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Bulk Carrier

CONTENTS
01 Feature
The Role of the Surveyor in Building Better Ships

06 History and Structure


Progress of Bulk Carriers

11 Focus
Rule C100
Technical Challenges and Daring Innovation

13 Report
The ClassNK Research Center
Column - Pitting Corrosion

15 Rule
Ship Condition Assessment Program (CAP)

17 Watch
CSR- bring changes to ship structural standards
ClassNK's Rule C100 project played an essential
part in their development

19 Service
CSR Related Services

20 Topics
21 World Class & NK Now

The Role of the Surveyor


The scope and extent of ClassNK survey and inspection services is increasing. Not only are more
ships being built, but shipyards are coming to rely more and more on the high quality services
offered by ClassNK. It is not uncommon to hear shipyard executives say things like We want
ClassNK to look after each and every ship we build in our yard, and ClassNK surveyors give us
01

Bulk Carrier

Feature

in Building Better Ships


advice on a number of important points and we regard ClassNK surveyors as our trusted advisors.
During a recent visit to one of Japans leading shipyards, we were able to watch a ClassNK surveyor in action. Even from just the short time we spent observing the ClassNK surveyor, the experience and expertise that have become the hallmark of ClassNKs reputation were readily apparent.
Bulk Carrier

02

03

Bulk Carrier

Feature

Profound Trust of Clients

uring our visit, one of the shipyards executives told


us, Weve learned a lot of things from ClassNK.
Building a ship is a step-by-step process and you
will find ClassNK surveyors offering their support at every
step along the way. The advice surveyors provide is indispensable to building better quality ships.
The amount of survey work being done by ClassNK surveyors is increasing every year. The most obvious reason
for this is the increase in the number of ships being built
to NK class. A decade ago, the shipyard we visited would
build 15 ships a year, but now they are building as many
as 22 ships in the same time span. Schedules are tight and
the yard is busy with activity. While a bulk carrier is being
assembled in the dry dock, blocks are being arranged and
taking up almost all the left over space. At the same time,
a bulk carrier that was just launched is now alongside the
fitting quay, its deck a flurry of activity as workers strive to
keep the outfitting work on schedule.

The schedule of the ClassNK surveyors at the shipyard is


just as busy. Ships on the weekly schedule are highlighted
with different colored pens to show which surveyor is in
charge of which ship. Survey work starts from very early
in the morning, and some surveys can take many hours to
complete. There are only a few open spaces on the schedule, and even as the demand for surveys increases, there is
little room to further streamline the workload. An exclusive surveyor in his early thirties working at the yard told us
fervently, I try to concentrate on carrying out each survey
one at a time. This helps keep me focused at all times. A
senior surveyor at the yard added that ClassNK surveyors
are always close by, and they observe everything closely,
even seemingly minor items, emphasizing quality and being
involved with even the smallest details.
This thoroughness in carrying out survey work is the
source of the trust that shipyards place in ClassNK, allowing them to say with confidence that they rely on ClassNK
surveyors and gladly look to them for advice and support.

Bulk Carrier

04

Feature

Widening Role of Class Surveyors

any shipyards already consider ClassNK surveyors to be their trusted advisors. A veteran
surveyor told us, Currently, our role as surveyors has definitely expanded to serving as advisors, as well.
The reason for this is that the job of the surveyors is no longer confined to just classification matters. Their work now
also covers ISM Code certification and work related to the
ISPS Code. As a result of the many marine casualties that
occurred in the 1990s, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) decided to make the ISM Code mandatory.
Under the ISM Code, shipping companies are required to
establish a Safety Management System (SMS) which must
be certified by the flag state or a recognized organization
working on its behalf. This work is often undertaken by
classification societies. In light of recent terrorist attacks,
the IMO has also made the ISPS Code mandatory in order
to increase maritime security. Certification of shipboard security systems in line with the ISPS Code is also now a job
undertaken by classification societies as recognized organizations of the flag state. At ClassNK, many surveyors undergo qualification training for ISM Code and ISPC Code
related certification, but for most surveyors, this is a job
that is done in addition to their ordinary class survey work.
Class surveyors are increasingly working as agents on behalf of flag states, and this is expanding the scope of each
individual surveyors work. As ClassNK surveyors take on
these roles, it is only natural that the shipyards would begin
to look to them as advisors as well as surveyors.

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Bulk Carrier

Why ClassNK is Trusted

oth shipyards and ClassNK are dedicated to the


construction of quality ships. ClassNKs younger
surveyors often remark that the senior staff stress
the importance of working together with the shipyard and
shipowner, and ClassNK surveyors are taught the most effective ways to promote the construction of quality ships.
Veteran, experienced senior surveyors work side by side
with younger surveyors and encourage them to join the
shipbuilding effort as part of a team.
Trust and confidence are developed through the effective
transfer of technology and a true dedication to quality service. It is these core principles that ClassNK maintains in
its approach towards class surveys that gives shipyards the
confidence to say, We want ClassNK to take care of each
and every ship we build at our yard.

History and Structure

The Development of Bulk Carriers


The Birth of the Bulk Carrier

ntil the middle part of the 20th century, the cargo


holds of ships carrying dry cargo were generally
partitioned into upper and lower holds. This was
convenient for the carriage of cargo in boxes and in bags,
and the partitioning deck itself contributed to the strength
of the hull structure. Bulk carriers with topside tanks did
not emerge until the 1950s. At the time, bulk cargo volumes

were increasing and there was a growing need for ships that
could carry loose, unpackaged dry cargos.
The first bulk carrier built in Japan was the Nichiryu Maru,
a twin engine twin shaft ship, fitted with two diesel engines,
with a length of 153 metres, breadth of 21 metres, depth
of 11.5 metres, and a deadweight of 15,368 tons. The ship
was designed to carry iron ore as its main cargo and was
completed at Nippon Kokans (NKK)
Shimizu Shipyard in August 1954.
The rst bulk carriers built by various Japanese shipyards
After the Nichiryu Maru, the conShip Name
Completion
Shipbuilder
DWT
Type
struction of bulk carriers to carry coal
Nichiryu Maru
1954
NKK Shimizu
15,368
Ore/Bulk
and grain became prominent in Japan
Nikitas Roussos
1960
Shin-MHI Kobe
21,110
Bulk
around 1960.
Laconia
1960
Harima S&E
20,853
Bulk
The table shows the first bulk carriAmorgos
1961
IHI Tokyo
22,850
Bulk
ers built at several of Japans leading
Bintan Maru
1961
Uraga Dock
15,355
Bulk
shipyards.
Moshill

1961

MHI Nagasaki

24,717

Bulk

Corsair
Eastern Sakura *7.5

1962

MES Tamano

24,911

Bulk

1962

Hakodate Dock

15,700

Log

Fugo Maru

1964

IHI Aioi

34,986

Bulk

Arthur Stone

1965

Hitachi Innoshima

39,277

Bulk

Aegean Sky

1966

MHI Yokohama/Hiroshima

40,783

Bulk

Source: Tsuneo Yoshiki, "Systematic Survey of the Development of Specialized Shipbuilding Technologies", National Museum of Nature and Science, Survey reports on the systemization of
technologies, vol. 5, 2005, p. 247.
*Note:

Topside tank = upper hopper ballast tank

The rst bulk carrier built in Japan - the


Nichiryu Maru, Nippon Kokan Shimizu
Shipyard Hull No. 110

Rational Structure

hip designers often say that the bulk carrier is a rational structure with a minimal amount of waste.
The triangular shaped topside tanks situated under
the main deck and the double bottom and hopper tanks at
the bottom of the ship help to strengthen the hull, enabling
the cargo holds to be made larger. Furthermore, the hold
structure makes it possible for the cargo to be loaded without the need for trimming, allowing bulk carriers to carry
large volumes of cargo efficiently.
It is important for ships carrying cargo in bulk to have

as large a hold capacity as possible, and current bulk carrier designs have been refined
to meet such objectives. Hopper tanks not only play a role in
strengthening the hull, but they
also make it easier to unload
cargo. This multi-functionality
is a perfect example of why the
bulk carrier is considered to be
an extremely rational structure. Single-Sided Bulk Carrier
Bulk Carrier

06

History and Structure


The illustration and description below shows a number of areas on bulk
carriers that require special attention
for maintenance and management.

Bulk carrier under construction

A Hatch corners are prone to cracking due to high stresses

Side shell

on the upper deck, the width of the opening, and discontinuity of the strength properties.
B The underside of the topside tank (upper deck) and
lower part of the topside tank are prone to corrosion.
C Due to the configuration of the single
Acid production process
side structure, proper
Coal
(self-heating)
maintenance of the
Moisture
frames inside the hold
is important from a
Condensation
strength point of view.
Sea water
(cool)
Once cracks develop
Reacts with sulfur
on the frames in the
in coal
hold, there is a conFormation of acids
cern that such cracks
may propagate to the
shell plate. Frames in
holds are likely to be

damaged during cargo handling, and the lower part in


particular is prone to corrosion and high stresses, as
well. When carrying coal especially, the moisture generated in the holds due to differences in the temperature in
the hold and the surrounding seawater will dissolve the
sulphur in the coal causing a chemical reaction that will
lead to the development of corrosion (see figure to the
right).
D Large stresses will occur at the bilge knuckle. There
are two types of knuckles. Welded knuckles are better
from a strength point of view, but need sufficient care
to maintain the required workmanship. In the case of
round knuckles, sufficient structural strength is achieved
through the addition of reinforcing stiffeners.
E End connecting parts of the side bulkheads are prone
to developing fatigue cracks due to the concentration
of stresses. Special attention is necessary for the ballast
holds, since larger loads will be generated when ballast
is loaded in the ballast holds.

Various Ship Types

efore the first oil shock, as ship sizes increased, a


large number of Ore / Bulk / Oil (OBO) carriers
capable of carrying not only coal and grain but
also iron ore and crude oil were built.
After the oil shock, crude oil trade volumes decreased,
but volumes of iron ore, coal and other dry bulk cargo increased, and combination carriers gradually became less

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Bulk Carrier

and less common. Over this same period, improvements


in ship design, as well as the introduction of high efficiency propellers, made energy efficient large bulk and iron
ore carriers more popular. As the variety of cargo types
increased and new trade routes developed, the structural
configurations of bulk carriers became more diverse.

The key characteristics of each bulk carrier type are shown below.

Ore Carriers

Open Hatch Bulk Carriers

Due to the high specific gravity of


the cargo, cargo holds are relatively
small and the side tanks are large.
During the 1970s, there were many
combination carriers with side tanks
used as oil tanks, but such ships are
seldom seen nowadays.

Wide hatch openings improve cargo


handling efficiency.
Possible to load super large size cargoes.
Cargoes other than bulk cargo, such
as pulp products, steel coils and
containers can be carried.

Wooden Chip Carriers

Double Side shell Bulk Carriers

Due to the low specific gravity of


the cargo, cargo holds are deep and
topside tanks are eliminated in order to increase hold volume.
Care is necessary for the reinforcement of the underside of the upper
deck, since deck cranes and belt
conveyors are generally fitted on
deck.
Lower ballast tanks are prone to
corrosion due to the relatively higher temperature of the chip cargo.
This type of carrier was once considered to be less versatile but its
use has expanded to include carrying cargos such as soybean meal.

Due to double side configuration, frames inside the hull can be


eliminated. This allows the strength
members to be protected from the
corrosive environment of the hold
while also improving cargo handling efficiency.
Just as with single sided bulk carriers, double hull bulk carriers need
to comply with the common structural rules.
Note) In 2002, requirements for double hull bulk carriers were adopted
as mandatory at IMO, but in 2004,
prior to the rule coming into effect,
the rule was changed and became
non-mandatory.

urrently, bulk carriers are commonly divided into


several standard categories, each with their own
popular trade names.

Handysize:

ama Canal. With a deadweight of around


80,000 tons.

Over-Panamax: Bulkers which are wider than Panamaxes


with a deadweight between 80,000 and

Bulk carriers with a deadweight range of

120,000 tons. Bulkers with dimensions suit-

10,000 to 50,000 tons belong to this catego-

able for transiting the new locks of the ex-

ry. The ships shallow draft allows it to enter

panded Panama Canal expansion scheduled

into various ports around the world. Smaller

for completion in 2015 are called Post-Panamaxes.

sized vessels below 30,000 deadweight tons


are called small handies, while vessels of

Capesize:

40,000 to 60,000 deadweight tons are called

100,000 tons and capable of entering the

handymaxes.

Lakesizes:

Also called Lakers. Handysize bulkers with

Ships with a deadweight of more than


port at Richards Bay, South Africa.

Dunkerquemax: Largest bulk carrier that can enter the port

a deadweight ranging from 20,000 to 27,000

at Dunkerque, France with a deadweight of

tons; the largest type of bulk carrier that can

about 170,000 tonnes.

pass through the St Lawrence Seaway which

Panamax:

calls for a draught of less than 7.925 metres.

There are other specific trade names given to some bulker

The largest bulk carriers (breadth of about

types that have have been designed and optimized to serve a

32.2 metres) that can pass through the Pan-

specific port.
Bulk Carrier

08

History and Structure


Tightening Rule Requirements
Bulk Carrier Safety

Requirements for a forecastle were implemented in order


to meet the required buoyancy standards during navigation
in heavy weather when the forward part of the ship would
be submerged by waves. It was also decided that the fittings
at the front of the ship should be strengthened to better resist the force of waves and prevent damage to the air pipes
and any flooding that could result from such damage.
any bulk carriers were believed to have sunk due
to corrosion on the frames inside the holds. It
was therefore decided that a permanent means
of access should be provided for spaces that were hard to
access and difficult to inspect and maintain. For existing
ships, a review of the strength of hold frames was made
to establish new standard strength criteria and standard
renewal criteria. While further safety improvements based
on a double side configuration, meant to eliminate hold
frames and free strength members from corrosive environments, were also agreed upon, but in the end those measures did not become mandatory.
In order to ensure the safety of the crew in the event of an
accident in low temperature water, requirements for freefall lifeboats and immersion suits for the full ships complement were also implemented.

owards the end of the 1980s, a number of bulk


carriers sank in a series of highly publicized maritime incidents. In response to these incidents, the
IMO adopted a set of amendments called the Enhanced
Survey Programme to the SOLAS Convention in order to
enhance bulk carrier inspection.
After the ESP came into force in January 1996, however,
the number of accidents did not decrease. This led to the
adoption of additional amendments to the SOLAS Convention and the introduction of further safety measures.
The new amendments form Chapter XII of the SOLAS
Convention and include new standards for flooding damage stability and other requirements.
In 1998, a new study seeking ways to further improve bulk
carrier safety was initiated under the auspices of the IMO.
The study was inspired by the accident report from the
1980 sinking of the bulk carrier Derbyshire and utilized a
holistic safety assessment method called the Formal Safety
Assessment (FSA). ClassNK contributed to the study as a
member of the Japanese Government team. As a result of
the study, after six years of deliberations new amendments
to SOLAS and the Load Line Conventions were adopted
in December 2004. IACS adopted its own additional safety
measures, as well.
The rules revisions from 1998 onwards are collectively
referred to as Bulk Carrier Safety requirements, which resulted in the application of the following safety measures
Bow height &
for bulk carriers.
reserve buoyancy,
forecastle
Requirements concerning spare
buoyancy and the strengthening
Fore deck ttings
Free-fall lifeboats
of hatch covers were implemented as measures against flooding
Immersion suits
Hatch covers and
securing mechanisms
of the forward part of the deck,
which was thought to be the funMeans of access
Water level detectors
damental cause of the sinking
of the Derbyshire. Further, requirements for the provision of a
flooding warning system (forward
area and cargo hold) and draining
Harmonized notations &
Water level detectors &
system were adopted to facilitate
Double side skin
design loading conditions
pumping arrangements
early discovery and action against
flooding.
Revision to Rules for Bulk Carrier Safety

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Bulk Carrier

Common Structural Rules (CSR)

round the year 2000, while bulk carrier safety discussions were still ongoing, IACS began studying
ways to improve the safety of tanker hull structures in response to a number of accidents involving oil
tankers. At this point, investigations into bulk carrier safety
were already well underway and IACS moved to include oil
tankers in its efforts as well. In 2003, as the investigations
into bulk carrier safety were coming to a close, IACS decided to proceed with the development of common structural
rules (CSR) for both bulk carriers and oil tankers. In so
doing, the individual structural rules of each classification
society were to be unified, with the hope of developing a
more rigorous and transparent set of rules.

After several years of study and discussions with various


parts of the maritime industry, IACS adopted the CSR in
December 2005 for application to new ships contracted after 1 April 2006.
Prior to IACSs descision to develop the CSR, ClassNK
was already engaged in its own Rule C100 Project (see page
11 for details), which aimed to develop more rational and
transparent rules for hull structures. ClassNK had already
developed advanced structural rules and hull structural
strength assessment methods as part of this project, and
consequently, ClassNK assumed a leading role in the development of the CSR.

Bulk Carrier

10

Focus

Rule C100
Technical Challenges
and Daring Innovation
When ClassNK commenced work on its Rule C100 Project some
ten years ago, it was the largest research and development project ever undertaken by the Society. This advanced structural
rule development project not only greatly improved ClassNKs
technical capabilities and expertise, but also greatly contributed to the development of the IACS Common Structural Rules.
Starting From Scratch

he Rule C100 project was


begun in 1997, with an eye
towards commemorating the
Societys 100th anniversary in 1999.
The project involved participants
from throughout ClassNKs many
departments, including staff from the
Development Department, Research
Institute, Hull Department, and Technical Investigation and Information
Department, among others. The project drew on the combined knowledge
and experience of the entire ClassNK
staff.
The purpose of the Rule C100
Project was to completely review
ClassNKs hull structure standards
and contribute to ship safety by developing a new set of advanced rules
for hull structures. The letter C was
used because the rules related to hull
structures come under part C of
the ClassNK Rules, and the number
100 stood for the 100 years since
ClassNKs establishment, and also
as a challenge to create a set of stan-

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Bulk Carrier

dards for the next 100 years, as well.

How Should a Hull


Structure Perform?

efore commencing work


on the Rule C100 Project, research staff from the
ClassNK Research Institute and the
Development Department began tackling questions such as how do waves
actually behave? and how should a
hull structure perform? One of the
key factors when developing rules
for hull structures is determining the
wave loads that the ship is expected to
endure, and the required dimensions
for hull structures largely depend on
this data. It was further decided that
a ship's hull should be able to survive
major accidents, such as deformation
from unexpectedly large waves, and
that a ship should not sink even if
it were to run aground. However, if
robustness were the only important
factor, the research teams would be
designing something more akin to a
warship than a merchant vessel.

The Rule C100 Project sought


answers as to what the most rational
rules for hulls structures should be,
and the project aimed to adapt these
answers to all major ship types such
as bulk carriers, tankers, and container ships. Determining the wave
loads would be the main prerequisite
to achieve this, but it was clear that
it was going to take an incredible
amount of effort and fortitude to
change the wave load parameters that
has been in use until then.

Changing the Wave Loads

efore work began on the Rule


C100 project, the ClassNK
rules had been based on research and analysis that reflected the
vast array of survey experience compiled by the Society. While such rules
were well balanced, there was no clear
correspondence between the rules and
certain scientific concepts and technical values. Despite the magnitude of
the task ahead of them, the researchers proceeded to establish a higher

ample, the effect of structural average


stress would be considered negligible
because of the initial residual stress,
but in cases of actual fatigue damage,
such effects are anything but negligible. This pushed the researchers at
ClassNK to develop a new practical
assessment method. The incredible
amount of data that ClassNK had in
its possession greatly contributed to
this development.

standard for wave loads.


The researchers decided the wave
loads for the new rules would be based
on a ship sailing in the North Atlantic
Ocean for 25 years. The North Atlantic is well known for boasting some
of the severest natural environmental
conditions to be found in the maritime world. Specifying the navigation area as the North Atlantic meant
that researchers had to consider that
waves could come from all directions,
and with a wildly changing variety of
lengths and heights. Additionally, actual waves are not simple structures,
but rather combinations of different
waves with different force components. A vast amount of calculation
would be necessary in order to faithfully represent real world conditions.

An Abundance of Data
from Actual Ships

hile proceeding with the vast


calculation work, ClassNK
began determining the effects of wave loads by focusing on the

waves which could severely affect hull


structures. The research was an incredibly rich and dense kind of analysis, compiling results from 3-dimensional whole ship structural analysis,
long-term stress prediction methods
using statistical analysis for longterm wave data, newly developed rationalised fatigue strength assessment
methods, buckling strength assessment methods, and longitudinal ultimate strength analysis methods, amid
a wide variety of tests and assessments. Furthermore, for certain hull
structural members, rationalised corrosion margin thickness assessments
derived from the statistical analysis
of plate thickness measurement data
were also included.
In the case of fatigue strength, it
had been acknowledged that existing
assessment methods could not adequately explain the nature of fatigue
damage on actual ships. With the
conventional fatigue strength assessment method for welded parts for ex-

One of the weaknesses commonly attributed to bulk carriers derives from


the diminution of the hold frames
due to corrosion. ClassNK surveyors
have traditionally paid close attention
to the condition of the hold frames
and carried out rigorous inspections.
As part of the new Rule C100 project,
however, a new corrosion model had
to be developed. This system would
utilize data taken from actual corroded samples and would apply statistical analysis as well as an examination
into how corrosion develops. This
research led to the development of a
new rational method for determining
corrosion levels.

A Technical Guidance
Becomes a Design Standard

he results of all these efforts became the Technical Guidance


on Hull Structural Strength
Assessment published by ClassNK
in 1999. The guidance details approaches to hull structural strength
assessment based on first principles.
Based on this technical guidance,
practical design standards were consecutively published, starting with the
Guidelines for Tanker Structures in
2001, followed by Guidelines for bulk
carriers in 2002, and container carriers in 2003.
The standards and guidelines developed as a result of the Rule C100
project not only greatly contributed to
ClassNK rules, but would also serve
as a foundation for the development
of the IACS CSR.
Bulk Carrier

12

Report

The ClassNK Research Center

Opened in Chiba in March 1993, the ClassNK Research Center combines the research capabilities of the ClassNK's Research Institute, formerly based in Mitaka, and the computer facilties
from the ClassNK Administration Center in Tokyo into a single, state-of-the-art research facility.

he ClassNK Research Center is equipped with the most


advanced testing facilities
available, and its testing laboratory
includes structural testing equipment,
electronic microscopes with scanning
capabilities, and equipment for oil
analysis among a wide variety of other testing equipment.
The Research Center undertakes a
wide range of the testing activities
that are expected of an international
classification society, such as large
scale structural analyses, research and
development for rules and regulations
in new fields, and analytical studies of information from NK classed
ships, thus playing a central role in
the technical and research activities
of ClassNK.
The Research Center consists of the
General Affairs Division, Develop-

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Bulk Carrier

ment Department, Offshore Technology Division, Research Institute, and


the Testing Machine Department.
The General Affairs Division takes
care of matters related to human resources, general affairs, welfare, and
budget administration and accounting for both the Research Center and
the adjacent Information Center.
The Development Department is in
charge of establishing the technical
rules which classification surveys, etc.
are based upon, as well as managing
research and development plans. The
department's work encompasses the
entire rule making process from devising and compiling of the rules, to
their revision and abolishment. The
Development Department is made
up of five different sections. Three of
these sections are rules related sections and respectively cover the rules

for the hull, rules for machinery, and


rules for equipment and materials.
The remaining two sections are the
Technical Analysis section and Technical Systems section, which jointly
develop waveload analysis and hull
structure analysis systems. These sections utilize these systems, as well as a
number of widely available computer
programs, to carry out technical calculations.
The Offshore Technology Division
engages in the research and study of
new technologies and standards for
offshore development and increased
utilization of the entire ocean.
The Research Institute is comprised
of four separate research divisions the hull related research division, the
machinery related research division,
the materials and equipment related
research division, and the rule related

research division, and their activities


cover a wide range of studies in the
fields of hull structural strength, ship
performance, outfitting and equipment, systems to ensure reliability
of the ships, and future technology
development, among others. The Research Institute also coordinates research projects being conducted at
the request of outside bodies.
The Testing Machine Department
administers the technical matters
related to the calibration of power
meters used for inspections of single
shaft test facilities, value settings of
test pieces used for Charpy impact
test machines and hardness testers,
accuracy management for the various
standard meters used for such testing,
and the inspection of testing facilities
for materials for marine and industrial use.

Pitting Corrosion Simulation

he ClassNK Research Institute has developed a simulation


method capable of realistically
reproducing actual pitting corrosion. Research on the configuration
of actual steel members with pitting
corrosion has been carried out, and the
simulation method has been confirmed
to effectively produce accurate simulations of pitting corrosion.
This simulation method is expandable
and can be used to develop models for
the generation and growth of pitting
corrosion, where the time of pit corrosion generation and the growth process
of pitting corrosion will depend on the
introduction of probability models. Basically, when pitting corrosion grows, it
exhibits a conical shape with an average
diameter-depth ratio of 8:1. This is due

to the fact that, as the pitting corrosion


grows, peripheral areas of the pit will
smoothen, and the rate of corrosion in
terms of depth will diminish and this
slowing eventually reaches a constant
state of slow corrosion. This slowing
phenomenon is an important part of the
simulation model.
By conducting strength assessments of
the steel members in the states of corrosion reproduced by this simulation
method, it is possible to further study the
relationship between the state of corrosion and member strength. Furthermore,
it was discovered that a dimensional effect of pitting corrosion on steel members is evident when the dimensions are
small, but when the dimensions become
relatively large (500mm 500mm) such
effects become negligible.

Bulk Carrier

14

Rule

Ship Condition Assessment

s long as ships are operated properly and


the actual state of a ships structures and
equipment are monitored and inspections
and maintenance are carried out in a timely manner, ships can be kept in good condition and continue to operate safely.
Ships undergo periodical inspections in order to
confirm their compliance with the technical rules and
regulations laid out by international conventions and
classification societies. However, these inspections are
only meant to ensure that the ship satisfies certain
standards of soundness and comply to rule requirements. Detailed assessment of the ships condition are
normally not made during such inspections.
However, such detailed inspections are necessary for
shipowners to effectively maintain ships throughout
their service lives.
ClassNKs Condition Assessment Program (CAP)
is a specially developed inspection program that provides shipowners with information on the condition
of their ship via hull structural strength assessments,
fatigue assessments, and the results from detailed inspections of the hull, machinery, deck machinery, cargo handling gear, etc.. Undergoing a CAP inspection
provides shipowners the data and tools to develop a
thorough understanding of their ships condition.
CAP consists of two different condition assessment
surveys. At the discretion of the owner, these two surveys can be conducted independently or in tandem.
(1) CAP-HULL
(Condition Assessment for Hull Structures)
(2) CAP-MACHINERY / CARGO SYSTEM
(Condition Assessment for Machinery and Cargo
Systems)

15

Bulk Carrier

he results of the assessment are provided by assigning an accurate rating for each survey item.
The definition of each rating is shown below

(1) CAP-HULL RATING


(a) Rating Level l:
Very Good Condition
Compared to either the condition at the start of service or the scantling dimensions required by the current
rules in force, only superficial deterioration was found
on the item during inspection and/or measurement.
There is no need for maintenance or repair.
(b) Rating Level 2: Good Condition
Minor defects which do not require corrections or repairs were found on items during inspection and/or all
plate thickness measurements show substantial margins
over the maximum permissible diminution standard
specified by class requirements.
(c) Rating Level 3: Satisfactory Condition
Defects which do not require urgent corrections or repairs were found, or while a fair amount of corrosion
was found, the plate thickness is above the maximum
permissible diminution standard specified by class requirements.
(d) Rating Level 4: Unsatisfactory Condition
One or more defects that prevent the ship from meeting
class requirements were found on items during inspection and measurement, or plate thickness in a number
of areas does not conform to the maximum permissible
diminution standard specified by class requirements.

Programme (CAP)

(2) CAP-MACHINERY / CARGO SYSTEM RATING


(a) Rating Grade 1: Very Good Condition
No performance affecting defects were found during the inspections or effectiveness tests of the items
or systems. Upkeep records and maintenance practices
are considered to be good. There is no need for maintenance or repair.
(b) Rating Grade 2: Good Condition
Several minor, non-performance affecting defects
were found during the inspections or effectiveness tests
of the items or systems. Upkeep records and maintenance practices are considered to be adequate. There is
no urgent need for maintenance or repair.
(c) Rating Grade 3: Satisfactory Condition
Defects were found during the inspections or effectiveness tests of the items or systems but they do not
greatly affect performance. Upkeep records and maintenance practices meet minimum requirements. Some
maintenance work or repairs are necessary.

Unsatisfactory Condition
(d) Rate Grade 4:
Defects which greatly affect performance were found
during the inspections or effectiveness tests of the items
or system. Upkeep records and maintenance practices
are considered to be unsatisfactory.

W
T

hen the CAP survey is completed, a


CAP Certificate will be issued showing
the overall rating of the ship (Overall
Rating for CAP-HULL and/or CAPMACHINERY/CARGO SYSTEM).

he following detailed assessment results


and related records will accompany the
CAP Certificate.

(1) CAP-HULL
(a) Overall Assessment and Assessment of
Hull Strength Study for each structural part
(b) Inspection Report
(c) Fatigue Strength Study Report
(d) Corrosion Protection Assessment
(e) Photographic Report
(f) Plate Thickness Measurement Records

(2) CAP-MACHINERY/CARGO SYSTEM


(a) CAP-MACHINERY/CARGO
SYSTEM Assessment for each item
(b) Inspection Report
(c) Photographic Report
The Condition Assessment Programme (CAP)
service provided by ClassNK meets the approval
of RightShip (ship vetting company).

Bulk Carrier

16

Watch
Background to the CSR

ACS made the decision to develop the CSR for bulk


carriers and oil tankers in 2003. Prior to this, each
of the IACS member societies had been working independently to improve the safety of ship hull structures.
The move to work collectively to improve ship safety was
due in part to the oil spills caused by consecutive tanker
accidents and the sinking of several aging bulk carriers.
These accidents drew the attention of the public, and the
IMO moved to address these issues. The IMO began by
requiring tankers to have double-hulls and enforcing more
stringent inspections of bulk carriers, as well as introducing
higher structural strength requirements to address flooding
accidents. Despite these efforts, a number of accidents still
occurred. Foremost among these were accidents involving
the tankers Erika, which sank off the French coast in December 1999, and Prestige, which sank in November 2002.
These accidents highlighted the need to improve ship safety as soon as possible, and IACS set out to develop the
CSR in light of these circumstances. ClassNK had already
begun working on its own improvements to ship hull safety

when it began work on its Rule C100 project in 1998. It was


only natural then, that ClassNK would play a central role
within IACS in the development of the CSR.

The CSR - an undertaking of


unprecedented magnitude

rior to the development of the CSR by IACS,


various rule-making efforts were underway at a
number of class societies. Among IACS members, Lloyd's Register (LR), American Bureau of Shipping
(ABS), and Det Norske Veritas (DNV) jointly started a
program to develop common rules for oil tankers in July
2002. This project was called the LAN project, the three
letters being taken from the names of the three societies.
On the other side of the world, ClassNK, China Classification Society (CCS) and the Korean Register of Shipping
(KR) joined together to form the A3 project in September
2002. The A3 project aimed to develop a common set of
guidelines for structural strength based on the results of
the Rule C100 project.

New CSR bring changes to ship structural standards

ClassNK's Rule C100 project


played an essential part in
their development

Sample of input screens and calculation screens

17

Bulk Carrier

In Europe, public scrutiny of the IMO greatly intensified


after the sinking of the Erika and the Prestige. The IMO responded by establishing Goal-Based Standards, which are
standards intended to achieve certain goals rather than just
establish certain baselines for safety. IACS in turn, committed itself to developing the CSR in June 2003 for bulk carriers and oil tankers. The CSR represent a single set of rules,
covering all aspects of hull structures, to be shared among
all of the IACS member societies. This was an undertaking
of unprecedented magnitude and certainly one of the largest developments since the founding of IACS.

ClassNK:
Leadership and Contribution

s the development of a set of common rules for


oil tankers was already being undertaken by the
LAN project participants, IACS arranged for development to continue under a new name, the Joint Tanker
Project (JTP). At the same time, the A3 project members
joined together with the UNITAS project formed by Bureau Veritas (BV), Registro Italiano Navale (RINA) and
Germanischer Lloyd (GL) to proceed with the develop-

ment of CSR for bulk carriers as part of the Joint Bulker


Project (JBP) in October 2003.
ClassNK took a leadership role in the JBP by using the
knowledge gained from ClassNK's Rule C100 project. The
results from the Rule C100 project became a cornerstone
of the CSR for bulk carriers, especially with regards to corrosion margins, design loads, and fatigue strength assessment. ClassNK's position as chair of the IACS Hull Panel
helped to further ensure the successful development of the
new CSR.
As a result of IACS energetic approach to common rule
development, the CSR for bulk carriers and oil tankers were
adopted unanimously by the IACS Council in December
2005. At that time, the two sets of CSR were harmonized
with regards to corrosion margins and ultimate strength in
longitudinal bending, but the rules could not be completely
harmonized in other areas such as design loads and fatigue
strength. IACS, however, has made harmonization of the
two sets of rules one of its long term goals, and ClassNK is
once again taking a leadership role in this process.

One development that has certainly drawn the attention of the shipping and shipbuilding industries
over the past few years has been the introduction of the IACS Common Structural Rules (CSR). The
CSR represent IACS's greatest undertaking since its founding. The CSR are a dramatic achievement,
not only in the way they are affecting ship structure and design, but in the sense that for the rst time
standards have been unied among the class societies. Thanks to research and development on Rule
C100, ClassNK was able to play a central role in the development and implementation of the IACS CSR.

Scantling denition for transverse bulkhead

Scantling denition at forward section


Bulk Carrier

18

Service
CSR Related Services

Vast amount of research data leads to


release of CSR compatible software
Based on vast amounts of data accumulated
through research and survey work, ClassNK
has developed and released a new software
system, PrimeShip-HULL (CSR), for use with
the IACS Common Structural Rules (CSR).

n December 2005, concurrent with the adoption of


the CSR by IACS, ClassNK released new rule calculation software allowing for direct strength calculations using finite element method (FEM) analysis compatible with the new bulk carrier CSR. Direct calculation
software for the tanker CSR was released to the public in
June 2006. The software has since been further enhanced
in response to client feedback received since the CSR were
implemented in April 2006. The latest version of the calculation software, PrimeShip-HULL (CSR), was released in

Sample of PrimeShip-HULL (CSR) input screens

September 2007, and not only combines the software for


both the tanker CSR and bulk carrier CSR into a single
software package, but also includes a number of improvements to overall usability.
PrimeShip-HULL(CSR) consists of two systems: the
Rule Calculation System and the Direct Calculation System. With the Rule Calculation System, users can input hull
cross-section information in to the system and hull crosssection calculations, longitudinal strength calculations,
local strength assessments, fatigue strength assessments,
and buckling strength assessments can be carried out to
obtain data necessary for complying with the CSR. The
Direct Calculation System is a tool used to directly carry
out structural analysis via finite element analysis (FEA)
and strength assessment. Assessments of hull structural
strength can be achieved by ensuring that the results from
direct calculations are in line with the CSR requirements.
A dedicated web-based support service is also available
for users of the PrimeShip-HULL(CSR) software system.

Output screen of calculation results (Displacement)

To obtain the software, contact: ClassNK Hull Department


Telephone: +81-(0)3-5226-2017/2018
Fax:
+81-(0)3-5226-2019
E-mail:
hld@classnk.or.jp

For further details on the software, contact: ClassNK Development Department


Telephone: +81-(0)43-294-4970 (dedicated line for PrimeShip-HULL)
Fax:
+81-(0)43-294-6924
E-mail:
primeship-hull@classnk.or.jp

19

Bulk Carrier

Topics
Mr. Ueda becomes the new Chairman and President of ClassNK

n 1 March 2008, Noboru Ueda


became the new Chairman
and President of ClassNK.
During a press conference held on
6 March, he explained his intention
to expand ClassNKs overseas service
network, noting in particular his plans
to increase the number of surveyors
and offices in China. He further stated
his intention to strengthen the presence of ClassNK as the world's top
classification society and to intensify
the Societys international efforts including its activities at IACS and the
IMO. ClassNK already works closely
with the China Classification Society
(CCS) and Korean Register of Shipping (KR), but Chairman and President Ueda also indicated future plans

New Chairman and President Ueda (center) at a press conference on May 6

to more actively exchange views and


work with other classification societies such as those in India, Vietnam,

Indonesia, and Russia, in order to


promote stronger ties within the
Asian maritime community.

Notable events in 2008

lassNK participates in numerous international maritime


events each year. In 2008 the

SEA JAPAN 2008

Society participated in the following


exhibitions.

GASTECHBangkok
VietShipHanoi
CMA ShippingStamford
Asia Pacific MaritimeSingapore
SEA JAPANTokyo
ShiptekKochi
PosidoniaAthens
Asia Maritime and LogisticsKuala Lumpur
China (Nangton) International Ship Industry ExpoNantong
SMMHamburg
Shiport ChinaDalian
Seatrade Middle East MaritimeDubai

Bulk Carrier

20

World
Class
www.classnk.or.jp
Plan Approval Center

Oslo
Copenhagen
Newcastle
Gdansk
Hamburg
London
Milford Haven
Rotterdam
Antwerp
Genova
Bilbao
Marseille
Barcelona
Lisbon
Cadiz

Constantza

Piraeus
Amman

Las Palmas

Beijing
Dalian
Tianjin
Ulsan
Seoul
Qingdao
Mokpo Busan
Tokyo/Chiba
Shanghai Koje
(Head Ofce)
Zhoushan

Istanbul

Alexandria

Kuwait

Jeddah

Dubai
Mumbai
(Bombay)

Taipei
Dhaka
Guangzhou
Kaohsiung
Haiphong
Hong Kong
Visakhapatnam

Kochi

Chennai
(Madras)

Bangkok Nha Trang Manila


Batangas
Ho Chi Minh Cebu

Miri
Kota Kinabalu
Kuala Lumpur Johor Bahru
Batam Singapore
Balikpapan
Jakarta

Cape Town

Durban

Surabaya

Fremantle
Melbourne

NK Now

104 Locations
B

y the end of August 2008, the ClassNK service network had grown to a total of 104
exclusive service sites. This includes 21 service sites in Japan and a total of 83 service
sites in key locations around the world, with Kochi in India, Tianjin and Zhoushan in
China, and Mokpo in Korea being the latest additions. In addition to this service network,
ClassNK also maintains a total of 21 international committees so that the Society can
exchange information and ideas with maritime leaders throughout the world. The Society
established its newest committee, the Middle-East Technical Committee at the end of 2007.
In order to provide better local service customer oriented service, ClassNK established
three new plan approval centers in Istanbul, Mumbai and Busan in 2008. These centers
join the Societys existing plan approval centers in Tokyo, Singapore and Shanghai, allowing plan approvals to be conducted quickly and effectively around the globe.

21

Bulk Carrier

Vancouver
Seattle

Montreal
New York
Norfolk

Los Angeles
Houston

New Orleans
Miami

Veracruz

Panama

Guayaquil

Rio de Janeiro
Santos
Brisbane
Sydney

Valparaiso
Auckland

160
A

Million
gross tons

t the end of November 2008, ClassNK had 7,017 ships on its register, totaling some 160,522,744 gross tons. ClassNK is the first classification society
in the world to surpass the 160 million gross ton mark for tonnage registered under class and ClassNK remains the worlds largest classification society in terms
of gross tons. On a tonnage basis, more than 20% of the worlds fleet is registered
with ClassNK. 549 newbuildings totaling 14,420,125 gross tons were registered
to ClassNK in 2007, surpassing the previous record set in 2006 by more than
120,000 gross tons. When combined with other ships newly registered during the
year, a record 584 ships totaling 14,978,670 gross tons were added to the ClassNK
register in 2007. Due to the large number of newbuildings registered, the ClassNK
fleet continues to be comparatively young with an average age of 11.1 years.

Buenos Aires

51%
B

ulk carriers account for more than


half of the ClassNK fleet, representing 51% of the register in terms of gross
tons. ClassNK also classes the worlds
largest share of bulk carriers - roughly
one-third of the worlds bulk carriers
under class are registered with ClassNK.
Bulk carriers of all sizes are registered
with ClassNK with nearly 75% all postPanamaxes and nearly half of all VLOCs
registered with the Society.
Bulk Carrier

22

4-7, Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8567 JAPAN


Tel : +81-3-3230-1201 Fax : +81-3-5226-2012
URL : www.classnk.or.jp