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In vitro biometric analysis of enamel rod patterns submitted to high

temperatures for forensic identifications


ABSTRACT
Background: The enamel of teeth is a highly calcified structure in the body that
resists in extreme conditions including temperatures. Formation of enamel is
reflected on the outer surface of teeth as enamel rod patterns. These patterns are
unique to each individual and can be used as a valuable tool in forensic science for
personal identification. For this purpose, we studied the pattern of enamel rod on
teeth surface by using automated biometrics, analyzed and compared the various
patterns obtained after exposure to an experimental range of high temperatures.
Material and Methods: A total of 50 extracted maxillary central incisor teeth were
exposed to heat in a digital furnace at five different temperatures (200, 400, 600, 800
and 1000C). Enamel rod patterns were assessed on photograph of each tooth
before and after exposure. Digital images of the photographs were analyzed and
compared by using automated biometrics-based personal identification software
(Verifinger Demo 4.2 SDK). The software was able to identify the enamel rod
patterns and give similarity scores. Then the similarity scores between group were
analyzed with an analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Results: We expected that the similarity score of enamel rod patterns before and
after exposure will decrease along with the temperature rises.
Conclusion: The alterations of enamel rod patterns caused by incineration may
provide useful information about the temperature of exposure to fire. It can also
contribute additional investigate avenues in personal identification during forensic
investigations especially in burnt cases.
Keywords: forensic identification, teeth, enamel rod pattern, biometric, high
temperatures

PENGARUH PEMANASAN DENGAN SUHU TINGGI TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK


ENAMEL ROD GIGI UNTUK KEPENTINGAN IDENTIFIKASI FORENSIK
Effect of high temperatures on enamel rod patterns for forensic identifications

The alterations of enamel rod patterns caused by incineration may provide useful
information about the temperature of exposure to fire. It can also aid in
understanding the circumstances surrounding the fire.
The uniqueness of the tooth print could be used as a valuable tool in forensic
science for personal identification.
Enamel rod end patterns were assessed on photomicrograph of acetate peel
imprints. The photomicrographs were then subjected to biometric analysis using
Verifinger standard SDK version 5.0 software.
Before and after each exposure, enamel rod pattern of teeth were documented with
Canon EOS 60D DSLR camera and Canon EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro USM lens.
Digital images of the photographs were contrasted using ImageJ. After contrast
enhancement, the images were extracted on automated biometrics-based personal
identification software (Verifinger Demo 4.2 Sdk/Fingersec) similarity
As well as to compare the enamel rod pattern in
By using biometrics software in analyzing enamel rod end pattern
The similarity scores of the recording of each tooth was tabulated and statistically
analyzed using ANOVA test.
periapical radiographs of all the teeth were taken. The characteristic of enamel rod
pattern before and after exposure to heat were analyzed and compared from digital
images of the teeth photographs by using automated biometrics-based personal
identification software
Results: The general progression of the colour change from lower temperature to
higher was typical light yellow colour, yellowish brown, greyish brown, bluish grey
and neutral white. In radiographic evaluation we observed intact teeth at 100C, a
progressive formation of fissures at 300C and fractures between enamel and dentin
at 700C, large fractures spreading through the dentin and crown crushing at
1000C. Longitudinal and transverse cracks of root were observed at 1000C.

Conclusion: Morphologic and radiographic alterations caused by incineration may


provide useful information about the temperature and duration of exposure to fire. It
can also aid in understanding the circumstances surrounding the fire.
Keywords: Forensic science; Forensic odontology; Identification; Radiographs; High
temperatures
HSB were documented with a Pentax MZ-M photographic camera and ILFORD 50
ASA (Kodac). Digital images of the negatives were contrasted using the program
COREL PHOTO PAINT 9 (Corel Corporation). After contrast enhancement, the
images were extracted on automated biometrics-based personal identification
software (VERIFINGER DEMO 4.2 SDK/FINGERSEC) to similarity
To test the effect of tooth burning on the visualization of HSB, teeth were incubated
for 1 h in an oven at temperatures ranging from 100 to 500 0C.
The software provides a numeral score of similarity (bits). Higher scores are given
for more similar characters, and lower or negative scores for dissimilar characters.
A temperature-dependent decrease of enamel rod patterns similarity scores was
observed between the five temperature groups.
Comparison of the similarity scores of
Lower similarity score from lower temperature to higher was
Similarity score of enamel rod patterns was observed between the five temperature
groups
We expected a decline in similarity score of enamel rod patterns along with rising
temperature
Spectrophotometric analysis of color changes in teeth incinerated at
increasing temperatures
Color changes produced by histological alterations in burned teeth can provide
conclusive forensic information on the temperature of exposure. The objective was to
correlate heat-induced color changes in incinerated teeth with increases in
temperature (to 1200 8C). Spectrophotometry was used to measure lightness,
chromaticity (a* and b*), whiteness, and yellowness in 80 teeth heated at

temperatures of 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, or 1200 8C for 60 min. Chromaticity
a* was reduced at 100 8C and lightness at 200 and 400 8C, while chromaticity b*
and yellowness were reduced at 400 and 600 8C. Higher temperatures (800, 1000,
and 1200 8C) produced progressive increases in lightness and whiteness but
reductions in chromaticity b* and yellowness. The accuracy of color values to
determine the temperature of exposure was determined by Receiver Operating
Characteristic analysis. High accuracy was shown by lightness, chromaticity b* and
yellowness values for temperatures between 8008 and 1200 8C, by whiteness for
temperatures of 10008 and 1200 8C, and by lightness for temperatures of 2008 and
400 8C, with sensitivity and specificity values ranging from 90% to 100%. According
to these results, colorimetric analysis of incinerated teeth can be used to estimate
the temperature of exposure with high accuracy, with lightness being the most useful
variable.
Keywords: Color measurement, Spectrophotometer, High temperature, Color
changes, Teeth