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Heat Transfer

Tutorial 2

Heat is transferred from water to air through a brass wall (k = 54 W/m.K). The addition of
rectangular brass fins, 0.8 mm thick and 25 mm long, spaced 12.5 mm apart, is contemplated.
Assuming a water-side heat transfer coefficient of 170 W/m2 .K and an air-side heat transfer
coefficient of 17 W/m2 .K, compare the gain in heat transfer rate achieved by adding fins
(a) the water side
(b) the air side
(c) both sides
Neglect temperature drop through the wall and the heat loss through fin tips.
Ans: 5.9 %, 224 %, 296 %

An aluminium (k = 204 W/m.K) rod 25 mm in diameter and 150 mm long protrudes from
a wall maintained at 300 o C. The environment temperature is 38 o C. The heat transfer
coefficient along the rod surface and at the tip is 17 W/m2 .K. Using the fin equations
(a) An expression for the temperature distribution in the rod;
(b) The rate of heat transfer from the rod to the surroundings; and
(c) The temperatures at the base and tip of the rod.

One end of a 0.3 m long steel rod is connected to a wall at 204 o C, the other end is
connected to a wall that is maintained at 93 o C. Air is blown across the rod so that the heat
transfer coefficient of 17 W/m2 .Kis maintained over the entire surface. If the diameter of
the rod is 50 mm and the temperature of the air is 38 o C, what is the net rate of heat loss
to the air?

Figure 1: diagram for Question 3

(From Kreith & Bohn, Q2.33)

Heat Transfer - Tutorial 2

Ans: 74.4 W

A fuse wire of length 2L, and uniform cross sectional area A is clamped rigidly at its ends
and carries a current I. The supports and the surroundings are maintained at temperature
To . Electrical resistivity of the wire varies with temperature according to
= o [1 + (T To )]
where and are constants. Assume that the convective heat transfer coefficient, h, and
thermal conductivity of the wire, k, are constants.
(a) Derive the governing differential equation for the steady state temperature distribution
of the fuse wire. Hence, prove that a stable temperature is obtained if
hp >

I 2 o

where p is the perimeter of the wire.

(b) Obtain the steady stable temperature distribution in the fuse wire.
(c) Show that, if the melting temperature of the wire is Tm , the maximum steady current
that the wire can carry, I , is given by
I2 =

hp m2 kA

where m2 is (implicity) defined by

m2 kA (Tm To )
= 1
(hp m kA)
cosh mL

An electrical heater capable of generating 10 kW is to be designed. The heating element is

to be a stainless steel wire having an electrical resistivity of 80106 -cm. The operating
temperature of the stainless steel is to be no more than 1260 o C. The heat transfer coefficient
at the outer surface is expected to be no less than 1720 W/m2 .K in a medium whose
maximum temperature is 93 o C. A transformer capable of delivering current at 9 and
12 V is available. Determine a suitable size for the wire, the current required, and discuss
what effect a reduction in the heat transfer coefficient would have.
Hint: First demonstrate that the temperature drop between the centre and the surface of
the wire is independent of the wire diameter, and determine its value.
(From Kreith & Bohn, Q2.30)

A long 10 mm diameter electric copper cable is embedded in the centre of a 250 mm

square concrete block (k = 0.128 W/m.K). The outside temperature of the concrete is
25 o C and the rate of electrical energy dissipation in the cable is 150 W/m. Determine the
surface temperature of the cable.
The conduction shape factor for a long cylinder of diameter d within a solid block of side
length w is given by
ln 1.08

Heat Transfer - Tutorial 2

Ans: 639 o C

Steam at 100 o C flows in a pipe of diameter 25 mm parallel to a cold water line of diameter
50 mm at 15 o C. i The two pipes are buried in concrete (k = 0.87 W/m.K) with a centre
to centre distance of 50 mm. The convective heat transfer coefficients for the steam and
water are 200 W/m2 .K and 42 W/m2 .K, respectively.
(a) Calculate the conduction shape factor for the geometry.
(b) Draw the thermal network for the exchange of heat between the two fluids indicating
the values of thermal resistances.
Hence, calculate:
(c) the overall heat transfer coefficient (based on steam pipe area), and
(d) the heat transfer per metre length between the pipes.
Assume that the pipe walls are thin and the thermal conduction resistance of the walls is
The conduction shape factor for two long parallel cylinders of radii r1 and r2 buried in an
infinite medium is given by


H 2 r12 r22
2r1 r2

where H is the centre distance between the cylinder axes.

Ans: 3.763, 24.45 W/m2 .K, 163.2 W/m

Figure 2 shows a duct carrying a fluid, exposed to the ambient.

Figure 2: Heat loss from a fluid transported in a duct

(a) Draw a suitable thermal network for the problem.
(b) Determine the rate of heat loss from the fluid.
(c) Determine the temperatures at the inner and outer surfaces of the duct.
You will need to find suitable conduction shape factors.