267
.1.
Bourdtnun, l{, C., "Strc$scs al Junction ol Conc and Cylindcr in Tanks with Cono Bottuns or
Ends" in Prc.rsare ye.rszl aul Piping Design: Colkcted papers 1927,/9Jg, Amcrican Socicty
of Mechanical Engineers, 1960.
4.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Fliigg, W., Strcrrer ir, S,ells, SpringerVerlag, New
york,
1960.
Jounnl
of pressure Vessel
CHAPTER
IO
AND FLANGES
Iypicolflons: r.ody for in.tollins. (Courlesy G+W TdylorBonmy Div., lqylor Forse)
264
269
IO.I
IO.I
INTRODUCTION
271
INTRODUCTION
One of the more common types of closures for pressure vessels is the unstayed
flat head or cover. This may be either integrally formed with the shell or welded
to the shell, as shown in Fig. 10.1; or it may be attached by bolts or some
quickopening device as shown in Fig. 10.2. It may be circular, obround,
square, rectangular, or some other shape. Those circular flat heads that are
Fetaining
I
il
..i.nil
lhl/il
I ll'hl "*
\i ltllllll
rhreaded
J  t+u(d)
(b)
(a)
Fisur
10,2
Boltd or quickopnins
flol ho&.
bolted into place utilizing a gasket are called blind flanges. Usually, the blind
flange is bolted to a vessel flange with a gasket between two flanges as shown
in Fig. 10.3. Although flat heads or blind flanges may be either circular or
noncircular, they usually have uniform thickness. In addition to the flat head or
blind flange+ype closures, many large vessels use a circular, spherically dished
cover with a bolting flange, as shown in Fig. 10.4. In all cases, the bolts ofthe
head attach either to a bolting flange on the end of the shell or to a thickened
shell.
't
tI
..............
T?\
(e)
Figoro
tt
I
Fi
)"w
l0,l
hods.
I
I
reducing the leakage problem during hydrostatic testing of the assembly. Sometimes excessive stresses in the bolts cause them to break or to stretch until the
closure leaks.
The basic equations used for the design of flat plates and blind flanges in the
ASME Code, VI[1, are based on a flat plate with uniform thickness and
uniform loading over the entire surface due to pressure. Depending upon the
r0.t
tNTRoDUcTtoN 273
dc(ails of the corner construction shown in Fig. 10.5, various Cfactors are used
that require different minimum head thicknesses. The maximum deflection of
the plate is assumed as not more tltan onehalf the thickness and all the stresses
are keDt within the elastic limit.
icmkor!!dd
i L _
.tth.^..2t,
_ _^_
r,rf l:l'^ ,.. .,. '
jrr
'hnror75n
,,,.,.i'i'::l
', 1
",+#'
"''^* **'
L",Jr{c033D
 VA ":J^H:"
c'o.r7o,
c. o.r?
#lr.,
c.o3o
i_4;"
ffi:.,,,M
.' lt M,.,,.:r:1"6;,:
14/4,.1,, l;
rn:,^.'o.25,,'"' {ll $C.0.10
(rt
Figur.
10.3
lb
ll
0.20
lb.2t
m'n..
r*
c' 013
,0,
.WZ
sk.rch.r{.llr)
i.,
lsl
= ?
rr nr..
Co.20or0.13
l.)
o.2o
"onC',cur.r
ir)
ror
ffiSt
t [.\ i
Kiucrh \
lU\ca,rer
'.1__{I
! R.d,u'
Loos
F1169.
Typ.
Gastel
l1n
c::
@*4
1/2A''..1 +
la 8l+
I
Fl/a
I I
)I dllNni
ll\l
?,
.#f,
,/"),
I
T
tI
t2c
tbt
l04
272
ll
ll
O.2S
1 h+
C.
o.33
(d)
r{lf
rcKl
1t2
Figure
firj'I
c0,33
Ii.)
of
Mechdn.col
10.5 Un3toyod flor heods dnd covers. (Court6y Americon Sociry of r{honicol Ensineerc,
UG3,1 of rhe ASME Codo, VlllI.)
Fis',r
tom Fis.
274
IO.2
IO.2
CIRCUTAR
w^ = 0.0B6#
TOADING
When an exact solution involving a discontinuity analysis at the shelltohead
juncture is not wanted, flat heads are generally calculated based on the assumption that the edges are simply supported or fully fixed. The true condition lies
somewhere between.
Exact equations for circular plates were developed in Section 7. l. In using
those equations as a basis, the equations below were developed using the head
diameter d instead of the radius term a. The following nomenclature was also
substituted in the equations of Section 7.1:
Poisson's ratio (p = 9.3;
p = pressure loading Qsi)
O'Ilrcf;
(10.1)
w* = 0'0554#
o.3ose(xf
= o.s2s:L
"'"'E',Tj
(10.e)
)\2
0.785 pd2
0.785(1000)(48),
P = 1.809.000 lb
With the edges assumed to be fullyfixpd,
Maximum stress is radial and located at the edge:
o*
= o.zto
f;
entire
Solutian.
(10.3)
p over the
(10.8)
presswe
(10.7)
Example
(10.2)
(10.6)
^ . _ P
OI: OI = U'IJJ'i
o.zs+fi
10.5)
o = o.r88P(;/
o*
o':
,:
o^
TOADING 275
, : o.:l+!!.ffi :
For fixed edge use Eq. 10.4:
14.550 psi
276
,, =
0.239
1109(xx)t
!llj:
tlttzopsi
Example
rr
IO.3
l,
10.3.
rn'
, = 0.0136#"
r0.)or24gx4l
0.0057 in.
Answer:
10.2
o^ :
56
15,840 psi
PR
'l::=:
sE  o.6P
15,820 psi
,,
>
1.5
Problems
In the ASME Code, Vm1,1 and Section I,2 the minimum required thickness of
circular, unstayed flat heads and covers without bolting are calculated by the
lollowine:
t=d
tcp
lsr
:
p:
S
1.0
in.
1000
15,000x1
7.120 in.
24
0.6x1000
1.667 in.
r.j"
0.25t,
0.25(1.667)
0.417
n.
ACl
Ansyer.' MAWP =
(10.10)
COVERS
wnere
15,000
1000
0.33(l) = 0.j3.
What is the maximum stress for the conditions in hoblem 10.1 usins the
Answer: c,,," =
m:
Example
simplified equation?
IO.3
0.33
t=48
2, C = 0.33
sketch b
Problems
10.1
277
0.0554* x
r.l toltzt' = u'uzrz
COVTRS
10.2:
R09,000x48f
1250 psi
Answer:
t6n
5.792
n.
278
0UND ftaNoEs,
I0.6
o=orssp(o8e'il=r"(il
IO.5
(10.11)
The most usual type of joint for easy assembly and disassembly used in the
process vessels and piping system is the bolted flanged connection. A convenient
method to design and calculate flanges with ringtype gaskets that are within the
bolt circle was first published by Taylor Forge in 1 937 . 3 These rules were further
VI[l,
CONTACT
FACING
279
provcd according to the code the dcsigner should recognizc th t s(nr1c calcu
lltions can be avoided. If the flange is the type described in Appentlix 2 ol thc
ASME Code, the code permits using flanges with recognized standards that
cstablish items such as dimensional standards, materials, and pressure/temperature ratings. The code accepts flanges designed to ANSI 816.5 .,pipe Flanges
and Flanged Fittings,"6 API 605 "Large Diameter Carbon Steel Flanges",T and
ANSI 816.24 "Bronze Flanges and Fittings, 150 and 300 lb,'.8 Several other
standards are not included; however, when the flanges are selected by this
method, no additional calculations are required to satisfy the ASME Code.
When calculations are necessary according to Appendix 2 of the ASME
Code, VIIII, for a nonstandard design or when it is desired to upgrade a
standard flange, similar design calculations are required for blind flanges (circular flat heads with bolts) and for regular bolted flanges. Although each item is
discussed in geater detail in the following paragraphs, the basic steps in designing a flange are as follows:
l.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
These rules, which are still used to calculate this type of flange, are in Appendix
2 Of thE ASME COdC, VIII.1.
10.6
Rules for calculating flat face flanges with metaltometal contact outside of
the bolt circle are given in Appendix Y ofthe ASME Code, VI[1. This design
incorporates a selfenergizingtype gasket such as the Oring gasket. fhe original rules were restricted to analyzing identical pairs of flat face flanges. Current
rules have been improved to permit analysis of both identical and nonidentical
pairs of flanges.
Further development of design rules in the ASME Code, VI[1,5 came with
the issuance of reverse flange rules that use a ringtype gasket with no additional
contact of the faces. These rules were added to Appendix 2, ASME Code,
For ring+ype gasket design as given in the ASME Code, VI[I, Appendix 2,
several types of flange facings are used. Some of the more usual types are the
VIIII.
In addition to these rules for flange design in the code, many designs are used
in which rules are not in the ASME Code. One common type is the fullface
gasket flange. There are many others that may be designed for ASME Code
approval by meeting the requirements of U2(g) of the ASME Code, VIII_I.
Before any flange design calculations are performed for a vessel to be ap_
CONTACT FACINGS
the
In addition to the types of facing where the gasket must carry the seating load,
one type of closure and facing depends upon the adjacent faces to be in contact
with each other, but it does not require a large seating load for initial sealing.
This kind of closure is used on both the ringtype gasket design of Appendix 2
and the flat face flanges with metaltometal contact outside the bolt circle as
described in Appendix Y ofthe ASME Code, VIII1. This construction utilizes
a selfenergizing or pressureactuated Oring gasket that is internally pressurized
to seal the gasket and does not depend upon initial gasket seating by the bolts
that cause compression of the gasket (Fig. 10.6).
There are also special types of gaskets and facing designs that become self
10.7 GASKETS
r0.7
FACING DETAILS
o. Sell
Energizing
gaskets is needed in process equipment. The diverse processes, temperatures, pressures, and corrosion environment require gaskets with
different configurations, materials, and properties. Some of the frequently used
gaskets are:
b.
/'' )
l\
Cold
tr.t.t
Finbi
Met.llic
ing
4
\T
l.
t
3.
4.
Ring Joint
Groove
Wirh Searing
Nubbin
10.6
Typicol Gocing
d.roil..
sealing frorn the gaskets rotation and deflection that are caused by contact
loading ftom a retaining ring and head closure. Some of these are called the delta
gasket as used in Bridgeman closures, the double cone gasket, and the wedge
gasket. In all these cases, the initial gasket seating load is low. As the pressure
in the vessel is increased, the gasket rotates and deflects into a special facing in
which the sealing load increases as the pressure increases. Care must be taken
with this type of closure because the gasket often "seizes" and it may be difficult
!o get the closure apart. In many instances, the gasket may be silver, gold, or
platinum plated to help prevent the "seizing."
Asbestos
Flat metal
Spiral wound
6.
Jacketed
7.
Metal ring
8.
Highpressure type
Rubber ORings
These gaskets shown in Fig. 10.7a are used extensively in lowpressure applications such as storage tanks and air receivers. They are normally confined in a
Figur.
Rubber Orings
10.7.
Lap Joint
GASKTTS
A large variety of
O.Rin9
Delta
281
r0.7
oAsKtTs
ITil
ll
I
_)l
(a)
(t) sp iru
Rubber ORing
tressurized tessurized
I7I Htr
)t
(d)
)t
Asbestos
O Ring
(e)
Flat Metal
Fisu..
10.7.4
10.7.3
'fhese gaskets in Fig. lD.1d normally consist of 707o asbestos, 2O7o ntbber
hinder, and l0% filler material and curative. They can be cut to fit various shapes
und configurations such as heat exchangers with pass partitions and oval and
square openings. Thicknesses are normally fumished beween fr and i in' and
rcquire a seating surface finish of about 250 rms. Asbestos gaskets are normally
lO.7 TyF
of solk6b (conrinu.d)
These gaskets (Fig. 10.7a) are made from a wide variety of materials that can
be cut from sheet metal to any desired configuration and width. Some frequently
used gasket materials and their temperature limit are:
Material
Ipad
Aluminum
400
Brass
500
Copper
600
212
2t1
IUttlD
r0.7 oASKETS
800
Carbon steel
900
Monel
1000
1200
Nickel
1200
Inconel
300 series stainless steel
1500
Incoloy
1500
Hastelloy
1800
1200
used
285
10.7.7 Metol
Ring Goskets
The metal ring gaskets shown in Fig. l0.1h are used in highpressure and
Lens
temperature applications. Their small crosssectional area makes them ideal for
compact flanges. The required high seating stress has the same magnitude as the
pressure stress. The rings are made from many varied materials and are sometimes silver plated to improve sealing. The gasket groove finish is about 63 rms.

0.7.8
HighPressure Goskets
Bridgeman
(conrinud)
required to be low due to physical limitations of bolt spacing and flange width.
They are used extensively in pressure vessels operating above 1000 psi and are
made of softer materials than the seating surfaces to prevent damage to the
flanges or covers. In general, these gaskets are expensive to fabricate and
216
IIIND
'IANOIS,
m1lchinc; rcquirc vcry tight k)lerunces; and need very smooth seating
surfaces of
16 rms or better.
gaskets have a large surface that is subjected to
. Highpressure
the vessor
pr:r*t::.
a
freebody
diagram
is
noully
n"""rrury
ro
+ccordingly,
ll,.e.rnall
determlne
the additional forces transmitted to the flanges and boltjresulting
from
pressure on the gasket.
The individual design requirements for lens, delta, and doublecone
gasketo
are given in the next three sections.
10.7.9
10.7 oASKETS
l'hc outside thickness of the gasket is established to allow tbr an 0.25 in.
clctrirnce plus 0.0625 in. for a centering ring, ifrequired. The pitch diameter lbr
grskct seating reaction is established as
c=(rD)*1(ooro)
3
whcre G = diameier of
gasket reaction.
oo
=llr,+
(D),]'/
:
I:
where R
it is 20")
l.'rom the geometry, the inside thickness of the flange is calculated from
as
"p=G/z
sin 0
The lens ring gaskets in Fig. 10.8 are normally used in small
flanges. Thc
287
't=:+)l
16 l
where t = inside
/ODYI
\, i I
where N =
5
fc
l"r
16
10.7.10 Delto
Goskets
The delta ring gaskets in Fig. 10.9 are extensively used in the United Staies for
highpressure applications. These gaskets rely on the inside pressure to wedge
them in the gasket groove for sealing and thus do not requhe any initial seating
or bolting shess. The general dimensions that are shown in Fig' 10.9 apply to
G=ID+0.125
Figur.
10.8 t.n.
so3k6t,
as
IIINO II.ANOIS,
Figur.
10.7.1
10.7 oasKlts
lO.9
Figur6
Dclto go!k6t.
'10.10
Doublocono gosk6t.
DoubleConeGoskets
area
is given by
OD
:
ID :
where OD
A, = actual bolt
1tl2
= l:A, + (rD), I
L1r
area
of flange (in.r)
G=OD0'5N
The height of the gasket is usually set so that the net pressure force does not
exceed the seating force. Thus,
tzxrr()<,
60)
(P)(,r)
290
r0.7 GASKETS
'l'he operating condition exists when the hydrostatic end fbrce from the internal
dcsign pressure tends to open the joint, for the gasket retains enough resiliency
l() keep the joint tight. Loadings and stresses are determined at design pressure
rund design temperature. The loading for the operating condition is
6o)
' (rXN)(sin
P
where
10.7.12 Gcsket
!a1f1t.fei1e,_rfhe
gasKet
rtself.
gasket faclor
bo
(10.13)
To avoid crushing the gasket in those bolted flanged connections where the
Design
D=06 when
291
iin.
fbllowine formula:
N^"=ffi
= tbGy
(10.12)
(10.14)
10.5. A
Example
The gasket factors are m = 3.0 and y = 10,000. Bolts are SA325 Grade I with
& = Sa 19,200 psi. Is the gasket width sufficiendy wide to keep from crushing out?
= 13.75 + (2 x
G = 15'M3 in.
G
1)
(2 x 0.3535)
With D deiermined the location of the line of gasket load reaction can
be
determined as well as the values of G and h6 for calculating
flange moments.
designing a flange, it is important to recognize that two'desiln
conditions
.ln
cxrstthe gasket seating and the operating conditions. Gasket seattg
condition
cxlsts when an initial load is applied by the bolts to seat the gasket
at ambient
tcmperature with no intemal pressure. The minimum initial
biolt loaO is
W"e
gasket is carrying all the loading, it is recommended that the initial loading does
not exceed the gasket seating stress y. Once the actual bolting areaA, is selecied,
a check may be made to determine the required minimum gasket width by the
H,=
Wa
He
444,1A0
fi = Sa :
250'600
694'700
3535)(15.043X10'000)
167,100
A^=Y#
36.182in.,
as
292
AD
width is
.. = 36.8( 19.200) :
fl^"
zlq000).(15.0a,
0 748
in
versus
I in'
W.z
actual
s,
where & :
=
W.1 =
1Y.r =
S1
Pmblem
10.5 A solid,
seatine load?
ot
of
W^r
Sa
From this minimum required bolting a;ea A. the actual bolting area A, is
In order to obtain a bolt loading for calculating moment for gasket
seating, the minimum required bolting area and the actual bolting area are
averaeed as follows:
selected.
Answer:
IO.8
W,,2
384,000 lb
w:0.5(A.+Ars"
BOTTING DESIGN
In designing bolting for flanges, the initial item is selecting the bolting matenal.
It must be a malerial compatible with the flange material . ihat is there musr nor
,
be any chemical or galvanic action between the bolting and ffange material
that
would cause the bolts to seize in the tkeads. Under certiin circurn'stances,
rt may
be necessary to plate the bolts or to make them from special material
to prot;t
them from the environment. Although it is not neceisary to select a 6olting
material with a tensile shength close to that of the flange material, one should
carefully consider the effects of strain elongation and rehxation of bolting
materials that have a high tensile strength and requte a smaller crosssecdona'i
area. In addition, when high sFength material is used for the bolting,
care must
be taken not to rcduce the number of required bolts to such a small number
that
excessive bolt spacing is developed. r I
Wlren the bo_lt spacing exceeds (U + t), secondary flange bending is developed between the bolts to the extent that it affects the ;ormal flange
bending . To
account for this effect, the flange bending moment M0 must be iricreased
by the
Iactor
(10.l5)
(10.16)
Certain times during the operation of a process vessel the bolts in a bolted
flanged connection are subjected to actual stresses in excess of the allowable
design stresses. This may be especially true during hydrostatic testing. Care
must be taken to enswe that during this testing, no permanent elongation ofthe
bolting has occurred. If so, the bolting may have to be replaced before the vessel
is put into service. Realizing this is especially important if each of two suppliers
provides half of the bolted flanged assembly and one does not know what bolting
is supplied.
Example 10.6. A vessel flange uses 162in. diameter bolts. Flange sfress
calculations indicate that a flange thickness of t : 4.5 in. is adequate. The bolt
circle diameter is C = 22.5 in. Will secondary bending stresses be developed?
is
rd _ n(22.5\
1V ]6 = +Az n.
Because the actual spacing is less than the rnaximum spacing without a penalty,
no secondary bending shesses are developed.
Example 10.7. Suppose a vessel requires Z2 j in. diameter bolts on a flange
that is 5.5 in. thick. What is the madmum bolt circle that will not cause
secondary bending shesses? The minimum bolt spacing for 2 j in. diameter bolts
is 5i in.
294
Solullon, Maximum
IO.9
BI.IND FTANGES
spucing is
(2d
+ t) = (2
><
2i + 5.5; =
19.5 tn.
lo'5 x
n
based on maximum
spacing.
24
80.2 in.
Problems
H
10.6
fl
ange bending?
Anstrer: l.l2
10.7
The minimum spacing for the wrench to fit I in. diameter bolts is 3  in.
Twelve bolts are to be used on a bolt cide of 15lin. diameter. What is
the minimum flange thickness that does not cause secondary flange bend
iog?
1.0 in.
BTIND FTANGES
The minimum required thickness of a cicular, unstayed flat head or blind flange
attachedty bolts and utilizing a ringtype gasket that causes an edge moment is
derived from the assumption that the flat plate is simply suppofted; the gasket
load line G and is loaded by a gasket seating load or a combination of easket
loading and a uniform pressure loading . The combination of these loadingJat the
gasket and at the bolt circle causes an edge moment ofMg/zrG, as shownin Fig.
10.11. ff the edge moment
is assumed to be equal ta Wh", tlre theoretical
stress at the center of the flat plate is
ffi
_3(3
"
"Sening
trc
Fisurg
lo.l I
Answer:
IO.9
0.3 and E
,:oJgll\,
*t'nLYl',
(10. r9)
This is identical with the equation in the ASME Code, VI[l, except that the
constants of 0.3 and 1.9 are used in the code instead of the exact constants of
0.31 and 1.91 and the gasket load G is substituted for d. The general ASME
Code equation for circular flatbolted heads is
(10.20)
For the gasket seating condition, the internal pressure equals zero and the only
load is the gasket seating load W" at ambient temperature with the allowable
tensile stress of S.. The equation for gasket seating condition is
(10'17)
t=G
(10.21)
sE:(*rye\r..(W)
(10.18)
For operating condition the intemal pressure p as well as the gasket loading are
applied. For this condition, Wr : H + Il, at operating temperature with an
allowable tensile stress of S1. The equation for operating condition is
296
t0.9
EUND FTANOES
(t0.22')
x crr/. 
41{,12
t. ,51c  d
Design pressure
l.
Design
2. Xc
p = 2500 psi.
temperature = 250'F.
3,
l..iir
OO,
,'12
dillina.
C.l.1+6. 6 l4hlig
.addj.el rfiktid. I
l, l.d.!
'.{ft.d
Ud{ or[.Rin rF..tjrd, l!.G .l $r'l 0..!.
Br b. d.ri..d .nt d.. .rlo'
'.i!lni
No corrosion exists.
at
Fisur
10.12
G+w roybFBonney
the
actual bolt area A, is found, the design loading for the gasket seating condition
W, can be determined as:
W:
0.5(A^ + Ar)S,
%=
700,800
0.5(36.2
36.8X19,200)
t:G
hc = 0.5(C
fJgt
G) = 0.5(22.5
15.043)
is lll.r =
,=
srE
t = ls.(Ml.
v
3.729 in.
694,700.
O.3p
_ ll.gwhc ts.o+:{ffi
.__.. I t.9(700.800x3.729) :4.343in.
uV
s,uoi =
,
.9W.rhc
s"EGt
rF
17,500
x 1.0
(t7,500
1.0x15.043t
5.329
in. I
Problcms
10.8
Suppose the flat head in Example 10.8 is made by buttwelding flat plates
Answer: t, n =
5.780 in.
298
10.9
IIIND IIANOIS,
IO,IO
operating conditions?
Answer:
IO.IO
tnn^
5.671 in.
The design_rules for bolled flanged connections with a ring+ype gasket that is
entirely within a circle enclosed by the bolt holes and with no iontact outside of
, Whn it is necessary
dard flange
dimensions such as the flange thickness are varied. Stresses in the flange and the
hub are calculated. If any of these shesses exceeds the allowable tensile stresses,
a "new" flange thickness is selected and the stresses are recalculated until they
lr
(a)
(l
(l
Moment Loadlng
(b) Direct
Loadlng
t+tlrr,ri'r'ro
f+.l
Illll.
lvJ
'tt 0z
'10.13
flat plate is assurned as linear with no dishing effect and superposition is acceptable.
The solution of the complex problem is simplified for code use by cwves,
formulas, and tables that contain constants depending upon the geometry of the
flange assembly. Formulas for various coefficients are given in the code that
permits cornputer programming of the basic equations for rapid solution.
The code designates flanges with ringtype gaskets to be three types for
IO.IO
RING.fiPE GASKETS
301
Bnalysis: intgrsl, loose, und optionul. lntegral means that the pipe, hub, and
ring are one continuous assembly from their original manufacture as eithcr
forging or casting welded together by full penetration welds. lnose means no
attachment of the assembly to the pipe or no ability of the juncture to carry sheafs
and moments other than those required to seal against pressure. These types of
flanges are called slipon, lap joint, and threaded, and they may or may not havc
hubs. Optional means flange designs that, by construction, are integral, but thc
analysis is permitted by the simpler method for loosetype flanges. Examples of
these various types are depicted in Fig. 10.14.
The calculation of a flange with a ringtyp gasket first involves selecting the
material for the flange, bolts, and gasket in a manner very similar to the blind
flange. Next, the facing and gasket details are set, the loads due to intemal
presswe are determined, and the required bolting area and bolt sizes are selected.
The bolt circle is then decided; and the loads, moment ams, and moments due
to both gasket seating and operatihg conditions are determined as with the blind
flange. By knowing these and the geometry used to determine K and other hub
coefficients, stress calculations are made for both conditions. The longitudinal
hub stress, the radial flange sness, the tangential flange stess, and their various
combinations are comparcd with allowable stresses.
The method of calculation is virtually identical for welding neck flanges and
slipon or lapjoint flanges except that the axial pressure load is applied at a
slightly different location. For the ring flange design, the tangential flange stress
I
I
F
E*'t
tr=
tr_r
el
\__
d
1+
(.)
(d)
lT
IT
{..*,o
is the only one calculated. The minimum required thickness can be directly
9t
determined from
l9lt\
A 9 j 12
12
(s)
tM*
(10.23)
V sB
,..I
= 2,500 psi.
= 25O"F.
(i)
=
70'F.
1.
(h)
Figur6
(i)
lo.l,t
ASME Cod.,
(k)
(1)
Typer of flonger. (Courl,ely Americon So.ieiy of Mechonicol Engin.rs, from Fig. 2.1 of the
VlllI.)
2.
3.
17,500 psi.
302
I
'r=
Io:".
ra't
h= 6'at
I P;Pe s'ze
L. tza
orrron coxorrronr
13.154
B=
to.7t "
ll
tr
c. 2t,5'
Ac
=,5lc
6r
= t.1L
 cr
 t71'65
hT
4.
lO.l,C(d)
rc =.5(c
Flons dimBions
y=
, : Xo,, = 2o5.o43)'z(zsoo) :
= l; b = 0.3535;
srl =
.5lsi + s,lr.5lsx
+5rl =
444,323
13. oO
= 1/3t.+t =
Z.o
W^z
a.115
'
t0.75 "
lf Lh
.il ..
lr
.6or au.rld
b,
Wo=Wa=694,914
Calculate total flange moment for the design condition.
l6  2"toont
Flange Loads
a,
Figuro
lo.l5
r. a41'
CdrvndCrxt.a
G+w
D.+
tt'i..
TovlorBonnev Div
'
Tovlor
Fors..)
Leaer Arms
4.1875
303
IO.IO
O..J(C
sx = fMn/ LglB
sa:
x hD = (226,910)(4.1875) = g5g,17g
Mo Hox hc= Q5O,5g0)(3.7285) : g34,33g
Mr = Hr x h, : (Zt7 ,420)(4.3018) = t,O43,gg}
Mo = Hp
6.
s^=
700,800
Lever Arm
10.
hc=0.5(CG):3.7285
7.
E.
ft6
(700,800)(3.7285)
2,92g,490.
q}11pe consrants from the ASME Code,
VI[I, Appendix 2:
A/B
K:
= Q6.s)/(ro.7s) = 2.16s.
i,e..i 7 i, "s"Ju'i uro,,
r = 1.35 z = 1.3e y 2.2e
^F,":" ii :
z.ii."*""^'
go
:3.275
3.375/1.0
=
sr/
h=Vrry'=V@jr1D=3.27s
=
VIIII, I. = 0.57.
From Fig. 27.3, Section WII_I, y
= 0.04.
From Fig. 27.6, Section WIII;y
= 1.g.
e = F/ho= (.57) / (3.27s) = 0.1738
d = (u /v)hoeT = e.s1 / .o4e.279)(t)2
(te
(2.29)(2,928,490) / (4.
+ 1)/T + t3/d =
(1.320)
ZSa
r,
00.7 5)
( 1.
39X 1 5,590)
9140 psi
Allowable stresses
<
1.5Sy: (1.5X17,500)
26,250
>11,10 pC)
Solution
Calculate total flange moment for design condition.
Flange Loads
2g5.76
L=
r)Mo/LtzB = <z.uzaf,s:x:rrii;li:..763)(4.s),Oo.7s)
Example 10. 10. What is the minimum required thickness of a ring flange with
the same design data as given in Exarnple 10.9? The inside diameter has been
increased to fit over the outside of the shell to where,B = 12.75 in. The bolt
loadings and bolt size are the same as in Example 10.9. A sample calculation
sheet is shown in Figure 10.16.
1.
1.906
9.
=
Sr =
2,612,930
h/lro = 6.2s/3.2t9
Qte
(YMs/t2B)
Sa
!3,s70 q9!
g7:
56
Flange Moment
Tangential F lang e St e s s
Flange Load
Mon= He
s" = lLsgQpg
W:
305
= Mo + Mc + Mr = 2,928,490
He =
GASKITS
4.9613
Flange Moments
Ma"
(0.443)
= 250,600
Hr= H  HD= 444,300
Hp
t = 4.5 in.
Lever Arms
ho
1.763
= o.5(C  B) =
0.5(22.5
319,200
12.75)
125,100
4.875 in.
306
I
E!"., r
cerrn
zfoo ftL
ssir.l ..:."d
zrooF
{itc
iA to5
5A'tz6
Itl'lD
stainl?r, jf.el
J(
rv.'
x,
10,10
l'dii<
 5,cr E i6'Lo6o
25tc^r: ZE O,5
H efr/!
117., a';,
q.*.th zto,tq I
tt,r i/! lZ5)132 loorSoo
It
E.5t<
A.
=.rtc
tC.
 ct
ri.l = {.iol6
,14
= rdg
= 934,j21
8fi  t1a.79t
v.
= 1,028,618
u'
N.  2,ctz,1r1
 cl  2,1285
cof.3r^Nri r:^/. rz.o'18
r L^z
_b.h
lvr .!d
'.qe.ri6r
5'
\J
Figure
10.16
hc = 0.5(C
G, = 0.5(22.5
hr = 0.5(ho + hd = g.514.gr1
c+W
r" +;
,,[x=r*
'={ *i.mi
adrd.d6.1.J}lvib.r
IO.I
Rules for the design of reverse flanges are given in Appendix 2 of the ASME
Code, VI[1.5 This type of flange is often used to form a reducing joint. The
solution of the reverse flange is similar to that for the raisedface standard flange
with the ringtype gasket within the bolt circle except for some minor differences. Figure 10.17 shows some loads that are applied in the reverse direction'
Dd.
= 3.729 in.
+ 3.729) = 4.302 n.
15.043)
t
3.
4.
= Mo + Mc +
Mr=
3,029,000
M*Y _ (3.029,000x2.812)
=
': iE
1r21x1)@.n
5'8e8
244,rOO ,O
REVERSE FTANGES
Flange Moments
Ma"
tO
6 tn^tr
tb
REVERSE FTANGES
Suppose a solid flat 2j chrome steel alloy gasket with 13.75 in. inside
diameter and width N = Lin., m = 6.0, and y = 21,800 is used with
the flange in Example 10.9. What are the gasket seating and the
operating loads?
arra
150
= 3.1295
:.51 lD +
9.1
tc @1."9
w =,!l^. + Ats.  100,oo
 4t14,tt.
wn,r.+n 6,j1,1t{
l.vlt
J1t
^
l'robhm
I r^o
Korrcl foce
raf.l,
G. tr lt +QtD4r .'r<.A,B.ql
roao AxD aott cltcuultoNS
GP.l
tllapsi
li
v f;rldr
IO.I
in
Fisurs 10.17
dimen3ions.
308
'lhis muy cuuse sorns ol the moments t0 be applietl in thc opposite direction liom
those loads on a regular flange. However, the analysis is the same after thc
"new" total moment is determined. Again, the moments arc determined for both
the gasket seating condition and the operating condition. In Figure l0.lg is a
sample calculation sheet of a reverse flange.
Additionally, a new term aa is introduced to convert some terms from reqular
flanges io reverse flanges; fra and K are redefined and based on the reverse flanse
inside diameter; and a new equation is added to calculate the tansential flanie
Drtox coxofioxt
5/rr/
'a.tat,
fi l. r "t""/{,t/el, t& ;ahs 4a/
ltde/r.75't0 '
IOAO
'
Kai'ed {""e
llwt lr
t.=J(C+i'23t)=
l Or{t.l
,r'r'  _ I,Orl,tq l
 zz 1q f. y't f
*
 Z,trL'?V
r.r
flange where discontinuities occur between the flange ana *re truU. Wittr
the conversion term ca is determined for converting T, Il, and y to
T,, U,, alrd If, which is obtained as
K = A/B',
r(5r+ s.)rJ(s' +
"=*['.*.#*)
r.ir.
rta. 9r
e!)
816EO ?e\
( ! a') =?
(1,0.24)
I't,o'l
rtl
rr = r:rj.jb.t
Substituting this expression into the regular equation for tangential shess
I=.ch/d
4sr +tn.t
0.957
loatr.+ l),,P=
3l +n= qt6rl
(10.2s)
Z5r
ff
t =./3r+  =
l.
Example
Solutian,
tr=
" _Mol,,
*,zl+ t,
zl.,z \j
i\l*
r.ut  fl(r*
#*#f
tj.zJ\zJ) L
4.14\
r*7i
Ji
/] :
]3 " s " o.r:r)l
szzopsi
Fisurs
10.18
gof
_zK'?(_t +
kly
B'f L (K,  l)i l
309
ll0
_ 2,6t3.(xx)L
r3.2s(25)
oa
L'"
_ z(+Xl
+lx5
IO.I2
#*itti
= I6'o5opsi
3l
Example 10.12. With the reverse flange given in Example 10.11, what is the
minimum required thickness based on an allowable flange stress of 17,500 psi?
16,050
tl:
The term
,\ is recalculated
17.500
l1z
or t:48in.
.ti =
16,900 psi. By
, : 4.6g in.
which gives
Si:
17,500
psi. I
Pmhlcm
10.11 Using the details of the flange described in Example 10.11. what is the
minimum required thickness if the material of the flange is changed to one
with an allowable stress of 15,000 psi?
IO.I2
919
in section strengtl at the bolt circle from the bolt holes must be considered when
the radial stress at the bolt circle is determined.
..soft,,
lmplolng this type of gasket is usually limited to designs where a
gasket (with a low m and 1, factor) is used and the design prlssure is
low. This
is necessary to keep the loads and bolt size within reason ti fit *ithin
th" fl*n"
geometry even though the countermoment usually results in a low
flange mi_
ment and a minimum required flange thickness.
ll
_tA
Several important design assumptions made in the analysis are uniform gasket
pressure over the entire gasket, inner edge of flange assembly unrestrained, and
no reduction in gasket pressure area due to bolt holes. Other restrictions and
limitations necessary for the raisedface, ringtype gasket flange, such as linear
rotation about the centroid of the ring, prevail.
Assuming a uniform gasket pressure, determinations are made of the dis
312
tonce$ or momcnt olTns lrom the bolt circle to the ccntroid of the
annulus from
the bolt circle to the outside diameter and from the bolt circle to the insidc
diameter. In solving for the distances, the angle is assumed to be small and
thc
arc lengths are evaluated as sfiaight lines. From Roarkr2 and using his
terminology, the basic equation is
,=i(T#)
(lO.26a)
A_C
a
b=
oraa.. corDmoxt
*(#)
(10.26d)
hL
(rO.26e)
rlj= 6tor +
tlEoo
lr
)qzoo
14
6=
!!:!E!*9=
t:*
4 t r' 5 t1
1t,168
reL
qrlE
(.
= 2.9915'
*"
r.rErFEgr: Pb/f
rr. tla 9=.t/f u.
o. 11
3nls3 CIICULllDOT4din,
16!, kb, ti = nJIEI
= 1tt 71 ?ta
17.,
)c.1b
Pt,d6
tZt,r72
 rrir  l1{,,rO{
V.
 ?t1,h.6
&
=bg.4Lgl=
h.L =
wJt=
r.
l.= LlAtSoa
wd/s. d
^ =ebcL'of
 r+ .5r,  tl,t 1
'Jtr+.,+tEl  { Zt,
it  r)trl.  1,'t,o4\
,ttEED 1L,174
 ltt=7
to9
sArzt cv.l
,.o=\a
"^err,J
(10.26b)
(10.26c)
f6
r.oz?2'
a.=8.tt'=
x er,o sur
1C4
tozL
rrcrort
t1,71o ?,1
?,95'
q' ToL,?r
'i
0 t118
.lh&.'20116
t\I'ti;,.217
r l.:5
. r.+l
t calak+r = l.4IO
,,

(AC'^)(U+Cl
6(A
(10.27)
afi
, .tla
t. ool l
O,o.lo1
=rL,rt
r,o1',
H?.l6
r t+a
C)
t br rp.d..
o....'
Crao.d.aFigurc
10.19(0)
r.*htrt l;E
I 2.+l
t1.tt1"
16 2"uotst
Fiour
2. +
lo.2o
Od.L'r.+
3r3
3I4
IO,I2
ln a similar munncr, the distance or moment &rnt k)w&rd the inside diameter
is determined as
C_B
0"=+('!:'\
5 \O + c /
(r0.26f)
(to.26s)
.r(?*)
(10.26h)
,= *(?;
And substituting Eqs. 10.269, h, and
i into Eq.
..
hb
(A
 c)(u + c)
6(C + A)
(10.26D
1.0272 in.
10.26f gives
cB
n = Tc.p
4'4 = +,r7.317)r(3z})
Ho
= ZbtGmp =
HI
(r0.28)
gasket loadings and two moment arms are determined, the
9n9"
analysis of the flange is the same as for other flanges. The method
is equally
applicable to integral flanges, loose flanges, reverse flanges, and any othei
type
of flange. It is important to remember to use a..soft,'gaiket that keeps tfre tott
loading within acceptable limits.
t"_*9
/r,^\
\rt)H'
= blrGy =
/ h^\
Hb'=
W,a
75,368
.? sqr
5)
@;^t'is,r8rl:
Wt= H + Hp+H; =
Hsn
75'368
178,986
(2.9375)r(17 .317X1100)
\nHc'=
= Hay + Hb,
/,
5015\
@rfi5rw=
=
175,799
443,496
A'
175
ha
2.5915 in.
705'913
443'4e7
619,286
'79o
Solution
h.
'" = G
178,986
451'559
A^
Determine the lever arms of the inner and outer parts of the sasket:
45r'55e
Example.10.9 except for the thickness is used with a fullfacJ gasket. The design
pressure is 320 psi and the "soft" gasket is vegetable fiber with m
= 1.75 and
y = 1100. What is the minimum required thickness?
l.
3I5
(26.5
TIANGI
. C_B
a:
2
,
h1;
FUILFACE GASKET
Flange Loads
316
IO.I4
FI.ANOES
'IIND
Lever Arms
Hphp
Sn
(29,044)(4.187 5)
M7 = H7h7
= 121,622
= 196JOq
= @6,324)(4.2333)
M. = Mo + M, = 121,622 + 196,104 =
14,77O
psi
<
(t.4'104)t4M,O22)
(1.042Sx2.03)110.75)
17,500
psi
allowable stress
s,:
VM
+
t'B
3457
317,726
Sr
6.
l\M"
Lt2B
tlte +
Flange Moments
3t7
f LATTACE FTANGE
zs,
2.29(464,022)
(2.03f (10.75)
psi
(1.39)(14,77 0)
allowable
stress
Problcm
Flange Load
He = W"
H=
10.12
706,176
75,368
630,808
Lever arm
15,000 psi?
hahh
(2.5915X1.0272)
h',_ =
 ho + hb Q.915) +
"o
[onr)
0'7356 in'
Fhnge moment
Mr:
M'
6(4u,022)
sF=,
" t"(rc  Nd) (2.0j),(22.5t  16 x 2)
SF
= n,a@
psi
<
17,500
psi
allowable. stress
L= te+l
+a=
T
1.0021 +0.0407
Sr=
\4e,022)
Sa
L'?n
1.0428
(1.0428X3.375f(10.7s)
3634 psi
<
Answer:
IO.I3
t,"q'd.
2.19 in.
Calculation sheets are included for the following types of flange design:
26,250
psi
allowable stress
calcut
'or{S
It
ro/ro
,!lsr +
SlSr
5r,.!
tsi + S,j
+ trlo'.5(t, +
llvar /lrr
rOAO
aEotr.
3t8
^rr
rorlxl
t'i =
r,'.hi?t
.br .qd'or b', v /i"L,Da.r
;=;
r .d i.
l.
val
lr
Sh6.r
Csrea6.r.,
c+W
O.r.
{Jih.'
J@!!
2. Slipon or lopioint
Shsor
Forge.)
Courre3y
3r9
tl0
ll.lND
.:...:.

2olrr
1,
prrr
::=._.....Y
trl
l*'
la,;,.=
rv.r
Lsc
e,r/.
brc,
1/s.' wtts,
^,44
"I.
I
.Jlrb
6 rxpt
ti=.5(cG)
rEl E
^,=.r{.F
coxrr^'m lt
L3,nfl;:r,,1*;E;F
,=J+l
tat lt,
k_/,
trb
rltt
1,
5:t
Co"ur.dG.*.d_
I "',i,:.
O.r.
ili5.,
Fo;
5r
xu5,
tcie. tle.,
g = Ircllo,r
= pn./lt
rr
;;
=+.a,
l;=_+
Ur=drU
^cfr/r' Z',to.6rt.+n/R=
i,'
?rT*+
x r_..
contact at the
outer.diameter or at some point between the
b;ft circle
th;i,r'te.
oiam"te,
at a distance llc from the boit circle.
Ttre gasket is assurneJi. tirJrilr"o,ng
u"a
generaGs a negligibre load during
operation and is located in rir,"iia tn"
u"rr"t
wall. The major difference uetrieen ttris ryp",f
;il'tr,"'Jrg_typ" o"_
scribed in Section 10.9 is the additional pryi'nl
contact
errr:i.']
lY El
k_r'=
 [.n'rV
trT / h ]_,_
d;"
;fil;;;iliit;
of
the two flanges.
To organize the calculations svsiemadcally,
it is necessary to !ru!.
classify assem_
blies and to categorize each individual nann".  "veJqr !v
't
r 4'"Ftt
II
rbJ
il
C hs s ifcation o! As s e mb ly
aadl.
gasket
""+[+:!Ilr#rl t)
rod,crae.,sr
=ti./I!r'
M.l
r{e,
Class l. This
g'oove.
tavl atr
iD=J(C+r,2$tJ=
1."'.e
Shsi 3.
Shl ,a.
,__<.
l,o l.r=
Cmptrd
D.h.*
<t_A:
Chxr.d
N!ib.r=
Rverc wldins
n*
c+W
Fors.)
o8rox cDaa!no{t
2.
loao
lott carcuraroxt
^to+ Nir
w.r= bror
=
Ar =
Ir
li
IOAO
lavn rrr
,r
Wn=fi+i!+fi'?=
tot,Nt
TIVlt
tctlra+o=
==iiT6
lACll2A+Cl=
""=:rc+.ih,i= l'.1"., 
"i*
tr
r@. 6E
ar
=
sr
P*/If
Jl!, + li'Jl$
+5rl '
ot<ll
C..'a.itr
It
322
5,
cfw
Dd.
r.inlb.e!fu
C6er.{6rr.a
O.d.aSh.at
tac'ot
r
= ..1/ I l5l
lo nof
lttrlr,h=nJr6r
!r!
dldrlr I t lr r.dr
I 2.+l
o.r.f&iL'
Shcet 6.
323
321
t0.15
dished head and the flange ring. The flange thickness is set by the combination
of the circumferential ring stress and the tangential bending stress. Figure 10.22
shows the head geometry and the loading applied to the ring flange resulting
liom the reaction from the internal pressure against the dished head. It is derived
thus. Using the geometry in Fig. 10.22, the following is set:
adjacent side
cos B,
:
=
adjacent side
_\/L''''  (
hypotenuse L'
\/4L'1Err=E
2L'
= 5" =
pR
10.21
: F' =pL
2T
(10.30b)
:pD
(10.30c)
2t
Catagory of Flonges
t.
9i*g.IV^
mtegral flange.
ca'gory 2.It
add shength.
fr:g
W:H+Hc+Hc
IO.I5
(r0.29)
A ( outeide dianeter)
'Ihe ASME.Code
contains special rules for designing spherically dished covers
flange. The formulas given in the code are approximate
Itll
DecauseTntnC,
tney do"ng
not take into account the discontinuity existing between the
Fisuru
10.22
(10.30a)
Sphcricollydirhed covcr.
t26
.tND
Substituting
IO,I5
^'
aB)/22
T227(F)J=0
(r0.30d)
2p r
s" =
*2
,,"o" 9,,,
212@B)/2
(10.30e)
]anCeryia
Code, Section
'
butY = (A + B)/(A
(10.31)
vM"
(10.32)
T2B
B),so
(10.33)
r, = r4@=F4r e= n
(10.38)
This equation is identical with the equation given in 16(9) of the ASME Code,
v[1.
Application of this equation is permitted for either internal or extemal presp is the absolute value for either the internal pressure or the
external pressure. The value for ffi is determined by combining the moments
from bolt loading and gasket loading with the moment caused by the pressure
loading from the spherical head on the inside edge of the ring. When this total
moment is determined, the absolute value is inserted for Mo in the equation.
Figure 10.22 shows the loadings caused by the pressure. In Fig. 10.22, the
loading shown is due to intemal pressure. However, if the loading were due to
extemal pressure, all directions of loadings would be reversed, but the effective
stresses on the ring would be the same. If external pressure were applied to the
head, it would have to be examined for compressive buckling that might set the
thickness.
"= c^;(*=)
s, = s" +
(10.37)
t/+Ld=E
".  pn
4T A_B
* n\
* ( u"\(e _,
\f,ri1, )
(to.34\
It
r = PBldt=E
^^
8S(A  8)
,_
Mo(A + B)
s8(A _ B)
(10.3s)
Then
s,=f<n * fiut
(10.36)
329
Solutlon. From
A=
the geometry
26.5;
a=
IO.I5
of Example 10.9,
=t#
=*ffii
2.560
in.;
He
IIp =
11,
ho
= 0.5(C  8)
: 5.875
Mp
480,000
he
= 0.5(C  G)
: 3.729
Mc = H6h6 =
934,000
8l,700
= Hp
:250,600
Hr =
336,100
336,1.0O
hn
Mo:
g'l
hr = 0.5(R'r
use2.625 in.
Hn
Moment
Arm
toad
10.75; L=28=2(10.75\:21.5
4.8O2
O.5(T
0'5T +
Mp + MG + Mr + M,
h6)
t)
cos p1
M7 = H7h7
Ma = Hnhn
: 
3,469,60
1,614,000
168,050r
+441,300
168'050f
in.
(10.75
22.8t3)z
2(22.813)
H6hp
1.313
L'=L+l:r.r.t*?@
L' = 22.813
=0.972;
(2,613,0W)1?!ll_!!JI)_ rt'orv
?,, Rsn
F=u and r: (nJ:00xmj5)(26i
 l0J5):=
T: F + \/F' + J = *2s5o = 5.732 in.
h=13.626"
n (25mV2l'sl
'r':pL
:2r,s" =lo'zolb
Horizontal force
Vertical force
= F'
= F'
cos p1
sin Br
GO,24O)(0.972\
O0,'2,40)(.236)
'" _
9950 lb
?A2O
If we
lb
(2s00x10.75)y'4f11.8
8(17,500x26.5
assume
'ffi;ffi
T = 0.540 +
If
T = 5.75 and M0
r :32.8so
we assume T
tP:(l0l75f = o 54o
10.75)
2,503,000,
31.467
+ (3r.467):
= 6.25 and Mo =
6.175 in.
2,419,000,
I=32.850"?*i:# =ro4tl
Load
furn
He = W. = 700,800 ho = 0.5(C
G)
Moment
330
ptAlrs, AND
FtANGTS
NOMENCTATURE 33I
l'robhms
NOMENCTATURT
10.13 A spherically
For the flange in Problem 10. 13, what is the maximum allowable flanse
moment if the allowable tensile stress is increased to 17,500 psi and tie
flange thickness is set at 6.25 in. ?
Answer:
M51o*
circumference
A
I
C
E
G
1u'
N6
P
R
S
S.
56
=
=
:
:
:
=
=
=
=
:
:
(in.lb)
332
Mn
tuNO flANOts,
SEUOORAPHY 333
ltANOts
BIBTIOGRAPHY
0*
o,
or
o,
a"
lL
poisson's ratio
Bhch, A. E., and A. Bazergui, "Mthods of Analysis of Bolted, FlaDged ConnectionsA Review," Ecolc Pol)4echnique, Montial, Camda, Jaluary 1981.
InterprEtive Study on the Design of NotrCircular Flaoges and Flanges with Extemal Loads" (a
private report to PVRC , May 23 , 1979 .)
Rrut, H. D., A. Bazeigui aod L. Marchand, 'Casket lakage Trends" (A private report to PVRC),
April
Timo$henko,
REFERENCES
ASME Boiler atrd Pressure Vesol Code, Section VIII, Division I, Pressure Vessels,
ANSVASME BPVVnI, Amedcan Society of Me.hanical Engine$, New Yo*, 1983.
ASME Boiler ard Pressure Vessel Code, S@ton I, Pover Boilcrs, ANSVASME BPVI,
American Society of Mechadcal Engineers, New York, 1983.
Wate$, E. O., D. B. Wesstiom, D. B. Rossheim, and F. S. G. Williams, "Formulas for
Sftsses in Bolted Flanged Connections," f/dns. ASME, vol. 59, 1931, pp. 16l169.
',
11.
1981.
Rodsbaugh, E. C., atrd S. E. Moore, "Evaluation of the Bolting and Flarges of ANSI 816.5
Flarged JointsASME Part A Design Rules," ORNUSub29133, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TeDn., Septenbr 30, 1976.
12. Roark, R. J,, FormnJas for Stress and Strain,3d ed., McGrawHill, New York, 1954.
13. Water$, E. O,, 'Dedvatior of Code Fordulas for Part B Flanges," WeUinB Research
Coun il, Bnlletin 166, October 1971, pp. n47.
14, Schneider, R. W., and E. O. Waters, "The Backgrcund of ASME Code Cas 1828: A
Simplified Metbod of Analyzing Part B Flanges," Tranr, ASME, Jounal of Presrure Vessel
Technology, Vol. 100, No. 2, Mt! 1978, pp. 215219.
Schneide., R. W, and E, O, Wate$, "The Application of ASME Code Case 1828," Irarr,
ASME, lournal of Pressure Vewel Technology, Vol. 101, No.
I, February
1979,
pp.8794,
1940.
CHAPTER
ll
334
335
336
I
.I
GENERAL
process vessels require openings to get the contents in and out For somc
vessels, where the conients miy be large or some of the intemal parts may need
frequent changing, access is made through large openings in which the entirc
heai or a secioriof the shell is removed. However, for most process vessels,
the contents enter and exit through openings in the heads and shell to which
nozzles and piping are attached. In addition to these openings others may be
required, suCh as those for personnel entering the vessel through a manway
opining. Other openings rnay be necessary for inspecting the vessel ftom the
outsidethmugh a handhole opening , and still others may be requiredfor cleaning
or draining tie vessel. Thesl openings do not always have a nozzle located at
the openin!. Sometimes the closure may be a manway cover or handhole cover
pad area by
that ii eithlr directly welded or attached to the vessel or a builtup
All
bolts.
For some nozzles, additional loading to the iniernal or extemal pressure may
be innoduced from dead loads ftom equipment and piping and ftom thermal
expansion flexibility loadings from the piping and equipment motions' This
I.I
Ml
f
F^l
figura
tl.l
OENERAI,
FigurG
ll.2
I.2
STRESSS
vcssl parts or piping system are established. A slight change in the details at tho
intersection may enable the vessel to operate through many more cycles of
pressure and temperature loadings.
Detailed rules for designing vessels and piping to accommodale the primary
membrane stresses and loadings from intemal and external pressures are given
in codes and regulations such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codel
and the ASME Code for Pressure Piping B31.'z In addition, some design rulcs
are given in the more advanced sections of these codes to permit considering
shess intensity factors (SIF) and stress concentration factors (SCF) in determining peak stresses. The peak stresses are used to determine the design fatigue
life of the vessel. Other codes do not mention peak stresses or fatigue evaluations
and leave the latter as the designer's responsibility. At the present time, none of
I1,2
of extemal
Both single and multiple openings require calculations that show that the stresses
and loadings in the shell and head are kept within acceptable limits. Single
openings are calculated by the reinforcement method, whereas multiple openings are calculated by either the reinforcement method or the ligament efficiency
method. In both cases, the primary stresses are effectively kept less than the
allowable stress by replacing the area removed for openings.
For a single circular opening in a flat plate with infinite boundaries in two
directions (not through the thickness) that is subjected to applied forces and
stresses along opposite edges of the plate, stresses are increased above the
nominal applied stress in the unperforated plate. The stresses decrease away
from the opening until the nominal stress in the plate is obtained. The ratio of
the stress at the examined point divided by the nominal stess is the stress
intensity factor.
0:
'
*'
" = Zl'. (;)']  i [' '(;)'] ''
(11
l)
Figure
ll.3
The basic equation for the maximum stress at the edge of the opening in terms
of the component of stresses in each direction is
o^o:3o1 
o2
(1r.2)
where the values of or ?rd oz include plus and minus signs depending upon
whether the applied stress is tension or compression. The stress intensity factor
at the edge oi circular openings for various ratios of applied edge stresses is
siven in Table 11. l.
The stress intensity factor for various combinations of stresses is maximum
340
Tqble I I.l
Applied Stress
",,
Stress Ratio
I
I:I
2:
(cylinder)
3.00
2.50
(sphere)
2.00
STRESSES
AND IOAOINOS AT
OPININOS
341
intemal pressurethe basic equation for the stress intensity factor is found by
combinine the effects of sfesses in two directions according to Eq. l I l:
Streu Inlenally
1:0(axialonly)
l.2
: Zl'.
.
G)l  ; t' '(;)']
cos
20
where o
cos 20
= 1
where 0
cos 20
=
=
0
+
to 1.0.
Using the following nomenclature, various formulas for different combinations of applied stresses are developed:
r=
r:
"' = Zl'.
',:ilr. (;)',(;)l
(1
1.3)
At the edge of the opening, the stress iniensity factor is determined from Eq.
ll.2 assuming that o1 = or and or = 6'
o^:3or0=3.00or
(r 1.4)
r
21
3r
4r
For an applied stress ratio of 2
1.15ar
(l l.s)
At the edge of the opening, the sffess intensity factor is determined from Eq'
1 1.2 assuming cr : or vnd 02 = 0.5or so that
(1
l.6)
Substituting various values of r for.r in Eq' 11.5, stress intensity factors at various
distances from the edge of the opening are
r
2r
31
4r
2 5oor
l.23at
1.09or
l.05or
'=t*$'
3.00sr
(l l.7)
At the edge of the opening, the stress intensity factor is determined from Eq' 1 I .2
assuming that at = or dllrd cz: 6t as given by
l.Mo1
l.O4o1
",
under
c*:3c1  ar=200or
(11.8)
oPlNrNoS,
l{onfis,
ol'r
li)r
at
Exarnple
.1
2.O0oy
What is the stress intensity factors for a plate under a stress ratio of 2 :  I
for the vessel given in Example 1 1.1 at the edge of the opening and at
distances of 2r,3r, and 4r?
l.25or
Answeri
1.11o1
1.06s,
11,1
11.2
opening?
Solutian.
",=url,. (t']
/r\
;[' +31:l
\r/l
4l
lcos
20
/r\21 l
oa: lof
l+ll
*' 2o
_ll+
4L V/l l+ 4L
G):
where 0
"
cos 20
l
o:
tr
where
cos
"ol,
rG)'
,, ="olo. (;)'
.'(')']
Exarnple 11.2 For the vessel described in Example 11.1. what is the maximum stress at the edge of the opening according to Eq. I 1.2?
Soltttion.
Assuming that or = o1 and o, = 0.5 rr, the equation for maximum stress at the edge of the opening is given by Eq. 11.2 as
o,o^:
3oy
oz
= 3ot
(0.5ar)
3.50ar
SIF
3.50
1.2O
1.05
1.Oz
o1?
11.3
As in Problem 11.2, what is the distance from the edge of the opening
along the longitudinal axis in a cylindrical shell under intemal pressure
if required to have a stress of 1. lS,?
20: *l
Incat\on
r
21
31
41
,,
I'roblems
II
r
2r
31
41
I.3
I,3
AsdescribedinSectionll'2,thereisanincreaseinbasicshessesatanopenlng
pathway for
in aflat plate or shell under edge loadings due to the discontinuous
other side'
the
to
opening
of
the
side
pasJ
one
from
(anO
to
stresses)
the loms
keep the
to
in.order
be
establishedto
pathways
have
When this happens, otler
Tn
\,i:
\:;i*
.r!,
figure
Figt re I
L5
Reiniorcemsnl
of itchonicol Enginerc,
From Fis.
another problem such as high thermal stresses. Investigations by the pVRCa and
others indicate that the placement or location of the reinforcement is important.
On most pressure vessels, the reinforcement is added to the outside as shown in
Fig. 11.5. However, on some vessels the reinforcement is added on the inside
as in Fig. 11.6; and on still others, some of the reinforcehent material may be
added !o both the outside and the inside as in Fig. 11.7. The best arrangement
\tl.t
Figur
I1.6
Rinfor.ment odded to
intid. of opning'
345
t.l6
Tn
I.4
RTINFORCEMENT TIMITS
ular to the surt'ace of the shell. These are set at a point at which it is l'elt that the
added reinforcement within the limits is effectively helping to replace the metal
removed at the opening.
Two formulas are used for setting the limits measured from. the opening
offlre two inswEis used.
c9!!er!!e3!91g.1@g!qg".jg@f, withth"
The first answer is equal to the diam6fer of the opening d. The second limit equal
tothesumof ?l + T^+ O.5d. AsshowninFig. 11.8, the thickness ofthe nozzle
wall usually determines which of the two limits controls. At a distance d from
the centerline without reinforcement added, Eq. 1 1.5 for a cylinder gives a SIF
With additional
of 1.23or and Eq. 11.7 for a sphere gives a SIF of 1.25
reinforcement material, the nominal stress is reduced close to that in an unperforated plate.
tc*
q.
\i,:'l
\i;.jl:i
{.a
@iruegAUC!.d9l4bl9lgled
Figore I I
.7
Rinlorc6manr odded to
bofi
the reinforcement limits, the reinforcement areas are assumed to have the same
loadcarrying capabilities as the area removed for the opening. Consequently,
when the reinforcement areas are equal to or exceed the required area, primary
stresses have been restored to as near the unperforated plate as possible.
I.4
REINFOR.CEMENT LIMITS
As described in Section I
1.2
or head is highest at the edge of the opening and decreases away from the
opening (based on a shell wall with constant thickness). When the effective
thickness is increased, as happens with added reinforcement material, the everage stresses are lowered. Limits of reinforcement are set parallel and perpendic
\/o.tv
_l\/,
 p
r.285
1.285
O.246r
2.46t
For code application, the number was rounded off to 2.5 f. With the wide range
r/t ratios, which are currently used in process vessel construction, some of
the codes are setting this reinforcement limit in the vertical direction by
of
L=
where L =
O.7S
!rI"
11.e)
Example
Solution.
r.4
RqNtoRctMENT
tlMlrs
d:12in.
0r
T,
T^
O.5d
=6+3+
0.5(12)
15
in'
Problams
11.4 If
r/r =
Ans*ert
The vertical
limit is
limit of
r/t = 5'
11.5 For
Answer:
i t.l.
The rules for reinforced openings in ASME, Section l, Power Boikrs, permlt
using the replacement of both area and ligament efficiency provided certain
limits are met. Ligament rules may be used for repeating pattems of openings
provided the maximum diameter of any hole in the pattern does not exceed a
diameter determined from Fig. PG32 of Section I. This figure is a plot of the
following equation with limiting values of K between 0.5 and 0.99:
a,,,
Ti+Tn+o,td
=z.ts{WJrx)
(11.10)
I1.8
p=
348
3IO
4nn"
D, =
35I
of shell (in.)
4.
5.
outside diameter
11. 14.
(1
l. l1)
(t.r2)
St
N o Reintorcement Re quhe d
A+B
L= 2(r
+ K)
where
(1
1.14)
1 1.
The total crosssectional area of reinforcement required for any plane through the
A = dt,F
10.
(r1.15)
shell (in.)
reinforced
F=0.5(cos'z0+l)
opening.
(11.13)
r = !2:1.82 S?:
D, = outside
{ = nominal
2.
For vessels 60 in. and less in diameler, the opening shall not exceed
0.5 D or 20 in.
For vessels over 60 in. in diameter, the opening shall not exceed 0.33 D
or 40 in.
When these sizes are exceeded, suggested rules place the available reinforcing
area close to the opening.
For openings in forrned heads, no calculations are required to prove the adequacy if all of the following are met:
The shape of the opening when these rules are applicable is limited to circular,
elliptical, or obround where the ratio of the largetosmall dimension is < 2.0.
When the ratio is ) 2.0, special requirements may be necessary to resist any
twisting moment. For shapes other than those above, a special analysis or proof
test is required.
No limitations are set on the size of an opening by Section I rules. However,
the rules in the text are limited to the following sizes:
l.
The rules for openings in Section I contain proyisions for single openings when
no calculations are required to prove the adequacy of the shell. No calculations
are needed for a cylindrical shell when either of the following is met:
A and B
K:
 1.6 s?i
r=

d,
I,
P?'
2.
TIMITS
3.
1.
RTINFORCEMENT
I.4
(11.16)
For torispherical heads when the opening and its reinforcement are within the
spherical part t, is the minimum required thickness for a hemispherical head
when the radius is equal to that of the spherical part of the torispherical head.
For a 2 : I ellipsoidal head when the opening and its reinforcement are within
352
I.4
REINFORCEMENT
IIMITS
353
(l)
2.5 T, or
(2)
2.5 T"
T".
If the thicknesses of the shell and nozzle are uniform and the reinforcement area
does not extend beyond this uniform thickness, the following formulas may be
used for determining the available area of reinforcement. However, if the opening and its reinforcement extend into areas with different nominal thicknesses
and different minimum required thicknesses, these formulas are not applicable.
1.
Area available
At=(ELFt,)(zdd)
(11.
At=z(EtT' Ft,)(T'+n)
(11.18)
in nozzle
l7)
of
Az=2(T"t,)(2.57,f
Az:
2(7"
t^)(2.57,
tt.9
Ensinrs, Froh
fig.
Example
or
2,
Figorc
+ T)
(11.19)
(r 1.20)
Solution.
When two or more openings are spaced so that theil limits of reinforcement
overlap, the combined area is used and counted only once. The spacing between
any two openings is to be not less than 1.33 4". For a series of openings in a
pattern, the area between any two openings equals 0.7f' of the area obtained by
multiplying the centertocenter distance by the required thickness as shown in
Fie. 11.9.
1.
'
PR
sE  0.6p
0.95 is
x 33
0.95  0.6 x 2875
.use 6i in. plate
2875
16.800 x
T"l

d^:2.75
EX
x
\rr3t675x(ir0.9
4.814 in.
2X
355
The only single openings are 5 in. and 6{ in.;others are not considered
single. Consequendy, all nozzles have the reinforcement area calculated
T^
RIINFORCEMENT I.IMITS
a
d
I.4
B( D=LIMIT OF REINFORCEMENT
6.
All
A, = dt,F
8.
ID
d(6.294)(1.0)
6.294 d
d or T,+7,+
9.
O.5d:6.75 + T.+ r
2.5(6.75)
in. or
16.875
2.57,
2,
11.10
REINFORC EMENT
.,S.ton,,
,,3tin,,
ond
nozzles.
''
4,
sE
 0.6P
16,800
ll.2
,*,
,r32r
6.294)
rs
,X=
r
0.6 x 2875
3 in.,4 in.,5
in., ond
6f
in.
rR75
354
Tqble
Pr
d)(6.7s
Az:2Y(T^t^)
PR
2875 x 33
' sE  o.6P t6.800  0.6 x 2875 =61!rrn
3.
l3 ffifi;Js=
as
r'tur
K' = 0'99
d
3.5
4.0
5.0
A,
T"
parallel Y=
normal
6.'75 +
116
12.
A 24in. lD
t = 0.lm(12) :
2.289
in.
?i
use
5l
24
in. or T,'t
T,
in. or
in
r:r.rrzzle
in Fig. I l.l l. The design pressure is 500 psi at 700"F design temperature The
allowable stress is 16,600 psi There is no corosion.
6.75
5.25
500 x l8
PR
:
" sE  o.6P 16,600  0.6 x 500
151.06 in.2
2.
O.sd
12
24
n.
500
of
3.
13.125 in.
 0.6P
16,600
1.125
0.6 x 500
U
12)(0.456)
in.,
5.47 in.2
At =
Azz
2(t3.t25)(5.25
2(6.5)(5.25
o)
2.289)
68.25
77.73
in.'2
in.'?
2.25" diameter
At = Ar
A21
A22
151.45 in.2
> A, of
151.06 in.2
20. Also, check 'tlosein" limit. Determine limit parallel io shell as the
greater
of
0.75d:
0.75(24)
18
in. or
T"
T^
+r=
24 in.
0.035 in.
is
0.552 in.
sE
2.5/5.25't:
357
Solution
d:
IIMITS
Dattem of three fows on 3in. centers and 4 5in. longitudinal spacing, as shown
l.
=
REINIORCEMENT
in.
A, = 6.294(24)
I,4
Fisur I
l.l I
358
4.
l2.
dt,F = (2.2s)(0.552)(1.0)
Ar = (?i
Ar
= (7,
Asa = (0.552)(4.5X0.7
A561s: (l.125)(4.5
5.
0.552X4.5
z.z5) =
I1.4.2
1.289 in.z
Az
Ans#sr.' Minimum
1.242in.2
= (r.tZs
r)(spacins d)
1.0)
2.25')
0.035)(2
0.469)
0.143 in.,
1.739 in.2
2.531 n.2
>
1.739 in.2
Examine the diagonal plane, 23. With a rowtorow spacing of 3 in. and
a longitudinal spacing of 4.5 in., the diagonal spacing is
+
\,tr
ZB
(3.75
(2.2s)(0.ss2)(0.68)
r'r,)(spacing
2.25)
= 6.30r
.n.,
A14a:
4567s
6.
>
0.845 in.2
(0,552)(3.7 5)(O.7
= 0.125)(3.75
factory.
1.267 in.2
1.125
359
reinforcernent are given as the main choice, with ligament rules used only as an
altrnative for repeating pattems of openings. Rules iue contained in both the
iext and the appendices. They are given for both internal pressure and extemal
pressure. The rules are essentially the same except that only 50% of the replacement area is required for extemal pressure assuming that the minimum required
thickness in each case is based on the appropriate formula and design rules for
both intemal and extemal pressures.
N o Reintorcement Re quiNed
Single openings in vessels that are not subjected to special applied loadings, such
as cyclic loading, do not require reinforcement calculations if the openings do
not exceed the following size limits.
Size
anl
Shape of Openings
The nrles apply to openings that are circular, elliptical, or obround. The latter
shapes often result from an opening in a curved surface or from a nonradial
nozzle. However, other shapes arc permitted when considered according to
u2(e).
For openings in cylindrical shells, the rules in the text are limited to openings
of the following size limits:
Problzms
11.6
IIMITS
1.
2.
1.124 in.2
A: = 0.143 in.'z
A, = A1 ! Az
REINFORCEMENT
For triangular anangement of openings shown in Fig. I l.l I with oPenings that are 2.25in.lD, what is the minimum side length of a spacing
that forms a series of equilateral triangles?
ll.7
A,=
I,4
@mperature.
Answer:
tin
2.50 in.
1.
2.
For shells 60in. and less in diameter, the opening is not to exceed 0'5 D
or 20 in.,
For shells over 60 in. in diameter, the opening is not to exceed 0.33 D
or
210in.
When these size limits are exceeded, in addition to the rules in tle text, the rules
in Appendix l7 are also to be met. These additional rules may require some
reinforcement to be placed closer to the opening than required by the rules in the
360
II
,4
RETNIORCEMINT TIMITS
361
text. l.'tlr opcnings in sphcrical shells and lbrmed heads, the text rures are mer
by considering the use of reverse curves and conical sections where possible.
There are no specific limitations on size and shape of openings in spherical shells
and formed heads.
Required Area of Reintorceme nt
The total crosssectional area of reinforcement required for any plane through the
A: dt,F
(ll.2l)
1
2.
3.
When the opening and its reinforcement are totally within the spherical
part of a torispherical head, l. is determined using the hemispherical head
The value of t, obtained from any of the methods given above is used only
to determine the required area of reinforcement. The value of t" used to set the
minimum required thickness of the shell or head is based on the thickness
fbrmulas that consider all the design loadings and weld joint efficiencies.
o" r;o
loo loo
eoP
Atb
FisurIl.l2 Charr tor derrmins F. (Courreiy Amsricon Socistv of l'lechonicol Ensiners, From Fis UG37
of d's ASME Code, Vllll .)
2.5n+
L.
When the size of tle opening is within the limits in the text, the limits of
reintbrcement parallel to the shell surface measured on each side of the centerline are the larger of (l) d or (2) T" + Tn + 0.5d.
When the reinforcement limits do not extend outside the zone of nominal wall
thickness of the shell and nozzle, the area available for reinforcement may be
calculated by the following formulas:
t62
I.4
REINTORCTMENT TIMITS
Tqble I 1.3'
D
/2h
Kr
3.0
2.8
2.6
2.4
1.27
l.l8
1.08
36
D /2h
1.8
1.6
1.4
KI
0.81
o.73
0.65
2.2 2.O
0.99 0.90
1.2 l 0
0.57 0.50
Head
The total crosssectional area of reinforcement required for any plane through the
center
0.8D = sneci
'1
(l l.26)
0.67 dt,F
r I L
The limit is set exactly the same way as for a nozzle that is within the rules
the text.
Head
ior determing t, to u! in
roinfiorrnenr colculations.
41 =(2"d._d)(ET,_Ft)
(11.22)
or
tu = 2(7" +
2.
T^
0.5 d)
d(ET,
Ft,)
(r1.23)
overlaps, the combined area is used, but is evaluated only once in the combined
area. The preferred spacing
between the two openings.
1.
of
A,=(sDQ.h)
(r1.24)
+^' o.taq"
A2= 6n+2.5t"\(7.t,)
T^r
t'6
(11.2s)
of
Fisure I
l.l3.l
L6.
t6a
ll.
Solullon
l.
7oo (41'751
PD
zSE
0.2(700)
0.838 in.;
use 1.0 in.
3.
As noied in the definition of r, ro use with Eq. 11.20 and shown in Fig.
11.13.1, when an opening and its reinforcement are located in an ellio_
soidal head and within a circle equal to 80Zo of the shell diameter, ,. to
be used in reinforcement calculations is the thickness required for a
seamless sphere of radius K1D, where D is the shell ID and E for a 2 : I
ellipsoidal head is 0.9 frorn Table 11.3. For this head, the opening and
reinforcement are within 0.8 D = 0.8(41.75) = 33.4 in.
Using the spherical shell radius of R = K tD = 0.9(41.7 5) = 37 .57 5 n.
in the hemispherical head formula gives
7oo (37.575)
PR
4.
6.
1.0)
0.2(700)
u.
/f)
= (17,500
7OO
(4)
1.0)
0.6(700)
6 765
6.040 in.'?
'r Az:
1.960
in''
1.
t==sE PR0.6P
2.
rs
(17,500
1.0)
(0.6
":'::700)
0.858 in.:
use
= (17,500 x 1.0)
', : !losE  o.6P

(0.6
Because the limit of 2X = 2(8): 16 in. is less ihan 33.4 in. of item 2
above, the provision of the spherical head may be used.
E.
a
(ET,
Ft)(U
d) = (1.0
Az=
57"(7,
0.755X16
8)
1.960 in.,
 tJ = 5(1.0X1.r25 
ABCD=Limit
0.164)
4.805 in.,
Figure
ll.l,1
12
of Reinf
ln.
as
use
= 0.246 in.:
700)
,
additional
Solution
700 (6)
If
shell is 41.875 in. Both the shell and manway material have an allowable tensile
stress of 17,500 psi. The design pressure is 700 psi at a design temperature of
500'F. There is no corrosion and the joint efficiency is E = 1.0' Details are
shown in Fig. 11.14.
rn.
0.164 in.
is
+ 4'805
A1
365
PR'
,^=
' sE  0_6P
!.
2(17,500
UMI1S
RHNFORCEMENT
A,:
t.4
7.
in.
3.
t' =
.0 is determined tiom
r.4
RflNFORCTMENT
UMTTS
367
t joint efficiency of E :
Solutinn
d:
T,
12
+ T, + 0.5d : 6+
in.
1
1.
1* = S+in.
t=
2.
dt,F
12 (0.858X1.0)
PL
zSE
Ft)(2x
d) = (r
At =
Azz =
57,(7, 57,(7,
jn
0.85sX24
4.
3.
r2)
dt,F
0.246)
5.020 in.,
x 1
= 0.420 in.;
0.2 x 7W
1.704
"
sE
o.6P
use
4.
5.020
+ 6.25O_
16 (0.858)(0.s)
T,
12.974 in.2
5.
T,
+ 0.5d= I +
= 6in.
0.75
+ 3 = 4.75in.; use6in.
= 2.5(1\ =
2.5 in.
or
6.864 in.2
2.5f":
6.
2.519.'lt,
= l'875 in.;
in.
700x3
0.123 in.;
17,500x10.6x700 =
or
Pr
t ==
0) = 6.256 ;n.z
If the arc length of l6.4in. is used,A, = 7.036 in., Either of these areas
is less than A. in item 3 and does not control. The longitudinal plane
conhols.
17,500
20.938
1.7s4.o.2
A,:
O.zP 2x
use
700
t,,) = S(t)(1.2s
t^) = 5(1)(1.2s
At = At + A^ + An
usel in.
10.296 in.2
Ar = (ET"
in.:
A,:
0.858
in.'z
At = (ET" 
o!
in.
3e0
E.
Az:
9.
TXTEnNAT TOADNGS
5T,(T,
 t') = 5(0.75)(0.75 
0.123)
.2.351
Ar * Ao + A2 = 4.943 in.2,
ll.
not enough
1.
A, = 5.148 in.'?
4,
designbyanalYsis is used.
11.9
limited to
The ratio of the large to the small dimension of the opening is
1.5.
limitations'
For all dimensions and shapes of openings that are not within these
Problems
11.8
?,
1.
Single openings with d*, = 0'2 V]4r and two or more openings within
a clide with a diameter < z 5 \/fu , the sum of the diameters is
<
th'ickness is
I in.
Azsrer.'
1.25 tn.
2.
3.
0.25 \/Rt
Required
Ana of Reinforcement
Thetotalcrosssectionalareaofreinforcementrequiredforanyplaneisgivenby
A:
I
1.4.3
369
2. d/D <0.5o.
3. Arc length between
0.250 in.'z
At = 5.193 in.z
LlMlTs
'fhe rules are applicable to circular and elliptical openings and to shapes of
of circular and elliptical crosssectional nozzles' In
,ft" iti
"rsection
"p*i"gt
"i
addition, the following limits also apply:
in.2
REINFORCIMINT
A, =
1.4
Vlll, Division 2
The rules for reinforced openings in Section VtrI, Division 2, are similar to those
for Division 1 ; but there are some differences . Reinforcement limits and spacing
are based on the damping length of a beam on an elastic foundation. The rules
are for either intemal or external pressure with no specific rules given for
extemal loadings or for fatigue. However, there are stress inlensity factors that
can be combined with the intemal pressure stresses to indicate the peak stresses
for fatieue.
where t, =
dt,F
(1r.27)
F = factor
of reinforcement is placed on
each side
of
an
T7O
,
90 dca.
f.
2.
0.5
\Gn
Y"if
3.
(L' +
or
or
\/riI,
2.57".
.5
\/ffi
\/r^I, +
or e.73x
te)
2.5t0)
or (2.57., +
t)
*=
l.
2.
3.
4.
areas
1Lt
is integral or
attached
by full_
Figur
ll.l5
,i..honi.ol
Deioil! for limir of rinlorcmonr normol to vesrel woll. (Courtesy Anericon Soci6ty of
371
I.4
vessel metal
if
at
design
or lowest to
greater ('F)
1.0
Sy
>0.40
None, except
12
required
ls.40(d/\/RDt/2
2.41fdt,
dt, cos g, O = sin\(d/D)
1.811dt,
0.75 dt,
met,
Determine the reinforcement requirements of an.8in ID nozzle tha:t is centrally located in a 2 : 1 ellipsoidal head. The inside diameter of the
head skirt is 41.73 in. The allowable stress of the head material is 20'5 ksi and
of the nozzle material is 21.6 ksi. The design pressure is 70O psi and the design
temperatme is 50OoF. There is no corrosion. See Fig. 11 18 for details ofnozzle'
Example
11.9.
Solutinn
The minimum required thickness of the 2 : 1 ellipsoidal head using Fig'
AD2O4.1 of the ASME Code, VIII2, is determined as follows:
required
14.os(d/\/k)1tz
0.40
1.
Limitations
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
12
Reinforcing zone limits and reinforcing area are given in Fig' 1.1'16' Figure
11.17 shois the acceptable transition details. In order to use this altemative
method of determining the reinforcing area, all provisions of the procedure are
0.80.
stress
None, except
<o.20
>0.20 and
is
where S, = allowable
Nozzles in Cylinders
dl\/Rt,
<
1.
2.
373
Nozzles in Spherical
Vessels and Formed Heads
Value of
4.,
(11.28)
mean coefficient
temperature
TIMITS
where rri =
REINFORCEMENT
Limit
Formed Heads
Cylinders
and Spheres
D/t
10200
l0250
d/D
0.33 max.
0.80 max.
0.80 max.
d/\/Dt
0.50 max.
0.5P
700x
21,600
4
0.700
= 0.132
in.;
374
ltl
Lc
OSas
li / RPI3R
l2l
La
'
128
k./ 213Bh/a+g.'tI
for notrl.3 in
h.dt
{a)
unilorm rhictn!3r
.on3id.r!d.31.
Cylindric.l Sh.llr
rr
o.ltro 0.5.
rh. tfEer ot r.41
the
rr
rtre
>
'
\/A;
o.
tn
or tl
l0l90,1
l./21
= {0' /90)r
" <45deg.
end0'
{.1
Fisurc
ll.t6
Limits
3.
Nozzlo d6tqil. 60r u3 of olrrnorive rult. (Courl$v Arnericon Sociry of tnchonicol Engineers'
Figuro I I . I
From Fig. AD560.IJ of {'s ASME Code. Vlll2.)
T1.o"
o.'1a1"
6.125 in.;
X'
7.085 in.
Fisure
tl.l8
ll.9'
375
116
4.
2.5(l)
1.
2.
2.5(1.125)
Strength ratio
:
?: A, :
6.
= (r,
8(0.789X1)
?(6.312)
 dr:
t)(2x
(1.0
2Y(7"
Pr
8)
1.688 in.'?
4.
0.132)
1.688
4.965
6.654 in.'?
(7,
1.3O2 in.2
Ft)(2X'
d\
: (r 
0.789)(2
(2, +
I" + r)
whichever is larger
7.085
X' =
8)
8.25
8.315 in.
10. Total reinforcement available from head and nozzle usins twothirds
limit is
A, = Ar
Az
1.3o2
4.965
6.267 in.2
>
4.208
in.
X' = r 4 0.5\/R"t or
6.312 \n.2
Ay
""'
X=
4.965 in.2
>
use
face as:
(b)
=
= 0.728
"'"
''''o in..
Total reinforcement available form head and nozzle within 1007o rein
A, = Ar r,4z
(a)
pR
,., = _ g.5p =
s
0.789)(16
t^) = 2(2.s)(r.rz5
S:ojp
4.208 in.2
forcement limit is
9.
t=
3.
6.312 in.'z
8.
tor
7.
dt,F
19
1ffi7o: A,
Fig. I l
377
Solutian
usel=2.5in.
5.
I.IMITS
details.
REIN'ORCEMENT
I.4
in.'?
ABCD=LirDit
Figure
1t.19
ot
Deloih of 12
Rei.nforcemerlt
I1.10.
in.;
use
078
(c)
5.
y=05\/VJ+x
1.73x
(d)
A,:
(f)
0.858
= (1 
0.728)(24
ments?
12)
in.z
1.4.4
8.315
12)
1.259 in.2
At = At + Aa + An
A,
1.259
+ 4.972 + 5.912 =
To
t2.O4O in.z
0 375 in'
= l'375 in'
0.728r(2
{ = 2.5 in.
Pad' t"
3.264 in.2
(l 
shell,
nozzle,
A' =
6.864 in.2
Answer:
x 0.5 =
At
(i)
16
A, = A1
(h)
5.922 in.2
(g)
dt,F
11.10 A
 f)
A"=12x0.728x1+2x1.25 x 0.728(1 _ 0.946)
A1
379
Problem
dt,F + 2t"t,(1
= 8.834 in.,
A, = 4$.834) =
TIMITS
Using the arc length of 16.4 in., A. = 7.036 in.']Either of thetwo areas
is less than 4, in item 4d and do not control. Longitudinal controls. I
l0o7o:
(e)
A,:
2.5te
usey=2.5in.
REINFORCEMENT
In examining the circumferential plane, reinforcement area required according to the ASME Code, VIII2 is
or
I.4
C altulalians Re
quired
1.
Connections made from fittings that have a standard pressure/temperature rating established.
d^:2in. NPS with tn6 > Schedule 160 pipe.
2.
3. d/D < 0.25.
4. Standard fittings of extra heavy or Class 3000 rating.
Limitations.
and 90 deerees.
3t0
r.4
RHNFORCIMINI
llMlt3
3tl
larger of dy or
A,:
which for
l.o7t^hdlz
(rr.29,
sin d)
90' is
A,
= l.o1t*dl
(1 1.30)
ofAl + A2 + A3 + A4 +
Ar=(2dzd)(7,*t,,t)
. zl(n  t'h)
A1 1
(11.31)
sm(I
t,
T;
T
(rr.32)
A3
area
Aa
A5
area of saddles
of fillet welds
Reinlorcement Zone
The limits of reinforcement are formed by a parallelogram with sides of d2 on
each side of the nozzle centerline and an altitude of Z perpendicular to the shell
surface.
N^N
N'
f
fislr6
l.
Au
A2
.rcF
wttl in
a
i
jml[mt
Ar.!
A3
a&
A4
l@'
ar.
45
 m'ttt
br.nch
2.
Multiple Openings
F.di6d 6lnro6m..t.r!.
a6. at .rc6wdl l. h.!d.
B3l l
rilld
*ld dll't
td'!t doc
tun
54"
area
between oPenings.
a design
Example 11.11 A steam pipe has a 24in' inside diameter with
temdesign
psi
at
the
14,500
of
stress
psi
allowable
and an
oressul of Z5OO
of
angle
at
an
connects
8
in
of
diameter
rnside
an
pera$re. A branch ptpe wtrn
980
1,4
lu
RflNloRclMlt{T tl,ulTs
larger of d1 or
A,
which for
a=
l.o7t,,hdt(2
(1r.29)
sin d)
90o is
A,
= l.olt*dr
(11.30)
ofAl + A2 + & +
At=Qlzd)(T"t*)
zL\T,
Ar = _:sln a
t*)
=
A+ = nrea of reinforcing
A5 = arca of saddles
A3
a'.ea
(11.31)
;rI
(rr.32)
T
of fillet welds
rings, pads, and so on.
Reintorcement Zone
The limits of reinforcement are formed by a parallelogram with sides of d2 on
cach side of the nozzle centerline and an altitude ofl perpendicular to the shell
surl'rce.
rNvFr.diDdorntor6n.nr.n!iaa..!43lilltt''!ldm'itl
Nv
4llD!l!II' eor aa  nrot in ri.s, p.d, or l.t trl
a6. a1 .'..sEll i. h..rL
N'
dinror.m.nr lNoa {2,1
l@'
atle a5 _htnt innddttdd!run
aE 42 .r6.Mlt an bEnch
f
(Court$y Americon Socitv oI ttchonicol
Figur. I I.20 Dimaffions ond nolotions for ANSVASME B3l l
Ensimrs. From Fig. 104.3.1D of ASME/ANSI
2.
Mulliple Openings
Thc folkrwing should be aPPlied:
l.
t,
B3l'l
l 54"
area
between opemngs.
a design
Example 11.11 A steam Plpe has a 24in' inside diameter with
temdesign
psi
at
the
stress of 14,500
"r.ui" of 2500 psi and anailowable
of
angle
an
at
;;;;;.; ;;.fi pipe with an inside diameter of 8 in' connects
?82
o = 75'.'l'ho
so that
I.4
REINFORCEMENT
Pad
IIMITS
383
Solutinn
Problem
l.
PR
t', =
Sf=06p
2.
t*
3.
25oo
Pr
_
Sn
oSt,
2500
4.0
2.5 in.
2.0 in.
1.07(2.308\(8X2
sin 75')
use8.5in.
6.
0.75
2.880
in.,
5.75 in.
Ar
4, =
(2x8.5
2(5.75\(2
8X2.5
:o
sln /J
7691
2.308)
A2
14.656
, the
Fig. 11.21.
Limilations of Geomew
The angle between the nozzle and header is restricted to those intersections
where tle acute intersection angle B is equal to 45" or more'
L = O'75 in'
2.5(2)
Plant and
The reinforcement requirements for ANSI/ASME B31 3, Chemical
ANSVASME
Petroleum Refinery Piping, are similar to the requirements for
connections'
S31. t and for Section Vtri, Dini.ion 1. Rules are given for branch
shown in
ined.
+ t" =
I.4.5
Pad
2.s7i,
,"info.""."nt
L=
oi no""l"., which are attached to run piping, or headers' Differing ftom other
29.43s't.z
A,:
4,
x tr
ll.lllfthenozzlewereattachedattt=g}",whatthicknessisrequiredfor
the pad, if anY?
n.,
3.750
+ A3 + Ac = 21.536
in.,
1.
2.
3.
Nomenclature
l+ :
F:
,,, =
L4 RllNrgRcltllllr I Llmlrt
gt:
(1 1.33)
. thd(z  sin B)
ar:
T
(11.34)
Ar = ttdrQ
'o
\,
Horizontal
6!l
t2
ic
'6
t;i.ie:
l
I
12
<{
fa
{J_ 9a
:;e
g'E
*r
E'6
d1 or T1+4+05dI
but not more than
Vertical
96
En
i +i
s9
5a
z6
D1,.
Limits.
the smaller
Ei
E8
(t
of the
The horizontal limits on each side of the centerline
I
I
I
IaE
Limits.
the shell is
The vertical limit measured from the surface of
of
2.5T,
Areas Available
or
2.57b
9i
ii'6
.l
4 = nominal
where
4=
pad thickness
(in')
A2:
q:
I
+ 4,
(2d2
d)(Th
th)
(11.3s)
.
a^
=
2L4(Tb
tb)
(11.36)
sin P
Reinforcement
iii:,
ut
"
Zone.
to be followed:
Muttipte Openings. The following cautionary rules are
1.
2.
rrc
5.
(?.125)t0.519
0.450)
= 0 492 in'z
Determine actual and minimum required sizes at the branch run inter
0.7(0.438)
Ao
L4
+0:
1.095
in.;
use Za
sin 90.)
Il
= 0.297 in.
1.089;
(14
7'r2s)(0'3125) = 2'117
5/ 16 in. pad.
7.125X0.3125)
= 2 148in2
3 '237
in''
1.095 in,
41 = (0.450)(7.125)(2
45
11,12
2.5(0.438)
5116
width However,
Problem
1.298 in.
or
in.
f, =
(2w
weld,ir" = 
2.5(0.519)
Az
in.;
in Azr
(7.r25)H = 3.206
Assuming
0.063 in.2
Ao = 1.939 in'2 This is less than '4r; consequently, a pad shall be provided. Determine the thickness of pad based
on the pid extending to the horizontal limits of reilforcement'
d1
= 2(r()2:
Excess area
Lq
'
In fillet welds:
4.
3A7
3.
SHCLI.S
Ar
section as follows:
2.
Sohrtion
l.
I.5
3.206 in.,
Ansper.' MAWP =
I
1.5
880 Psi
318
ligoment el'licienoy method considers the loarJcarrying ability of the area bctween two points in relationship to the loadcarrying ability of the ligament
reTltlilg when the two points become the centers of two openings. In thc
ASME Code, only the shell plate is considered; however, Lloyd;s Rulis6 permit
some help from integrally attached nozzles.
The basic method of diagonal ligament efficiency for application in thc
ASME Code was developed in 1915 by Black and Jones oiihe Babcock &
Wilcox Company, which was published in 1920 in the Marine Engineer's
Handbook.T ln 1975. a limit design analysis was used to examine suesses ln a
perforated cylindrical shell.8 This limit analysis was further developed for
ASME Code application and used to update the original code rules. The rules
and curves are still given in several sections of the ASME Code and several
foreign codes that determine the ligament efficiency used in the cylindrical shell
formulas.
The ligament efficiency curves apply only to cylindrical pressure vessels
where the circumferential lension (stress) has twice the inbnsity of the longitudinal tension (stress). Once this was established, Rankine's Eilipse of Streis
was used to determine the iniensity of lension and of shear on any diagonal
ligament. This is shown in Fig. 11.22. The total tension and the total shear are
ottained by multiplying the intensity of tension and of shear, respectively, by
the diagonal pitch between openings and by the shell thickness, as ixpressed by
I.5
cos2 0
sin d cos d
cos, g
SHEITS
l(p,4)
shear:
sin
A cos
*\p'T,)
A. ,,
389
(11.37)
l 1.38)
(11.39)
11.40)
The stress factor for tension for any section of the ligament is obtained by
dividing the total tension by the crosssectional area of the ligament. The shess
factor for bending for any section of the ligament is obtained by dividing the
bending moment of the section by the modulus of the section. The bending
moment is the product of the total shear multiplied by the distance between the
section considered and the point of contraflexure, which is the plane passing
through the centers of the openings. The distance is Y in Fig. 11 22'
length of ligament
bending moment
section modulus
: L = P'  \/F=4
(11.41)
(rr.42)
(6161 shear)(I)
:+:tgP
(11.43)
"'^
cos20+
(p'T,\
lp'\/d24Y'z)T,
(11.44)
Sa=
sin 0 cos 0
(11.45)
The total stress factor for both tension and bending is the sum of the stress factors
for tension and for bending. When the curve was originally developed for the
ASME Code, the maximum total stress factor was found by tial by calculating
the shess factor at several sections between the sections through the centers of
the two openings to the plane that is tangent to the edge of the openings. Table
I1.4 shows a sample of this calculation to determine the maximum factor for a
particular angle ;ith the longitudinal axis 0 values of p' /d and a shell plate
Figur.
I1.22
Diogonol ligoment!.
thickness
I.
390
Undcr the sponsorship of the Pressure Vessel Research Committee, an extensive limit design analysis of perforated cylindrical shells with uniform patterns
ofopenings was completed. This limit design analysis was used to determine the
upper and lower bounds of limit pressure. A 2 : 1 ratio of stress field was
considered and the shell plate curvature was not included. From this analysis,
the basic lower bound equation was develooed into
PLqb
(11.46)
1+3cos20
SHEIIS
39I
The lowest factor is used to calculate the minimum efficiency for the angle 0
being examined.
: l = O'437 :
2.29
efficiency
Examplell,l3.
I.5
43 7vo
For application in the ASME Code, the equation was rearranged so that the
diagonal efficiency term was expressed as p' /d, a number equal to or greater
than 1.0, and the efficiency was expressed as a whole number. The equation for
1.
of 4.5 in.:
code use is
sec2
'
E=r ^'
p'
/"^ a\
o + I  I "':;YI\A + sd27
\P /d
0.015 + 0.005 sec2 0
(1r.47)
2.
d=
calculated dnt^:
4 in.; s =
p':
EVo
=ffi
t.AZ
3.
1.00
1.50
2.00
Section
Modulus
Total
Factor
6.12
6.12
1.84
l.'t2
1.98
1.72
0.86
r.77
o.43
2.20
6.12
z.t8
.72
1ro
1.69
0.59
2.28
1.55
1.63
0.66
2.29
r.E4
6.12
2.34
1.72
6.12
2.48
1.72
1.72
1.59
0.69
2.28
4.68
6.12
612
3.65
t.'72
2.58
1.31
0.'t
2.O2
8.93
1.72
3.44
0.84
0.39
1.23
.32
+
(r.667 /
+ s7 51ly
500 x 18
:
C3oo;04i6 10=.ox500
r'164 m'
This thickness of , = 1. 184 in. is based on the shell thickness only with
no contribution from the nozzle. I
I .84
3.86
7
(1.667)2
t = sE PR
 oip =
I,ength
o
3.32
0.50 3.45
0.75 3.62
0.90 3.'15
sec0:1.667
Determine the minimum requAed thickness using the equation of UG27(c)(l) from the ASME Code, VI[l, as follows:
ToblE  1.4
and Total
Area Tension
O {0f)
angles 0:
data:
4.5
Determine the equivalent longitudinal efficiency from the diagonal efficiency using Eq. 11.47 as follows:
known
I'= A\2)5
::::j:::
Problems
Answer:
= 54.1'
392
ll.l4
ln Problem
ll.l3,
conliguration'l
I.6
o, = normal
stress
Solutian. At the intersection of the nozzle to the shell, peak stresses are
as
obtained according to Eq' 11.48. The nominal stress is determined
_
"
PD^
2T,
Stress (psi)
(11.49)
Hoop stress
qr
2.O 2.o
0
1900(36
+ 2.5)
2(2'5)
(r/R)
(r/R)
1.2
1.0
a1
0.2
2r"/D^
1.0
o.2
27"/D.
z,o
0
Outside
+45,350
+ t7 ,560
+ 14,630
q10
1,900
Transverse Plane
Inside
,630
 2,930
 1,900
+ t4
Outside
+30 ,720
+38,040
0
must be
These values are the peak stresses due to intemal pressure only and
shell for
the
on
location
same
at
the
combined with other peak stresses occurring
TransversePlane
3.I
Inside
 t
stress
Radial stress
LongitudinalPlane
14.630 psi
index
The peak stresses are determined as follows using the factorc for stress
from Table 1 1.5:
Cylindrical Shells
 (r/R)
o.2
4r"/D^
Longitudinal Plane
2.0
shell that is
operation and a faiigue analysis is requircd' Peak stresses and stress concendation factors are noi known for the specific geometry to be used' What method
can be used to evaluate the peak stresses for a fatigue analysis?
lrngitudinal
Stress lndex
11.14. A cylindrical
Example
393
(11.48)
o= t.PD.
PRISSURI
or
I1.5
PRESSURE
Toble
Of
.PD.
IATIGUE EVAI,UATION
where
Answer:
I.6
a.fatigue evaluation.
Problem
vessel is 5 ft. 0 in. inside diameter with hemispherical heads'
The design pressure is 450 psi at 650'F The allowable stress of the
11,15 A reactor
:
vcsscl is 17,5(X) psi. l'hc hcatl and shcll rrc nradc ol.rrinirnurn
thickncss
r)alcritl roundod up to (hc ncxt I in. Thc vessel is operated undcr ir
cycling conditkrn.so.that a fatigue analysis is n"""r.ury. It is necessary
to place an 8in. inside diameter by lin. thick nozzle, in the vessel.
Is
the peak stress less in the head or in the shell at the nozzle junction
and
what are the values ofpeak shesses at the maximum location in
ttre treaa
and shell? Thinwall equations are used.
I.7
EXTERNAT LOADINGS
When extemal loadings are applied to nozzles or branch piping, local saesses
are generated at the nozzleshell intersection. Several typis of ioading
may be
applied, such as sustained loadings, transient loadings, ind thermal
flexibility loadings. Sustained loadings are continuorisly applied and "*paniion
combined
with iniernal pressure, such as dead Ioads. Transient loadings are applied for
a
short period of time, such as earthquake and wind loadinls, pressure fluctu_
ations, and water hammer loadings. The thermal expansion Ioadlngs are
caused
by
potential axial growth of piping from temperature expansion.
the
W/?Cl
I.7
TXTTRNAL IOADINGS
tr
nsvcrse
r)lorncnt. torsional moment. and axial fbrce. Stresses at various locations on thc
inside and outside surfaces are obtained by combining the stresses from variuus
offects. This involves considerable "bookkeeping" that WRC 107 developed t<r
help alleviate. Once the stresses are obtained according to WRC, they must be
combined with intemal pressure stresses to determine the overall stresses.
Bijlaard's original problem was finding the effects of structural supports on
a cylindrical shell. This initial work considered the radial loads and moments
over a flexible, rectangular loading surface. The initial treatment of nozzles was
an approximation based on a rigid attachment without the effects of nozzle wall
flexibility. Bijlaard extended this work to spherical shells based on a shallow
shell theory and considered both solid (rigid) attachments and nozzles with
flexibility parameters. Usage of the rules is generally limited to D/, between 10
and 200 for cylinders and between l0 and 250 for spheres. Usage is also limited
to d/D oI about 0.33 for cylinders and 0.50 for spheres. However, depending
upon other parameters, the value of d/D nay go as high as 0.60 for some
Spherieal Shells
The shell oarameter is
"
:t :
r0
..fn;r
(11.s0)
It
"=
c1
o.875\RJ
(l1.sl)
t
T
I
(11.52)
(1
1.53)
396
0.875t
't
t.7
EXTERNAT
T.OAOINGS 397
(11.54)
(r 1.ss)
Cylindrical Shells
The shell parameter is
v,
1::
._
(1 1.56)
to.
=
The attachment parameter for both solid and hollow is for a cylinder
e=o8i:.
(r 1.57)
where cr
(1 1.58)
For a square,
*g
For a rectangle
C!
F,
R.
c2
B,
R^
If
t,,
u=
01.5e)
If
 S
it u r" 4f 4ith:r
l ) Hhcn r I o, s  rrI:LlL!j$c[.!qi
\
s  l/2 lox+oy ! llox  ay)2  at2 Jot r'tax  oyl' ' 4r'
2) r,then t = o, s = largest absolur. ndgnitudc of either
s  dr, oy or (ox  oy)
t. r,
u=
K))\/e,e,
['  i('  f;),' 
(1r 60)
Using these parameters and the curves given in WRC 107, stresses may be
calculated at the inside and outside surfaces due to the various loadinss. The
Figure 1'1.23 Computotion sh.t for rigid onochment to.Phericol shell. (Courr.sy Welding Reseorch Council,
WRC Sulloiin lO7. A',s'Et 1965,)
I;
Figure 11.25.
shell
Mt
GF6atfia
L Appliod Lootir'
l.
Appl,cd
3. Gemrtric Poromctcrr
Loodr'
e=lb.
vt2_lr.
v,
Rod,ol Lood,
Shror Loqd,
Shcor Lood,
Ovc.terning Mom.nr,
OvGrturhrng Moarcnt,
lorrronol
Momcnt,
Tonica f,oronl.
thocr Lccd,
. z .*
: ="_
02 r an.lb.. '
M,
Slcr Lcod,
2. Goaary
Vorrrl thicllorr,
Arccharat rt,dlur,
Yorrol odior.
Focfora
dua lcl
rncnbrono lcod, ;,,
=bending lood,
Kb aNOTE: Entc. oll torcc voluor in
occsrdoncc wrth rign convGnlion
Frcm
Conpvtc obtolvtc
Rcod <urv
fr g.
alicrr
lor
5Pl to l0 Xrl
F
ro l0
N,rfiiT
N,r\r/E;T\
^'\T/
/
ilt
BL
8u
tignr
rhorn
CL
Ds
1r,{ffi \
u.y'Ti.'i
tt
rr
fr{R6f
ta
/xvT\
\ P /
T
xyrr/if
IL,/ tra6l
g? t?,a
xyrr/EiT
r.,
xrr/F;i
//Nrry'nhr
lor rumnofion of
de.
Sh.o..tr..r
ro lood, Yt
de.
:h.cr !tr.!.
d!.
fr
COMBINED STRESS
1"1",),* t3;
2)
Hhen
5br lror
ro l*rio,
rr
{
li ,7t :*+
rPrr 
t
t
*(#)'#?'
t
At
xr\;ta,B'l'
6l{c
itffi
IL
rllrrp
"(""+r'#=
t
+
f.t D.tl
Jo
I
rrlr
l{t
=
T,+ =
Trd
Ala
f.*tl6
^halnlollt
at rbr
rtroaaar,ft
2nc2o'
"F
t
YL
;;T
s
of eithEl
o, s = lar@itudg
s = l/2 fo**o* ! /to*  o0)2 + 4t2 )or r'(ox  o4)d +
2) Wtren T = O, S = largest absolute magnitude of either
S = olr oO or (O*  06)
tJtren 'E I
'"("fo)' ;;EF 
1)
I}ITENSITY
'",
.,
{a
2tl
l
6fL
_E! r
rL/litp
A olgrleially
ol  $tott.lCt
t .
.t
{
=,+
r, ofr7
"
.l
6tr
Sh.or.t..r.
ro lod. Yr
r,
""\*l/.ffi=
7xyffii \
*'\;;_/.ffi=
xt
xv1fiiT
Add olgebroicolly
DL
J.c/l,aP
3hM
CL
"(""ft)'#=
.. (*,)' ! r
rr (3).8
r/
ta =
2A
t'9nr
"vc?t'
Cu
.. .r6dro
*
tr
T?
8L
Eu
l2
/ 16\
t5ll
\nzrB /
ir
^(#)'#
=
r9
I or
Itr
IL/ trlt
2C
rL
t
or
Bl
rhot ;hon,
lnl
6P
ffiE'
It
/rd\
'
CYLINDRICAL SHELL
 il locd i. cPgotilc
\?/
xo
lo, .ummol;on of r, r,
f,b 
rc/ tnE
3C or
ac
ro
Adi rlgoltiolly
of { rroror.od
?/2,a
t ta^26 rd
lc1
6M:
:
\ t 7'ii7ffi=
Ht
Add olgcbroicolly
''
SfngSSfS
(n /Nd\
t rh /l
ROUND
ATTACHMENT
a^.
rlrarr
F,.0
IA
6*{,
la.lili
\
xb t\ M, /i' r.y'nnl =
r,
/ x,rlr/ffii\
3lrl to l0
Rh
aC
x6_
cc
lC or
2C I
!A
(s,')'? =
*'(ts)' *l=
x.r/T;T
lP I ro l0
AU
'
g
Rn: an.
rn.

v!
T,
lor
3c or
*^
T
5r4
Fig
volcer ol
g.;=
lb.
lL:i6.
15.
lb.
lr =_i^.
vc  in.fb. lb.
VL lb.
Rodiol looC,
CirG. l5h. hl,
Long. Xolttl,
Mc
M"
Pc?omalcra
4T
1",1fifffi;?l'5'll'lli#,Fa
Reseorch
399
398
4OO
In addition tt) thc linritllions ()n tlrc gcorlrctty in thc anitlysis in MiC, thctc
arc othcr lirnitations. 'Ihis analysis detennines only the stresses in the shell or
head due to the extemal loadings and thus those from intemal pressure must bc
added to them. Because no nozzle stresses are determined by this method, they
must be determined by a separate analysis. However, engineers felt that when
the extemal loadings are applied to a relatively thinwalled nozzle, the highest
stresses may be in the nozzle. For thickwalled nozzles, it appears that deformation is similar to a solid attachment and maximum stresses will occur in the
shell or head adjacent to the nozzle. Bijlaard's method indicated that for a
longitudinal moment, the maximum stress occurs on the longitudinal axis.
However, experimental results obtained in PVRC tests indicate that for larger
nozzles with ad/D = O.5 or larger, the maximum stress may lie somewhat off
from the longitudinal axis. Thus adjustments have been made to some of the
curves in l\lfiC Bulletin 107. In spite of these shortcomings, a reasonable
estimate of the stresses due to the external loadings is obtained by following
wRC lo7
Appendix K Figure
K.1
11,2A
3A, 4A
18, 181,28,28l
38, 48
1C, 1Cl
K.2
K.3
K.4
K.5
K.6
K.7
K.8
IXTERNAL
TOADINGS 40I
VD,"T
^: +L:
where d, =
D^
iecondary stres;s, and peak stresses depending upon what loadings are included.
Example 11.15,
A cylindrical
Solution
1.
d^ _:l0
= :
yD^T
V(85X1)
r.uo
Using this parameter, the constants from the radial loading on the longitudinal axis are:
2C,zcl
3c(l),4c(1)
3C(2),4C(2\
tor the simplified method, only one parameter is required in using the
the openingshell parameter of ,\, which is determined as follows:
I.7
curves
3.
Using these constants, the stresses due to the radial loading are determined as follows:
M, rrom p (bending) = 0
M6 from p(bending)
rr?[A18gu] :
nrro o,'
oreo n,i
0861@5!qE]
N4 from
(membrane)
: 0 1?6[%P]
u,ft=
Lonsitudinal Axis
= uzo n,i
u,( = oo,
o'( = o)
From Fig.
From Fig.
+0.20
+o.lo
1.40
0.80
s' =PD^ 2T
E.
o r?o
N5from M1 (membrane)
2xl
= l/'wuPsl
For the WRC method, the following shellnozzle parameters are required:
,5
l(ffi#]
o.oze f
=,r,r*
0,,
B:0.875f;=
0.875
R^ 42.5
Y=;=i=
42's
a2r=
o.roz
The constants below are determined from various figures in ITRC and the
= e:oo n,i
o.roof$lqll :
From Fig.
4C
No/e/R^) =
From Fig.
38
N6/@L/R,^B) = 4.5 x
:eoo pri
=
From Fig. 1B
85
f 0.55
Solution
N, ffom M L(membrane) =
r0.35
K.4 N6H:0.260
ftom M2@ending)
0.70
0.85
The total cornbined shesses from htemal pressure and extemal loadings
are grven in Table 11.9.
Using these constants, the stresses due to the longitudinal moment are
determined as follows:
M,
Bending
o"( = a)
o,( = a4)
400
Membrane
Example 11.16. For the cylindrical shell given in Example 11.15, determine
the stresses due to iniemal pressure and applied extemal loading by the method
in WRC Bulletin lO7 .
1.
FromFig.
Bending
= zrro nri
o.tto
rc.2
TOADINOS 403
if available.
were
determined:
following
values
geomefy,
the
assume
For this
Using the parameter in item (1), the constants from the applied longitudinal moment on the longitudinal axis are determined as follows:
From Fig.
EXTERNAT
Membrane
N, rrom p (membrane) = 0.160142!9E]
t.7
In addition to the stresses from the extemal loadings, the stresses from
internal pressue must b combined. These stresses may be determined
@#ftffi
3630 psi
M6 =or}4sx 6x 150,000
(MJR^p) ""'"' (42.sxo.lo3XlF
9250 psi
898
..i
t
&
88S
Y56
oi ,.i 6
+:
s"qaR
\ct .d
all+
f
O\FF'
8833
di i ,.i d
ldui
t':+
t
i++l
REB
O\:O
:5t516;6
ttl
+'++
98
a" +
s:8
i i .i
t$.1
ttl
e88
1o\\
t++
.9
t
2
o
o
o
o
o
aa
o
o
:H5
oi ..i 'd
tll
9
o
o
o
o
o
O\\OF
l++
1
tt.:
."1
vl
9
o
o
F
{,
=o
b
o
t.icjtl
in
\s
eeE
b
o
o
o.:
I9E
AF,.Y
c..l  ! ol
f
B
o
ao
ttl
+++
ao
F
q
F:o\
o'
iO\Q
+tl
o
o
tt
=o
c
t
,9
v1 ..!
ar
+tl
o\ \o
.9
t++
\
+ll
\o^
v1
NINI
Eonr
o
o
q
F
g
zlaF
o
l
::cfi:
>oA.F
405
406
t" h=
tct +
Fig.
FrornFig.
4B
6.6
Mfu=
150,000
(42.5),(0.103X1)
Answer: o6:
28
6 x 150,000
M,/(ML/R^O = 0.072 x
(42.5X0.103X1F
3.
14,800 psi
Using the intemal pressure stresses determined for Example 11.15 and
combining then with these stresses gives:
BU
BL
+23,800
+23,800
+ 23,800
+23,800
Pressure bending
3,400
+ 3,400
3,400
+ 3,400
P membrane
P bending
1,690
9,000
+ 9,000
9,000
+ 9,000
3,630
+9,250
+3,630
+3,630
+9,250
9,250
+37,100
+24,880
+25,860
M1 membrane
M1 bending
Totals
3,630
9,250
880
=
Dt =
1,690
Mr. membrane
M1 bending
Totals
AL
BU
B1
+ 13,600
+ 1,700
+ 13,600
+ 13,600
+ 13,600
I,700
+ 1,700
2,060
6,340
2,060
2,060
6,340
2,060
+6,340
1,050
+ I,050
+ 14,800
+ 14,800
+32,960
+20,4ffi
1,050
 14,800
 11,240
1,700
+6,340
+ 1,050
14,800
+5,460
+23,030 Psi
+47O Psi
l,690
AU
+ 19'970 Psi
l0'l?
Psi
= + 31,150 Psi
Du = +34'670 Psr
Dr. = 7050 Psi
o': Ct) = 2620 Psi
Cr = + 19,240 psi
Du = +21.820 Psi
C.
or
hessure membrane
Pressure bending
P membrane
P bending
Du
A7
I,690
Cu
Cr'
oO
Pressure mernbrane
407
= 8180 Psi
Cr. = +30,460 psi
Du = +33,280 psi
Dt = 6200 Psi
4t Cu = 3550 Psi
1050 psi
From Fig.
LOADINOS
11.16 For the same vessel described in Example 11'15, what are the stresses on
the transverse plane when the applied moment is changed from a longitudinal rnoment to a transverse moment M": 150'000 in'lb and the
radial loading remains at 12,000 lb using the method in Appendix F?
1.3 x
EXTIRNAI
Probhms
= 0.12s x
1.7
Dz:
I1.7.2
+920 psi
in the
equaUon
_
_.P,M,,7"
A_ I
(1 1.61)
4OO
Howcvcr, to utiempt to make some correction fbr local eflbcts, the bending
moments are adjusted by a stress intensification thctor. For piping thermal
expansion flexibility stresses in both the ANSI B3l.l and ANSI 831.3 Codes,
the procedure is as follows:
se
where
S'
=
Z=
Mr
 t/il a aP
(0r.62)
M'/22 @si)
section modulus of nozzle (in.3)
i, =
Mi
Example 11.17. A l2in. NPS Schedule 160 branch and run pipe are attached
to oneinother. The design pressure is 2200 psi. The allowable stress at ambient
temperature is & = 17.5 ksi and at design temperature is Sl = 12'0 ksi' In
addition to the intemal pressure, the branch is subjected to externally applied
forces and moments ftom thermal expansion of connecting piping. These moments and force are Mi = 600,000 in.lb; M, = 900,000 in.lbiMt = 750 '00,0
in.lb; and F*iur = 90,000 lb. The nozzle is designed for 20,000 cycles Using
the design procedure ofthe ASMEANSI B31 I Code, what is the total applied
stress and what is the allowable stress?
1.
(11.63)
ln.
100
80
60
Flexibility
'for
elbows
30
lo =/(1.255" +
S"
51
:
=
=
0.255/,)
20
(11.64)
15
10
{actor
= 1.65/i
40
where
LOADINGS 409
Solution
itM)" + (i"M.)
i1
txTCRNAt
where
r.7
'
lactor i =O.9lh2t3
Z 'Stress
intensi{ication
r .r 
l
'tactor t = O75/h213
.9
.\
3
2
t!
1.5
tf.
cl
I
1.00
0.75
,So
:/[1.255" +
0.255,
(Sr
Sz)]
0.50
o.375
or
o.25
sA
=/[1.25(s" +
s) _.ir.l
(11.6s)
1 end flanged
cr
2 ends flanged c1
s.t EE
33:
E oe q:33
o
oo o
Characteristic
i]
=i1l3
ll
,:f F "1l't I (
rs
l'>
.l
F_r
lf't I s
iEIN
(,)l
rFi I
r,rs
<f
*l
qli
ot{
o.
lE.
o.
9I's
!a
lsl;'
vr
+
It\
o
o
Jl{
{.tFr
rr..,
=r
rr,.s
adl
\t
l
l{
e l"t
ol\
frnT
rF,ls
:l
lt
1r 1
ili@
ilM
lIrJ
9l'
+l
o\
lF.. tS
ill,\
t)t
rr. 
.n
o, lE
<i
l!
g.F
o
E
.!
IFH
.a',n
l{
<i
rlr s
lms
o\
'\ l<
rir. ,l
ll  I
Ill r$'
rI. 1f
*lh
.RIG
It\
9X
r
e't
Eo
#E
tLh
,
!.)
rt)
ctl\
dl\lt
o. lQ
ctl\
o\
t{
..tF
oF.
ct
l\
o'lQ
ct
lt
dltli
o.
l{
cil\
o.
c]
(.:9
=
o
'=ll
x .!s
rn
l;
i I'q
o
o
o
!>r
!
E}?
3bX
o
0
;
o
B
4r0
61!.
'Eo
lee
TE
35F
d0
'^c
F:
: 9
eE dsF Fi;
sY
9
&
.:
^.,*
HH.t g;Ill
<;
Es
it .E
&,
'r::
e
I
.i ltt
.bv
trl
Fr'
"E
EE
J{
E E"*ii"Eq
Ea gSEFe"gE
EtIigEtEEEFf
4ll
il tr
lr
E;3
5
Ei E =
{
Eg E E ;
i
;E
7
9c
r t
gHE
i
;:
E; r i.Ex*,+
E E Z.E.gEE
Es E E.F*E
EE g E:.gCi
E
F"
B*
3E
g9
613
hF
2A
p,B
>!!
P.2
'*6
EOEE{
g.E E
ac a
sb
Eg
E
{>r
'{
E
c
o
E
.s
EE
di >,
o .9.
9'x
c
.9
.i
at)
ll'6
co
.s
.E
E9
5fi
$ig E iE,
t,
o
$*c
ei
e 'Eq
5
o
o)
.g
o
p
412
q
t
t\
d"
t
'E
E *E
*;
.i;i
FF
5fi
ao .' >i
E .l =6
E
>:
E 3.3 t
:H Hfr R H6 {lrF.
e;
a 5 E :\
e;
E9 d o o { lasg.E ".9 +
E
"a
;t
t Ec
sEd
:
=:I gE
E\
*HE 3.8
E
E$ :
r
; E E
*,t..tc 3b: s
E ; EE 5 !
6
e
F
,s
o
o
al
ER
6
F!
o
.E
*!
.'
>, .z
i'
!E' *
E*c c$F ;
?EH E:E ;
Fei i: E
;BE iE; g i
\tRl
q
.9 EE
AE
EE
ra
E ira
a.
2\
eltt,
,>
E.Ets
EO
gq
l!";:5
Jg; ET
o
o
,S
ssso;
'E
}F
igg'EiEiiiEs
6fr
;$H;
'EE ri E FBa ! L' ll.,l I l. $E
.EE Bfl
gESF
EEEI
F
.3 FE.E
Eg
?A
A;EI
iE
I  .eE E E f
EFsggg
4t3
1t1
ollt{lt{ol, f{olltt,
AND
rxil${
ll,ll
Tobb
Focl,oru (
r KTADNO3
NO'rltNCtATURt
7.
StrcrRongr Rrductlon
f)
Cycles, rV
Factor,
Over 45,0m
100,000
of Mchanical En
= 17.5 ksi, and the allowable sfress at design tem12.0 ksi. The maximum allowable torsional moment is
450,000 in.lb. The pipe is designed for 10,000 cycles. Maximum
is
s,=E=ffi=*oo.t
Sa=
2.05
600,000),
(2.40
900,000
122.6
20,770 psi
 !*14
F"
p, or P = intemal
(psi)
s"
6.
26,490 psi
stress cold is S,
5.
__ 1.312
n=4
R, 5.719 =n,r"n
u:H=z.qo
n'
4.
3760]
Schedule 160 run pipe. The design pressure is 2000 psi, the allowable
perature
3.
Problpm
gioeers.
2.
S,r:
= 0.8[1.25(17,500 + 12,000)
Ss < S,{ design is acceptable.
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
Over 100,000
Se
1.0
4lt
n
M6
OT
3760 psi
s
D
:
:
=
=
:
:
t6
BIBI.IOGRAPHY
insidc dianrctcr
=
=
=
T^
"strcsscs liorl Radial Loads aDd Lxlonl l MoDrcnls in Cylintlrical I'r'cssttrc Vcs
scls," Wtltlint: Journal, Vol. 34, Rcsearch Supplcncnt, pp 601ts617s, 1955
"Computation of the Sbesses ftom Local Loads in Sphcrical Prcssurc Vcsscls or
,
Pressure vessel Heads," Wewing Research Council, Bulletin No. 34, New York, March
ol nozzle (in.)
r,
417
,l
14.
195't.
,
"Local Stresses irr Spherical Shells from Radial or Moment Loadings," Weklirg
Joumal, Vol. 36, Research Supplement, pp. 24ls243s, 1957.
"Sresses in a Spherical vessel from Radial l,oads Acting on a Pipe," weldinS
,
Research Council, Bulletin No. 49, New Yo*, April 1959
"Stresses in a Spherical Vessel from Extemal Moments Acting on a Pipe," ibid , pp
,
3t62.
17.
under Local
,

l050.
REFERENCES
1.
'ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code," ANSVASME BPV, American Society of Mechanical Enginee$, New York, 1983.
2.
3.
Harvey, J. F., Theory and Design of Modern Pressure Vessels, 2nd ed., Van Nostland
Reinhold, hincton, N.J., 1974.
4,
5.
Rodabaugh, E. C., "Proposed Altemate Rules for Use in ASME Codes," Phase Report 1173,
6,
American Society of
l98l.
7.
E.
qlll.
ll. _,
vol.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Ellyin, F., "An Experimental Study of ElastoPlastic Response of BranchPipe Tee Connections
Subjected to lntemal hessure, Extemal Couples, and Combined lrading," wRC BulletinNo
230, Welding Research Council, New York, September 1977.
Ellyin, F., "Elastic Stresses Near
Attachments
a Skewed
Hole in
August 1970.
Ellyin F., "Experimental Investigation of Limit lnads of Nozzles in Cylinddcal Vessels"' wRc
BulletinNo.2lg, welding Research Council, New York, September 1976
Eringen, A. C., A. K. Naghdi, S. S. Mahmood, C. C. Thiel, and T. Ariman, "Stress Concentrations in Two Normatly Intersecting Cylindrical Shells Subject to lntemal hessure," WRC
Bulletin No. 139, welding Research Council, New York, April 1969.
Fidler, R., "A Photoelastic Analysis of Oblique Cylinder In&fiections Subjected to Intemal
Ptesslure," WRC Bulletin No. 153, Welding Research Council, New York, August 1970.
Findlay, G. E. and J. spenc, "Bending ofPipe Bends with Elliptic Cross Sections," I/Rc B!.rletin
No. 164, Welding Research Council, New York, August 1971.
Gwaltney, R. C., and J. M. Corum, "An Analytical Study of Inside and Outside Compact
Reinforcement for Radial Nozzles in Spherical Sheus," ORNL 4732, June 1974, Oak Ridge
National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn.
al!
Kruus, H.,
"A
PrcBsun Vc$scls,"
1965.
teveD, M. M., "Photoelastic Determination of the Sftesses at Oblique Openings in Plates and
Shells," WftC Bunettu No. 153, Welding Resea.ch Council, New York, August 1970.
Yort, September
BIEIIOORAPHY 4I9
"A Note on the Conelation of Photoelestic and Stcel Model Data for Nozzlc Con'
ne.tions in Cylindrical Shells," WRC Blt eri, No l39, Welding Resealch Council, Ncw
SellcrB. F.,
oRNL/NUIiEG18/vl, November 1977, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, oak Ridge, Tenn'
1977.
Mershon, J. L. , "Intetpretive Repoit orr Obliqle Nozzle Connections in hessure Vessel Heads and
Shells udder Ifternal Pres$ur
ading," WXC Sarr?rrn No. 153, Welding Research Council,
Raju, P. P., '"TbreDimensional Finite Element Analysis of 45" Lateral Model  (tl/D = 0.08,
D/T = lO, under External i&Plarc MomeDt lrading," TR39842, Teledyne Enginedng
Services, Waltham. Mass. December 1980.
Raju, P. P,, "ThreeDimensional Finite Element Analysis of 45"Iateral Modelz(d/D :0.5,
D/f : n) under Intrtral hessur and Extemal inPlane Moment Loading," TR39841,
Tlcdyne Engineeriry Services, Waltham, Mass., December 1980.
Raju, P, P., "TbreeDimensional Finite Element Analysis of 45" Lareral Model l(d/D = 0.08,
D/T = lO) under Internal Pressure and Extemal inPlane Moment Loadings," TR3X91,
revisd A, Teledyne Engineering Services, Waltham, Mass., January 1980.
Riley, W, F., "Experime al Detennination of Stress Disributioni in ThinWalled Cylindrical and
Spherical Pressure Vessls wilh Ciltula. Nozzles," WRC BulletinNo. 108, Welding Research
Council, New York, September 1965.
Rodabaugh, E. C., "Elastic Stesses in Nozzles iD Pressue Vessels with Intemal Pressue Loaditr8," Phas Repoft ll71, April 1969, BattelleColubus Laboratory, Columbus, Ohio.
Rodabaugh, E. C., "Review of Service Experietrc atrd Test Data on q)ening$ in Pressure Vessels
with NonI egral ReiDforcidg," WRC Bulletin No. 166, Weldiog Research Council, New
York, October 1971.
Rodabaugh, E. C. , and R. C. Gwahiey, 'Additional Data on Elastic Stresses in Nozzles in Pre$sulE
Vessels with Intemal Pressure loading," Phase Report ll72, December 1971, BattelleColumbus kboratory, Columbus, Ohio.
Rodabaugh, E. C,, aDd R. C. cwaltoey, "Elastic Stsesses at Reinforced Nozzles ir Spherical Shells
with Pressur and Moment Loadiog," Phase Report ll?gR, September 1976, BattelleColumbus Iaboratory, Columbus, Ohio.
Rodabaugh, E, C,, and S. E. Moore, "Evaluation of the Plastic Characte.istics of Piping hoducts
in Relation to ASME Code Cdteiia," NUREC/CR0261 ORNI/Sub2913/8, Oak Ridge
National Inboratory, Oak Ridge, TeIm., July 1978.
Schroeder, J., K. R. Srinivasaiah, and P, Graham, "Analysis of Test Data on Bmnch Connections
Exposd to Intemal Pressure and/or Extemal Coluples," WRC Bulk,n No. 200, Welding
Research Council. New
Schoeder,
t.,
and P, Tugcu, "Plastic Stability of Pipes and Tes Exposed to Extemal Couples,"
WRC Bullctin No, 238, Welding Research Couucil, New York, June 1978.
CHAPTER
12
VESSEL SUPPORTS
Ditfereni v$sel supporis. (Courresy of the Noofer Corporotion: St. touir, Mo.)
420
421
412
VISSfl" SUPPORTS
I2.I
INTRODUCTION
I2.2
1.
2.
3.
4,
5.
Skirts
Support legs
Support lugs
a;.
I.'igure 12. lc shows an alternate design where the lcgs irLre attached to lugs that
in tum are welded to the vessel. The bending stiffness of the shell and its ability
to resist the moments adequately, must be considered. The crossbracing ol the
legs may be needed to minimize lateral and torsional movements.
Vessels supported by ring girders, (Fig. 12.1d), are usually placed within a
structural frame. The ring girder has the advantage of supporting torsional and
bending moments resulting from the transfer of loads from the vessel wall to the
supports.
Ring girders
Horizontal vessels, (Fig. l2.le), Ne normally supported by saddles. Stiffening rings may be required if the shell is too thin to transfer the loads to the
Saddles
Most vertical vessels are supported by skirts, as shown in Fig. 12.Ic. Skirts
areeconomical because they generally transfer the loads from the vessel by shear
action. They also hansfer the loads to the foundation through anchor bolts and
bearing plates.
I*gsupported vessels are normally lightweight and the legs provide easy
of the vessel. An economic design is shown in Fig. 12. lb,
where the legs attach directly to the vessel and the loads are transferredby shear
action.
I2,2
Design of the skirt consists of first determining the dead weight of the vessel W
and bending moment M due to wind and earthquake forces (see Chapter I 6) . The
stress
w
(f =
:
I:
+Mc
I
R/t )
(r2.r)
10. Hence, the area A and the
2rRt
rR3 t
(a) Sklrt
(b)
(c) L!s
Leg
,
where
o:
=
M=
weight of vessel
#'#,
0z.z)
r = thickness of skirt
(d)
Rins Gl
rder
Figur
(e)
l2.l
Vessel supporrs.
Saddtes
Because the compressive stress is larger than the tensile stress, it usually
controls the skirt design and is kept below the skirt's allowable axial compressive stress as given by Eq. 8.15.
VESSIt SUPPORTS
Atlcr the thickncss of the skirt r is determined, the next step is designing the
anchor bolts. For a given number of bolts Nthe total bolt area can be expressed
as NA where A is the area of one bolt. The moment of inertia of bolts about the
vessel's neutral axis is I = NAR2/2.'fhtts, Eq. 12.1 is
(r2.3)
N NR
where P = load/bolt
'
18
l*
li
1"1
ll
bending moment
12.1. Determine the required skirt thickness and the number of bolts
needed in a vessel with an outside radius R = 7 .0 ft. IIJI empty weight
Wr : 160 kips, weight of contents Wz: l4l;} kips, windbending momenr
M : 1500 ftkips and temperature = 300. F. Assume A307 bolts and use
Example
Solution
lt
li
1"2
28
2i8
2i8
2i8
0.969
li
RE
.t?
16a
a,
ti
o.126
o.202
o.302
rr_6
0.419
rr_6
1.589
0.551
ra
L7
ri3
o.728
o.929
t.'796
2.002
2.209
1. 155
.16
2.4t6
3*l
1.405
L1
2.622
J7
2.828
;e
weight of vessel
N = number ofbolts
R = radius of bolt chcle
M=
12.2
,_w2M
17 :
Toble
l!2
1.608
1.980
^3
2.304
2.652
3.423
15
3.035
rt
+7
+i
1!
4.292
Ji
5.259
+i
4.688
On
5.102
5.515
5.928
6.341
'7L
6.755
8"1
8.'749
10.108
11.566
oi
L'
J;
3.862
4.2't5
.487
7F,
L1
4
3.449
t5
zc
Ja
6.3
ri
z
1.383
3i8 v
3i8
3i8
48
1.1'7 5
!!1
1Z
zi
^J6I
Lz
^3
ZE
t)a
tt
a=
lE
,7
7i
Ji
+i
.ri
rt
8j
ra
Skirt design
Lpt
t=
Tqble
12. I
Bolt
Type
Allowable
Tensile
CrossSectional
Area
Stress (ksi)
(in.')
/^ 0.9743\'
t\"  7rr 1
tr
4307
20
4325
4449
40
Nominal
40
A.490
54
Nominal
Nominal
'l{'
is number of lhrcads/in.
425
lN
Vttilt luPlotTt
r2,2
160
o= 
r (84
1500
1l40
12
r(83.813f(0.375)
0.37 5 / 2)(0.37 5\
10.28 ksi
RJt
A=
12,100
psi
OK
3.
Boh design
Let
N=
Ioad/tntr:
l@+
 t2
2(15ooxl2)
12(84)
22.4 kips
22.4
ld
=
From Table 12.2
 .12
n.2
(N' =.S).
7)A
= J1:
l25
DIIION all
,,=4
zrd
0.001 I
RINO
*d
ttt
0.125
A:
lA$
bctwccn
and/or r,esting on a group of piles, it can be assumed that fte intersction
concrotc
reinforced
of
a
that
to
similar
is
con"ret"
Uots, bie plaie,
made:
are
assumptions
the
following
12.2,
U"".. fn t"feoit g to Fig.
1.
2.
tKlnT aND
18.2 ksi
12
1.23
14.8 in.'?
Having established the nurnber and size of bolts, the next step is to calculate
thc interaction between the base plate, anchor bolts, and supporting snuchre. If
thc supporting structure is a steel ftame or foundation, then Eq. 12.3 is all that
is necded for designing anchor bolts. On the other hand, if the foundation is deep
tigl!.o 12,2
of
(t2.4)
l2'1'
lrt
vt turro$t
I2.2
1=,t"
Allowable
Compressive
Stess (psi)
6.
of Flasticity Gsi)
f" = o.4sfl
E.:
Modulus
57,WO\/n
Ei
/8"
1,t25
2,850,000
lt
3000
1,350
3,120,000
t0
3500
1,575
3,370,000
,1000
1,800
3,610,000
lf
IA3:
429
RINO DTSION
=W=t2k
(12.6)
The total force T of the tensile area of the reinforcement can be determined bv
sumrning forces on the tensile side of the neuhal axis which gives
25m
"E, = 30 x
4.
Compressive
Stress (psi)
SKIRT AND
psi.
, =r,^(1) *,
Concrete on the compression side is assumed to have a width t" that is the
same as the width of the base plate.
The allowable complessive stress of concretel is taken from Table 12.3.
The ratio of the modulus of elasticity of steel to that of concrete is defined
as n.
(r2.7)
12
is
n+o
''t"=4l<r/z+nt't+t.st*t"
(r/2 * 7) sinT * cosT
2L
(r2.8)
Similarly, the total force C of the compressive area of the concrete is given by
n: .E"
Ec
b=<,,*{;lls::=;v]
=f'/e,
e"f"e"
f"
f"a"
(12.e)
In an elastic analysis, the stains in the concrete and steel at any location are the
same. Hence, e" : e, and
c=(t,+*"r\h*
':ti  ,=*
f,
dkd
"216]
nf.
kd
The relationship between extemal forces M and I7 and the intemal forces
x,1=
From these
obtained:
assumptions
1] 1Jnf"
afr Fig,
2M"=O
lJ2's)
w(h + h)
r(h + 4) = 0
and
alo
12,2
vlilt lutFom
0nd
^t = MW(\+l)
1ra
(12. r0)
1,
Similarly,
lASl
RINO
DlllON .ltl
Example 12,2, ln Example 12.1, it was found that l2lN in. A307 anchor
bolts were needed for a vessel with an outside radius R = 7 ft,Wt = 160 kips,
M = 1500 ftkips, and a skht thickness of0.375 in. If/l = 3000 psi, determine
the actual stess in the concrete and bolts.
Sohiion. By referring to Fig. 12.3 and Table 12.2, for le:ff' bolts, the bolt
circle can be calculated as
)r',=o
and
C:T+W
The values of 7,
of
SKIRT AND
h, h, h, Ks
(12. r 1)
Also
,t":2(0.25 +
/c.
2h/d
2t"/d
2h/d
Kr
Kz
1.489
0.016
0,o32
3.1 13
o.267
1.477
3.085
0.378
1.465
0.048
3.059
0.463
1.452
0.064
3.033
0.535
0.01
78.52
0.02
73.74
0.03
70.05
0.04
66.93
0.05
0.06
@.16
0.98
0.96
o.94
0.92
0.90
r.439
0.080
3.008
0.599
6t.&
0.88
1.426
0.096
0.657
0.08
57.t4
1.400
o.128
0.10
53.13
1.373
0.160
2.887
0.852
0.15
44.43
1.304
o.239
2.772
1.049
0.20
36.87
1.233
0.318
2.61
1.218
o.25
1.161
0.397
2.551
r.370
0.30
30.00
23.58
1.087
o.475
2.442
1.509
0.35
r7.46
1.013
0.553
2.333
1.640
0.40
11.54
0.84
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
o.20
0.10
0.00
2.983
2.935
0.938
0.631
r.765
0.862
o.709
2.2U
2.1t3
0.785
0.785
2.000
2.000
0.709
0.862
1.884
2.113
0.631
0.938
t.765
2.2U
0.553
1.013
1.ffi
0.475
1.087
1.509
0.397
1.161
.3'to
0.318
t.233
1.218
2.333
2.442
2.551
2.661
o.239
1.304
1.049
2.772
0.45
5.74
0.50
0.00
0.55
5.74
11.54
17.46
0.65
0.70
23.5E
o.75
30.00
0.80
36.8'l
44.43
0.85
1.375)
Tqble 12.4
0.@
1.875
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.,m
0.50
0.60
0.70
"f,
18.2 ksi
,= r2(r.23\
'"
t(172.25)
=
0.0273 in.
0.160
1.884
Figirr. 12.3
0.375
7.375
n.
I2.2
= 1350 Psi
n=10
K=
K=
:
0.47 ,
1=
a
o'.,*
1=
a
o.ssz
2.157
',L
:1.$7
4d
as
The value
0.678)(r72.2s)
49,750lb
ofi
as
= o.rn
K(:2.e47
K) = 0.734
t5 x ld x t2
T.
tr _

16
x lff
(0.85
0.120) (172.25)
:35.230
49,750
(0.027 3)(r7 2.2s / 2) (2. 1 s7),
O.O2
:1 = 0.8s
(t
& = 1.836
of
which is considerably lower than the assumed value ofl( = 0.43. Hence another
trial is needed with a K value of 0.02. After recalculating values of 7, /", C, and
/", a new value ofK is obtained and compared with the assumed one. ff both
values are approximately the same, the analysis is completed. If they axe not, a
new analysis is performed. Thus, in this example after a few trials, for
K = 0.O75, the following values were obtained:
= o.srr
&:
433
K= r + 9810/(10xr8)
0.43.
1a
"f'
The magnitude of
SKIRT AND
35,230
9810 psi
= t95,230
f"=42psi
C
C = 49,750
160,000
:2O9,750lb
and
2@,750
18 psi
K:
r+(5085/10+42)
as
0.076
,4r.tll',t!tf!,t;;
atrt
r2,2
vlSlll tUPPOltl
12,2,I
SKtRt AND
lA3!
RNO
DllON 4$
The base ring is designed both for the effect of the concretebearing load on the
side of the foundation under compression and for the bblt force on the other side
of the foundation in tension. On the compressive side, the base ring can bc
assumed as a cantilever beam subjected tol as shown in Fig. 12.4. The required
thickness is obtained from
6lj4
C= __V t
t:
r]l
lsl
lrl
PARTIAL VIEW
OF
l6It4
\/;
BASE RING
(")
(b)
M=
the expression for
r!
t becomes
tw
\/;
wherc t
1_r",,
(r2.r2)
DEFLECIION
(,
Fisuru 12.5
axis
/"
I
o
:
:
:
On the tensile side, the thickness of the base ring is conholled by the amount of
bolt force and dimensions shown in Fig. 12.5. The exact analysis for deter
rnining the maximum bending moment in the base ring is rather complicated
because of the nature of the boundary conditions and the hole. However, an
approximate and conservative solution can be obtained by assuming the ring to
act as a plate simply supported on three sides and free on the fourth side. Using
the yieldline theory,l
external
F(t) =
work =
21,1016
dr
intemal work
u,
(a
 fi j
or
__r'
Mp=
2[2n
/a + a /2t
Fi$,r.  2.a
d(2/a + r/21)']
^4M
't'
lta
wtt tuDotTl
I2.2
S,l2b
/a + a /2t
ul
d 12'/a
+ t/zq'l
whcrc o
(
12.13)
a, b, d, and I
(f =
l.5Fb
ntzh
:
12.3. Design the base ring shown in Fig. 12.7a. Stress in the bolts
is 17,500 psi; height of gussets 12 in., and concretebearing stress is 100 psi,
Allowable stress for base ring is 20,000 psi and yield sfress is 36,000 psi.
Required base ring thickness due to concrelebearing stress is obF4. 12.12 as
An
(12.r4)
x100x62
20,000
0.73 in.
From Table 12.2,
tln
net area
of I lin. bolts is
force F in bolts
17,500
u.c)(b4)
''
zzh
(!)HoRtzoNTaL FoRcEs
Figur. 12.6
= 24,6M lb
G)vqlrcaL_EaSaEs
RINO DISION
Example
tained from
!A3!
, = thickness of shell
F = bolt load
Solution.
re
SKIRT AND
Figw.12.7
1.405 in.'?
1.405
all
vltllr
t2.3
SuPFol?t
From thls trblc, cloarancc for wrcnch diametcr is 3.75 in. Allowing for gusset
flllct wclds, the distance between gussets is as shown in Fig. 12.7i. froi fq.
91
z4roo
thickness
of
ruro,
1.5x24.600x6
'4,4
[Iil[f[ff]w
thickness of 0.73
ti7
\i_/

tlis point has a choice to make. One can either use a base ring
I1.07
in., which is controlled
" = 1t
luPPoR?
+
Jtcrta,r
ile designq
ol
/F lor
12.13.
D!3ON
\7V
oigt n
,,,u,"'r.,
10,4O0 psi
This sbess is combined with the axial stress and the total must be less than thre
tirnes the allowable stess.
Column B in Fig. 12.8 is designed to carry shear in accordance with the equation
I2,3
Support legs are designed to take into consideration axial loads, bendins mo_
ments, and shear forces in tlre vessel. Refering so Fig. 12.g we see that atcross
section AA all forces are expressed in terms of M, V, and W. The axial force
W.is canie.d uniformly by all columns. Bending moment M is carried by the
columns away from the neutral axis and the shearing forces v are carried by the
columns closest to the neutral axis as shown in Fie. 12.g.
Column A in Fig. 12.8 is designed by using Eql I2.3 given by
where
T
Il=VQ
P:
W
iV
*
=w
n{ NR
2tu1
The shearihg force f at the top of columns B causes bending mornent in the
column if no crossbracing is used. With crossbracing the force T is resolved
irito axial forces as shown in Example 12.4.
Example 12.4. Determine the forces in columns A and B of the vessel shown
in Fig. 12.9.
F=
w 240 :30
N8
weight of vessel
_ 2t4
.NR
number of columns
M = noment
and B due to W is
2x20p,0
":''''
"*"ry*"trffiffitrufft
t2.3
rr3t. I'he quantity p of the crosshatched
DISON Ot SUPPOnT
uog
4l
a= wo(?,\
\1t /
/=
50k
M2aaa8Fr
The force
(b)
Il
2:r2t
is then given by
v
V (2r2t)
"H (in3t)(zt) nrt 2V
A
:;6txSfl
0.2653 lb/in.
a=
(o.z6sr)(:3y
:
X=
(d)
/2.5
=
total axial load in column B =
A
u=W
h
I of
Hcnt
y'^ =
sin
a=
12.5
0.414
5.18 kips
!a = !L
= 13.53 kips
0.924
u=
:igur. 12.9
12.50 kips
This force
.
(")
t=2{ =3.en
The apFoximate height of the colurnns is 20
deers and the axial force F in colurnn B is
force E
#n:6e.61
ft.
kips
= 7O.lt fip.
"n
BA
ll
vtss
I2,5
suPPokrs
: l5() kip
total forcc in column B : 50  69.61 :
total force in bracing : 70.91 kips I
M":
119.61 kio
sway laterally because of reduced rigidity. This can also cause excessive vibration or deformation of the vessel.
I2.4
RING GIRDTRS
LUGSUPPORTED VESSETS
Fe
r2. r5)
and the maximum stress in the shell is calculated from reference 2. Both membrane and bending stresses are calculated. Details ofthe required calculations are
well established in reference 2. Further treatment of this topic is unnecessary in
this book.
I2.5
RING GIRDERS
l.
2.
3.
4.
Torsion force at supports is zero. This assumes twisting of the girder due
to flexibility of shell.
supports.
Based on these assumptions, t}le moments, shears, and torsion at the supports
and inbetween supports are given by
M, = Kzwr2
M^
: Ka,wr
r, =0
v^:o
V,
Kswrz
(12.16)
T^:o
where M,, V,, T" = support moment, shear, and torsion, respectively. Posi
tive direction is shown in Fig. 12.11.
M,,
V^, T^
K3
(t
:
r:
\__
)rl
t4
=
=
w
1,.,
t
Fisur 12.10
uniform load
radius
I 2 .5
and
Ifl'
Viiiliti,hom
2,t
milo
ottDltt 4t
_ In deriving Eqs. 12.16 it is assumed that thc loade and thc rcactions rct
through the neutal axis ofthe girder. In pressure vessels the loads are tansfcrre.d
to the ring girder through the shell. If the ring girder is taken as a channel section
as in Fig, l2.l3a, tben the loads in the shell cause a bending moment in
the
girder because they are not applied through the shear (flexural) center.
This
l2.l2a,
m=we
Figuro
T*"
l2.l I
The moment, shear, and torsion expressions for any given location between
supports are obtained ftom
Me
V,r sin d
M,cos 0
wr2
(l 
= V"  wrg
To = V,r(l  cos d) + M" s:rr,e
wr.z (e  sn 0)
V6, 76
0
Tqble
12.5
Number
of
Suppons
Ring
Angle of
Maximum
Torsion
ftom
Support
(degrees) K3
180
90
72
60
45
t0
36
l2
l6
30
22.5
20
18
Tr
'lzt{
Supports
120
The uniform bending moment m causes tension hoop sbess above the r_axis
and compression hoop stress below the.xaxis as shown in Fig. l2.l2b. T\e
\ 'r
Gider Coefficienrs
Angle
41,
(l2.l8)
Between
b2d2h
cos 01
Ve
whete M6,
e=
(r2.r7)
Kewr2
Ka
Ks
1.5707
Ka
3.307 x
8.278 x
3.313 x
1.654 x
9.471 x
1.0000
0.3954
0.2146
0.7853
0.t351
0.6283
0.57m
o.2091
0.1107
0.0690
0.0931
0.0519
0.0331
o.o229
0.0128
0.0082
0.5235
o.M7l
0.3926
0.0262
0.0166
3.9q x
0.261'l
0.0115
0.1963
0.@65
0.0042
x
3.722 x
1.0471
0.3141
0.1570
2.W x
1.154
2.469
><
(degrees)
l0r
10,
lo2
102
l03
103
l0!
103
l03
l0"
39.55
25.80
D.21
15.30
12.74
9.53
7.62
634
4.72
3.79
(b)
Figw. 12,l2
"*tr*"wffruruilr12.5
momont and corrorponding strcso can be cxproosod
ac
,,
v,rb2d2h
M=mr=
4L
a:
RINO
/.tsevrr *
rt
mry
L
(12.19)
wb2d2hry
4I?
where
o
sftess
= width of flange
d = distance between flanses
ft = flange thickness
I, = rnoment of inertia of girder
r : radius of vessel
D
r = shell thickness
w = unifonn applied load
At the supports, the reaction eccentricity tends to produce compressive forces
in the top flange and tensile forces in the bottom one as shown in Fig.. 12.13c.
The.top and bottom flanges can be assumed to fansfer the loads as shJwn in Fig,
M,:+
("o,a"otf
 'rr 
ttt
i)
..
,,= H..
.
z tz
i*
(c)
Figurc 12.13
 roo, (ti.,)
n,=Z;(a
(bl
3)  t. t .t
M,=+(*,;i)
ttHa
= Zco.a
(t2.20)
v,:H
'2
and inbetween the supports 0
= a/2
f coo ?
OtRDlRt
Uf
W$tt tupPotll
7_.i
smt
tUPPOmt 49
200
0.637 kin.
(zXl00) =
fia
v,: +!:!s
a .a
tz
F1,
SADDU
Solutlon
2,6
8,
& = 0.0519
Ks
Exanp!9 12.5. The ring girder shown in Fig. 12.t4 is supporred at eight
points. If I7 = 200 kips, find the forces in the ring at the supports and at the
point of maximum torsional moment.
0.02.52
= 0.3926
K6==3.940x103
Kc
I2.6
SADDTE SUPPORTS
Horizontal vessels supported by two saddles (Fig; 12. le) act as simply supported
beams. For vesSels with dished heads (Fig. 12.16a) the equivalent beam lenglh
is taken as .L l 4H 13 where L is the tangenttotangent length of the vessel and
.br (,
At Support
82.65 kin.
0 kin.
Eq. 12.16
M", M^
v", v^
7.20k
6.n kln.
60.05 kin.
60.05 kin.
Mf
+40.54 kin.
101.50 kin.
Fr
k
6.13 k
k
8.50 k
12.50
L,T^
Eq. 12.19
M
Eq. 12.2V
lxx =
587.4Inl
14.80
'. Wk+e'\
_
200 1.89
12.'26'
812
a==z:45o
6'
Flgure 12.14
13.58
''''tit'lttl
t2.6
SADD!! SUPPORTI
4tl
Il
M=60.05 Kin
Fo.f.! or Support.
Fotce.
Figur. 12.15
tt
point ot
l rrinr,n
is the depth of the heads. The vertical load on each head is given by
V = 2IIw 13 and is assumed to act at the center of gravity of the head. Thc
horizontal pfessure on the heads due to liquid heads is resistd by a horizontal
force F acting as shown n Fig. L2.l6b.It is interesting to note that for hemispherical heads where 11 is equal to r, the bending moment at the head{oshell
junction due to force F and vertical force V is zero. The bending moFent at any
point in the vessel is obtained from statics as shown nFig. n/f6 lL b
The section modulus of the shell between the saddles is I/c and is expressed
as rr2t. At the saddles, the effective section modulus is reduced due to the
dqfonnation of the shell which renders the full cross section less effective.
Research has shown3 that the length of the effective cross section of the shell is
equal to the arc length of the contact angle of the saddle plus onesixth of the
unstiffened shell, as shown in Fig. 12.17. The section modulus of the arc length
that is in tnsion is expressed as
Z:
r2t
[4
,=
C1M6 for
L/
,TEI
'(.
F=r.w
Fisur. 12.16
450
tigur. 12.17
(r2.22'
112 Vllln
t2.6
tuPForTl
r:
t=
c,:
'
t=2,(!+9\
" \z 20)
J,ft't
as shown
sinA/A
 cosA
a, =
t=o+E
^
Cr
The shear sress in tlre shell between the saddles is computed by assuming a
sinusoidal distribution of the shear forces where the maximum value is at
ihe
equator, given by
'
as
CtV
(12.24)
wher
o' = I
nn 'io
^ll
"r4LA+;inE;I2Giltlfu)l
where
4t0
The shearing stress at the saddle area is influenced by the deformation of thc
unstiffened shell above the saddle. Experimental research has shown that the
shear near the saddle is distributed along an arc length of
SADDI tUPPOtTt
(12.23)
: ; sin d
n\nd+srnccos)
sin
c sinacosa
 flI6 / (l + Smdcosc/)
\n
:
a:
where r
d=
h:
o"
radius of vessel
0/2 + F/20
ang(e as rneasured in
\
ngle that varies
Fig. 12.18
between
and
shear sftess
Equation l2.Z is also used to check.the stess in the head. In this case the
value of t in the expression for C3 is taken as the thickness of head rather than
shell.
The circumferential stress in lhe shell at the saddle area is calculated by
assuming the shell above the saddle 0o act as a fixed arch subjected to shearing
s&ess as illustated in Fig. 12.19. Using the theory of indeterminate stuctures,
the moment at any point along the arch can be expressed as
Ma =
wrf
I
 s
*anLa  cos {(sin'zB
 iFsin2F + 79'z cos2 F)
L
/1
+ dsind(iB'z
osnzB 
sin,9)
+ jFcosPQF + sin2p)
.
Flgurc 12,18
sinp
lr
[;B
\4
\1


;o sin 2B + ;+ gcoszllll
#a
vltaultom
"r
.ltt
160
3.#Pi
6
o
140
.\
s1s
120
Ut
t@
w
2
Fi$rc 12.19
Cs ond
where
tigw.12,20
o.t
o.2
C6
ll
Cc=s111.2:^P'=sn2!.
'24
The maxirnum value of M6 given by this equation occus at
0:
from
B. Hence
the maximum circumferential bending moment in the shell can be expressed asa
"r=
where C5 is plotted in
H*,
(r2.25)
,'= (v)",
where C6 is given by
Fig. 12.20.
..=
/, Experimental work has shown that the wjdth of the shell that is effective in
j/resisting
the moment in F4, 12.25 can be taken as four times the radius or
,/
onehalf the length of the shell, whichever is smaller.
It has also been showna that Eq. 12.25 is valid whenA/r is eqgg!Io lfreater
than 1.0. For A/r values of 0.5 or less, it is suggEGTll[llvalGi@1e
reduced
tfre neaA. nor inbetween values of A/r, a reduction factor (Rf)
,
"
* = (;i ',
can be used.
0.5<:<1.0
(12.26)
and
t,
illuooRAPHY 1r'
NOMENCTATUR,E
Browncll, L. 8., ald E, H, Young, Procr$ Equlpmcnt Datlgn, John Wiloy, Now York,
1959.
F = bolt
"f"
load
BIBTIOGRAPHY
length
12.2
N = number of bolts
n: f,/f.
R = radius
f:
t"
girder
V = shearing force
REFER,ENCES
l.
t
Wood, R, H, , Pla.rric aal Elattic Design of Slabs 4nd Prater, Ronald hEss, New York, 196l .
Wichman, K. R. , A. G, Hopper, ad J. L. Mershon, "Local Stiesses ir Sphericl ald Cylin&ical Shels due to ErteErl lradings," BAC Barr"ri, 107, Welding Resarch Council, New
YorL. 1965.
Zic}' L. P.,
it
Ro8rk, R, J.,
aodw. C.Yot
t915.
Uteful ltdomation
American lron
Data, Vol.2,
PART
459
CHAPTER
a
T
't
I3
.!
I
z5
,l
'b
!
*
p
g
461
462
fl.At toTIoM
I3.I
INTRODUCTION
TANKS
Flat bottom tanks are normally constructed according to one of the following
four standards:
1.
2,
3.
F*
llr.rF.=
< ld..l
oZ
F
<  42
XXX
o.l
i i
storage tanks.
4,
txz
however,
specific requirements and limitations are obtaiied from the standards
them_
. q. q.
a.l
\o
selves.
I3.2
cl cl
xxx
'6bE
qa 9
:.:
zzz
9e
*9.9
t
zz
tz
zzz
'6
. Irr ,
J tz
The requkements of API 6501 are for flat bottom tanks containing
liquids with
litde or no surface pressure. The design criteria are based on simpti"fied
equations
with a minimum amount of analysis.

3.2.
(,)
ao
Roof Design
.+
Flat bottom tanks with large diameter and fixed roof normally are
designed with
o
(t
E
(t
co
d,
'^
P=
0.0625 E
(n111'
(13.1)
E<
\o
< txd
:
=
25 psf live
0.315 psi
load
o
o
F
F
frR g
9:?,
6 EE ;
290F
'H
^" 3
H.c ; ::
r.)oo
a
E3
^\ Es 8.9
E
EE^
EEH
v 5t
.9*
E e 8:
EtrEE
e .<
.E A.{l
EFsE
.E
}!'EU
<zx..;
o
o
XXX
tsFEE
ERE
*.E
E
'o
l
ed
5?)XF
an
aa
:.9
XXX
gsEEctg
 , ,t
Ve
,= .9
>
Fe{ife
aEitE
ErEb::e
E r F3::i
g s.2
?sEFEfE
4
aa6e
5 e*ff
trtrtrE
a6.l
tptting
f
I3.2
'
200
= /Pncos0\/a\
 :  ^ 
\ z / \zo/
(13.2)
"*pr".rJa
11 = Ndcos d
DR
= 4t/(P
H(D /2)
^_
o)
.DR
(13.3)
and the required area needed to resist this tensile force is given
by
"."
API 650 assumes a maxirnum value of o for headtoshell rings of 15,000 psi.
The value of P can be taken as 0.315 psi. The maximurn value of cos 0 for R
is 0.8D and is equal to 0.909. Expressing R andD in feet andA in square inches,
the required area is
PR
zcos0
^: ux
API uses the equation
DR
'
(13.4)
(13.s)
1500
P"
E
/2D)
10..14 /r sin 0\x5
= FS(,* g)\ D
/
Substituting
t = 29 x
106
FS(L
psi and
P"
. D lcs(tan 0)lo4
'= u" g zza,sq
13.6)
Figure 13.2 shows a plot of this equation for various factors of safety. A more
simplified equation used by API is
,: 400
J sin 0
where 1 : pquired thickness of cone roof
Fis',.o 13.l
(in.)
(13.7)
rt,2
Alt $0 rAHKI
A= 2645
3:sin 0.
API uses the simplified expression
D2
3000 sin 0
(13.9)
For tanks with small intemal pressures, the maximum pressure is limited to that
which does not cause the uplift of the tan} in the ernpty condition. Hence ftom
Fig. 13.3 the upward force due to pressure is equal to the downward force
Pt?2=w.(q)(')
4
r. .2r.
Flgure  3.2
In this caee,
PD
n= 4sin0
and
A=Dz
g:
Using
1.5,000 pi p = 0.315
equare inches, the rcquired area is
8c sin 0
(13.8)
'*""'
*^ffi**Yffiiffiitnmr
13,2
or
:
D:
t/r :
YW
{i60
30,8004tan0
r'N=2
^6th
(13.1 1)
=
D=
4=
TANKT
Imate equation
4
P==6w+h't
where P = intemal
API 630
lbttr
P*":W
t,,
PD ,D
.,
v=__;__\th.l);
The stess level at the head+oshell junction must also be checked. In reo Fig. 13.3, vertical force V is given by
ferring
.
A:

whete
=J
tan 6
1 IPD
H: ta'J9L4
thrDf
4l
rcquired area is
(r3.r2)
30,800 tan 0
=
A=
r.6P
4.8r,
(r3. l3)
of water)
The sepond tenn in Eq, 13.13 is an adjustment factor that corrslates this equation
HDlz
(f
Dzl\
=#4rto1
^ Mo tan d
r=jr+thy
P1
,P
Dz(P
8t,\
:'
API 650 assumes failure to occur when the stess in the junction area reaches
32,000 psi. This is an increase of 60% over the allowable sness of 20,fi)0 psi
used in deriving Eq. 13.11. Hence failure pressure can be expressed as
4:
H
(in.'?)
ryY .
Bh,
= 1.u,
o.r u
e=ffi+tt,
It.2
Sub8titutlng thia oquatlon into Eq, 13.12 givcs
0.153 W
30,800 tan 0
(r3.14)
:
d:
.PD
2t
weight of shell
angle of roof with horizontal axis (degrees)
or
13.2.2 Shell
TANKT ilTl
AFI 610
_Gy(Ht)D
25
Design
API 650 includes two rnethods for the design of shells. The
first is called the
"onefoot method," which consists of calculiting Ae re4uir"O
ttrict<r,"ss of sn"l
course A in Fig. 13.4 based on the hydrostatic pressure
at I ft above point X
Defining y
gtves
t:2.6p(H_
r)G
+ cA
(13. r s)
:
G:
I1 D
=
I=
{t
4:6p
V PR2
TFo= n
Fisure 13,4
..
'=
ZB3DPR'
E
?AI'IKS
13.2
'IAT 'OTTOM
APt 650
TANKS
473
'l'osts have shown that this equation is too conservative because the maximunl
strcss can be many feet away from thejunction where the pressure is reduced and
the stiffness ofthe second course becomes signincant. Accordingly, the equatbn
lirr the desisn of the bottom course is modified to read
13.
l6)
The thickness of the second course is determined from the following equations;
t, ir +<r.37s
.2t=t^
Fieur 13,5
.L
.2
Na=pR(l_Ca.)
h. l
I
+ (t. t^\l
'4/t 7l
''
where
t2
=
lz =
/z
at
h,
(t3.r7)
3tr
4p
and
lr, = rn(r
=
"n,to
"o"3!)
1.06 PR
2.6DlH  x / 1,21G
: ___+ L]A
s
(13.18)
where "r is the variable design point that is a function of the thicknesses of layers,
Hence
t=
Ne/S
1.06 pP
s "'
x2
xz
= l '22lrt"
Ch"
where
'=
rr.oor(a!429)
t ={.*,(*=!
I + K\/K
* nrTfflffiffiiifrir
r3.2
Apt 6t0
TANKS 47t
_ 2.42E ( (t/o)rt 1
Fs (r  *zltte \n /o  o.4s \/;lDl
or for long cylinders with E : 30 x 106 psi and p = 0.3,
P
locATtot{
OF
CF TAN(
TA
3
VARIAELE
SHELL
oEstcit Fo[{T
0.61
iflN. Hrr. OF xi
WHEl,l
fr/
+'1.o;co.xr
13.6
'll
I
,6+j.l
where
UNRESTRAIT{ED
GROTITN
GROTIT'TH
towindroadsm'it*.n*d.ri:;lil:J"Hfr::3*Tilffi
if:#,::;
V2
pressure (psf)
,yses
a__100mph
specified. Hence
3EI
R3
3EI
:
"
Fs(R)
F=
PH
where
as
ring:
*=?
where p = wind
The required section modulus of the stiffening ring necessary for resisting the
lateral pressure is obtained from the following classical buckling equation of a
p = O.00256
D, \Etlh,,t1
t.{//
t
(13.19)
MDIAL
0..'ffi
Figure
Substituting P",
'TnI
r" \u/
" ro.#,l/*)"
H =77.e2
0.3iI Gh,
'"1:
Hence
PrlilFS)
P = 25.6 Psf
3E
FS
z= PHD2
2AE C/D
(r3.20)
1rt
!;rlll.rr{jwlillirfrs
illT tonom
?aNl(t
I3,2
APt 650
TANKT
4ll
API arsumca that tho rstio of thc outstanding leg of a stiffener to thc diameter
of the tank is not lcss than 0.015. Hence, C/D = 0.0075. Usins FS : 2.0.
P = 25.6 psf, E = 29 x 106 psi, and expressing D and If in feet,the equation
for the required section modulus of a stiffening ring is
Z = O.Offit HD2
where z =
II :
D:

(r3.21)
3.2.3 Annulor
Plqtes
al
*=+
lM
4M
tisut
L=
R
Y;
t;fr
L=
yGH
"l
._
:
/a :
1l:
G:
where tr
195
H in
fe,et and
4 in
L=
\/ GH
Exarnple 13.1. The steel tank in Fig. 13.8a contains a liquid at the rooftoshell junction level. Eesign the various tank components if G = 1.1, CA =
0.0, S = 15,000 psi. Use the "onefoot" method for shell design.
Sohtian,
'
Out not less than 24 in.)
n80
' 2M '
API 650 uses a factor of safety of two for the length. The length of the annular
plate is thus expressed as
390
tb
\/GH
13.7
0.40
in.
l3.l
gives
2n
Use
(r3.22)
For the shell design the required thickness for the bottom course is given by Eq.
ata
'ltt
torTors ?A]{t(l
r3,2
lV'
ae
I/ = 6(100t)
Usins a conservative value of
0.25 in.,
I1 :6(100 x 0.25)
(.)
26.20
o:sV
v\s"/
Zroo
ft
Because this is larger than the height of the tank, no intermediate stiffeners are
needed.
4r4xt
,DR
" 1500
_ (80x80)
1500
4.27
n.2
Use
4 x 4 x 5/8 in.
angle with
A = 4.61 n.2
t = ll4 in.
YGH
:ffi
Fisur6  3.8
13.
390
15 as
.
'
0.29
in.
Use
2JJ79
0.25
in.;
 txl.t)
2.6(80\Qo
15,m0
39oh
L = _
(b)
13.8b.
13.2. In Example 13.1, determine (a) the maximum allowable internal pressure and the maximum failure pressure, (b) the required rooftoshell
area if a ftangible joint is required, and (c) the thickness of the shell using the
design conditions of Example 13.1 and the variable point method.
Example
the bottom course
. _2.6(80X101x1.1)
Solation
15,000
0.14
in.
Use
(a) The maximum pressure that does not cause uplift of the shell is obtained
r3,2
wctght of eholl
= (a0.82)(a)(EO)(tl)(s/16
= 57,800 tb
_ 0.245 x 57,800 ^
U4)
Yrtr
indicates that tz
t2! as given by Eq. 13.17.
Equation 13.18 is based on an iterative process that is initiated by assuming a
value of f2, which can be obtained from the approximate equation
0.59 psi
15,000
:
r.
p1
C
.r,
4.8 A
(1.6)(s.71) _ 4.s(0.437s)
0.25 psi
xc
80
0,59
0.6tV@liZXo5 + 0.32(0.5eX10 x
12)
0.59(10
70.80
1.22Y(40
12)
l2)(0.14)
=10
0.t53 W
Hence r
3oSoo
l0 controls
and
 x /r2\G
tz=2.6D@ a,2.6(80X10
x
m
rz:
t"" d
_ 0.153 x 57,800
30,800 x 0.577
A = 0.50 in.,
0.463
:29.98
O1n
K==1':;=2.14
t" u. t4
1.6
0.14 in.
From Eq.13.19,
Pr:
15,000
_2.6x9x80x1.1
as
(30,800x4.61x0.s77)
2.6H t)' DG
t":
'
IANKS 4tl
l0x12
v(40 x 12x0.3) 10
h1
.
r'*=lo+Ex0.437s
APr 630
6x20x80x1.
15,m0
ro/r2)(r.D
15,000
as
6.1a
f.
Because this value is the same as the assumed one, the analysis is complete,
and no additional iteration is needed. Hence. use
' .ru*ryffiffiiuffiTtliii
I3,3
r3,3
TANKI 4ts
API 620 tanks2 tend to be more complicated in geometry and are generally
g hiekrilptt^pressu'e than Apr 650 tank;. Accordingly, trr!
:llJ9:Id
rquirements of API 620 differ significantly fiom those of ApI 650
because the
mrcknss of the components is obtained from shess analysis that considers
the
biaxial shess state rather than a set of simplified formulas.
_ The shess analysis procedure in Apl 6t0 is based on Eqs. 6.10 and 6.11.
Equation 6. I I for /Vd can be determined for any shell configuration
by using the
summation of forces obtained from a freebody diagram.The advantage
of a
freebody diagram is that forces other than pressure cair be accountedlor
without
C:inF tryugh T inregration process. Once Nd is determined, the value of ly'e is
obtained ftom Eq. 6.l0 as
l&*&=o
R2
where
APt 620
Ne
= X of forces at a given
'l
.62,4 pct
(r3.23)
Rr
cross section.
\.
13.23 ro
13.3. The rower shown in Fig. 13.9 is filled with a liquid whose
specific gravity is 1,9 rlp to point d. Above point a the tower is subjectd
to a
gas pr9sswe of 5 psi. Determine the forces in the various
components of the
tower disrcgarding the dead weight of the tower.
Example
Figur6 13.9
and
Solutian
fron 84.
13.23 with R1
Rz
t\o
^,
Roof Forces
The maximum force in the roof is obtained from
av 
,o,ll o
600 lb/in.
ft,
1440 lb/in.
40Ft Shell
The maximum force in the shell is at section bD as shown in Fig. 13.10r. Total
weight of liquid at section Db is
v=!=s"ff
=
48
_PR_ 5x576
 2
:
Fig. 13.10a. Below section a_o,
Total pressure at
r,
is 5
=:rr^;*:X,:,o,
(62.4/144)(35).
P = 20.17 psi
Hcnce
=ff;;%
2,744,s00
(2O.17)GiQaD' + v1ay480;
V = 600 lb/in.
..2iL$tua
'  "
\,4)"1'nr'
r3.3
(e)
API 620
TANKS
lV:i
+
c(c)
_c
cb  
.b
Tfr{tT
v
o)
b"(d)
Figuro 13.10
d
and
oo
and Rz
= R.
V:
Ne_pR=(n.n)(?/io)
=
zt84l lbiin.
and
. =
wo
Conical Trawition
At section bb force V in the zl0ft shell rnust equal force V in the cone due to
continuity, as shown in Fig. l3.l0}.
600 lb/in.
:
In a conical shell R' =
co and
600
di6
849 lb/in.
iz = R/sin L
4T5
'""
" ilffi*"""Tiiftl6ffii'iinn
13,3
&=g0=uo?o:!!)
srn
6847 lb/in.
600
lb/in.
(inwards)
At section cc the value of V in the 20ft shell is the same as V in the cone duc
to continuity. Thus
N1
*=4rl+R,R,+n3)
2777 lbli'..'
.^
_nx62.4 x 10..^" l0
xzo+202)
W:
3
: 457.2100 lb (Iy+
j,?rr,9oo + (62.4)(n)(r0)2(zs)
3,692,000 lb
= lt
,'1llol,ff^",,,',
section is
TANKS 4tt
20Ft Shell
0.707
APt 620
2,744jffi +
457
,4n =
/6) A\
P=s+l#l(70)
3,201,900 lb
5 + (62.4/ A0@S\.
p = ?A.5 psi
From Fig.
3,201,900
(v)Giea\ = o
= 2777 tbtin.
0.707
39271blin.
l/o = RPlsin
'
:
H. :
(compressive)
24'5
0= tZOx 0.707
35.3(r)(r2o)2
lb/in.
l/ = 2177 lblin'
No: PR = (35.3X120)
:4236lblin. I
Stress Criterio
The required thicknrcss of API 620 components in iension is dtermined from the
larger of the values obtained from these two exDressions:
, =N'
sE
4158 lb/in.
3927
+ v(r)(2$):
13.3.1 Allowqble
.t11''
N6
 The negative sign indicates that the vertical component of iy', is opposite to
that assrrmed in Fig. l3.l0c and is in cornpression Ltner man
6nsion. This is
caused by the^column of liquid above the cone whose
weight is greater than the
net pressue force at section cc.
35.3 psi
(13.24)
(inwards)
'
.rt{"
,tE
488
13.3
whorc t :
API 620
TANKS
489
Ne
lerentinl Dbections
No
The goveming equation is obtained from Eq. 6.35 for the buckling of a spherical
in
becomes
Section 8.1
a= srz,soo(*)
No
Stress
in the Circum
ferential Directian
as
/.\
\^/
The rules for this case are based on the axial buckling of a cylindrical shell as
given by Eq. 5.28. With E = 30,000,000 psi and a factor of safety 10, this
equation becomes
r,ooo.oool;l
(13.26)
13.2s)
This value is 1.8 times smaller than the value given by Eq. 13.25. Accordingly,
the limit ofEq. 13.26 is established as 15,000/1.8 = 8340 psi. Thus oDElc in
Fig . I 3 . I 1 is the criteria used for components having compressive stress of equal
magnitude in the meridional and circumferential directions.
To prevent the stress in Eq. 13.25 from exceeding the allowable tensile stress
of the material, an arbihary value of 15,000 psi is established as the upper limit
of the allowable compressive stress. This is shown in Fig. 13.11 as line OABC
where 4B is a transition line between Eq. l3.ZS and the upper limit of 15,000
,=,.,,,o'(f)
psi.
terential Directions
The criteria for this case are based on the following equations:
at
th
<
1.0
(13.27a)
1.8(smaller stress)
shess determined from OABC in
Fig. 13.11 using R for the smaller force
< 1.0
(13.27b)
o
o
Compressive Stress in One Directinn and TensiJe Stress in the Other Direction
The criteria are based on the assumption that the capability of a component to
resist compressive force in a given direction is reduced as the tensile force in the
other direction increases. The goveming relationship is derived as follows. Let
o
t
E
Figure
l3.ll
rrr
ii_:i
t:.tt
fLAt
lotTot
TANKS
I3,3
491
und
Rool
actual tensile
stress
,r^,  ri_:i_allowaDle tenslle stress
ol
l8nk
Then
M2+MN+N2=1.0
(13.28)
13,3.2
Compression Rings
t*^.,.l_Tls assumed
:*pt":tioT
equaron
to be supported by the ring region:
Fisur
13.13
Q=Na,Wn+N1'"W"+HR
:
Nr. :
N0, :
where
!
3
I7r,
W"
:
R:
11
(r3.2e)
(in.)
t:
i
B
Flgura 13.
l" *r'o
Sioxiol stress chon for combinod retuion ond comprelsion
3O.Om p3i ro 38,OOO pst yietd srr$s
:
=
is,oooL
when Q is compressive
when Q is tensile
(r3.30)
'.'
*""*'ffi **TffiTffi
f irmr
whorc A
roqulrtd
a,rpa (in,2)
E = joint efficiency
Details of various ring attachments are shown in Fig. 13.14.
Example 13.4. Deterrnine the required thicknesses of the 20_ft shell and the
conical reducer in Example 13.3. Also detemine the required stiffening ring
arca at point c. I,et S
20,000 psi, E = 1.0, and CA :0.O.
Sohttian
20Ft Shell
From Example 13.3 the forces at point c are
: 2777 lVn'
ffd = 2940lblin.
No
are
: 2177 lbln.
Nd = 4236 lblin.
Nt
z
4t
'=
4236
2o"ooo x
lo
0.21 in.
kt
pldl! thi.tn...
Figurol3.14
Then
!,6!y
of
{.
som
i5 nor
6v.tiir.
tf
YJ
. 9.
t=i6'
f.:
Fmi.libl.
Not P.rh'.3rbrc
qnd noip6rml$lble
o.oo+z
actual tensile
r*rr
ffi
7530 psi
493
.91
13.3
8zl40psi
from Eq.
ffi
13.25
= l.g x
106 10.5625\
\m)=
0.302
4940
0.38'?
+ 0.38 x 0.59 +
0.592
use
or
user=9/16in.
o.ts
+ 0.30 x 0.78 +
0.78'?
= 0.91 0K
shell.
N, = 849 lb/in.
Ne
and from
= 5710 Psi
o%u.t)6 /)
Compression Ring
6847 tb/in.
/ rtn \ (0.6875)

" = O'6 {;+
\u. /u// '
Eq. 13.24
Wt'
6847
=
' 20,000
: 0.34 in.
Forces at point c are given by
:
l/a :
N,
6.48 in.
Na
2940 lb/in.
No,
= 3927 lblin'
Q:
:
3927 lblin.
4158 lb/in.
Lt
", _
t = 11/16 n.
Then
available
, 0.6875
R= 120 = 0.0057
actual rensile rt
"rr
ffi
=
area =
482,190
15,000
32.15
n.2
required area
(0.6875X6.48)
(0.5625X4.93)
6o5o psi
Use 2
in. x
12 in.
ti"g. I
31.25
.23
495
x
 l'8 1q10 6875 = 7290 psi
=W:
7290
0.38
M = ,Ooo = O.SS
TANKS
ru=ffi=0.:o
,o"r. =
actual compressive
+S+O Vsi
APr 620
24.O2 in.2
.9O
I3.4
ANSI
I3.4
The rules for ANSI 896.1 Tanksr follow the same general
criteria as ApI 650
rules. Differences in various requirements between
aiuminum anJ sieet tants are
given in Table 13.1.

3.4.
TANKS
497
Y:,e)I
897 sin 0
, = r"oo

(13.34)
Design Rules
of
t=
o.06258
\R/t)'
Using E
R
(13.31)
4o
(r3.32)
13.35)

PRD
4o
(13.33)
(13.36)
The design of aluminum shells is based on Eq. 13.15, which is based on the
"onefoot" method given by
2.6D (H
I:_.4
PD2
8o sin
D=
o:
D=
o=
1414 sin 0
O_DRpcos0
\/F
its
^_
conical
t=
ToiYP
of
tt
(r3.37)
498
FLAT
/:
IOTTOM TANKS
BIETIOGRAPHY
e = joint efticiency
ANSI B96.1 does not contain mles for intermediate
stiffening
rings. For open
'iilio.
a stiffening ring is required, *hich
is basJ;; a.
i" *,,
is defined as the overall height of the t"*
""*,
,JE{I.'liio;;";;".
top tanks,
Il
 _ PHD,
48
(FS)
E Q/D)
(13.38)
In an elastic body,
= Ee
13.3e)
t=
l.
for Oil
2.
Recommended Rules
1.
4.
5.
(13.40)
6,
t
2R
REFERCNCES
t
2D=f2E
BIBTIOGRAPHY
for Liquid StoraseSteel Plate Engineering Data, Vol.
Institute, Washington, D,C,, 197 6.
Steel Tanks
z = 0.084 PHD'
(13.4r)
/:
I3.5
f"* ;;";#"
l,
CHAPTER
14
501
14.I
raat
'1t'ii'
tlll!i l,tn
A
ONE PA3s
llr
laI
!ii!r I
BONNET
t.l2
Severe
Moderate
General
Corrosion allowance
1.15
l
Shell diameter
3.3
860
Minimum thickness of
4.42
i h.
in.
in.
in.
660 in.
I in. carbon
660 in.
I in. carbon
stel
steel
I in.
i io.
tL.>
ftxED TutEska6t
IIKT 'N" STAToNARY I]EAO
p
OI,i'!;IDE PACKCD FLOATING
'IEAO
+J11
s
J
Lfn\
.LI
$.=.!a_(n===
FLOATING HEAD
WTH
DEVICE
'ACKNG
o_
'11\\
,l
fu
Figurs
l,(.1
__'ii',
__
w r:++:.,:zlTT
6r=l
t=:E+ \ lu
xrERft^trY slatED
FIOAIINC TUBTSHEEI
Vorio{rs IEMA component6. (Courtesy of the Tutulor Exchongr Monufoturoi! Alsociotion, Inc.)
in. alloys
atloys
"1
4.71
6.32
!+
None
None
?n.
s j in.
t in.
diameter
IJIIJBf SUNOLE
Service
in.
{11=i l\
rn.
H(AO
fIXED TUBESHEI
Paragaph
longitudinal baffle
ll,l
CIIANNEL II
(cafton steel)
Tuscs8fEr
(NftCRAI
14.l
flxlo
SHETL
Jl
Tqble
Heat exchangers in the United States are normally designed according to the
Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA)I and the
ASME Code, VI[. In general, TEMA requirements are a supplement to the
ASME requirements, for they tend to include areas not discussed in the ASME.
Most of the TEMA design e.quations relate to tubesheet design when affected by
differential pressure and temperature, expansion joints, bustles, and so on.
TEMA uses alphabetical designation to differentiate between vadous types of
frequendy used components. This is illustrated in Fig. 14.1. The components
can be interchanged to form a wide variety of heat exchanger configurations, as
shown in Fig. 14.2.
aNo
atiEu tYPl5
in.
tolerance
l0.
503
AJW
Fis'lrc
I4.2
l,{.2
(conrinued)
The basic equation for the design of heat exchangers is obtained from Examples
7
and 7 .2
^s
.l
"
o=
Letting G
:'l*:
].o
.'APaz
T
0.7 5Pa2
7=
=ttE {',
rornxedprate
5(M
50s
5OO
I4.2
507
C,
Hence.
_FG
'7 Vst,
where
(14.1)
plate.
00 for a fixed
Tle $earing stress in the tubesheet at the outer tube perimeter must
also be
checked and kept below an allowable stess. The
tota force W aue io press*e
Fisurs l,{.3
l4.3is
W=PA
=
p=
d"
e,=
Hence the shearing shess
cr( e)
o ls expressed
Example
as
PA
A" Cr(l 
a=
(14.2)
d,/p)
VIIII,
is given by
0.8S
w\erc
DL
A=
_ 0.3tDL lP\
0  dJpt\i)
(14.3)
4Af C
area of tubesheet
Figuro
l,{,,(
IOI
Solullon,
F'ronr
Lq.
14.
I4.3
:
Er :
l,
where M7
 _ (r.2s)\r2)
2
=
I=
11
0.58 in.
and
Thus
4 = factor
509
f,*, = 0.58
r4.9
NErlrF,a,r
,. = __:,M,
TA'l
34.97 in.
M,
in. I
THEORETTCAI
EXCHANGERS
14.5
a = radius of tubesheet
ANArySts oF TUBESHEETS tN
U_TUBE
,r= nTt
th";1;.;
(r4.4)
DX
la.5
(Rf. 2)
3Or
More
4.OO
400
o.2
3.83
3a3
OA
3.69
3.70
o.6
359
3.60
o8
3.52
3.53
3.43
3.46
1.O
F'sur6
Fn
1
3.OO
Figure
1,t.6
(RcI. 2)
14.))
I4.3
I)clining
'= cry#)"'
becomes
dlt
d (.dw\l _ e
drlr dr El ]  o.'
.,/d,u\
,\d,)
. =uJ{1g1_!1_
Afto@") _
(14.7)
r"(U)t}
1r
D*=
.E'*
pressure
(a
constant of integration
p=
u,:
r*fi{o
a,=
edge
(14.1l)
p+y
elsaul
+9nP4u,]}
M'* = Pa2 F.
E*73
tube diameter
 alro14  5Or,<rr]}
t'0
"'
9 = rafir,<u)
r0)
A1
(r4.9)
=
Z = thickness of tubesheet
t,r = effective poisson,s ratio of perforated tubesheet
a = radius of tubesheet
r = radius of a given point on tubesheet
d
( 14.
For simply supported tubesheets, the moment at the edge is not zero because the
outer tubes have a bending moment that is transferred to the tubesheet. For this
boundary condition, the value ofAl is given by
(14.8)
u=tr
10,
5l
With the value ofA; established for the two boundary conditions, the values of
M,, M,, and Q can be obtained from Eqs. 7.3a, 7.3b and 7.10 as follows:
w = deflection
A=
U.TUBI TXCHANGTRS
uniformly loaded
U.=
TUSTSHETTS IN
dw pa3 / I\
dr= o.\zu2)LUAlt(utl
P = applied
OI
IIU")
(14.6)
Eq. 7.7
THEORETICAT ANALYSIS
where F.
various
(14.13)
lt \T/
' =e!e\
(14.14)
:p 
tube pitch
i(#),",
as
(l4.ls)
,22
.20
.18
.16
74
12
.10
.oa
.ou
""1
234567
.o2 
u .t ,
OrU 6 7 8 9
"
Fisurs
ra.;
10
Equations 14.16 and 14.17 arc combined in a plot, as shown in Fig. 14.9.
Ger. 2l
*lY . 4 =
= !a: Etvng
Example
e pressure is
14.2.
E* : 9.0 x
illustrated
N= 88
Er=30x
(:)=h
t
rzts
l=
106
106
psi
lt* :
Ir =
psi
n=
12 in.
T
AA
(14.16)
where
1a\
E+ Iasl
^=ftztl=il4f.Nr,lt/t
L l
Also Eq. 14.13 can be expressed
as
/l\=
\qo/
^'
6F^U2n
ff:
ar.utu
or
5t2
(14.17)
Fisurg
1,{.9
(Ref. 2)
0.3
O'0166
3.46
if
drAr la
srlR laulPMlNT
I4,4
515
Then
(9.0 x
^* _ 12(1 106X0.24)r
_ 031)
11,390
U.:(a=18.78
T=THIcKNESS Or PERFORAIED PIAIE
f. = 0.008 (conservative)
,=109'7s=0.r,
and from
Eq. 14.14,
o_
(6)(0.008)(100)/
o=
12,000
0.2s
psi
<
(,6
\o.z+)
OK
0.6
o.s
>
o.4
o.s
UI
r4.4_.BACKGROUND OF THEli_t4E
DESTGN EQUATTONS FOR
IN
TUBESHEETS
UTUBE EXCHANGERS
The
o',D#Jiii.Jrk,
,
"r"riri.ii" iirilr"i"Tllj,.
must be
o.1
02
03
04 05 06
LtcaMENT EFFrcrEt{cY, ?
08
1.o
=+cq
TAIANGULAB PITCH
Figure
14.10
(Ref. 3)
modified
,
where f = 6F^
c,=+s
",e.J
oi
r;;;;;;;;;;".
g,"".
(14.18)
as
P ,".
T2
a2 )t'rlo'" '
)t2
r, : otl(f)
110
(14.19a)
I4.4
517
6.00
4.00
3.00
0.1
\
2.OO
\
SIII'AFE
PICII
ROTATED
SOI'ARE PITCH
1.00
PLATE
0.80
1.O
0.60
0.50
09
0.40
o8
0.30
o:l
2
C6
0.20
o.6
o
o 05
0.r0
OA
0.04
uI
o3
0.06
a2
0.05
0.04
o.l
0.03
oo
rtl
o.2 0:i
LGAmENT EFFrcrENcy
o4 05 05
, 
PFd'
oa
o.o2
SQTJAFE PITCH
Fisure
l4.l
(Ref. 3)
0.8
1.0
2.O
3.0 4.0
5.0
c^
Triangular pitch
Expressing
Figvre
K'
,:
G
a
and
where
"r*:
14.12
li'
2K'
/*
of
rlZ,,
(l4. r9b)
t tl
I4.5
t 66
;;
FfiF (/
I*AE / er=6o"
ile\
\7 \
519
\,
,)
2AAeA
ROIATTD SOUARI
SOUARL
P]TCH
P TCH
TRIANGUTAR
PlTCH
(.Ya
Fisur. l,l,l/a
K: bA
Fis'rra l,(.15
(Court sy of th6 Am6ricon Socity oI ntechoni.ol Enginsers.)
I4.5
The shess analysis of fixed tubesheets in heat exchangers is very complex due
to the large number of variables that affect the analysis such as difference in tube
and shell strain, the ratio of shell and tubeshet stiffnesses, effective applied
pressure, and relative thermal expansion of shell and tubes. The development of
the simplified TEMA design equations for determining fixed tubesheet tlickness
is based parfly on the theoretical work done by Gardnel'5 and Miller.6 From Eq.
7.9 the differential equation for the bending of circular plate is given by
Tlar
Figure
l,l.l3
SOUARE PIrcH
(Court
.y ot
5.0 and
f+
From Eq.
l4.l9b with G
= 6.0.
Hence
K, = t.?
O.2A
in.
(r4.20a)
and
The next sction shows that in a fixed tubesheet the quantity q, which is the
local pressure at radius r, is not a constant. Rather it is a function oftll given by
o.sz
Q:Cz'rKlm2w)
where g: local pressure
C2 = constant
3.0,
r = 3.0(0.s2)
=
I d [,d lt d (.a\ll g
r drl'drlr dr\ dr/l) = D
(0.25X17,000)
Nt(d!;t)Er
!20
I4.5
:
4:
L
lcngth
ol
tubcs
a,:
,,?
\t4.22)
fzzi,,rfr
Q"
where
(14.23)
FqP
*ffi*2,'fi*#*,ff**oo=o
qo
Z,(x.)
where
^
,
,a
, = (4\*
*,/ (r) = Br
=
,,
h6)  "
x. Zz@.)
2 zi&"\
'
" zl?.)
and
I 4.20e
and 14.2Of
p* =
E*73
12(l  p*21
M"
0"
q=C2[27@)+HZ2@)]
ffiV,<ol 
Z1@)
+ HLzze)
z+(x)l
I"
* = r,z&)lt  rffi]
ttt
x4
zl(x") + Hzte")
or
zl(x)
H=ZL@.)
(14.zod)
*o
(l
::r!'zt9a)l
 alz'G)
xa
I
L
I
(14.26')
(14.20e)
L
rr,r\
vzltr;l
\14.25)
(14.20c)
.
ft {1", (*)'r,1 ,f,,<,t  (*1,*111
BD*
(r4.20b)
e=ffifzX,l+Hz!(x)l
lzz6.) +
_
(r4.24)
1IJ'"'
\D
",
as
"f"=ttl
 r'#ll
521
(14.21)
The value of 11 is based on the edge condition of the tubesheet. For fixed
tubesheet,
4:
,=t#
ttt/x"Vt, r\
"t
O and
(14.27)
04.28\
iIAI IiAII'IIR
IQUIPMINT
f1t^u.uiu"n
Eqs. 14.27
and
f.o_fi.'il.;j.",i"i? *a C, ar"
at any rocation in the tubesheet
magnitude
is obtained from
F4. l4.2oe. The maximum uAu" oi tf,l.M.
*'*t
url g,u"n ,. ,,
 "" ui
obtained from 84. l4.ZOe and
normally
M^
where
fi
"*p."r."a
u,
pazF^
(14.29)
"
=T (1)'"
(14.30)
"ili..r"J ^i
F=
7{l + t/X.l
F^
1234567A9
t/i
(14.3
t)
I"rom
and
;O 2\/2x)
,n/4
F''' 2x"
F
Example
14.4.
I4.6
a
Solution
"\o)
xa:
x 52.800\o,s
\/2 ro3"oro/
9(6) = 6.037
,+P(ort)ro
20,390 psi
o'nr
Development of the TEMA simplified equations are based on Eq. 14.23 and can
generdly$e<fi.r'idedinto.thraseparateieps..The first is determining an equivalent local pressure on any given tube. The second step is establishing an
equivalent general pressure on an equivalent tubesheet. The third is incorporating the first two steps into the differential equation of the tubesheet that is
considered as a plate on elastic foundation. These three steps discussed in the
next three sections are based on th work of Gardner. ? The notations used are the
same as those given by TEMA.I
D.=q;#H#=103,020
= (^\r'_
(14.32)
":
tubesheet of thick_
? = 0.50 in. if the eeometry L u, ,to*n?
n!:'il;;?:
= 52,800
lb/in.3. E* = 9 x 106 psr, p*
p = icriipri.
=0..1.
ness
Fieur 14.16
IX"
=:
=I'0062
I4.6.1. locol
Equivoleni Pressure
One of the main assumptions made by TEMA in the analysis of tubesheets is that
the tubes are uniformly distributed tbroughout the tubesheet. Referring to Fig.
524
14.6
o=
where
li
A = ra2/N
a : inside radius of
number of tubes
4:
t=
tubeside pressure
thickness of tube
(14.33)
P, is expressed
o:*l#ry1=*+l'i(*il
tubesheet
4:
where
'ti_il ttttPs
li
wrl
shellside pressure
Besides forces 4 and 4 a third force F" also acts on the tubes of Fig. 14.3 that
is caused by such factors as thermal stresses, restraint due to other tubesheet, or
other unbalanced forces in the heat exchanger. This force is expressed as
t)on
r4.3s)
tube force
or = longitudinal
Actual Contiguration
(14.34)
nAf,
stress
in tubes
4na2
E n+
F*
(14.36\
or
s=@f,u)+\u,ttot,
The axial stress dr in F4. 14 37 can be written
Equlvalent Confl gurafl on
Fieuf.e 11.17
,,=!,6,
(t4.37)
as
u,,",)
14.38)
iIiIO
whcrc Ii,
I4.6
i =
pr : poisson's ratio of
wlrcrc
tubes
oc,
and
:
w:
c, :
L
length of tube
deflection of tubesheet
coefficient of thermal expansion of tube
AI, =
0r
can be expressed by
"1tunt"
in tube length
"'=(#),'(*)
oh: E,eh.
* * Eq.
T"^I1r",9t
tube at a distance r
"[(#),
 (*)]
a,=a!tLo,r,
(r4.39)
.r ,r,. lrom
r,."i i_ir,_g".
i,j*L*"o
",
rl"(Y
",4]
(r4.41)
"l(ry)'(*)l
Pressure
(14.40)
Wn
where
W1
: ta'P,
is shown
(14.42)
where P =
Wo =
Because W,
= ra'P
(r4.43)
W:
1ra'(n
 P)
(14.44)
where ll{ =
Figur6 14.18
w
nt!(Do 
as
(14.4s)
ts)
.,.,6r$g.t,.rr:t,r^tr1rtii4t;ti.
,r can be
written
as
+ = ^!
whcre
d"
",e,
(4,47)
*,=o#*
(14.48)
Substituting Eqs. 14.44, 14.46, 14.47 , and 14.48 into Eq. 14.45 gives
ot=*o.mee;ln
(14.49)
Equation 14.49 has two unknowns, Atr" and P. It is also based on Eq' 14.47
which does not take into consideration the strain due to an expansion joint.
FigurE
where D,
outside diameter
When the dhell has an expansion joint, E4. 14.47 must be modified accordingly. In Fig. 14.20a the expansionjoint can be approximated as shown. The flat
plite aD in Fig. 14.?Ob is assumed fixed at points a and b' The total deflection
of the shell is given by
l,t.l9
of shell
LL"=
= thickness of shell
ob = longitudinal stress in shell
1"
+ La"Q
(14.s0)
r"
where 6 = deflection of
where d,
e6
6=t"+6,
1",o*'1
= longitudinal
sfrain of.shell
ratio of shell
" = Iroisson's
:
o" circumferential sness of shell
as
,*=!6r
expansion joint.
(r4.46)
where 6.
6p
(14.51)
tr
a":
{rw
w,"l
(14.52)
,.n.rnier'_lrti,iirllilrw,
14,6 TIMA
ftXNO TUBrSl{ilT
DllION
tOl
Fisur. 14.21
s
 lMol"
2 EIr
EjIi
2n=Lyra!(w+w+wet)t3
8 EIi 3
(r4.54)
+w)lz +MoI
e
L(w+w"
"' :!w,il2
Ey'i
EiIi
6 EiL 2
where D;
Figur.
where
51
l7r,
:
=
L!"=
w

t/ + ^\ + wF) (r4.s3)
t& 4,4 +E(r
L E"r,t,@;4il*
X)W
obtained from
stucturii analvsis as
Wpj
,1.2O
=
l7e; =
4
joint
=4tp?4'Letting 0
joint
o?tp.
Thi deflection
Wo",
(14.55)
u=ffi,w+w^rfr+#@l
]lt
('.*) =r+at
Equation 14.54 has two unknowns,l, and P. It is also idontical to Eq' 14.49
lor hcat exchangers without expansion joints, that is, for Si '+ o.
(14.56)
14.6.3 Relstionship
and
ISj
^' =
,);
.t:ii:tflTri HL
r4'4'
2nl3
r2Ey'i
rnd 14.49. At
P=Pr'P!+Pa
968,L
2n(D1
D")3
14'48' 14
"

sc
(r4.57)
w* afr
woi
+=ffi_w*,,,"
*
P) +
$1",<n 
rt"(Do
,sa +
[<o?
 Dhp"]
Ir+"@"t"t*t"1
LZ4J
'
_(:)(j#)1,.,ffi])
(14.58)
t,\
L' "l1 *
frc
/t
\p
<4
oztn 1r
*.it/r**a
(ort'fu!__g!f\
a\ u )\r+.nq /
un,r,
1p"
Fe:0.2s+ tr
+/)l
xrolr + 0.,UK(l.s
.. E,t,(D"  t)
n=Effi@"
1s
a2
E"tn(D.
:T*n{o.*lrsp*
t
I + r(r.5 +/r]
Hence,
LL'
.:_
=
Pi =
":
I
J
(14.60)
(r4.se)
 o.ol1e%&(ql]'A
P:, P:, Pi
d"t
d2t
D"t"tu:G
.r

d.t
.......:d,
 l
D"'2t"2a=G
t,(D.  t)
h
(D.2 z (D"3t",
.,__.*@"*,1r7@qrr'!l[tttErEu'mnr1*
,,,r..sr.tRtitrrttll]]]{{44e1
14.6
TIMA
llxlD TUllSHllT
DllloN ctt
Honco,
=ffi;n
"'
+ o.dr(r.s
=t*4{o'*Irr's
+nl
+Dr
+ K(1'5
,,(#+)(w\
(+)('"5)t
3:Httf
"ti..L.iftrlate
E : n x ld psi for tubesheet material
and shell
d" = 0.5 x 106 in./in."F
Iength of tubes = 144 in.
thickness of tubes
.=
rrzo*boruees
on'lt"tnntoutlR pttctt.
0.065 fu.
E, = 30 x 106 psi
d, = 6.5 x 106 in./in.gF
(b)
tigor'11.22
15 osi
Solution.
tt =
f;1n
a _ O6)Q7
"i
K:
ll9?
of
+ 36xo.2sf = o.l6e8
106X0.1698)
@Xlxl?l)47=6t
Q7 x rO\(O.2s)(36
(27 x 101(0.06s)(0.75
 0.25)
 0.06s)
Fq
o 2s
Fq
+ (, 2s _,
.,#_qa#ft#%
'8752
in.a
165,300 lb/in.
j =, * s(ry?E#H:1]q
32 85
t:ti(*, 1
rr2o I 0.75
=l +\
,l
: 0.9146
OI
J=
= 2N.73
0.0304
0.8750
2 x 0.065
35.5
(#;l]'"
!36
llcncc,
/r'\
(0.0304X200. 73)(1.87
s'
7)
x [1 + 0.4(0.0304)(200.73)(l.s + 0.9146'
/f,
=_
16 RO?7r
12.4428.
""'
'
n.lnn
ililtl
___/uuu\F._______
41.55
15
{o.oro.orooltr.
l.1
200.73(1.5+ 0.s75)l
Fisur 1,t.23
9.0304)/ot,; ll r,).I
/\ 3s.52 lJ
l5
= nTarr<s.trst
=
s'
(0.0304x200.73)(1.s7
_ rr.0
\
I4.7
EXPANSION JOINTS
'fhe two most common types of expansion joints are the flangedandflued and
the bellows, shown in Fig. 14.23. The flangedandflued expansion joints are
0.36s0)
used where the deflection between the tubes and the shell is not very large. The
most frequently used method of analysis is that of Kopp and Sayre.E It treats the
6.57
x [9.5 x
10 6(187
70)
(6.5
106)(119
70)
12.4428
Itll\:r=
1.48
P=41.556.57+1.48
=
36.46
NOMENCTATURE
F2G2 P
47"
(1.2r2Q5.r2
36.46
8686
psi
OK
a = radius of tubesheet
b = G/2
D. : outside diameier of tube
F : modulus of elasticity of shell
E,r : modulus of elasticity of tube
G
diameter of tubesheet
530
/I, i:
HIAI
TRANSTTR IQUIP/IITNI
BIBLIOGRAPHY 539
N : number of tubes
P = pressure
4
p
g
J
Z
t
t"
t,
l'r(!$ut? V(tii,l Ml
Mcmo from G P. Byme, Jr., Secretary ofthe Tubular Exchanger Manufacturcrs Associatk)n
to Members of the Technical Commiftee, dated January 3, 1964 regarding Standards Background Data prepared by Karl Gardner.
8.
Kopp, S. and M. F. Sayre, "Expansion Joints fo. Heat Exchangers," Contributed by the Heat
Transfer Division and presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engitreers, New York, November 27th, 1950.
't.
Analysis of Stresses in Bellorrs, Design Criteria and Test Resubs, Part l, Atomics International Repon NAASR4527.
Standads of the Exponsion Joint Manufacturers Association,4th ed., Expansion Joint
Manufacturers Association, New York, l9?5.
10,
= tubeside pressure
= rube pitch
of l'ubc
7,
K' = b/a
P, =
Dcsign
P4ing Design Colletted Pape^ 1927 1959, Amcrican Socicty ol Mcchanical lirgirrccrs,
1960, p. 6'72.
BIBTIOGRAPHY
L., "What's lhe Difference Between TEMA Exchatrger Cl^sses,"? Hydroca/bon Prcce$in8, June 1980.
Rubin, F. L. and N. R. Gainsboro, "Latest TEMA Standards for ShellandTube Exchangers,"
Chemical Engineering, September 24, 1979.
Rubin, F.
local pressure
8,
n =(pd)/d.
REFERENCES
Standads of Tubular Erchonper Manufecturers
Association,6th ed., Tubular Exchanger
Manufacuers Associarion.
york,
Niw
Gardner,
K. A., "HearExchanser
1978.
lf ,r4""_Lat"*'i1r".",
,'S#:
J*r;i
9**,
;;;;;;;Ir'#"r'l*^o",
1982.
CHAPTER
t5
BASIC EQUATIONS
This chapter presents some design aspects of solid and layered vessels with
pressures in the range of 10,000 to 100,000 psi and higher. In these high
pressures prestressing, or autofrettaging, becomes an important consideration in
the design.
It was shown in Eq. 8.1 that
t=. sE
PR.
,,,
0.6P
vssst (Courres),
/
,2\
o,=P'lt41
rl
(1s.1)
540
ot = P'
541
512
r5.2
whcrc
whcre
/,?\
t
;p;Iil f;;;i"
.lt"Jil;i
(sz
o),
strain energy
t,
poisson's ratio
or, cz, 03
(o3
 c1)21
principal shess
02:
a3
0 and the
0 I u\ol
w:6lror a pressure vessel with the tbree principal stresses given by
cnergy of distortion expression is
i*
oz)2
Ot WAU"S
E = modulus of elasticity
* = \!t<r, 
PRESTRESSTNG
o
+ De),
(#
/t + p\",f ,'; .f1tY
=
\l \r; ri/ \r/
(1s.2)
Itecause Ws,
l4lr, the maximum pressure at which yield is assumed to occur at
the inner surface is given by
'.:($(T)Gl
(15.3)
It is interesting to nole that when the axial strain is assumed to be zero, the
axial stress becomes
o1
p,(21t)
or
\/3
rl  r?f ri , \r  21t'flt/z
 3 I
lLl
(1s.4)
In most applications the difference between Eqs. 15.3 and 15.4 is negligible.
I5.2
.L
Figu.e 15.t
As the pressure in Eq. 15.3 is exceeded, the inner part of the shell becomes
plastic, whereas the outer part remains elastic, as illustrated in Fig. 15.2. The
derivation of the relationship between dle elastic and plastic regions is beyond
,4
vtt!!t! fot
.,"
o'r"sr'c
HtoH PnlssuRrs
15.2
WAU.S
545
Rrc,o, 't'
PRESTRTSSTNG OF
lklrution 15.7 may be used to determine the lower bound pressure P* at which
ytrl(ling occurs by letting p : 4. Hence
Fisurc 15.2
Elastic region:
l'his equation gives results very close to those given by Eq. 15.4. Equation 15.7
2o"
\r5
Itlxnmple
(15.5)
(15.8)
lnn also be used to determine the upper bound pressure P+ at which total
yicfding occurs by letting p = ro. Hence
(+)H ('.!)
@)6 (t '4\
1)
".=#(
15.1. A
lnr
(15.9)
r, of
P=
({).000 psi.
@e)
Plastic region:
15.3.
(#X'*1*znt)
(#J(' * 4.* znt)
=
(15.6)
rrnd
o,
@(5"*z'n!)
*:trfl':H[X
?iween
#('
zr,L\
p/
(r5.7)
!g\
= ss+o(r. ,,/
\
o,=rsno(r
4
f;
36,650 psi
Fig. 15.3.
ry)
:
t46
Ytlstt3 foR
HtoH PRISSUnES
I5,3
I.AYERED VESSEIS
547
Figlro'15.4
Solution.
RaDrus
t5.1.
lNcH
Fisurc 15.3
"'= t,*t(rrr, 
qe=rs.72o(t*!g)
r'/
\
o,=rs,72o(t!g)
P' = 
46,Do(1.427
+ 2rn;3)
/
o; = +e,loo(o sz: + z rn
oe: rr.tzo(r.ry)
;)
A plot of
surfactrrrd;;il;;;,i'?iL" ,o"r,
i, ln"."u."Ji"yoro
ri. f
j: !fpl:
rs
r.
i, ."o""ic iJr"r,
.ry)
The stress distribution given by this equation is superimposed with that in Fig.
15.3 for a6 at P = 60 ksi. The resultant residual stress is shown in Fig. 15.5.
The internal pressure of 45,000 psi gives a stress of
a,=
15,625 psi
oa= rs,ezs(r
r"/
s.g)
;i;
u,
auto_
irlT o, *r,"n u
and the total stress distribution due to this and residual stress is eiven in Fie.
15.5.
I5.3
TAYERED VESSETS
Layered vessels were developed in the United States and Germany at about the
same time during World War II. In Germany they were used in ammonia plants
as well as for producing gasoline from coal. In the United States they were used
for ammoniasynthesis processes for the ultimate production of nitrates. Since
PRESSURTS
I5.3
od
LAYERID VESSTTS
ar P=45Ksl
c(
o
o
i,:)SBRINK
(d) ColL
WRAP
Figure 15.6
The earliest reference to layered vessels was made in the 1951 APIASME
bde. In later years when the API Standard and the ASME Code were separated,
llre layeredvessel criterion was deleted from both. It was not until Jan'tary 1979
that layered vessels were included in the ASME Code. In establishing the new
llyeredvessel rules, consideration was given to the state of the art as well as the
and research accumulated by the industry in the past 50 years. An
"iperience
c l ibrt was also made to provide rules to accommodate all types of known
'?iiLi;i*
Wodd War II the technology of building layered
vessels has improved substantialty..Today layered vesseJi are used ii'",i,ia"i"re"
;i[nfT"."ru."
tions in the penochemical industry
"pp,,""as heat exchangers,
urea
 reactors,
ammonia convenrs, autoclaves. andsuch
coal gasificati;;
Layered vessels consist of a multitude of layers
wrapped tightly around an
inner shell to form a pressureretarnlng envelope,
as shown in Fig. 15.6. The
vent hole system is a safety feature incorporateainio
ttre iay"iJu"."sel
o"_
hon. It consists of a mulritude of small holes
"on.t _a
drilled radiity lntoit fuy".,
extending from the ouiermost layer to and including
"
tfr. i'uy", uj1'u""nt
to tfr"
inner shell. The holes are sized and spaced so
that they do not affect the
structural integrity of the vessel. The venting
,yrt" uJt, u. u'rnonitor
,#il.
of
potential problems such as erosion and
at ay oc"urln ti" inner rt
during the operation of the vesset.
"orrosioritt
"tt
Layered vessels are constructed by various
methods. The difference between
these methods is in the thickness of inoiuiaua
Uyeri *.appiig
Frr
!.o""ou.",
"nA
construction can be divided inro
l:ryeredvessel construction.
Today most layered vessels are constructed in accordance with the ASME
('ode, VI[1, Division 2. The majority of the design equations given in the code
lor solid wall vessels are applicable to layered vessels. For fabrication, the
ASME Code, VI[1, Division 2, gives additional rules for layeredvessel construction. One criterion for controlling wrapping tightness of layered shells is
rhat the area of any gap between two adjacent layers, as measured from the end
of a shell section, must not exceed the thickness of a layer expressed in square
inches. This is illustrated in Fig. 15.7.
Another criterion used occasionally to measure the tightness of layered shells
co
C,=0
ItTtheft::"guld
shrink
;;;;;;
2Prl
= ;"r; ri
Pr?
' r;
ri
wtttt tot
HtoH PR!33UR!3
15.3
t/aYIRED
VISSILS
55t
'l'hc uctusl measurcd growth must not be less than onehalf the value given by
r5.10.
A third criterion for determining the maximum permissible gap in layered
rhclls is by relating the gap height to a given shess level. Referring to Fig. 15.8
End Eq. 5.12 and assuming the end to be fixed against rotation, it can be shown
lhd the gap /, can be related to the bending moment by the expressron
l!.
Mo
,F;
a=f
GAp AREA
AREA OF GAP
<
r,.n
!l
TH ICKNESS
bstituting
ex pnesseo rN nl
cb
Figurc 15.7
6Mo
=  .)
B=
*: b, e,' =
p(o, + o)l
,:d+
into Eq. 15.1l gives
9.DP'J
E(rz.
r?)
 O.55ro,
h=
E
,
_ ,*,
=,#ii
Ee=A
Lt
(15. 11)
11
=P!
2
,.=n"+
and the circumferential growth
is given by
t.71rp(Z?.^
t)2(?R^
SERnt
t)
(b)
(15.10)
Figur6 15.8
(1s.12)
5!2
PRESSURIS
r
oo: S + pab
a,= P
llv('I
wlrcrc
'
stresses
= hoop stress
;r, = poisson's ratio
o6 = bending stress due to gap l,
p = intemal pressure
:
n:
,S
S.
o; is limited by
(15.13)
allowable stress:
",o+f,+"=#r.
or assuming S
(1s.14)
apiti i"r
"
= S.
of the
s.pilfr!a""ir"'rr,"_pr"rri"
for o6
(1s. r 7)
15. 18)
15.19)
o6=NS.+P
and
'
(15.15)
as
o= o'ss/s"
E fN
L
z^\
15. 15
and
t": *Z
15. r 6)
.'u:T"KS^
cycles.
. _Ircases where aa is greater than 35, Lut less than 3rn,S,, the rules
ASME
parasraoh q_rce .q,"
V I,
553
,[!!t"
K: !t'Va5s.
oo+]+p<KS^
Code,
')
ah=ob+r+p
2, to 3S,. Or in general terms
VESSfl.S
TAYTRED
by
1n / o,.
K= I + : l:i,?(m  l) \JJ6
ot=tyt+)
where o6, cr., ar = principal
5.3
0.5
where N = 25"/KS^
VIII,
and
K is
:lJ..l
vtttttt tot
HtoH PnrssuRES
r5.3
AYERED VrSSfl.S
K=+.,,"[**
& = maximum
S. = allowable stress
E = modulus of elasticity
r=
Fisur 15.9
i:r:*ifff:''
f31#fl'
iffi
il:IlTr1
K=:+
th".;i;;"y;;'iiiii'h"
vrr,
".,,"r
'i
RyI h=
Ys
,R1
cos d
2(&+hR'cosc)
21 x
20.000
29,000,000
_ 0.5 _
4000
20,Oo0/
0.021 in.
;;il;;;;
Ia
h(h + 2R.)
3.31
is
n"eteo to tar.e uc"u,nui"##;:1""91t
tT9 account' rhis can be accomprished by
91,p'
..X*nsap. rhe toar
st uin
tr,eo zu'J"";
rn gettrng the strain required to
close one gap, refer to fig. iJ.S
i,
R2
(15.21)
ilJ'#:,li1
ilij};T,=fffifj
ffif:T,:
2Rra
ZrRr
2RzB
Substituting
t= B
+ yE:
R?
'Rz
and
xE+(Yoa)2=Rtr
asina
R2
(1s.23)
,1,"r"
x6
(ls.22)
n"t'"l wh"r.
(1s.20)
rnd
2 x 4o,ooo
^r 1.21
x 2O,nO
_ 0.55
?aYs
: l.2l
 R?: a2 
(rs.24)
l!6
VttSlt! foR
HtoH
15.3
PRTSSURES
r1
o, ='rr,
Rr
_,
/c
sin
a\'l
'="'&1"*""'\ & /l
(r5.25)
2
_j,P * l*
p,
TAYERED VESSIL3
) .
o,= P
The total snain required to close one gap is obtained by substituting Eqs. 15.21
,=fre+4sintc
(rs.26,
co,: oo
o.
where
A=l4: I r
C:
2(1
2+
h/Rl
+ P < NS,
+
'1*'1r,
r lL e
ri
=l).
ri
2(lcosa+h/R)
(2 + h/R)(h/R)
and
cos
d + h/R)
y.=!d(rs.
(2 + h/R)(h/R)
A plot of Fq. 15.26 will show that the lines are a linear function of strain
versus /r/R1. Hence, the ASME Code, VItr, Division 2, approximated 84. 15.26
Example
vessel
of
Gap
= 0.109(2a)3
/(1
< 0.r0er4)
\//
(rs.27)
Equation 15.27 calculates the strain needed to close any given gap. The total
stain required to close all the gaps is determined by summiig all the individual
shains given by Eq. 15.27. The hoop stress in a layir due o all accumulated gap
stains is approximated by
ue
=;lt
,)e
lL
The total hoop stress due to gap shains and intemal pressure can be expressed
as
=)
11
by the quantity
(15.28)
Determine
if
/, = 0.3, S.
Height
lrngth
I
2
3
5 in.
6llr.
0.008
0.005
0.010
0.009
9 in.
7 in.
43.25 in.
43.25 in.
48.50 in.
53.00 in.
in.
in.
in.
in.
At Radius
3O
106
15.27 ,
.,:o.loefi#
=2.33x106
., = o.roeff# :2.62
1o6
.,=o.loe*#:3.25x106
vlttl.s
foR HtOH
eo
PRTSSURtS
=9
I5.4
6(o o09t
UYJJII
= 2. l0 x tOo
1"^
due to interlacc
pressure fl11
  u2/
,.?D \
;t
("t  f+,) = rr,.
1O.47
(, x 2o.ooo 
106
H#)
a.4,:
;i
(Is.29)
rs
o': .4*tRi*t
J
(15.30)
15.31)
Rr'?
r)
(1s.35)
as
in a layer
ddt=4"
seams
(1s.34)
yields
^
,i,:
,ns
2t
1s.32)
/15 ?1\
r \n,t,ni,"''/
s=kw
+ ni n.\
,  4*'R,*,
E /Ri*r
\Rl+,rR? "l
, 4*rRi*r /Ri,r * tRi., , ^ ,\
o'=
niiiiil;"',ffiI
NS
'l'he deflection of layer i and all layers beneath I due to pressure 4+r can be
olrtained from Eq. 5.8 by substituting ar = 0 and disregarding the term p'z. The
cxpressions for the deflection, using the terminology of Fig. 15.10, becomes
PRESTRESSING OF IAYERED
VESSETS
559
where s =
VESSII.S
pressure ffa1
rotal=10.30x10,6
I5.4
PRESTRESSING OF LAYTRED
Fisure 15.10
(15.36)
560
I5,4
o' =
Stress
nkwE (RIt
v'nR'n'
lRi'z
R!.)
Ri)
i.,,Ri*r
VTSSEIS !6I
R?\
4*rR?'
 Ril:E
* = \t/ **)
4
(rs.37)
"'=
Stress
 4.iR!*z 
PRISTRCSSINO OF TAYERED
R?\
/. *;,7
il:;r1t
,,=
{\ 1R?,,nl
r !,Ri,.
 (t\ * x'/
8733 psi
(r5.38)
Stress
(21'z
(1s.39)
Equations 15.37 and 15.39 are necessary to determine
the precompressive
sress in a layered vessel due to wrapping Uy *,"
oiriira.etnoA of
fabrication.
"on""oG"
In the shrink fit rnethod, the orecompression equations
are the same as
15.37 and 15.39 except that the'qaanniy n*w/2iir"pfuJJyJrn. Eqs.
n"*"
, ='#,'
r'
*r,
ra,(i!'!Liul
"'::!f('\.#) + ry#::t
In the coilwrapped
..
Hence the applied
=
Stress
2r\(21.52
21'z\
2l.5'z1
11,365 psi
ot
2.25
tO6 (2t.52 
= 4o(o.s)er.sf
=
202\(222
12,487 ps
(15.40)
(15.41)
i is known.
nr=#
and the total sbess in the outer layer is
oi= o"
Figur 15.l I
362
PRESSURIS
SIBTIOO[APHY
o,, =
:??l
l_]ou
(, .
#) (ffi
_
21.52  212 ,
22,
21.52
r 2tetF=6\*
n6=65)\
(179,049)(1.97s)(0.0247
0.0163
0.0120)
18,737 psi
Stress
d' = 17e,04e(l
lnz
\
* ffis,)to.otos
+ 0.0t20)
9774 psi
o,= tls,rNs(t +
ff)ollllt
: _4052 psi
Total stress in inner shell :
1g,737 psi
Total stess in layer one = g733
 9744 = _1041 osi
Total stress in layer two = I I ,365 4052 7313
osi
=
Total srress in layer three = 12.4g7 psi f
NOMENCTATURE
ITtl
D = trT,
E = modulus of elasticity
e = circumferential growth
h = gap
K = weld shrinkage
Mo = longitudinal bending rnoment
n
P
= change in temperature
c
= strain
p = proisson's ratio
A.r
.,1
(fr
:
:
:
=
=
(f,
:
:
U0
(ft
stess at layer
longitudinal seess
radial stress
stress at layer .r
yield stress
hoop shess
BIBTIOGRAPHY
Armstrong, W. P., and M. H. Jawad, "Evaluation of Thermal Conductivity in Layercd Vessels,"
ASME Jounal Prcssure Vessel Technology, November 1981.
M. H., "Wrapping
\onnl,
Process Equipme t
1959.
5.
CHAPTER
t6
TALL VESSELS
564
565
566
TAtt vtssfl.s
I6.I
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
16.2
sffirt
t"
are:
l.
2.
3.
*^y: :"lryPt
IARTHQUAKI
LOADING
567
cornbined with the internal and external pressurcs and any other kradings that arc
lpplicable to the tall vessel. The following sections describe dift'erent methods
lor establishing the forces, moments, and overturning moments from extcrnal
kradings. In addition, methods are given regarding how to combine those loadings with other loadings in order to determine the highest stresses and to satisfy
tid22 of the ASME Code, VI[1. Included also are methods ofconsidering the
rlynamics effects of the wind loading and wind velocity on vortex shedding and
ovalling vibrations.
I6.2
EARTHQUAKE LOADING
ln the design of tall, vertical vessels, one cause of stresses in the vessel wall is
lhe overhr;ing moment from the lateral force of an earthquake loading' Although most disign standards require vessels to withstand earthquakes, usually
no sfecific applicible rules are given. The purchase order or design specification
,hould list thi applicable code to be used for earthquake design, such as the
ANSI A58.1, "suilaing Code."r the Ilniform Building Code,a ot some otler
applicable building cod;. Additionally, the location ofthe installation is required
^determine
the appropriate earthquake factor. Figure 16.1 shows a typical
t;
Earthoarthquake
up aicording to the Uniform Building Code (UBC)'
"one
procedure
The
different.
may
be
standards
given
building
other
in
quakj zones
lbr determining the lateral earthquake loading is similar in most building standards and is G same in both the UBC and ANSI standards Some coefficients
in the formulas and the zones on the earthquake zone map may differ in various
standards.
For both the UBC and the ANSI standards, the total lateral earthquake force
is calculated by the following formuia:
(16.1)
ZIKCSW
where Z = coefficient
Z=
/16
zone 4.
Iv = total
Z:
for zone 2, Z
3/8; for
zone 3,
1.0.
ered 0b)
I:
K=
C
I=
= 1/15\/7 =
? = fundamental period of vibration of the vessel assuming a uniformly loaded cantilever beam fixed at the base by the following:
16,2
IARTHOUAKE IOADINO
zn t;n"
^' 3.52
\ EI,s
Substituting
569
(16.2)
r = o.osos.g.
(16.3)
1,:
(v/8)(tl +
L = O.Oa9@2 
+ t)/t < 20
dt when (d + t)/t > 20 (in.)
t)3t when (d
known.
'hdrdhh'b.dlol
force becomes
V=
O.3O
Zw
(16.4)
When the vessel is rnade from shell sections with different dianieters and
thicknesses, the lateral earthquake force is determined for each cylindrical shell
section above the plane being examined. However, for a cylindrical shell of
uniform diameoer and thickness, the total lateral earthquake force V is distributed
as follows:
s68
570
1.
lAt I
vrlslt
I6.2
4=
2.
(f6.5)
(16.6)
E:30x106psi
^ (V  hw.h.
n,=;f,
is determinel
fluid in shell
fluid
EARTHQUAKETOADINO
d+t
'
60
0.5
U.J
f
to the
as
(16.7)
Example
16.1. A
ft uiJ."r
"ontuio,
tfi" UsC"b" i"llowed
for
ro.", ur"a ro. t c"rigor
"
+
I
1= 1.0
K=2.0
W
shell weight
n(30.52
weight of heads
30\(360)(490/1728): g7gs16
= (4/3)n(30.53 _
3O?)(4gO/
TZS\:
1630 lb
Figure
16.2
571
312
/, =
tAtt vrlstts
9.949161r
r = 0.0908
"
=r
16.3
= 43,400 in.a
(95.lx360f
(3di06x43/00 = o lo06
600)
0.2102;maximum is C
Azswer.'
0.12
v = (3/s)(t)(0.28)(34,24o) _
Answer:
16.3 WIND
3600 tb
Therefore, V
3600
lb
and
*"
M" = (3600)(20
;t;r""',,#;;i#loaoing.
of
For
rZ) = 864,000
in.{b
TOADING
16.3.1
wind loading and its applica:tion to i vessel. The two most widely used standards
are the ANSI A58.1 Code and the Uniform Building Code'
Although there are differences in tle procedure for determinilg the wind
betieen the ANSI A58'1 Code and the Uniform Building code' both
site'
methods use the same rnap for determining the wind velocity at the location
Code'
Building
Uniform
for
the
as shown in Fig. 16.3
When the ailst A58.1 Code is used, the basic equation for determining the
velocity pressure q, at various heights z is calculated from
;_i;:
Answer:
16.2
Two distinctly different kinds of design considerations are generated from wind
Ioading. First, the static force from the windloading pressure against the vessel
ou".toing moment that must be considered in designing tall vessels
"our"a'installed in the vertical position' The second consideration is the dynamic effect
from vorlex shedding of wind passing arcund the vessel'
loads
Problems
16.1
Problem 16.2?
573
CS
IOADING
Problem 16.1?
4=0. I
WIND
q"
*"
where q, = veloclty
=
y=
1
K,
0.OO256
K,(tv)2
pressure (Psf)
1'0
veloc8
(a)
Fig' 16'3
Pressure coefficient