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0.1

Algebraic techniques

You can simplify algebraic fractions by using


common denominators.

FP2

EXAMPLE 1

Simplify

See C3 and C4 for revision.


This section provides
background knowledge
for Chapters 1, 2, 3 and 6.

4 + 3
x +1 x + 2

Rewrite the fractions so that they each have denominator (x + 1)(x + 2):

4 + 3 4(x + 2) + 3(x + 1)
x + 1 x + 2 (x + 1)(x + 2) (x + 1)(x + 2)
Add the numerators:

4(x + 2) + 3(x + 1)
(x + 1)(x + 2)

Simplify:

7x + 11
(x + 1)(x + 2)

Hence

4 + 3
7x + 11
x + 1 x + 2 (x + 1)(x + 2)

means is equivalent to.

You can split an algebraic fraction into its partial fractions.


EXAMPLE 2

Express

5x 1
as the sum of partial fractions.
(x + 1)(x 1)

Write the fraction in the required form:

5x 1
A + B
(x + 1)(x 1) (x + 1) (x 1)

A and B are constants.

A(x 1) + B(x + 1)
(x + 1)(x 1)

Compare numerators:

5x - 1 A(x - 1) + B(x + 1)

Substitute appropriate values of x into this identity to find A and B:

When x = 1, 4 = A(1 - 1) + B(1 + 1)


i.e.
4 = 2B
so B = 2
Similarly, when x = -1
Hence, in partial fractions,

A=3
5x 1
3 + 2
(x + 1)(x 1) (x + 1) (x 1)

Denominators are equal so the


numerators must also be equal.
You could also find A and B
by comparing coefficients in
the identity
5x - 1 A(x - 1) + B(x + 1)

0 Background knowledge for unit FP2

You can rearrange an expression involving an algebraic fraction.


EXAMPLE 3

Make x the subject of the equation y = 2x + 1


x 1

Multiply both sides of the equation by the denominator (x - 1):

y = 2x + 1

so

x 1

y(x - 1) = 2x + 1

Expand the bracket and collect terms in x:

yx - 2x = y + 1
i.e.

(y - 2)x = y + 1
x = y +1

so

y2

You can expand expressions of the form (1 + x)n, where n is not a


positive integer, by using the binomial theorem.

FP2

EXAMPLE 4

a Expand (1 + 2x)2 in ascending powers of x up to and


including the term in x2.
b By substituting x = 1 into your expansion, estimate the
4

value of 1.5.
Give your answer to 2 decimal places.

a Apply the binomial theorem (1 + x)n = 1 + nx + n(n 1) x 2 + ... :

( 1 )( 12 ) (2x) + "

(2)

1
(1 + 2x)2 = 1 + 1 (2x) + 2

2!

2!

= 1 + x 1 x2 + "
2

b Substitute x =

( ( ))
1+ 2 1
4

i.e.

1
2

1 into the approximation


(1 + 2x) 2 1 + x 1 x 2 :
4
2

2(4)

1+ 1 1 1
4

1.5 1.21875

()

1 2

1 + 2
= 1.5
4

Hence 1.5 1.22 (to 2 decimal places)

0 Background knowledge for unit FP2

You can use the binomial theorem to find the expansion of an


algebraic fraction.
EXAMPLE 5

Express

x as a series of ascending powers of x up to and


1 x

including the term in x4.

x = x(1 x)1
1 x

Use the binomial theorem to expand (1 x) 1:

(1 x)1 = 1 + (1)(x) + ( 1)( 2) (x)2 + ( 1)( 2)( 3) (x)3 + "

2!

3!

= 1 + x + x2 + x3 + "
Multiply through by x:

x (1 x) 1 = x (1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + ")
= x + x2 + x3 + x4 + "

FP2

Hence

The expansion is valid


for -1 < x < 1.

x = x + x2 + x3 + x4 + "
1 x

Exercise 0.1
1 Simplify these expressions.
Factorise your answers as far as possible.
a

2 + 4
x + 2 x 1
x

c x + 3 + x +1
e

3 1
x 4 x +1

d 2x + 1 +
x +1

1
2x 1

x 1
x + 4 x +1

2 Express these fractions in partial fractions.


a

4x + 3
(x + 2)(x 3)

c 5x2 6

x 4

x+2
(x + 4)(x + 3)

x2 7
(x 2 1)(x + 2)

3 Rearrange these equations to make x the subject.


3x
2x 1

b y = 2x + 3

c y = 2x + 1

d y = 1 3x

a y=

x +1

4x

3x + 1

0 Background knowledge for unit FP2

4 Use the binomial theorem to express these functions as a series


of ascending powers of x up to and including the term in x3.
a (1 + x)-1
b

1
(1 + 2x)3
2

c (1 3x)3
1
5 It is given that (1 + x)2 = 1 + 1 x 1 x 2 + 1 x 3 "

16

1
4x)2

a Find the expansion of (1 +


in ascending powers of
x up to and including the term in x3.

Replace x with 4x in the


given expansion.

b By substituting the value x = 1 into your expansion in


8

part a estimate the value of 2.


Give your answer to 2 decimal places.
6 Express these functions as ascending powers of x up to and
including the term in x3.
x
(1 + 2x)2

x 1
1+ x

FP2

4x + 3
(1 + 3x)(1 2x)

0.2

Inequalities

You can use a graphical approach to solve an inequality.

See C2 for revision.


This is background knowledge
for Chapter 1.

EXAMPLE 1

Use a graphical approach to solve the inequality x2 - 5x + 4 < 0

x2 - 5x + 4 (x - 1)(x - 4)
The graph cuts the x-axis when y = 0
i.e when (x - 1)(x - 4) = 0
The graph has roots x = 1, x = 4.

Sketch the graph with equation y = x2 - 5x + 4:


y

The inequality x2 - 5x + 4 < 0 has solution 1 < x < 4.

x2 - 5x + 4 < 0 is satisfied by
values of x for which the graph
y = x2 - 5x + 4 lies on or below
the x-axis.

EXAMPLE 2

FP2

You can also solve an inequality by using algebra.


Use algebra to solve the inequality x2 + 3 0 4x

Express the inequality in the form f(x) 0 0 where f(x) is factorised:

x2 - 4x + 3 0 0

i.e.

(x - 1)(x - 3) 0 0

Solve the equation f(x) = 0 where f(x) = (x - 1)(x - 3):

(x - 1)(x - 3) = 0 for x = 1, x = 3
Use appropriate values of x to find the sign of f(x) in the intervals
x < 1, 1 < x < 3, x > 3:

f(x) < 0

f(x) > 0
1
x<1

e.g.

f(0) = 3 (>0)

f(x) > 0
x

3
1<x<3

f(2) = -1 (<0)

x>3

f(4) = 3 (>0)

Hence the inequality x2 + 3 0 4x has solution x / 1, x 0 3.

The inequality is satisfied for


values of x for which f(x) 0 0.

Remember to include x = 1 and


x = 3 in the solution of f(x) 0 0.

0 Background knowledge for unit FP2

Exercise 0.2
1 Use any appropriate technique to solve these inequalities.
a x2 - 5x + 6 0 0
b 2x2 + 5x - 3 < 0
c 4x2 - 1 > 0
d x2 - 7x + 10 0 5 - x
e x2 - 3x + 2 / 2x + 8
f 2x2 - 2x - 12 > 3 - x
2 Solve the inequality x2 - 2x - 4 < 0
Give your answers in surd form.
3 Use a graphical approach to show that the inequality
x2 - 6x + 10 < 0
has no solution.
4 Solve these inequalities.

FP2

a x(x + 2)(x + 4) > 0


b (x + 1)(x2 - 9) / 0
c x3 + 2x2 + x < 0

0.3

Modulus and exponential graphs

To sketch a graph with equation y = |f(x)|:


} sketch the graph y = f(x)
} reflect the negative part of your graph in the x-axis.

See C3 for revision.


This is background knowledge
for Chapters 1, 4 and 5.

EXAMPLE 1

Sketch the graph with equation y = |x2 - 4|

Sketch the graph with equation y = x2 - 4, drawing the part


of the graph that lies beneath the x-axis as a broken line.
Reflect the dotted section in the x-axis:

Most graphical calculators


can plot the graph of a
modulus function.
Look for the ABS key.

(The reflected part has equation y = 4 - x2)


y = |x2 4|
y

y=

x2

y=x 4
y = 4 x2

FP2

The y-axis crossing point (0, 4) is


the reflection of the point (0, -4)
in the x-axis.
Label each section of the graph
with its equation.

This is the negative part of


the graph.

You can sketch the graph with equation y = Aekx, where A and k
are constants.
EXAMPLE 2

Sketch the graph with equation y = 3e-2x

The graph with equation y = 3e-2x resembles that with


equation y = e-x
y

When x = 0, y = 3e-2(0) = 3,
i.e. the y-intercept of the
graph is 3.
y = 3e2x

The positive x-axis is an


asymptote to the graph.

0 Background knowledge for unit FP2

Exercise 0.3
1 On separate diagrams, sketch the graphs with these equations.
Label all axis-crossing points with their values and the sections
of the graph with their equations.
a y = |2x + 1|
b y = |2 - 3x|
c y = |x2 + 4x + 3|
d y = |3x - 2x2|
2 On separate diagrams, sketch the graphs of these equations.
Label all axis-crossing points with their values, giving answers
in surd form where appropriate.
a y = |x3- 1|
b y = |(x + 3)2 (x - 1)|
c y = |(3 - x)(x2 - 2)|

FP2

3 On separate diagrams, sketch the graphs with these equations.


a y = 2e3x
b y = -e-x
c y = 3ex + 1
d y = 3 - e-2x
4 On separate diagrams, sketch the graphs with these equations.
a y = |e-x - 1|
b y = |ex - 2|
5 Given that x < ex for all x 0 0,
a show that x2 < e2x for all x 0 0
b deduce that xe-2x is approximately zero for large positive
values of x.

0.4

Trigonometry

You can use a trigonometric identity to simplify an equation.


You should know these identities:

See C3 for revision.


This is background knowledge
for Chapters 3 and 7.

cos 2q cos2 q sin 2 q 2 cos2 q 1 1 2 sin 2 q

sin2 q + cos2 q 1

tan 2q 2 tan q2

sin 2q 2 sin q cos q

1 tan q

tan q + 1 sec q
2

cos q

1 + cot q cosec q

EXAMPLE 1

Solve the equation cos 2q + cos q = 0 for 0 / q / p.


Give answers in exact form.

Replace cos 2q with 2cos2 q - 1 in the equation:

cos 2q + cos q = 0
so
2cos q - 1 + cos q = 0
i.e. (2cos q - 1)(cos q + 1) = 0

This is a quadratic
equation in cos q.

FP2

tan q sin q (for cos q 0)

Hence cos q = 1 or cos q = -1


2

cos q = 1 when q = 1 p
2

Since 0 / q / p

cos q = -1 when q = p
Hence cos 2q + cos q = 0 has solutions q = 1 p , p for 0 / q / p.
3

Give answers in exact form


(i.e. in terms of p).

You can use identities to reduce the number of different


trigonometric functions in an expression.
EXAMPLE 2

Express sin 2q cos q in terms of sin q only.

Use the double-angle identity sin 2q 2 sin q cos q :

sin 2q cos q (2 sin q cos q)cos q


2 sin q cos2 q
2 sin q(1 - sin2 q)
Hence sin 2q cos q 2sin q(1 - sin2 q)

10

sin 2q cos q involves two


trigonometric functions.

cos2 q 1 - sin2 q
RHS depends only on sin q.

0 Background knowledge for unit FP2

Exercise 0.4
1 Solve these equations.
Give answers in exact form.
a sin 2q = cos q

for 0 / q / p

b sin 2q = tan q

for 0 / q / p

c cos 2q = 3 sin q + 2 for -p / q / p


d

3cos 2q = cos q

for 1 p  q  1 p
2

3sin q + cos q
2 a Express
in the form R sin(q + a),
where R > 0 and 0 < a < 1 p is exact.
2

b Hence solve the equation


3sin q + cos q = 1
for 0 / q / p
3 Express these functions in the required form.

FP2

a cos 2q sin q in terms of sin q only


b sin 2q sin q in terms of cos q only
c cos 2q sin 2q as a function of sine only
d cos4 q - sin4 q as a function of cosine only
4 The diagram shows an isosceles triangle ABC,
l = 2q radians.
where AB = AC = k and CAB

a Show that BC = 2k sin q.

b Given that triangle ABC has area 3 k 2, find, in terms


4

of k, the two possible lengths of BC.

2i
A

5 Use a graphical approach to verify that


a cos(-q) cos q
b sin(-q) -sin q
c tan-1(-q) -tan-1q

11

0.5
1.1

Differentiation

You need to know these standard results of differentiation:


d ( eax ) = aeax
dx
d sin ax = a cos ax
(
)
dx

d ln ax = 1
(
) x
dx
d ( cos ax ) = a sin ax
dx

See C3 and C4 for revision.


This is background knowledge
for Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7.

where a is a non-zero constant.


You can use rules and standard results of differentiation to find
the first and second derivatives of a function.
EXAMPLE 1

2
find dy and d y2 .

If y = xe2x

dx

dx

Use the product rule, d (uv ) = u dv + v du , to find dy :


dx

y=

xe2x

so

dx

dx

dx

dy
= x (2e2x ) + e2x (1)
dx

d ( 2x )
e = 2e2x using the chain rule.
dx

= (2x + 1) e2x

Factorise:

FP2

These include the chain, product


and quotient rules.

2
Use the product rule on dy to find d y2 :

dx

dy
= ( 2x + 1) e2x
dx

dx

so

d y
= (2x + 1) (2e2x ) + e2x (2)
dx 2

= 2e2x ( 2x + 2 ) = 4e2x ( x + 1)
Hence

dy
d2 y
= ( 2x + 1) e2x and 2 = 4e2x ( x + 1)
dx
dx

You can use a trigonometric identity to simplify the


differentiation process.
EXAMPLE 2

Find f (x) when f(x) = sin x(cos x + 1)


f(x) = sin x ( cos x + 1)
= sin x cos x + sin x
= 1 sin 2x + sin x
2

Using sin 2x 2sin x cos x

Use the chain rule, d 1 sin2x = 1 ( 2cos 2x ) = cos 2x :


dx 2

f (x) = cos 2x + cos x


12

f (x) is the first derivative of f(x).

0 Background knowledge for unit FP2

You can use the chain rule to differentiate implicitly.


EXAMPLE 3

Find an expression for d ( y 2 ).


dx

Use the chain rule:

d 2
( y ) = ddy ( y 2 ) ddxy
dx

= 2y

d ( 2)
y = 2y since y2 is being
dy

differentiated with respect to y.

dy
dx

Exercise 0.5
1 Find

dy
for these equations. Simplify each answer as far as possible.
dx

a y = ex sin x

b y = ln(1 + x2)

c y = x +x 1

d y = ln(sin2 x)

FP2

2 Find the exact maximum value of these functions over the


given interval. You should show each answer is a maximum.
a f(q) = sin q + cos q for 0 / q / p
for 0 < q - 1 p

b f(q) = sin2 q - 1

3 Using trigonometric identities, or otherwise, differentiate these equations.


Simplify each answer as far as possible.
a y = sin x cos 2x + cos x sin 2x
b y = 4cos2 x sin2 x
c y = (1 - 2sin2 2x)2
4 Use implicit differentiation to find an expression for these derivatives.
a d ( y3)
dx

d xy 2
( )
dx

( )

d x 2 dy
dx
dx

5 If y = ux, where u is a function of x,


a find an expression for
b Hence show that

dy
.
dx

d2 y
du
d 2u
2 = 2 dx + x
dx
dx 2

13

0.6

Integration

You need to know these standard integrals:


1 dx = 1 ln x + c
ax
a

eax dx = 1 eax + c

See C3 and C4 for revision.


This is background knowledge
for Chapters 4 and 7.

cos ( ax ) dx = 1 sin ( ax ) + c

sin(ax) dx = 1 cos ( ax ) + c

a is a non-zero constant.

You can use the rules and standard results of integration to


integrate more complicated functions.

These rules include integration


by substitution and by parts.

EXAMPLE 1

Using the substitution u = 2x2, find x cos(2x 2 ) dx

You could also use inspection


(the reverse chain rule) to find
this integral.

Replace the term 2x2 with the variable u:

x cos(2x 2)dx = x cos u dx

u = 2x2 so du = 4x, i.e. dx = du

= x cos u du

dx

FP2

4x

Cancel the x terms:

4x

1 cosu du
4

= 1 sinu + c
4

Replace u with

2x2:

Remember the constant of


integration, c.

= 1 sin ( 2x 2 ) + c
4

You can use integration to solve a differential equation.


EXAMPLE 2

Find the general solution of the differential equation


3y 2 sec x

dy
=x
dx

Separate the variables and integrate each side:


dy
3y 2 sec x
=x
so
3y2 dy =
dx

3y2 dy = y3 + c1
x cos x dx = x sin x + cos x + c 2
Hence the general solution is given by
y3 = x sin x + cos x + c
i.e.
14

A differential equation is an
equation that involves a derivative.

y =

x sin x + cos x + c

x cos x dx

sec x 1

cos x

Integrate x cos x by parts:


u = xx, du = 1 and

dx
dv
= cos x, v = sin x
dx

c = c2 - c1
You only need one arbitrary
constant in the general solution of
a first order differential equation.

0 Background knowledge for unit FP2

You can express information as a differential equation to model a


real-life situation.
EXAMPLE 3

When added to a container of water, a quantity of coloured


dye begins to spread out in such a way that, t seconds from
the start of the process, the dye forms a circular shape of
radius r cm and area A cm2. It is assumed that, at all times,
the rate of increase of A is inversely proportional to A.
After 4 seconds the area of the circle is 6 cm2.
a Formulate a differential equation for A.
b Find A in terms of t. Comment on the validity of your
answer in the long term.

a The rate at which A is increasing is dA .


dt

dA 1
dt
A

Hence

dA = k for k a positive constant.


dt
A

i.e.

P is inversely proportional to
Q if P 1
Q

k > 0 since the area is increasing


over time.

b Separate the variables and integrate each side:


so

FP2

dA = k
dt
A

A dA = k dt

hence 1 A2 = kt + c

k is a constant so k dt = kt + c

i.e.

A=

2kt + c1

Substitute the values t = 0, A = 0 into A =

A=

so 0 =

2kt + c1

2kt + c1 to find c1:

0 + c1

i.e. c1 = 0
Hence A =

2kt

At the start, the circle does


not exist and so when
t = 0, A = 0.

2kt

Substitute the values t = 4, A = 6 into A =

A=

The arbitrary constant has


been replaced by c1.
c1 = 2c

so

6=

2kt to find k:

2k ( 4 )

36 = 8k
i.e. k = 4.5
Hence the equation for A in terms of t is
A=

2 ( 4.5) t =

9t = 3 t

As t increases, the function 3 t increases without limit.


Since the dye is inside a container, the equation A = 3 t
is an unrealistic model for A in the long term.
15

0 Background knowledge for unit FP2

You can use trigonometric identities to find an integral.


EXAMPLE 4

Use a suitable double-angle identity to find (2cos q + 1)2 dq

Expand the brackets:

(2cos q + 1)2 = 4cos2 q + 4cos q + 1


= 2(cos 2q + 1) + 4cos q + 1
So

(2cos q + 1)2 dq = 2cos 2q + 4cos q + 3 dq


= sin 2q + 4sin q + 3q + c

Hence (2cos q + 1)2 dq = sin 2q + 4sin q + 3q + c

Using cos 2q 2cos2 q - 1


2cos 2q dq

(2

= 2 1 sin 2q = sin 2q

Exercise 0.6

FP2

1 Find these integrals. Give evaluations in exact form where appropriate.


a

xsin x dx

x(2x2 - 1)3 dx

4x(2x + 1)4 dx

Use the substitution u = 2x + 1

xe-x dx

d
1

p
2

cos q (1 + sin q)2 dq

0
2

9x2 ln x dx

f
1

2 By writing tan x as sin x ,


cos x

a differentiate tan x and hence find


b show that

16

tan x dx = ln |sec x| + c

sec2 2x dx

0 Background knowledge for unit FP2

3 Find the general solution of these differential equations.


Give each answer as an explicit function.
a

dy
= 2xy
dx

b t dx + x = 0
dt

c sec q
d

dy
= ey
dq

dy
= 2xe x y
dx

4 Find the particular solution of these differential equations.


In each case, make y the subject.
a x2

dy
= y 2 for which y = 1 when x = 1
dx
2

dy
b ( x 2 1) = 2y for which y = 1 when x = 3
dx

c cos2 x

dy
= y for which y = 1 when x = p
dx

FP2

5 When first noticed, a damp patch on a ceiling of a classroom


had area 25 cm2 and was spreading at a rate of 10 cm2 per day.
t days later, the area A cm2 of the patch was increasing at a rate
proportional to the square root of A.
a Formulate a differential equation for A.
b Hence show that A can be modelled by the equation
A = (t + 5)2
c Comment on the suitability of this model for A in the long term.
d Find the number of days the patch was on the ceiling before
being noticed. State any assumption made in arriving at your answer.
6 Use appropriate trigonometric identities to find these integrals.
a

2 sin2 q dq

tan2 q dq

(sin q + cos q)2 dq

17

0.7
1.1

Complex numbers

You can use complex numbers to solve any quadratic equation.

See FP1 for revision.


This is background knowledge
for Chapters 3 and 5.

EXAMPLE 1

Solve the equation x2 - 6x + 13 = 0

Use the quadratic formula x = b b 4ac :

2a

x2 - 6x + 13 = 0

x=

so

( 6 )

=6

( 6 )2 4 (1)(13 )
2 (1)

16

16

= 16 (1)
= 4i

2
6

4
i
=
2

= 3 2i
The equation x - 6x + 13 = 0 has solutions x = 3 2i.

FP2

You can use Pythagoras theorem and trigonometry to find the


modulus and argument of a complex number.
EXAMPLE 2

Find the modulus and argument of z = 3 - 3i

z = 32 + (3)2

The modulus of z = a + bi
is z =

= 18

a2 + b2

=3 2
For any complex number z = a + bi in the 4th quadrant,

()
arg z = tan ( 3 ) =
3
arg z = tan1 b :
a

tan

(1)

= 1p
4

Hence z = 3 - 3i has modulus 3 2 and


(principal) argument 1 p.
4

18

Draw a diagram: z = 3 - 3i lies


in the 4th quadrant.
Give the principal argument
unless told otherwise.
Give answers in exact form
unless told otherwise.

0 Background knowledge for unit FP2

You can represent complex numbers geometrically.


EXAMPLE 3

The diagram shows the points P and Q, which represent


the complex numbers z and w respectively.

Im
Q

lQ = 1 p
OP = 3, OQ = 4 and PO
3

Find the exact value of z w .

1
r
3

P
3

Re

The complex number (z - w) can be represented


by the vector QP .

Im

Apply the cosine rule to find QP:


Q

(3 )

QP 2 = 32 + 42 2(3)(4)cos 1 p
= 9 + 16 24 1

a2 = b2 + c 2 2bc cos A
4
1
r
3

= 13

P
3

Re

Hence z w = 13

Since (z - w) is represented by
QP , z w = QP.

FP2

Exercise 0.7
1 Solve these quadratic equations.
a x2 - 2x + 10 = 0
b 4x2 + 4x + 5 = 0
c x2 2 2x + 3 = 0
2 Find the exact modulus and argument of these complex numbers.
a 5 + 5i
c

+ 2 3i

b 2 2 3i
d

6 6i

3 The diagram shows the points P and Q which represent


the complex numbers z and w respectively.

Im
Q

OP = 4 and angle POQ = 1 p.


2

a Given that w z = 8 show that w = 4 3


b Given further that arg z = 1 p show that arg(w z) = 5 p
6

4
O

Re

4 Let z = cos q + i sinq


Use suitable double-angle identities to show that z2 = cos 2q + i sin 2q
19

Answers
Exercise 0.1
1

b
2x + 7
b
( x 4)( x + 1)

6( x + 1)
a
( x + 2)( x 1)

2 x( x + 2)
( x + 3)( x + 4)

y
y = 2 3x

x(4 x + 1)
( x + 1)(2 x 1)

y = (2 3x)

e ( x + 2)( x 2)
( x + 4)( x + 1)

c
3

O
2
1
b
( x + 4) ( x + 3)

1
+ 3
a
( x + 2) ( x 3)
4
+ 1
( x + 2) ( x 2)

3
1
1

( x + 1) ( x 1) ( x + 2)

a x=

y
2y 3

b x=

3
4y 2

c x=

1 y
y 2

d x=

1 y
3( y + 1)

2
3

y = x2 + 4x + 3

y = x2 + 4x + 3

3
y = (x2 + 4x + 3)
3

a 1 - x + x 2 - x3 +

2
y

b 1 - 6x + 24 x2 - 80 x3 +

y = x(3 2x)

y = x(3 2x)

c 1 - 2x - x2 4 x3 -

FP2

a 1 + 2x - 2x2 + 4x3 -
b

2 1.421875 = 1.42 (2 d. p.)

a x - 4x2 + 12x3 -

1 +

y = x(3 2x)

3
7
11
x x 2 + x 3 ...
2
8
16

Exercise 0.2
1

a x / 2, x 0 3

d x / 1, x 0 5

e -1/ x / 6

1 5 < x <1+ 5
a -4 < x < -2, x > 0
c x < 0, x -1

1
2

1
1
c x< ,x>
2

2
4

b -3 < x <

x < 5, x > 3
2

b x / -3, -1 / x / 3

Exercise 0.3
1

3
2

c 3 + x + 17x - 11x +
2

9
y

y = (2x + 1)

y = 2x + 1

1
6

O
1

20

Answers

b q = 0, 2 p

a 2 sin q + 1 p

a (1 - 2sin2 q)sin q

b 2(1 - cos2 q)cos q

c 1 sin 4q

d cos 2q

4
O

b BC = k, 3k

Exercise 0.5

1
x

a ex (cos x + sin x)
c

x
ex

2x
1 + x2

d 2cot x

2
3

a 2
a 3cos 3x

3y2

a u + x du

b 0
b 2sin 4x

dy
dx

c -4sin 8x

dy
b 2 xy + y 2
dx

c x2

d2 y
dy
+ 2x
dx
dx 2

dx

Exercise 0.6
1

1
O

2
3

1
In 3
2

4
y

In 2

c y = -ln |c - sin q|

d y = ln |e x (2x - 2) + c|

a y= x

b y = 2 x 1

( x + 1)

x +1

etan x

a dA = 2 A
dt

a q 1 sin 2q + c

b tan q - q + c

2
c q 1 cos 2q + c
2

b x = 1 i

a x = 1 3i

a z = 5 2 , arg(z ) = 1 p

c x = 2 i

b z = 4, arg(z ) = 1 p

Exercise 0.4
a q = 1p , 1p , 5p

b q = 0, 1 p , 3 p , p

c q = 1p , 1p , 5p
6
2
6

d q = 1p
6

b x=A

Exercise 0.7

f 24ln 2 - 7

c The model predicts that A as t .


This is unrealistic.
d 5 days. This answer assumes the given modelling
assumptions held prior to the patch being noticed.

a y = Ae x

c y=
5

16
1
1
(2 x + 1)6 (2 x + 1)5 + c
c
6
5
d -1
e 7
3
a sec2 2x dx = 1 tan 2x + c
2

FP2

4
b 1 ( 2 x 2 1) + c

a -x cos x + sin x + c

c z = 4 3 , arg(z ) = 5 p
6

3
z = 2 3 , arg(z ) = p
4

21

Exam-style assessment

Inequalities

1.

2
Solve the inequality x + 2 < x

2.

Find the complete set of values of x for which x + 2  1 x

3.

Find the set of values of x for which x x 1 > x 1+ 3

4.

(a) Use algebra to solve the equation |x2 - 5x + 6| = 4x - 8

x 1

x+3

(b) On the same diagram, sketch the graphs with equations y = |x2 - 5x + 6|
and y = 4x - 8
(c) Hence, or otherwise, solve the inequality |x2 - 5x + 6| < 4x - 8
5.

(a) On the same diagram, sketch the graphs with equations y = |x2 - 9| and
y = |2x - 1|. Label, with their coordinates, the axis-crossing points of
each graph.
(b) Find the values of x where these two graphs intersect. Give answers in
simplified surd form where appropriate.
(c) Hence solve the inequality |x 2 - 9| . |2x -1|

6.

(a) On the same diagram, sketch the graphs with equations y = |2x + a| and
y = |3x + a|, where a is a positive constant. Label, with their coordinates,
the axis-crossing points of each graph.
(b) Hence solve, in terms of a, the inequality |2x + a| < |3x + a|

7.

(a) Sketch the graph with equation y = |x2 - 2kx| where k is a positive constant.
Label the stationary point with its coordinates.
(b) Hence, or otherwise, solve the inequality |x2 - 2kx| - k2, giving your answer
in terms of k.

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style mark scheme

1
Question
Number

Inequalities
Solution

Marks

x2 + 2 x < 0
x 1
x+2 <0
x 1

M1
M1

Critical values: x = -2, 1


Considering change of sign of factors gives:
-2 < x < 1

A1
A2
5

x+2+ x 0
x+3 2
(x + 1)(x + 4)
0
2(x + 3)

M1
M1 A1

Critical values: x = -4, -3 and -1


Considering change of sign of factors gives:
-4 - x < -3, x . -1

A1
M1 A2
7

3 a

x 1 >0
x 1 x + 3

M1

(x + 1)2
>0
(x 1)((x + 3)

M1 A1

Critical values: x = -3, -1 and 1


Considering change of sign of factors gives:
Hence x > 1 or x < -3

M1 A1
A2
7

4 a

(x - 3)2(x - 2)2 = 16(x - 2)2


(x - 3)2(x - 2)2 - 16(x - 2)2 = 0
(x - 2)2[(x - 3)2 - 16] = 0
Then x = 2, 7 and -1 (ignore x = -1, it does not satisfy the
original equation).
y

M1oe
M1
M1
A2

(5)

B2

(2)

A2

(2)
9

6
y = 4x 8

y = |x2 5x + 6|
O

2 3

2<x<7

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

5 a

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

B2

(2)

For x > 3 or -3 < x < 0.5 then x2 - 9 = 2x - 1


x2 2x 8 = 0, then x = 4 or x = -2
For 0.5 < x < 3 or x < -3 then x2 - 9 = -(2x - 1)
x2 + 2x - 10 = 0, then x = 1 11
Hence x = 4, -2, 1 11

M1
M1 A1
M1
M1
A3

(6)

From part b and the graph x - 1 11, 2 - x - 1 + 11, x . 4

A2

(2)
10

B3

(3)

4 3 2 1 O 1 1 2 3 4 x
2

6 a
y = |3x + a|

(0, a)

y = |2x + a|

a
,0
2

a
,0
3

( )( )
b

For a < x < a , then 2x + a = -(3x + a)


2
x = 2a
5

A1

Hence x < -0.4a or x > 0

7 a

A1

(4)
7

B3

(3)

(k, k2)

2k

M1 A1

x2 2kx - k2 = 0, x = k(1 2 )

M1 A1

Hence k(1 2) - x - k(1 + 2)

A2

Oxford University Press 2009

(4)
7

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style assessment

2
1.

Series

(a) Simplify r(r + 2) -r(r - 2)


(b) Hence use the method of differences to prove that

r =1

2.

(a) Express

= 1 n(n + 1)
2

6
in partial fractions.
9r 2 12r 5

(15n + 2 ) ( n 1)
8
=
( 3n + 1) ( 3n 2 )
r = 2 9r 12r 5
n

(b) Hence show that

15

8
, giving your answer to 3 significant figures.
r = 6 9r 12r 5

(c) Evaluate the series


3.

(a) Find constants A, B and C such that

8
A
B
C

+
+
2
1
2
1
2

+
+ 3)
r
r
r
(
)
(
)
(
4r 1 ( 2r + 3 )

(b) Hence show that

r =1

4.

(a) Show that

for all r . 1

n (n + 2)
3
=
4r 1 ( 2r + 3 ) ( 2n + 1) ( 2n + 3 )
2

1
1
2

=
r ( r + 1) ( r + 1) ( r + 2 ) r ( r + 1) ( r + 2 )

for all r . 1

(b) Hence, or otherwise, find an expression for


n

r ( r + 14) ( r + 2 )

r =1

giving your answer in fully factorised form.


n

4
(c) Deduce
< 1 for all n > 1
1
r
r
+
) (r + 2 )
r =1 (

5.

(a) Simplify (3r + 1)3 - (3r - 2)3


n

(b) Hence, or otherwise, show that r 2 = 1 n(n + 1)(2n + 1)


6
r =1
n

You can use the result r = 1 n(n + 1) without proof.


2
r =1
6.

3
(a) Express 8r 2 2r 1 in the form Ar +

4r 1

B
C , for constants A, B
+
2
r

1
2
r
(
) ( + 1)

and C to be determined.
n
3
(b) Hence find an expression for 8r 2 2r 1 giving your answer in terms of
r =1

4r 1

n and in fully factorised form.

24
3
(c) Evaluate the series 8r 2 2r 1, giving your answer to 3 significant figures.
r =7

Oxford University Press 2009

4r 1

Further Pure FP2

7.

(a) Express

3r 2
in partial fractions.
r ( r + 1) ( r + 2 )

n
3r 2
n2
=
(b) Hence show that
( n + 1) ( n + 2 )
r =1 r ( r + 1) ( r + 2 )

(c) Find the value of the positive integer N for which


N

r ( r +3r1)( r2 + 2 )

r =1

8.

(a) Express

= 8
15

3 r in the form A + B + C where A, B and C


r 1 r r +1
r r2 1

are constants.

(b) Hence, using the method of differences, show that


n

3 r = n 1
2
n ( n + 1)
r =2 r r 1

Oxford University Press 2009

for n > 2

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style mark scheme

Series

Question
Number

Solution

Marks

1 a

r2 + 2r - r2 + 2r = 4r

A1

r =1

r =1

4 r = [r (r + 2) r (r 2)]
4(1) = 1(3) - 1(-1)
4(2) = 2(4) - 2(0)
4(3) = 3(5) - 3(1)
4(4) = 4(7) - 4(2)
4(n - 2) = (n - 2)(n) - (n - 2)(n - 4)
4(n - 1) = (n - 1)(n + 1) - (n - 1)(n - 3)
4(n) = n(n + 2) - n(n - 2)
Adding:
4(1 + 2 + 3 + + n) = 1 + (n - 1)(n + 1) + n(n + 2)
= 2n2 + 2n
n

2 a

M1 A1

M1 A1

Hence r = 1 n(n + 1)
2
r =1

A1

(5)
6

1 1
3r 5 3r + 1

B1 A2

(3)

(1)

6
9r 2 12
r5

r =2

r =2

( 3r 1 5 3r 1+ 1 )

r = 2,

1 1

r = 3,

+1 1
4 10
+1 1
7 13

r = 4,

..................
1
1
3n 11 3n 5
+ 1 1
3n 8 3n 2
+ 1 1
3n 5 3n + 1
+

r = n - 2,
r = n - 1,
r = n,

M1 A1

Adding:
11
4

1 1 = 45n2 39n 6
3n 2 3n + 1 4(3n + 1)(3n 2)

8
9r 2 12
r5

r =2

Hence

r =2

n
= 8 2 6
6 r = 2 9r 12r 5

8
15n2 13n 2 = (15n + 2)(n 1)
=
9r 2 12r 5 (3n + 1)(3n 2) (3n + 1)(33n 2)

Oxford University Press 2009

M1 A1
M1
M1 A1

(7)
10

Further Pure FP2

15

r = 6 9r

8
12r 5

15

5
8
2 8
r = 2 9r 2r 5
r = 2 9r 12r 5

(75 + 2)4
= (15 15 + 2)(15 1)
(45 2)(45 + 1)
(15 2)(15 + 1)
= 227 14 77 4
43 46 13 16

= 0.126
10
3 a
b

1 2 + 1
2r 1 2r + 1 2r + 3

r = 1:

1 2 + 1
3 5

r = 2:

+1 2 + 1
3 5 7

r = 3:

+1 2 + 1
5 7 9

..

..

r = n - 2:

1 2 + 1
2n 5 2n 3 2n 1

r = n - 1:

1 2 + 1
2n 3 2n 1 2n + 3

r = n:

1 2 + 1
2n 1 2n + 1 2n + 3

M1 A3

(4)

M1 A1

Adding:
2 1 + 1 =
8n2 + 16n
3 2n + 1 2n + 3 3(2n + 1)(2n + 3)
n(n + 2)
3
3 n
8
=
=

2
2
(
n
8
2
+ 1)(2n + 3)
r =1 (4r 1)(2r + 3)
r =1 (4r 1)(2r + 3)

M1 A1

Hence

Oxford University Press 2009

B1 A1

(6)
10

Further Pure FP2

4 a
b

LHS = (r + 2) r

r(r + 1)(r + 2)

2
r(r + 1)(r + 2)

n
2
1

= 1

(r + 1)(r + 2)
r =1 r(r + 1)(r + 2)
r =1 r(r + 1)
11
r = 1:
2 6
r = 2:
+1 1
6 12
n

r = n - 1:

1
1

(n 1)n n(n + 1)
1
+ 1

n(n + 1) (n + 1)(n + 2)

r = n:

M1 A1

(2)

B1

M1 A1

Adding:
n(n + 3)
1
1
=
2 (n + 1)(n + 2) 2(n + 1)(n + 2)
n(n + 3)
4
Hence r(r + 1)(r + 2) = (n + 1)(n + 2)
r =1

M1 A1

M1 A1

(7)

2
n(n + 3)
4
= 2n + 3n
=
(n + 1)(n + 2) n + 3n + 2
r =1 r(r + 1)(r + 2)
n

Now n2 + 3n < n2 + 3n + 2
As n > 1, n2 + 3n + 2 > 0 so that
n

n2 + 3n < 1
n2 + 3n + 2

Therefore r(r + 14)(r + 2) < 1


r =1
9
5 a
b

27r3 + 27r2 + 9r + 1 - (27r3 - 54r2 + 36r - 8) = 9(9r2 - 3r + 1)


n

9 (9r 2 3r + 1) = (3r + 1)3 (3r 2)3


r =1
r =1

r = 1:
43 - 13
r = 2:
+ 73 - 43
..
.
r = n - 1:
+ (3n - 2)3 - (3n - 5)3
r = n:
+ ( 3n + 1) - (3n - 2)3
Adding:
(3n + 1)3 - 1 = 9n (3n2 + 3n + 1)

M1 A1

(2)

B1

M1 A1
M1 A1
B1

Hence (9r 2 3r + 1) = n(3n3 + 3n + 1)


r =1

n
n

1
2
2
r = n(3n + 3n + 1) + 3 r n
9
r =1
r =1

B1

= 1 [n(3n2 + 3n + 1) + 3 n(n + 1) - n]
2
9
n
= [6n2 + 6n + 2 + 3n + 3 - 2]
18
= n [2n2 + 3n + 1]
6
1
= 6 n(n + 1)(2n + 1)

Oxford University Press 2009

M1 A1

(9)
11

Further Pure FP2

6 a
b

2r

1
1
+
2(2r 1) 2(2r + 1)

M1 A3 (4)

8r 3 2r 1
4r 2 1
r =1
n
1
1
= 2r +

2(2r + 1) 2(2r 1)
r =1
n

n
n
1
1
= 2r + 1

(2r 1)
2
r =1
r =1 (2r + 1)

= n(n + 1) + 1 1 1
2 3
+ 1 1
5 3
+ .....
1 1
2n 1 2n 3
+ 1 1
2n + 1 2n 1

= n(n + 1) + 1 1 1

2 2n + 1
= n(n + 1)

n
2n + 1

n [(n + 1)(2n + 1) 1]
2n + 1

n(2n2 + 3n) n2(2n + 3)


=
2n + 1
2n + 1

24
24
6
242(51) 36 15
= =
49
13
r = 7 r =1
r =1

558 (3sf)

7 a
b

1+ 5 4
r r +1 r + 2

M1 A3

(4)

n
3r 2
= 1 + 5 4
r +1 r + 2
r =1 r(r + 1)(r + 2)
r =1 r
n

= 1 + 5 4
2 3
1
5
+
1
2 3
1 5 4
+
3 4 5

+.....

1 +5 4
n 1 n n +1
1
5 4
+
n n +1 n + 2
= 1 + 5 1 + 1 4
2 2 n +1 n + 2

= 1 + n + 2 4n 4
(n + 1)(n + 2)
2
= n + 3n + 2 3n 2
(n + 1)(n + 2)

n2
as required.
(n + 1)(n + 2)

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

8 a
b

15N2 = 8(N + 1)(N + 2)


7N2 - 24N - 16 = 0
(7N + 4)(N - 4) = 0, Hence N = 4

B1
M1 A1

(3)
11

1 3+ 2
r 1 r r +1

B1 A1

(2)

3r = n 1 3 + 2

2
r 1 r r + 1
r = 2 r(r 1)
r =1

B1

1 3 + 2
2 3
1
+ 1+ 2
2
4
+1 3 + 2
3 4 5

r = 2:
r = 3:
r = 4:

..

r = n - 2:

+ 1 3 + 2
n 3 n 2 n 1

r = n - 1:

r = n:

+ 1 3+ 2
n 1 n n +1

1 3 +2
n 2 n 1 n

M1 A1

Adding:
1 3 + 1 + 2 3 + 2 = 1 + 2
2 2 n n n +1
n n +1
n
3 r = n 1
Hence 2
n(n + 1)
r = 2 r(r 1)

Oxford University Press 2009

M1 A1
A1

(6)
8

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style assessment

3
1.

Further complex numbers

(a) Using de Moivres theorem, or otherwise, prove that


cos 4q 8cos4 q - 8cos2 q + 1
(b) Solve the equation cos 4q + 4cos4 q = 0 for 0 - q - p
When not exact, give each answer correct to 2 decimal places.

2.

The transformation T from the z-plane to the w-plane is given by


z

w = z + 1 + 2i , z -1 - 2i
(a) Show that T maps the line y = 2x to part of the real axis in the w-plane.
(b) Find the locus of points in the z-plane which are mapped to the
line u = 0 in the w-plane.
3.

(a) Shade on an Argand diagram the region R given by


|z - 1| - |z - i|
The transformation T from the z-plane to the w-plane is given by
w = zz + 3i , z i
(b) Show that T maps |z - 1| = |z - i| to a circle in the w-plane.
Give the cartesian equation of this circle.
(c) On a separate Argand diagram shade the region in the w-plane
which is the image of R under T.

4.

Point P represents the complex number z where |z - 3| = 2|z - 3i|


(a) Use algebra to show that the locus of P is a circle, giving the centre
C and radius of this circle.
Point Q represents the complex number z where arg(z + 1 - 4i) = 3 p
4

(b) On the same Argand diagram sketch the locus of P and the locus of Q,
marking clearly the point A where the two loci intersect.
(c) Find the complex number a which represents A and express the equation
of the tangent to this circle at A in the form
|z + 1 - 4i| = |z - b| for b a complex number to be stated.
5.

(a) Solve the equation z3 = 4 - 4 3i


giving your answers in the form reiq where r > 0 and exact q, -p < q - p
(b) Illustrate your values from a on an Argand diagram.
(c) Hence, or otherwise, show that, if p and q are two distinct cube
roots of 4 - 4 3i then |p + q| = 2

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

6.

(a) Solve the equation z4 = 2 3 + 2i


giving your answers in exact modulus-argument form.
Give arguments as principal values.
(b) Illustrate your values from (a) on an Argand diagram.
(c) Prove that the points representing these values form the vertices of a square.
(d) State the two possible values of |p - q| where p and q are two distinct
fourth roots of 2 3 + 2i

7.

(a) Given that z = cos q + isin q, use de Moivres theorem to show that
zn - 1n = 2isin nq
z

where n is a positive integer.

(b) Express 4sin3 q in the form Asin q + Bsin 3q for integers A and B to
be stated.
y

R
O

The diagram shows the curve with equation y = 2 sin3q for 0 - q - p. R is the
region bounded by this curve, the q-axis and the lines q = 0 and q = p
(c) Find the exact volume formed when region R is rotated once around the q-axis.
8.

Point P represents the complex number z, where |z + 2i| = k|z - 3 - i|,


where k is a constant. Point A, which represents the complex number 6 + 4i,
lies in the locus of P.
(a) Show that k = 2
(b) Use algebra to show that the locus of P is a circle C.
Give the centre and radius of this circle.
Point Q represents the complex number z, where arg(z - 4 - 2i) = 1 p
4

(c) Shade, on a single Argand diagram, the region of points on or inside


C and which satisfy 1 p - arg(z - 4 - 2i) - p and find the exact area
4
of this region.
The transformation T from the z-plane to the w-plane is given by
w = z + 2i , z 3 + i
z3i

(d) Show that T maps the locus of P to a circle in the w-plane.

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

9.

Points A and B represent the complex numbers 0 - 3i and 4 + 0i respectively.

(z4)

Point P represents the complex number z, where arg z + 3i = 2 p


3

(a) Sketch on an Argand diagram the locus of P. Indicate on your sketch the
position of points A and B.
(b) Given that point Q in this locus is such that AQ = BQ
(i) show that AQ = 5 3,
3

(ii) find the exact area of triangle AQB.


10.

Point P represents the complex number z, where |z - 2| = 2 |z - 4i|

( z 4i )

Point Q represents the complex number z where arg z 2 = 1 p


4

(a) Use algebra to show that the locus of P is a circle. Give the centre and
exact radius of this circle.
(b) Given that p = z 2 , where z is the complex number which
z 4i

belongs to both of these loci


(i) show that p = 1 + i,
(ii) find z.
(c) On a single Argand diagram, sketch the locus of P and the locus of Q.
11.

(a) Solve the equation z5 = 1


giving your answers in the form eiq for -p < q - p
(b) Given that w is any complex 5th root of 1
(i) state the value of 1 + w + w2 + w3 + w4
(ii) hence find the value of

Oxford University Press 2009

(1 + w ) (1 + w2 )
w4

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style mark scheme

Further complex numbers

Question
Number

Solution

Marks

1 a

(cos q + i sin q)4 = cos 4q + i sin 4q


(cosq + i sin q )4 = cos4 q + 4i cos3q sin q 6 cos2 q sin 2 q
- 4i cos q sin3 q + sin4 q
Considering the real parts:
cos 4q = cos4 q - 6cos2 q sin2 q + sin4 q
= cos4 q 6cos2 q (1 cos2 q ) + (1 cos2 q )2

M1
M1

M1 A1

(4)

= 8 cos4 q 8 cos2 q + 1
b

cos 4q + 4cos4 q = 0 8c4 - 8c2 + 1 + 4c4 = 0 where c = cos q


12c4 - 8c2 + 1 = 0
c2 = 8 4

24
1
1
Hence cos q = ,
2 6
cosq = 1 , 1
2
6
1
1
3
cosq =
q = p , p for 0  q  p
2
4 4
1
cosq =
q = 1.150! , 1.991! for 0  q  p
6
2

Hence q = 1 p , 3 p , 1.15c, 1.99c (2 decimal places)


4 4
2 a

Let P be any point on y = 2x, then P = (k, 2k), where k \


k + 2ik
k + 2ik + 1 + 2i
k(1 + 2i)
k(1 + 2i)
=
=
k + 1 + 2i(k + 1) (k + 1)(1 + 2i)

M1

w=

k \, k 1
k +1

w = 0 + iv =

x + iy
x + iy + 1 + 2i

B1
A1
B1

x + iy
(x + 1) i( y + 2)

(x + 1) + i( y + 2) (x + 1) i( y + 2)

M1

x 2 + x + y 2 + 2y + i(y 2x)
(x + 1)2 + (y + 2)2

B1

Considering the real part of w = 0:


x2 + x + y2+ 2y = 0
(x + 0.5)2 + ( y + 1)2 = 5 ,
4
Hence the locus is a circle centre (-0.5, -1), radius 5
2
(excluding the point (-1, -2))

Oxford University Press 2009

(3)

B1
M1
A1

(6)
9

Further Pure FP2

3 a

B2

(2)

2
1

1
2

z = 3 + iw = 3 + i(u + iv)
w 1
u + iv 1

M1

(3 v) + iu (u 1) iv

(u 1) + iv (u 1) iv

M1

(3u + v 3) + i(u2 u 3v + v 2)
(u 1)2 + v 2

B1

Since |z - 1| = |z - i|, then the real part of z = the imaginary part of z:


Then 3u + v - 3 = u2 - u - 3v + v2
u2 - 4u + v2 - 4v + 3 = 0
(u - 2)2 + (v - 2)2 = 5
c

A1

(4)

B2

(2)

4 a

10

(x - 3)2 + y2 = 4[ x2 + (y - 3)2]
x2 + 2x + y2 - 8y + 9 = 0
(x + 1)2 + (y - 4)2 = 8
C(-1, 4), radius = 2 2

M1
B1
A2

(4)

B3

(3)

y
8
A
6
3r
4

4
2

From Argand diagram:


a = -3 + 6i
|z + 1 - 4i| = |z + 5 - 8i| so

Oxford University Press 2009

b = -5 + 8i

A1
A1

(2)
9

Further Pure FP2

5 a

(2

4 4 3i = 8 1 3 i
2

q = p , r = 8

B1oe
A1

z 3 = 8e

i p + 2np
3

M1

A1

i p + 2np
3

z = 2e 3

If n = 0, then z0 = 2e
If n = 1, then z1 = 2e
b

i p

i 5p
9

and z3 = 2e

i 7p

A2

(6)

B2

(2)

y
z1

2r
3

x
r

z0

z2
2

|z0| = |z1| = |z2| = 2 and the angle between any two distinct
roots p and q = 2p ,
3
p + q = 2 2 cos p = 2
3

6 a

z4 = 4 3 + 1 i
2

( 6 ) ( 6 )
z = 2 cos ( p + np ) + i sin ( p + np )
24
2
24
2

If n = 0 then z = 2 ( cos p + i sin p )


24
24
If n = 1 then z = 2 ( cos 13p + i sin 13p ) and
24
24
z = 2 ( cos 11p i sin 11p )
24
24
23p
23p
If n = 2 then z = 2 ( cos 24 i sin 24 )
= 4 cos p + 2np + i sin p + 2np

B1oe
M1 A1

(3)
11

B1oe
B1
M1

Oxford University Press 2009

A2

A1

(7)

B2

(2)

Further Pure FP2

z1

z0
O

z3

z2

|z0| = |z1| = |z2| = |z3| = 2 and


arg(z1) - arg(z0) = p2 = arg(z3) - arg(z1) = arg(z2) - arg(z3)
Then z0, z1, z2, z3 are the vertices of a square.

B2oe

(2)

|p - q| = 2 or 2 2
11

7 a

zn = cos nq + isin nq
z-n = cos nq - isin nq
zn - z-n = 2i sin nq

1
(2i sin q)3 = z z

M1
M1
A1

(3)

= z3 - 3z + 3 13
z

= z 3 13 3 z 1z
z

= 2i sin 3q - 6i sin q
Hence 4 sin3 q = -sin 3q + 3sin q
so A = 3, B = -1
p

V = p 4sin3 q dq = p (3sin q - sin 3q)dq


0

= p 3 cosq + 1 cos 3q

= 16 p
3

Oxford University Press 2009

M1

M2
A1

(4)
12

Further Pure FP2

8 a
b

|6 + 6i| = k|3 + 3i| k = 2

M1 A1

x2 + (y + 2)2 = 4[(x - 3)2 + (y - 1)2]


x2 + y2 + 4y + 4 = 4(x2 - 6x + 9 + y2 - 2y + 1)
3x2 - 24x + 3y2 - 12y + 36 = 0
(x - 4)2 + (y - 2)2 = 8
Centre (4, 2), radius = 2 2

M1
B1

M1
A2

(2)

(5)

B3

y
4
r
4

Area = 1 r 2q = 1 8 3 p
2

w =

M1

= 3p

A1

z + 2i
= 2 (using part a above)
z3i

M1oe

|w| = 2 is a circle centre (0, 0) radius = 2

9 a

B
O

B3

(3)

arg(z + 3i) arg(z 4) =

2r
3

Angle ABQ = p , AB = 42 + 32 = 5
6

M1

AQ = 5

M1 A1

ii

(2)
14

A
4 arg(z + 3i)

A1

arg(z 4)

(5)

1
cos p
6

)
2 (3

= 5 2 = 5 3
2
3 3
2

Area = 1 5 3 sin 2p = 25 3

Oxford University Press 2009

12

M1 A1

(5)
8

Further Pure FP2

10 a

(x - 2)2 + y2 = 2[x2 + (y - 4)2]


x2 - 4x + 4 + y2 = 2x2 + 2y2 - 16y + 32
x2 + 4x + y2 - 16y + 28 = 0
(x + 2)2 (y - 8)2 = 40
Centre (-2, 8) and radius 2 10
i

M1
B1
M1
A2

( z 4i )

Since |z - 2| = 2 |z - 4i| and arg z 2 = 1 p , then


4

(5)

B1

|p| = 2 and arg( p) = 1 p


4

p = 2 cos p + i sin p = 1 + i
4

M1 A1

4ip 2
, substitute p = 1 + i:
ii z =
p 1

M1 A1

(6)

B3

(3)

z = 4i 4 2 = 4 + 6i
i

c
14
12
10
(2, 8)

6
(0, 4)
4

2
O (2, 0)

14
11 a

z 5 = 1 = 1ei(0 + 2np) = ei2np

B1

i 2 np

z=e5

M1

If n = 0, then z0 = ei0 = 1

If n = 1, then z1 =

2 pi
e5 ,

If n = 2, then z3 =

4 pi
e5 ,

i
ii

A1
z2 =

2 pi
e 5

A2

z4 =

4 pi
e 5

A2

(7)

A1
M1
A1

(3)

(w5 1) = (w 1)(w4 + w3 + w2 + w + 1) = 0
Hence w4 + w3 + w2 + w + 1 = 0
w3 + w2 + w + 1 = -w4
(1 + w)(1 + w )
= 1
w4
2

10

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style assessment

4
1.

First order differential equations

(a) Find the general solution of the differential equation


tan(2x)

dy
1
= 2y, where 0 < x < p ,
dx
4

giving your answer in the form y = f(x)


(b) Find the particular solution y of this differential equation for which
y = -2 when x = 1 p and sketch this solution curve for 0 < x < 1 p
12
4

2.

The equation of a curve C satisfies the differential equation


(2x + 1)

dy
1
= 4x (y 4), where x >
dx
2

(a) Find the general solution of this differential equation, giving your
answer in the form y = f(x)
(b) Given that the curve passes through the point P(0, 5) find the equation of C.
3.

(a) Express

2 in partial fractions.
y2 1

dy
+ 1 = y2 ,
dx
where y > 1, x > 0, and for which y = 2 when x = 1 is given by y = 1 + x
3
1 x

(b) Hence show that the particular solution of the equation 2x

4.

(a) Show that x 2 + 1 is an integrating factor for the differential equation


1 dy
y
=1
+
x dx x 2 + 1

(b) Hence find the particular solution of this differential equation for which y = 1
3
when x = 0. Sketch the graph of this solution.
5.

(a) Find the general solution of the differential equation

dy
+ 2ytan x = 1
dx

(b) Hence show that the particular solution of the given equation for which y = 1
when x = 1 p is given by y = 1 sin 2x.
4
2
6.

As part of a training exercise, an athlete undertakes a 20 km run. After t hours


she has run x km. During the run she varies her speed in such a way that the
rate of increase of x is directly proportional to x multiplied by the distance
she has left to run.
(a) Formulate a differential equation for x
(b) Given that after 1 hour she has run 10 km and that after 90 minutes she has run
15 km, solve this differential equation to show that
x
= 9t 1
20 x

(c) Calculate the total distance run after 2 hours.

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

7.

(a) Use integration by parts to show that xex dx = (x - 1)ex + c


(b) Hence find the general solution of the differential equation
(x + 1)

8.

dy
+ (x + 2)y = x
dx

The equation of a curve C satisfies the differential equation x

dy
- y = 2y2x
dx

(a) Show that the substitution y = ux transforms the given differential


du

equation into the equation dx = 2u2x


(b) Find the general solution for u and hence find y in terms of x.
(c) Given that C passes through the point with coordinates (-1, 1),
find the equation of the curve C and sketch its graph.
9.

The equation of a curve C satisfies the differential equation


x2

dy
- xy = 2y( y + x)
dx

(1)

(a) Show that the substitution y = ux transforms equation (1) into the differential
2u ( u + 1)
equation du =
dx

(2)

(b) Hence show that the general solution of equation (1) can be expressed as
y=

Ax 3 ,
1 Ax 2

for A an arbitrary constant.


The curve C passes through the point (1, -2).
(c) Find the equation of C and the coordinates of all the points where C intersects
the line y = x.

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style mark scheme

First order differential equations

Question
Number

Solution

Marks

1 a

dy
= 2 cos 2x dx
sin 2x
y

B1

ln |y| = ln |sin 2x| + ln c


y = k sin 2x

M3
A1

-2 = k sin p , then k = -4

M1 A1

y = -4sin 2x

A1 ft

(4)

(3)

y
O

r
4

B1

2 a

dy
= 4x dx
y 4 2x + 1

B1

ln |y - 4| =

M2

(2 2x2+ 1)dx

ln |y - 4| = 2x - ln |2x + 1| + ln c
y 4 = ce

2x

B1

2x + 1
2x
y = 4 + ce
2x + 1

A1

5=4+c
c=1

(6)

A1

2x
y=4+ e

A1 ft

(2)
8

1 1
y 1 y +1

M1 A1

(2)

2dy
= dx
2
x
y 1

B1

1 1 dy = dx
y 1 y + 1
x

M1

ln y 1 = ln x + ln c

M2oe

2x + 1

3 a

M1

y +1
y 1
= kx
y +1

A1

k = 1 since y = 2 when x = 1
y - 1 = yx + x
y = 1+ x
1 x

Oxford University Press 2009

A1
M1
A1

(8)
10

Further Pure FP2

4 a

dy
+ x y= x
dx x 2 + 1
x

x 2 +1dx

1 ln(x 2 +1)

= e2

M1 A1

x2 + 1

x(x 2 + 1) 2 dx + c

y(x 2 + 1) 2 =
1

M1

y(x 2 + 1) 2 = 1 (x 2 + 1) 2 + c

M1 A1

c=0

A1

y = 1 (x2 + 1)
3

A1ft

B2

5 a

(3)

B1

The integrating factor is e

10

2 (tan x ) dx

=e

2 ln cos x

= sec 2 x

M1

ysec2 x = (sec2x) dx = tan x + c

M1 A1

Substitute y = 1 and x = p , c = 0

A1

(7)

(3)

Particular solution:
y=

6 a
b

tan x
1
= sin x cos x = sin 2 x
2
2
sec x

dx
= kx(20 x )
dt
dx
= kdt
x(20 x)

(1)

M1 A1
K+C=0

x
= ( t 1) 1 ln 3
20 20 x
10
= ( t 1) 2 ln 3 = ( t 1) ln 9 = ln 9t 1
i.e. ln x
20 x

Hence 1 ln

A1

B1 M1 A1

Substitute x = 15 and t = 1.5: 3K + 2C = 1 ln 3


10
From (1) and (2): K = 1 ln 3 and C = 1 ln 3
10
10

Therefore

(3)
6

M1

1+ 1
1
dx = kt + c
x 20 x
20
1 ln x
= Kt + C
20 20 x

Substitute x = 10 and t = 1:

M1 A1

(1)
(2)

M1
A2
M1 A1

(11)

x
= 9t 1 as required
20 x

When t = 2,

x
=9
20 x

Therefore x = 180 - 9x, so x = 18 km


12

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

7 a

Let u = x, then du = dx
Let dv = exdx, v = ex

B1

xe x dx = xe x - e x dx = (x - 1)e x + c
b

dy x + 2
x
+
y=
dx
x +1
x +1

The integrating factor is e

M1 A1
M1

x+2

x +1 dx

=e

1+ x +1 dx

= ( x + 1)e x

x
(x + 1)e x dx = xe x dx
x +1
x
(x + 1)e x y = (x - 1)e x + c so y = ( x 1) e +x c
( x + 1) e

(x + 1)e x y =

(3)

M1 A1
M1 A1
M1 A1
10

8 a

dy
= u + x du
dx
dx

M1

x u + x du ux = 2u2 x 3

M1

du = 2u2 x
dx

A1

u-2du = 2x dx

B1

1 = x2 + c
u
x = x2 + c

y
y = 2x
x +c

M1 A1

c=0

A1

1
y=
x

A1oe

dx

(3)

B1
A1

(5)

y
2

B1
O

(3)

11

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

9 a

Substitute y = ux and

dy
du
=u+x
in (I):
dx
dx

x 2 u + x du x(ux) = 2ux (ux + x)


dx
du = 2u(u + 1)
dx
x

B1
A1

(3)

du = 2 dx
u(u + 1)
x

( u1 u 1+ 1) du =

2dx
x

B1

ln u - ln(u + 1) = 2ln x + ln A

M1

u = Ax 2
u +1

M1

u - Ax2u = Ax2

M1

Ax 2
1 Ax 2

u=

y
x

Substitute u = :
y=
c

M1

Ax 3
1 Ax 2

2 =

y=

A
, then A = 2
1 A

2 x3
1 2 x2

Bloe
A1

(6)

A1
A1

Substitute y = x:
x=

2x 3
1 2x 2

x(1 - 2x2) = 2x3

M1

x(4x2 - 1) = 0
(0, 0), (0.5, 0.5) and (-0.5, -0.5)

B1
A2

Oxford University Press 2009

(6)
15

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style assessment

5
1.

2nd order differential equations


d2y

dy

(a) Find the general solution of the differential equation 2 + k


= 0 , giving
dx
d
x
y in terms of x and the positive constant k.
(b) Describe the behaviour of y as x increases, where x > 0

2.

An object is oscillating about a fixed point P. After t seconds the object is x metres
from P where x is modelled by the differential equation
d2x
+ 4x = 0
dt 2

(a) Given that x = 3 when t = 0 and when t = 1 p , solve this differential equation to
4
show that x = 3cos 2t + 3sin 2t
(b) Express x in the form R sin (2t + a), where R > 0 and 0 < a < 1 p are both exact.
2

(c) Hence find the maximum possible distance of the object from point P.
Give your answer in simplified surd form.
3.

(a) Find the general solution of the differential equation


4

d2y
dy
+4
+ 5y = 2cos x - 8sin x
2
d
x
dx

A curve C has equation which satisfies this differential equation.


The curve crosses the x-axis when x = 0 and when x = 1 p .
2

(b) Find the equation of the curve C.


(c) Show that for large positive values of x, the curve C may be approximated
by a cosine function and write down this function.
4.

The equation of a curve satisfies the differential equation


d2y
dy
2
- 3y = 16e x
2
d
x
dx

The gradient of this curve at the point (0, 1) is -5.


(a) Show that the equation of this curve is given by y = e -x(e2x - 2)2
(b) Find the exact coordinates of the point P where this curve crosses the x-axis.
(c) Given that P is a stationary point on this curve, use the differential equation
to show that P is a minimum point.
5.

(a) Show that 3xe2x is a particular integral of the differential equation


d2y
dy
3
+ 2y = 3e2x
2
d
x
dx

(b) Find the particular solution of this differential equation for which at
dy
x = 0, y = -1 and
= -1
dx

A curve C has equation given by this particular solution.


(c) Find the value of y on the curve when x = 1. Deduce that between x = 0 and
x = 1, the curve C crosses the x-axis.
Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

6.

(a) Find the general solution of the differential equation


2
4 d x2 + 4 dx + x = (t + 1)(t + 7)
dt

dt

(b) Hence show that the particular solution of this differential equation for
which x = -2 when t = 0 and for which dx = 6 when t = 3 is given by

x = (t - 1) e
7.

1t
2

dt

+ t +1

(a) Show that the substitution y = ux transforms the differential equation


d2y
dy
+ ( 5x 4 ) x
+ (4 - 5x + 3x2) y = 10x3sin 2x
dx
dx 2
2
(2)
into the equation 2 d u2 + 5 ddux + 3u = 10sin 2x
dx

2x 2

(1)

(b) Solve equation (2).


(c) Hence write down the general solution of equation (1).
8.

dy
=
(a) If y = 1 , where u is a function of x, show that
dx

an expression for

d2y
.
dx 2

1 du
and find
u2 dx

(b) Use the substitution y = 1 to show that the differential equation


u

d y
dy
2 + 4y2 (2y - 1) = 0
d
dx 2
x
d 2u
can be expressed as 2 + 4u = 8
dx

(1)
(2)

(c) Find the general solution of equation (2).


(d) (i) Hence show that the particular solution of equation (1) for which y = 1 at
x = 0 and at x = 1 p is given by y = cos 2x + 1sin 2x + 2
4
(ii) State the minimum possible value attained by this particular solution.
9.

(a) Show that the substitution v = xy transforms the differential equation


d2y
dy
+ 2 (1 + x )
+ (2 + x)y = x2 + 6x + 6
2
d
x
dx
2
into the equation d v2 + 2 dv + v = x2 + 6x + 6
dx
dx

(1)
(2)

(b) Solve equation (2) and hence find y in terms of x.


(c) Show that any member of the family of solution curves of equation (1) can,
for large positive values of x, be approximated by the line y = x + 2

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style mark scheme

2nd order differential equations

Question
Number

Solution

Marks

1 a

aux.eqn.: m 2 + km = 0, m = 0, m = -k
gen. soln. y = A + Be -kx

M1 A2
M1 A1

(5)

If B is positive, y decreases approaching A.


If B is negative, y increases approaching A.

B1
B1

(2)

6
2 a

aux. eqn.: m2 + 4 = 0, m = 2i
gen. soln.: x = Acos (2t) + Bsin (2t)
Substitute x = 3 and t = 0, then A = 3.
Substitute x = 3 and t = p , then B = 3.

M1 A2
M2
A1
A1

Hence x = 3cos 2t + 3sin 2t

M1 A1

(7)

R = 3 2 , a = tan 1 1 = p

x = 3 2 sin 2t + p
c

3 a

A1

max.x = 3 2 metres

A1

Aux. eqn.: 4m2 + 4m + 5 = 0

M1

m = 4

A1

64

C.F.: y = e

= 1 i
2

1 x

(A cos x + B sin x)

P.I.:
y = pcos x + qsin x

(4)
11

A1
B1

dy
= -psin x + qcos x
dx
d 2y
= -pcos x - qsin x
dx 2

-4pcos x - 4qsin x - 4psin x + 4qcos x + 5pcos x + 5qsin x


= 2cos x - 8sin x
then
(p + 4q)cos x + (q - 4p)sin x = 2cos x - 8sin x
p + 4q = 2
q - 4q = -8
hence
q = 0, p = 2
General solution:
y=e

1x
2

(Acos x + Bsin x) + 2cos x

Oxford University Press 2009

M3

A2

A1

(10)

Further Pure FP2

Substituting y = 0, x = 0 and x = p then A = -2, B = 0

A2

Equation of the curve is.


y = 2(1 - e-0.5x ) cos x

A1oe

If x then e 0.5x 0 , hence y 2cos x

B1 A1

(5)
15

4 a

The auxiliary equation m2 - 2m - 3 = 0 has solution m = -1, m = 3


The complementary function is y = Ae-x + Be3x, for A and B arbitrary
constant.
An appropriate trial function is yT = De x

B1

M1

dy
d 2y
= De x and 2 = De x
dx
dx

If y = Dex then

Substitute these expressions into the given differential equation:


d 2y
2 dy 3y = 16e x De x 2De x 3De x = 16e x
2
dx
dx
x
x

M1

-4De = 16e
D = -4

Hence the general solution of the given differential equation is


y = Ae-x + Be3x - 4ex
Substitute the boundary condition y = 1, x = 0 into the general solution:
y = Ae-x + Be3x - 4ex 1 = Ae0 + Be0 - 4e0
A+B=5
(1)
Substitute the boundary condition dy = 5, x = 0 into the general solution:
-x

y = Ae +

Be3x

4ex

dx
dy

= -Ae-x + 3Be3x - 4ex


dx

-5 = -Ae0 + 3Be0 - 4e0


A - 3B = 1
(2)
A+B=5
A - 3B = 1
(1) - (2):
A = 4, B = 1

(1)
(2)

Hence the equation of the curve is y = 4e-x + e3x - 4ex


= e-x (e4x - 4e2x + 4)
= e-x (e2x - 2)2

M1 A1

e-x (e2x - 2)2 = 0


2x = ln 2

M1

(5)

x = 1 ln 2
2

( 21 ln 2, 0)
c

A1

(2)

B1

(1)
8

1 ln 2
2
Substitute x = 1 ln 2 in to the DE to give d y2 = 16e 2 = 16 2 > 0

Therefore P is min. point.

Oxford University Press 2009

dx

Further Pure FP2

5 a

y = 3xe2x

M1

dy
= 3e2x + 6xe2x
dx

M1

d 2y
= 6e2x + 6e2x + 12xe2x = 12e2x + 12xe2x
dx 2

d 2y
3 dy + 2y = (12 9)e2x + (12 18 + 6)xe2x = 3e2x
2
dx
dx

M1 A1

Aux. eqn.: m2 - 3m + 2 = 0, then m = 1, 2


C.F. y = Ae x + Be2x
General Solution: y = Ae x + Be2x + 3xe2x

M1 A1
A1
A1

dy
= Ae x + 2Be2x + 3e2x + 6xe2x
dx
dy
Substituting x = 0, y = -1 and dx = 1:

M1

A + B = -1 and A + 2B = -4, solve simultaneously:


A = 2, B = -3
Particular solution: y = 2e x - 3e2x + 3xe2x
c

At x = 1 then y = 2 e > 0
At x = 0 then y = -1
Change of sign, therefore curve C crosses the x-axis.

(4)

M1
A2
A1ft

(9)

A1
A1

(2)
15

6 a

Aux. eqn.: 4m2 + 4m + 1 = 0, then (2m + 1)2 = 0, m = -0.5


C.F.: x = Ae-0.5t + Bte-0.5t
P.I.: x = pt2 + qt + r

M1 A1
A1
M1

dx = 2 pt + q
dt
d 2x = 2 p
dt 2
2
4 d 2x + 4 dx + x = 8 p + 8 pt + 4q + pt 2 + qt + r
dt
dt

= t2 + 8t + 7
Comparing the coefficients of t2, t,:
p = 1, q = 0 and r = -1
The general solution is
x = Ae-0.5t + Bte-0.5t + t2 - 1
b

M2

A3
A1

(10)

dx
-0.5t
+ Be-0.5t -0.5Bt e-0.5t + 2t
dt = -0.5Ae
Substituting (t = 0, x = -2) and dx = 6 at t = 3:
dt

-2 = A - 1, then A = -1, B = 1,
Particular solution: x = -e-0.5t + te-0.5t + t2 - 1
= e-0.5t(t - 1) + (t - 1)(t + 1)
= (t - 1)(e-0.5t + t + 1)

Oxford University Press 2009

A2
M1 A1

(6)
16

Further Pure FP2

7 a

dy
= u + x du
dx
dx

M1

d 2y
du + x d 2u
=
2
dx
dx 2
dx 2

M1

2x 2 2 du + x d u2 + (5x 4)x u + x du
dx
dx

dx

M1

+ (4 - 5x + 3x2)(ux) = 10x3sin 2x
2
4x du + 2x 2 d u2 + 5xu + 5x 2 du 4u 4x du

dx

dx

dx

dx

M1

+ 4u - 5xu + 3x2u = 10x2 sin 2x


2
2 d u2 + 5 du + 3u = 10 sin 2x

A1

Aux. eqn.: 2m2 + 5m + 3 = 0, (2m + 3)(m + 1) = 0

M1

m = -1, 3

A1

C.F.: u = Ae-x + Be-1.5x


P.I.: u = psin 2x + qcos 2x
3u = 3psin 2x + 3qcos 2x

A1
B1

dx

dx

5 du = 10 p cos 2x 10q sin 2x

(5)

M2

dx

2
2 d u2 = 8 p sin 2x 8q cos 2x

A1oe

dx

Total:
-(5p + 10q)sin 2x + (10p - 5q) cos 2x = 10 sin 2x
Then p + 2q = -2 and 2p - q = 0

A2

p = 2, q = 4
5

The general solution of (II):

A1

(10)

A1

(1)

u = Ae-x + Be-1.5x - 2 sin 2x - 4 cos 2x


5

y = Axe-x + Bxe-1.5x 2 xsin 2x 4 xcos 2x


5

16

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

8 a

y = u-1
dy 2 du
= u
as required
dx
dx

( )

d 2y
= 2u 3 du
2
dx
dx

2
u 2 d u2

( dx ) u
dx
2 ( dy ) = 2u ( du )
dx
dx
2

M1oe

dx

2
u 1 d y2 = 2u 4 du

M1oe

(2)

d 2u
dx 2

8y3 - 4y2 = 8u-3 - 4u-2


Total:
u

M1
2

d u + 8u 3 4u 2 = 0
dx 2

M1

Multiply by -u3:
d 2u + 4u = 8
dx 2

Aux. eqn.: m2 + 4 = 0, m = 2i
C.F.: u = Acos 2x + Bsin 2x
P.I.:

2
u = k, d u2 = 0, then k = 2

dx

The general solution of (II) :


u = Acos 2x + Bsin 2x + 2
d

( ) ( )

Substituting 0, 1 and p , 1 :
4 3
3
1
= Acos 2x + Bsin 2x + 2
y

A = 1 and B = 1
1
cos 2x + sin 2x + 2
Min. value is 1
2+ 2

M1 A1
A1

(4)

A1
A1

(5)

M1
A2
A1

Hence y =

ii

Oxford University Press 2009

A1

(5)
16

Further Pure FP2

9 a

y = x-1v
dy 2
= x v + x 1 dv
dx
dx

B1oe

2
d 2y
= 2x 3v x 2 dv x 2 dv + x 1 d v2
2
dx
dx
dx
dx

B1oe

2
d 2y
3
2 dv
1 d v
=
2
x
v

2
x
+
x
dx
dx 2
dx 2

B1oe

2
2
x d y2 = 2x 2v 2x 1 dv + d v2

dx

dx

dx
(2 + 2x) dy = 2x 2v + 2x 1 dv 2x 1v + 2 dv
dx
dx
dx

(2 + x)y = 2x-1v + v
(i) + (ii) + (iii):

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

d 2v + 2 dv + v = x 2 + 6x + 6
dx
dx 2

Aux. eqn.: m2 + 2m + 1 = 0
(m + 1)2 = 0, then m = -1
C.F.: v = Ae-x + Bx e-x
v = px2 + qx + r

M1
A1

(5)

M1 A1
A1
M1oe

dv = 2 px + q
dx

P.I.:

d 2v = 2 p
dx 2
d 2v + 2 dv + v = 2 p + 4 px + 2q + px 2 + qx + r
dx
dx 2

= px2 + (4p + q)x + 2p + 2q + r = x2 + 6x +6


Comparing the coefficients of x2 and x:
p = 1, q = 2 and r = 0
The general solution of (II):
v = Ae-x + Bxe-x + x2 + 2x
y = Ax-1e-x + Be-x + x + 2
c

If x then e-x 0, hence y x + 2

Oxford University Press 2009

A3
A1
A1
A1

(12)
17

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style assessment

6
1.

Maclaurin and Taylor series

(a) Find the Taylor expansion of sin 6x in ascending powers of x 1 p

up to and including the term in x 1 p .


6

(b) Hence, or otherwise, find the first two non-zero terms, in ascending powers

of x 1 p , in the Taylor expansion of sin 3xcos 3x.


2.

f(x) = tan x
(a) Find f (1) (x), f (2) (x) and f (3) (x).
(b) Show that, if x is sufficiently small that terms in x4 and higher powers
can be ignored, then
tan x = x + 1 x 3
3

0.2

(c) Use this approximation to estimate the value of


Give your answer to 3 decimal places.
3.

0.1

3tan x
dx.
x

(a) Write down the Maclaurin expansion in ascending powers of x of ln (1 + x)


up to and including the term in x3.
(b) Hence, or otherwise, find, in ascending powers of x, the expansion of
(i) ln (1 + 2x),
(ii) ln (1 - 2x),
giving each expansion up to and including the term in x3
(c) Deduce that, for small values of x, ln

(11 + 22xx ) 2x + 83 x

and hence, by substituting x with a suitable value into this approximation,


estimate the value of ln 3, giving your answer as a fraction in its lowest terms.
4.

f(x) = ln (4 - x),

x<4

(a) Prove by induction that


f (n) (x) = -(n - 1)!(4 - x)-n

for all positive integers n.

(b) Hence find the coefficient of (x - 2)5 in the Taylor expansion of ln 1


4x
in ascending powers of (x - 2).
5.

x2

dy
+ y2 = x - 1
dx

(a) Given that y = 2 when x = 1 find a series solution for y, in ascending powers
of (x - 1), up to and including the term in (x - 1)2.
(b) Hence estimate the value of y when x = 1.2

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

6.

(a) Express ecos x-1 as a series of ascending powers of x up to and including


the term in x2.
It is given that in the interval (0, 1) the equation ecos x-1 = 2x is satisfied by
exactly one value a
(b) Use your answer to part (a) to find an estimate for a.
(c) Show, by means of a change of sign, that this estimate for a is accurate to
2 decimal places.

7.

2
For the differential equation (x + 2) d y2 y dy = x ,

dx
dy
= 3 when x = 0.
where y = 2 and
dx

dx

(a) find a series solution for y, in ascending powers of x, up to and including


the term in x3.
(b) Hence estimate the value of y when x = -0.1, giving your answer to
3 decimal places.
8.

2
For the differential equation (x2 - 1) d y2 - 2y = (3x + 1)(x - 1),

it is given that y = 0 and

dx
dy
= -1 when x = 0.
dx

(a) Show that the first three non-zero terms in a series solution for y, in
ascending powers of x, is
y = x + 1 x 2 + 2 x 3 + . . .
2

(b) Given that the particular solution of this differential equation is


y = (x2 + k) ln (1 + x), where k is a constant,
(i) find the value of k,
(ii) find the coefficient of x4 in the series solution for y.

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style mark scheme

6
Question
Number

1 a

Maclaurin and Taylor series


Solution

Marks

(6) ( 6)
f (x) = 6cos 6x f ( p ) = 6
6
f (x) = -36sin 6x f ( p ) = 0
6
f (x) = -216cos 6x f ( p ) = 216
6
sin6x = 6 ( x 1 p ) + 36 ( x 1 p )
6
6

f(x) = sin 6x f p = sin 6 p = 0

A1

M1 A1
A1
A1

A1

sin 3x cos 3x = 1 sin 6x

M1

= 1 6 x p + 36 x p
2
6
6

6)

6)

= 3 x p + 18 x p
2 a

(6)

M1

A1

f (x) = sec2 x
f (x) = 2sec xsec x tan x
= 2sec 2x tan x
f (x) = 4sec x sec x tan x tan x + 2sec2x sec2x
= 4sec2x tan2x + 2sec4x

M1 A1

f(0) = tan 0 = 0, f (0) = sec20 = 1, f (0) = 0, f (0) = 2

M1 A2

2
3
tan x  f (0) + xf (0) + x f (0) + x f (0)

M1

2!

(3)

3!

A1

M1 A1

(5)

3
= x + x 2

3!

3
= x+ x

A1

0.2

c
0.1

3tan x dx 
x

Oxford University Press 2009

0.2

0.1

3 + x2 dx = 3x + x
3

(5)

0.2

0.1

= 0.302(3 dp)
10

Further Pure FP2

3 a

f(x) = ln(1 + x) f (0) = 0


f (x) = (1 + x)-1 f (0) = 1
f (x) = -(1 + x)-2 f (0) = -1
f (x) = 2(1 + x)-3 f (0) = 2

A1
M1 A1
M1 A1
M1 A1

ln(1 + x)  x 1 x 2 + 1 x 3

A1

ln(1 + 2x)  2x 2x 2 + 8 x 3

A1

3
ii ln(1 2x) = 2x 2x 2 8 x 3
3

A1

ln 1 + 2x = 1 [ln(1 + 2x) ln(1 2x)]


1 2x

(8)

M1

= x x2 + 4 x3 + x + x2 + 4 x3

B1

= 2x + 8 x 3

A1

Take x = 0.25, then ln 3 = 2 1 +


4

(2)

8 = 13
3 64 24

M1 A1

(5)
15

4 a

For n = 1, f (x) = -(4 - x)-1, so it is true for n = 1.


Assume true for n = k, then f (k) = -(k - 1)!(4 - x)-k
(k)
f (k +1)(x) = d( f (x))

M1
B1

dx

= d [(k 1)!(4 x)k]


dx

= (k 1)!(k)(1)(4 x)(k +1)


= (k !)(4 x)(k 1)

M1
M1 A1

(5)

Therefore it is true for n = k + 1


Hence by induction, the result is true for all n . 1
b

ln

( 4 1 x ) =

ln(4

x)

M1oe

f (5)(2) 4! 2 5
=
= 1
5!
5!
160

M1 A1

(3)
8

5 a

Substituting y = 2 and x = 1: dy = 4
2
2
2x dy + x 2 d y2 + 2y dy = 1 d y2 = 25

dx

dx

dx

dx

when x = 1

M1 A1ft

y  2 4(x 1) + 25 (x 1)2

M1 A1ft

y  2 - 4(0.2) + 12.5(0.2)2
= 1.7

M1
A1ft

A1

dx

Oxford University Press 2009

(5)

(2)
7

Further Pure FP2

6 a

f(x) = ecosx-1 f(0) = 1


f (x) = -ecos x1 sin x f (0) = 0
f (x) = ecos x1 sin 2x - ecos x1 cos x f (0) = -1

A1
M1 A1
M1 A1

ecos x 1 1 1 x 2

M1 A1

(7)

1 1 x 2 = 2x
2

x + 4x - 2 = 0

M1

x = 2 6
c

7 a

a 2 + 6 = 0.45 (2 dp)

A1

Let g(x) = ecos x-1 - 2x


g(0.445) = ecos(0.445) -1 2(0.445) = +0.02
g(0.445) = ecos(0.455) -1 - 2(0.445) = -0.07
Change of sign in the region [0.445, 0.455], \a = 0.45 (2dp)

M1

Substituting y = 2 and

2
dy
= 3, x = 0 then d y2 = 3
dx
dx

( )

3
d 2y
+ (x + 2) d y3 dy
2
dx
dx
dx

2
3
y d y2 = 1 d y3 = 13

dx

dx

2
y 2 + 3x + 3x + 13 x 3

8 a

12

y = 2 - 0.3 + 1.5(0.01) - 13 (0.001) = 1.714(3dp)


12

Substituting y = 0,

d 2y
dy
= -1 when x = 0, then 2 = 1
dx
dx

2
3
3
2x d y2 + (x 2 1) d y3 2 dy = 6x 2 d y3 = 4 when x = 0

dx
dx
y x + 1 x 2 + 2 x 3
2
3
dx

dx

dy
= 2x ln(1 + x) + (x 2 + k)(1 + x)1
dx
Substituting x = 0 and dy = -1, then k = -1
dx

M1
A1

M1 A1ft
M1 A1ft

(5)

M1 A1ft

(2)
7

A1
M1 A1ft
A1

A1

1 1
1
The coefficient of x4 = 2 + 4 = 4

A1

(4)

M1 B1oe

M1

( x 2 1) x

(3)
12

A1

x 2 + x 3 x 4 + ...
2
3
4

ii

(2)

(3)

(2)
9

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style assessment

7
1.

Polar coordinates

The polar curve C has equation r = 4cos q + 2sin q for 0 - q - 1 p .


2

(a) Show that (x - 2)2 + (y - 1)2 = 5, where (x, y) are the cartesian coordinates
of any point on C.
(b) Hence sketch the polar curve C.
2.

1
r
6

The diagram shows part of the curve C with cartesian equation y2 = x2 - 1


for x . 1 point P on the curve is such that line OP makes an angle of 1 p radians,
6
measured anti-clockwise against the positive x-axis.
(a) Show that for any polar point (r, q) on C, r2 = sec 2q
(b) Hence, or otherwise, find the exact distance OP.
3.

i=

1
r
2

C2

C1
l

The diagram shows the polar curves C1 and C2 with equations given by
C1: r = cos 2q 0 - q - 1 p
and

C2: r = sin q

4
0 - q - 1p
2

Point A lies on the curve C2 and on the half-line q = 1 p . P is a point of


2
intersection of the two curves.
(a) Find the exact polar coordinates of point P.
(b) Show that AP = 1 3
2

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

4.

B
O

The diagram shows the polar curve with equation r = a(1 + 2cos q) for 0 - q - 2 p ,
3
where a is a positive constant. The curve crosses the initial line at the pole and at
point A. The line p is a tangent to this curve at point B and is perpendicular to the
initial line, as shown.
(a) Find the polar coordinates of point A, giving your answer in terms of a
(b) Show that, for this curve, rcos q = a(cos q + cos 2q + 1)
(c) Hence find, in terms of a, the distance OB.
2
(d) Show that the area of triangle OAB is 3a 15

16

5.

A curve C is defined by the polar equation r = 2 + acos q for -p - q - p,


where a is a positive constant.
(a) On separate diagrams, sketch the curve C given that
(i) a = 2
(ii) a < 2.
(b) In the case when a =

6.

i=

2, find the exact total area enclosed by the curve C.

1
r
2

i=0

The diagram shows the polar curve with equation r 2 = 2 3 sin 2q for 0 - q - 1 p ,
the initial line and the half-line q = 1 p . A tangent to this curve at point A,
2
parallel to the initial line, is also shown.

(a) Show that r2 sin2 q = 3 sin 2q 1 sin 4q


2

(b) Hence, by using implicit differentiation, show that point A has polar
coordinates

3, 1 p .
3

(c) Find the polar equation of this tangent.


(d) Show that the line OA divides the curve into two regions whose areas are
in the ratio 1 : 3.

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

7.

i=r

i= 0

The diagram shows the curve with polar equation r = 2 - cos 2q for 0 - q - p.
The curve is enclosed by a rectangle formed by the half-lines q = 0, q = p and the
tangents parallel and perpendicular to the initial line, which touch the curve at
points P, Q and R respectively, as shown.
(a) Express r sin q in terms of sin q only.

(b) Use calculus to show that point P has polar coordinates 3, 1 p .


2

(c) Find the exact polar coordinates of point Q and point R.


(d) Show that the area of the region inside the rectangle but outside the curve,
as shaded in the diagram, is 6 2 9 p
4

8.

L
P

C
R

initial line

The diagram shows the polar curve C and the straight line L with equations
given by
C: r = 2(cos q - sin q)
and

L: r 1 sec 1 p q
2

0 - q - 1p

4
0 - q - 1p
4

C and L intersect at point P. Point Q is where L crosses the initial line. R is the
finite region bounded by C, PQ and the initial line and which does not contain
the pole.
(a) Show that P has polar coordinates P

( 3 1, 61 p ).

(b) Find the polar coordinates of point Q.


(c) Show that the area of region R is 0.36, correct to 2 decimal places.

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

9.

C1

C2

C2

i=r

C1
l

The diagram shows the polar curves C1 and C2 with equations given by
C1: r = 2(1 + sin q)

0-q-p

C2: r = 2(1 + cos q)

0-q-p

The half-lines q = 0 and q = p bound both C1 and C2.


The curves intersect at point P.
(a) Find the polar coordinates of point P. Give your answer in exact form.
(b) Show that (1 + sin q)2 - (1 + cos q)2 2sin q - 2cos q - cos 2q
(c) Find the exact area of the region R between the two curves and which is
bounded by the half-lines q = 1 p and q = p, shown shaded on the diagram.
4

10.

1
1
The diagram shows the polar curve C with equation r 2 = 2a2cos 2q for 4 p  q  4 p ,
where a > 0 is a constant. Tangents to the curve at point A and point B, parallel to
the initial line, have been drawn.

(a) Show that, for any point (r, q ) on C, r 2 sin2 q = a2(cos 2q - cos2 2q)
(b) Hence, using implicit differentiation, find in terms of a the polar coordinates
of points A and B.
(c) Show that triangle OAB is equilateral and find its area in terms of a.
(d) Find, in terms of a, the exact area of the finite region bounded by the curve
and the line AB and which does not contain the pole.

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style mark scheme

Polar coordinates

Question
Number

Solution

1 a

Multiply by r:
r2 = 4r cos q + 2r sin q
Usin g r2 = x2 + y2, x = rcos q and y = rsin q
x2 + y2 = 4x + 2y
(x 2)2 + (y 1)2 = 5

Marks

M1
M1
M1 A1

(4)

B3

(3)

7
2 a

3 a

Substitute x = rcos q and y = rsin q in y2 = x2 1:


r2 sin2 q = r2 cos2 q - 1
r2 (cos2 q sin2 q ) = 1
r2 cos 2q = 1, hence r2 = sec 2q

M1oe
M1oe
M1 A1

r 2 = sec p = 2 , r = 2

M1 A1

cos2 q = sin q
1 2sin2 q = sin q
2sin2 q + sin q 1 = 0
(2 sin q - 1)(sin q + 1) = 0, sin q = 1

A1

Hence q = p

A1

(2 6 )

P 1 ,p
b

A(0, 1), P
AP =

3 + 9 = 1 3
16 16
2

Oxford University Press 2009

(2)
6

B1
M1

A1

( 43 , 14 ) in Cartesian form

(4)

(5)

A2
M1 A1

(4)
9

Further Pure FP2

4 a

r = a(1 + 2cos 0) 3a

Hence A has polar coordinates (3a, 0)

r cos q = a(1 + 2cos q) cos q


= a(cos q + 2cos2 q)
= a(cos q + cos 2q + 1), as required

x = r cos q, so dx = a (-sin q - 2sin 2q)


dq

Hence at B, sin q + 2sin 2q = 0


sin q + 4 sin q cos q = 0
sin q (1 + 4cos q) = 0
i.e. sin q = 0 [which does not correspond to B]
or cosq = 1

( ( 14 )) = 21 a

Hence OB = a 1 + 2
d

(2 )

Area = 1 (3a) 1 a sin q, where cos q = 1 , 0 < q < p


2

Hence sin q = 1 cos2 q


= 1 1

16
1
=
15
4

( )(

So Area = 1 (3a) 1 a 1 15

2
2
4
= 3 a 2 15, as required
16

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

5 a

r = 2 + 2cos i

B2

x
2

ii

2
2a

2+a
x

B2

(4)

Area
p

=2
0

1 r 2dq
2

(2 +

2 cosq ) dq
2

M1

(4 + 4

2 cosq + 2 cos2 q ) dq

M1

(5 + 4

2 cosq + cos 2q ) dq

M1

=
0

= 5q + 4 2 sinq + 1 sin 2q

= 5p

M2
A1

(6)
6

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

6 a

r2 sin 2q
= 2 3 sin 2q sin 2 q

= 2 3 sin 2q 1 2 cos 2q
=

M1

3(sin 2q sin 2q cos 2q )

= 3 sin 2q 1 sin 4q
b

M1

M1 A1

(4)

M1 A1

(2)

y 2 = 3 sin 2q 1 sin 4q so 2y dy = 3 (2 cos 2q 2 cos 4q)


2

dq

Hence, at A, 2cos 2q - 2cos 4q = 0


i.e. 2cos2 2q - cos 2q - 1 = 0
(2cos 2q + 1)(cos 2q - 1) = 0
cos 2q = 1 [which does not correspond to A]
or cos 2q = 1 , so 2q = 2 p i.e. q = 1 p
3
3
2
1
2
q = p r = 3 and so the polar coordinates of A are A
3
c

r sinq = 3 sin p = 1.5

Area above OA:

1
2

p
2

p
3

3, 1 p
3

2 3 sin 2q dq = 3 [ cos 2q]p2 = 3


2
4
3

M1 A1

Area below OA:


p
3

1
2
0

2 3 sin 2q dq = 3 [ cos 2q]03 = 3 3


2
4

3 : 3 3 then ratio is 1 : 3
4
4

M1 A1
A1

(5)
17

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

7 a

rsin q = 2sin q - sin q cos 2q


= 2sin q - sin q (1 - 2sin 2q)
= 2sin 3q + sin q
d(r sinq )
= 6 sin 2 q cosq + cosq = 0
dq
cos q = 0 then q = p
2
Therefore P 3, p
2

( )

rcos q = 2cos q - cos q cos 2q


= 2cos q - cos q (2cos2 q - 1)
= 3cos q - 2cos 3q
d(r cosq )
= 3 sinq + 6 cos2 q sinq = 0
dq
cosq = 1 (as sinq = 0 cannot give P or Q)
2
q = p , 3p
4 4
Q 2, p , R 2, 3p
4
4

( ) (

Area of the rectangle = 2 2 cos p 3 = 6 2


4

M1
A1

(2)

M1
A1
A1

(3)

M1
A1
M1
A1
A1
A2

(7)

M1 A1

Area inside the curve:


p
2

(2 - cos 2q)2 dq

M1

0
p
2

(4 - 4cos 2q + cos 22q)dq

0
p
2

=
0

( 4.5 4 cos 2q + 21 cos 4q ) dq


p
2

M1

= 4.5q 2 sin 2q + 1 sin 4q

M1

= 9p

A1

Shaded Area = 6 2 9 p
4

A1

(7)
19

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

8 a

1
2 cos p q
4

2(cosq sinq ) =

2(cosq sinq ) =

M1

M1

2 cos p cosq + sin p sinq


4
4
1
2(cosq sinq ) =
cosq + sinq

M1

2(cos 2q - sin 2q) = 1


2 cos2 q 1 = 1
2

cosq = 3

M1

2
Hence q = p and r = 2 cos p sin p =
6
6
6
P 3 1, p
6

b
c

3 1

A2

Substitute q = 0 in the equation of L, then r = 1


Q(1, 0)

A1

(7)

M1
A1

(2)

Area of the triangle OPQ


= 1 1 ( 3 1) sin p = 3 1
2

M1 A1

Area of the triangle OPQ + the region R:


= 1
2

p
6

[2(cos q - sin q]2 dq

M1

= 2 (1 - 2cos q sin q) dq

M1

0
p
6

p
6

= 2 [q + cos2 q ]0

M1 A1

=p 1
3 2

A1

Therefore the area of the region R = p 1 - 3 1 = 0.36 (2dp)


3

M1 A1

(9)
18

9 a

2(1 + sin q) = 2(1 + cos q)


sin q = cos q so tan q = 1
q =p
4

A1

r = 2 1 + sin p = 2 + 2

M1

P 2 + 2, p

A1

M1

1 + 2sin q + sin 2q - 1 - 2cos q - cos 2q


= 2sin q - 2cos q - (cos 2 - sin 2q)
= 2sin q - 2cos q - cos 2q

(4)

M1
A1

(2)

Area of the region R:


p

= 2 (2sin q - 2cos q - cos 2q) dq


p
4

M1

= 2 2 cosq 2 sin q 1 sin 2q p

M2

=5+4 2

A1

(4)
10

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

10 a

r2sin 2q = 2a2sin 2q cos 2q

= 2a 2 1 cos 2q cos 2q

M1

= a2(cos 2q - cos2 2q)

M1 A1

(3)

AB = 2 a sin p = a,

A2

(7)

Therefore OA = OB = AB = a, so triangle is equilateral

M1

Area of the triangle OAB = 1 a 2 sin p =

A1

Solve dy = 0 to find the coordinates of points A and B:


dq

y = r sin q y2 = r2 sin2 q
y2 = a2(cos2 q - cos2 2q)
2y = dy = a2(-2sin 2q + 4cos 2q sin 2q )
dq

dy
= 0 -2sin 2q + 4cos 2q sin 2q = 0
dq

2sin 2q (2cos 2q - 1) = 0
sin 2q = 0, cos 2q = 1

2
1
q = 0, q = p
6
Clearly, q = 1 p corresponds to point A and q = 1 p to point B
6
6
1
At A and B, cos 2q = and hence r2 = 2a2 cos 2q
2
2

=a

The polar coordinates of A and B are A a, 1 p and B a,- 1 p


6
6
respsectively.
c

3 a2
4

(2)

Area bounded
by curve and lines OA and OB
p
6

= 2 1
2

p
6

r2dq

2a2cos 2qdq

=
0

6
= [ a 2 sin 2q ]0

3 a2
2

Therefore Area required


=

3 a2

Oxford University Press 2009

3 a2
=
4

3 a2
4

Further Pure FP2