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2.

3.

4.

Division of the tract into simple figures( triangles, rectangles, and trapezoids)

Offset from a straight line

Coordinates

Double-meridian distances

A tract can usually be divided into simple geometric figures such as triangles,

rectangles, or trapezoids. The sides and angles of these figures can be observed in

the field and their individual areas calculated and totaled. An example of a parcel

subdivided into triangle is shown in the figure below.

Formulas for computing areas of rectangles and trapezoids are well known. The area

of a triangle whose lengths of sides are known can be computed by the formula

where a, b, and c are the lengths of sides of the triangle and s = (a+b+c).

Another formula for the area of a triangle is

The choice of whether to use either of this equation will depend on the triangle

parts that are most conveniently determined; a decision ordinarily dictated by the

nature of the area and the type of equipment available.

Area by Offsets from Straight Lines

Irregular tracts can reduced to a series of trapezoid by observing right-angle offsets

from points along a reference line. The reference line is usually marked by

stationing, and positions where offsets are observed are given by their stations and

pluses. The spacing between offsets may be either regular or irregular, depending

on the conditions. This two cases are discussed in the subsections that follow.

a. Regularly Spaced Offsets

Offset at regularly spaced intervals are shown in the figure below. For this

case, the area is found by the formula.

Where b is the length of a common interval between offsets, h0, h1, ,hn are

the offsets. The regular interval for the example shown on the figure below is

half a station or 50-ft.

Example:

Compute the area of the tract shown in the figure 2.

Solution:

Area = 50( 0 + 5.2 + 8.7 + 9.2 + 4.9 + 10.4 + 5.2 + 12.2

+2.8/2 )

= 2860 ft2

In this example, a summation of offsets (terms within parentheses) can be secured

by the paper-strip method, in which the area is plotted to scale and the mid-

strip of paper. The area is then obtained by making a single measurement between

the first and last tick marks, multiplying by the scale to convert it to a field distance,

and then by multiplying by width b.

For irregularly curved boundaries like that in figure below, the spacing of

offsets along the reference lines varies. Spacing should be selected so that

the curved boundary is accurately defined when adjacent offset points on it

are connected by straight lines. A formula for calculating area for this case is

where a, b, c, are varying offset spaces, and h0, h1, h2, are the observed

offsets.

Example:

Compute the area of the tract shown in the figure 3.

Solution:

Area = [60(7.2 + 11.9) + 80(11.9 + 14.4) + 100(14.4 + 6.0) +

30(6.0 + 6.1)

+ 105(6.1 + 11.8) + 60(11.8 + 12.4)]

= 4490 ft2

Area by Coordinates

Computation of are within a closed polygon is most frequently done by the

coordinate method. In this procedure, coordinates of each angle point in the figure

must be known. They are normally obtained by traversing, although any method

that yields the coordinates of these points is appropriate. If traversing is used,

coordinates of the stations are computed after adjustment of the departures and

latitudes. The coordiate method is easily visualized; it reduces to one simple

equation that applies to all geometric configurations of closed polygons.

The procedure for computing areas by coordinates can be developed with reference

to figure 4. As shown in that, it is convenient toadopt a reference coordinate system

with X and Y axes passing through the most southerly and the most westerly

stations, respectively. Lines BB, CC, DD, and EE in the figure are constructed

perpendicular to the Y axis. These lines create a series of trapezoids and triangles

(shown by different color shadings). The area enclosed with traverse ABCDEA can

be expressd in terms of the areas of these individual trapezoids and triangles.

AreaABCDEA = EEDDE + DDCCD - AEEA - CCBBC ABBA

(1)

The area of each trapezoid, for example EEDDE can be expressed in terms of

lengths as

AreaEEDDE = EE + DD x ED

2

In terms of coordinate values, this same area EEDDE is

AreaEEDDE = XE + XD (YE - YD)

2

coordinates in a similar manner. Substituting these coordinate expressions into

Equation 1, multiplying 2 to clear fractions, and rearranging

(2)

The equation above can be reduced to an easily remembered form by listing the X

and Y coordinates of each point in succession in two columns, as shown in the

equation below, with the coordinates of the starting point repeated at the end. The

products noted by diagonal arrows are ascertained with dashed arrows considered

plus and solid ones minus. The algebraic summation of all products is computed

and its absolute value divided by 2 to get the area.

(3)

The procedure indicated in Equation (3) is applicable to calculating any size

traverse. The following formula, easily derived from Equation (2), is a variation that

can also be used.

(4)

Example:

The figure below illustrates the same traverse as Figure 4. The computations in the

table apply to this traverse. Coordinate values shown in the below, however, result

from shifting the axes so that XA = 0.00 (A is the most westerly station) and Y C =

0.00 (C is the most southerly station). This was accomplished by subtracting

10,000.00 (the value of XA) from all coordinates, and subtracting 4408.22 (the value

of YC) from all Y coordinates. Compute the traverse Area by coordinate method. All

units are in feet.

The area within a closed figure can also be computed by the double-meridian

distance (DMD) method. This procedure requires balanced departures and latitudes

of the tracts boundary lines, which are normally obtained in traverse computations.

The DMD method is not as commonly used as the coordinate method because it is

not as convenient, but given the data from an adjusted traverse, it yield the same

answer. The DMD method is useful for checking answers obtained by coordinate

method when performing hand computations.

By definition, the meridian distance of a traverse course is the perpendicular

distance from the midpoint of the course to the reference meridian. To ease the

problem of signs, a reference meridian usually is placed the most westerly traverse

station.

In the figure 6, the meridian distances of courses AB, BC, CD, DE, and EA are MM,

PP, QQ, RR, and TT, respectively. To express PP in terms of convenient distances,

MF and BG are drawn perpendicular to PP. Then

PP

PF + FG + GP

departure of BC

Thus, the meridian distance for any course of a traverse equals the meridian

distance of the preceding course plus one half the departure of the preceding

course plus half the departure of the course itself. It is simpler to employ full

departures of courses. Therefore, DMDs equal to twice the meridian distances that

are used, and a single division by 2 is made at the end of the computation.

Based on the consideration described, the following general rue can be applied in

calculating DMDs: The DMD for any traverse course is equal to the DMD of the

preceding course, plus the departure of the preceding course, plus the departure of

the course itself. Signs of the departures must be considered. When the reference

meridian is taken through the most westerly station of a closed traverse and

calculations of the DMDs are started with a course through that station, the DMD of

the first course is its departure. Applying these rules, for the traverse in Figure 6

DMD of AB = departure of AB

DMD of BC = DMD of AB + departure of AB + departure of BC

A check on all computations is obtained if the DMD of the last course, after

computing around the traverse, is also equal to its departure but has the opposite

sign. If there isadifference, the departures were notcorrectly adjusted before

starting, or a mistake was madein the computations. With reference to Figure 12.6,

the area enclosed by taverse ABCDEA may be expressed in terms of trapezoid areas

(shown by different color shading) as

Area = EEDDE + CCDDC (ABBA + BBCCB + AEEA)

The area of each figure equals the meridian distance of a course times its balanced

latitude. For example, the area of trapezoid CCDDC = QQ x CD, where QQ and

C D are the meridian distance and latitude, respectively, of line CD. The DMD of a

course multiplied by its latitude equals double the area. Thus, the algebraic

summation of all double areas gives twice the area inside the entire traverse. Signs

of the products of DMDs and latitudes must be considered. If the reference line is

passed through the most westerly station, all the DMDs are positive. The products of

DMDs and north latitudes are therefore plus and those of DMDs and south latitudes

are minus.

Example:

Using the balanced departures and latitudes listed in the table below for the

traverse of the figure 6, compute the DMDs of all courses.

Solution:

Computation of DMD

Example:

Using the DMD determined in the previous problem, calculate the area within the

traverse.

Computation of Area by DMD

SOLUTION

Computation for area by DMDs are generally arranged as in Table 12.4, although a

combined form may be substituted. Sums of positive and negative double areas are

obtained, and the absolute value of the smaller subtracted from that of the larger.

The result is divided by 2 to get the area (272,600 ft) and by 43,560 to obtain the

number of acres (6.258). note that the answer agrees with the one obtained using

the coordinate method.

If the total of minus double areas is larger than the total of plus values, it signifies

only that DMDs were computed by going around the traverse in a clockwise

direction.

AREA OF PARCELS WITH CIRCULAR BOUNDARIES

The area of a tract that has a circular curve for one boundary, as in Figure 12.7, can

be found by dividing the figure into two parts: polygon ABCDEGFA and sector EGF.

The radius R = EG = FG and either central angle = EGF or

and central angle are known, then the area of sector is

EGF =

R (

)

360

used to calculate the sector area. To obtain the tracts total area, the sector area is

added to area ABCDEGFA found by either the coordinate or DMD method.

Another method that can be used is to compute the area of the traverse ABCDEFA,

and then add the area of the segment, which is the region between the arc and

chord EF. The area of segment is found as

Area of segment = 0.5R( sin )

Where is expressed in radian units.

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