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0.1

Algebraic techniques

## You can simplify algebraic fractions by using

common denominators.

FP2

EXAMPLE 1

Simplify

## See C3 and C4 for revision.

This section provides
background knowledge
for Chapters 1, 2, 3 and 6.

4 + 3
x +1 x + 2

Rewrite the fractions so that they each have denominator (x + 1)(x + 2):

4 + 3 4(x + 2) + 3(x + 1)
x + 1 x + 2 (x + 1)(x + 2) (x + 1)(x + 2)

4(x + 2) + 3(x + 1)
(x + 1)(x + 2)

Simplify:

7x + 11
(x + 1)(x + 2)

Hence

4 + 3
7x + 11
x + 1 x + 2 (x + 1)(x + 2)

## You can split an algebraic fraction into its partial fractions.

EXAMPLE 2

Express

5x 1
as the sum of partial fractions.
(x + 1)(x 1)

## Write the fraction in the required form:

5x 1
A + B
(x + 1)(x 1) (x + 1) (x 1)

## A and B are constants.

A(x 1) + B(x + 1)
(x + 1)(x 1)

Compare numerators:

5x - 1 A(x - 1) + B(x + 1)

## When x = 1, 4 = A(1 - 1) + B(1 + 1)

i.e.
4 = 2B
so B = 2
Similarly, when x = -1
Hence, in partial fractions,

A=3
5x 1
3 + 2
(x + 1)(x 1) (x + 1) (x 1)

## Denominators are equal so the

numerators must also be equal.
You could also find A and B
by comparing coefficients in
the identity
5x - 1 A(x - 1) + B(x + 1)

EXAMPLE 3

x 1

## Multiply both sides of the equation by the denominator (x - 1):

y = 2x + 1

so

x 1

y(x - 1) = 2x + 1

yx - 2x = y + 1
i.e.

(y - 2)x = y + 1
x = y +1

so

y2

## You can expand expressions of the form (1 + x)n, where n is not a

positive integer, by using the binomial theorem.

FP2

EXAMPLE 4

## a Expand (1 + 2x)2 in ascending powers of x up to and

including the term in x2.
b By substituting x = 1 into your expansion, estimate the
4

value of 1.5.

## a Apply the binomial theorem (1 + x)n = 1 + nx + n(n 1) x 2 + ... :

( 1 )( 12 ) (2x) + "

(2)

1
(1 + 2x)2 = 1 + 1 (2x) + 2

2!

2!

= 1 + x 1 x2 + "
2

b Substitute x =

( ( ))
1+ 2 1
4

i.e.

1
2

## 1 into the approximation

(1 + 2x) 2 1 + x 1 x 2 :
4
2

2(4)

1+ 1 1 1
4

1.5 1.21875

()

1 2

1 + 2
= 1.5
4

## You can use the binomial theorem to find the expansion of an

algebraic fraction.
EXAMPLE 5

Express

1 x

x = x(1 x)1
1 x

## (1 x)1 = 1 + (1)(x) + ( 1)( 2) (x)2 + ( 1)( 2)( 3) (x)3 + "

2!

3!

= 1 + x + x2 + x3 + "
Multiply through by x:

x (1 x) 1 = x (1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + ")
= x + x2 + x3 + x4 + "

FP2

Hence

## The expansion is valid

for -1 < x < 1.

x = x + x2 + x3 + x4 + "
1 x

Exercise 0.1
1 Simplify these expressions.
a

2 + 4
x + 2 x 1
x

c x + 3 + x +1
e

3 1
x 4 x +1

d 2x + 1 +
x +1

1
2x 1

x 1
x + 4 x +1

a

4x + 3
(x + 2)(x 3)

c 5x2 6

x 4

x+2
(x + 4)(x + 3)

x2 7
(x 2 1)(x + 2)

3x
2x 1

b y = 2x + 3

c y = 2x + 1

d y = 1 3x

a y=

x +1

4x

3x + 1

## 4 Use the binomial theorem to express these functions as a series

of ascending powers of x up to and including the term in x3.
a (1 + x)-1
b

1
(1 + 2x)3
2

c (1 3x)3
1
5 It is given that (1 + x)2 = 1 + 1 x 1 x 2 + 1 x 3 "

16

1
4x)2

## a Find the expansion of (1 +

in ascending powers of
x up to and including the term in x3.

given expansion.

8

## part a estimate the value of 2.

6 Express these functions as ascending powers of x up to and
including the term in x3.
x
(1 + 2x)2

x 1
1+ x

FP2

4x + 3
(1 + 3x)(1 2x)

0.2

Inequalities

## See C2 for revision.

This is background knowledge
for Chapter 1.

EXAMPLE 1

## Use a graphical approach to solve the inequality x2 - 5x + 4 < 0

x2 - 5x + 4 (x - 1)(x - 4)
The graph cuts the x-axis when y = 0
i.e when (x - 1)(x - 4) = 0
The graph has roots x = 1, x = 4.

y

## The inequality x2 - 5x + 4 < 0 has solution 1 < x < 4.

x2 - 5x + 4 < 0 is satisfied by
values of x for which the graph
y = x2 - 5x + 4 lies on or below
the x-axis.

EXAMPLE 2

FP2

## You can also solve an inequality by using algebra.

Use algebra to solve the inequality x2 + 3 0 4x

## Express the inequality in the form f(x) 0 0 where f(x) is factorised:

x2 - 4x + 3 0 0

i.e.

(x - 1)(x - 3) 0 0

## Solve the equation f(x) = 0 where f(x) = (x - 1)(x - 3):

(x - 1)(x - 3) = 0 for x = 1, x = 3
Use appropriate values of x to find the sign of f(x) in the intervals
x < 1, 1 < x < 3, x > 3:

f(x) < 0

f(x) > 0
1
x<1

e.g.

f(0) = 3 (>0)

f(x) > 0
x

3
1<x<3

f(2) = -1 (<0)

x>3

f(4) = 3 (>0)

## The inequality is satisfied for

values of x for which f(x) 0 0.

## Remember to include x = 1 and

x = 3 in the solution of f(x) 0 0.

## 0 Background knowledge for unit FP2

Exercise 0.2
1 Use any appropriate technique to solve these inequalities.
a x2 - 5x + 6 0 0
b 2x2 + 5x - 3 < 0
c 4x2 - 1 > 0
d x2 - 7x + 10 0 5 - x
e x2 - 3x + 2 / 2x + 8
f 2x2 - 2x - 12 > 3 - x
2 Solve the inequality x2 - 2x - 4 < 0
3 Use a graphical approach to show that the inequality
x2 - 6x + 10 < 0
has no solution.
4 Solve these inequalities.

FP2

## a x(x + 2)(x + 4) > 0

b (x + 1)(x2 - 9) / 0
c x3 + 2x2 + x < 0

0.3

## To sketch a graph with equation y = |f(x)|:

} sketch the graph y = f(x)
} reflect the negative part of your graph in the x-axis.

## See C3 for revision.

This is background knowledge
for Chapters 1, 4 and 5.

EXAMPLE 1

## Sketch the graph with equation y = x2 - 4, drawing the part

of the graph that lies beneath the x-axis as a broken line.
Reflect the dotted section in the x-axis:

## Most graphical calculators

can plot the graph of a
modulus function.
Look for the ABS key.

y = |x2 4|
y

y=

x2

y=x 4
y = 4 x2

FP2

## The y-axis crossing point (0, 4) is

the reflection of the point (0, -4)
in the x-axis.
Label each section of the graph
with its equation.

## This is the negative part of

the graph.

You can sketch the graph with equation y = Aekx, where A and k
are constants.
EXAMPLE 2

## The graph with equation y = 3e-2x resembles that with

equation y = e-x
y

When x = 0, y = 3e-2(0) = 3,
i.e. the y-intercept of the
graph is 3.
y = 3e2x

## The positive x-axis is an

asymptote to the graph.

## 0 Background knowledge for unit FP2

Exercise 0.3
1 On separate diagrams, sketch the graphs with these equations.
Label all axis-crossing points with their values and the sections
of the graph with their equations.
a y = |2x + 1|
b y = |2 - 3x|
c y = |x2 + 4x + 3|
d y = |3x - 2x2|
2 On separate diagrams, sketch the graphs of these equations.
Label all axis-crossing points with their values, giving answers
in surd form where appropriate.
a y = |x3- 1|
b y = |(x + 3)2 (x - 1)|
c y = |(3 - x)(x2 - 2)|

FP2

## 3 On separate diagrams, sketch the graphs with these equations.

a y = 2e3x
b y = -e-x
c y = 3ex + 1
d y = 3 - e-2x
4 On separate diagrams, sketch the graphs with these equations.
a y = |e-x - 1|
b y = |ex - 2|
5 Given that x < ex for all x 0 0,
a show that x2 < e2x for all x 0 0
b deduce that xe-2x is approximately zero for large positive
values of x.

0.4

Trigonometry

## You can use a trigonometric identity to simplify an equation.

You should know these identities:

## See C3 for revision.

This is background knowledge
for Chapters 3 and 7.

## cos 2q cos2 q sin 2 q 2 cos2 q 1 1 2 sin 2 q

sin2 q + cos2 q 1

tan 2q 2 tan q2

## sin 2q 2 sin q cos q

1 tan q

tan q + 1 sec q
2

cos q

1 + cot q cosec q

EXAMPLE 1

## Replace cos 2q with 2cos2 q - 1 in the equation:

cos 2q + cos q = 0
so
2cos q - 1 + cos q = 0
i.e. (2cos q - 1)(cos q + 1) = 0

equation in cos q.

FP2

## Hence cos q = 1 or cos q = -1

2

cos q = 1 when q = 1 p
2

Since 0 / q / p

cos q = -1 when q = p
Hence cos 2q + cos q = 0 has solutions q = 1 p , p for 0 / q / p.
3

## Give answers in exact form

(i.e. in terms of p).

## You can use identities to reduce the number of different

trigonometric functions in an expression.
EXAMPLE 2

## sin 2q cos q (2 sin q cos q)cos q

2 sin q cos2 q
2 sin q(1 - sin2 q)
Hence sin 2q cos q 2sin q(1 - sin2 q)

10

## sin 2q cos q involves two

trigonometric functions.

cos2 q 1 - sin2 q
RHS depends only on sin q.

## 0 Background knowledge for unit FP2

Exercise 0.4
1 Solve these equations.
a sin 2q = cos q

for 0 / q / p

b sin 2q = tan q

for 0 / q / p

## c cos 2q = 3 sin q + 2 for -p / q / p

d

3cos 2q = cos q

for 1 p  q  1 p
2

3sin q + cos q
2 a Express
in the form R sin(q + a),
where R > 0 and 0 < a < 1 p is exact.
2

## b Hence solve the equation

3sin q + cos q = 1
for 0 / q / p
3 Express these functions in the required form.

FP2

## a cos 2q sin q in terms of sin q only

b sin 2q sin q in terms of cos q only
c cos 2q sin 2q as a function of sine only
d cos4 q - sin4 q as a function of cosine only
4 The diagram shows an isosceles triangle ABC,
where AB = AC = k and CAB

4

2i
A

## 5 Use a graphical approach to verify that

a cos(-q) cos q
b sin(-q) -sin q
c tan-1(-q) -tan-1q

11

0.5
1.1

Differentiation

## You need to know these standard results of differentiation:

d ( eax ) = aeax
dx
d sin ax = a cos ax
(
)
dx

d ln ax = 1
(
) x
dx
d ( cos ax ) = a sin ax
dx

## See C3 and C4 for revision.

This is background knowledge
for Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7.

## where a is a non-zero constant.

You can use rules and standard results of differentiation to find
the first and second derivatives of a function.
EXAMPLE 1

2
find dy and d y2 .

If y = xe2x

dx

dx

## Use the product rule, d (uv ) = u dv + v du , to find dy :

dx

y=

xe2x

so

dx

dx

dx

dy
= x (2e2x ) + e2x (1)
dx

d ( 2x )
e = 2e2x using the chain rule.
dx

= (2x + 1) e2x

Factorise:

FP2

## These include the chain, product

and quotient rules.

2
Use the product rule on dy to find d y2 :

dx

dy
= ( 2x + 1) e2x
dx

dx

so

d y
= (2x + 1) (2e2x ) + e2x (2)
dx 2

= 2e2x ( 2x + 2 ) = 4e2x ( x + 1)
Hence

dy
d2 y
= ( 2x + 1) e2x and 2 = 4e2x ( x + 1)
dx
dx

## You can use a trigonometric identity to simplify the

differentiation process.
EXAMPLE 2

## Find f (x) when f(x) = sin x(cos x + 1)

f(x) = sin x ( cos x + 1)
= sin x cos x + sin x
= 1 sin 2x + sin x
2

dx 2

12

EXAMPLE 3

dx

## Use the chain rule:

d 2
( y ) = ddy ( y 2 ) ddxy
dx

= 2y

d ( 2)
y = 2y since y2 is being
dy

## differentiated with respect to y.

dy
dx

Exercise 0.5
1 Find

dy
for these equations. Simplify each answer as far as possible.
dx

a y = ex sin x

b y = ln(1 + x2)

c y = x +x 1

d y = ln(sin2 x)

FP2

## 2 Find the exact maximum value of these functions over the

given interval. You should show each answer is a maximum.
a f(q) = sin q + cos q for 0 / q / p
for 0 < q - 1 p

b f(q) = sin2 q - 1

## 3 Using trigonometric identities, or otherwise, differentiate these equations.

Simplify each answer as far as possible.
a y = sin x cos 2x + cos x sin 2x
b y = 4cos2 x sin2 x
c y = (1 - 2sin2 2x)2
4 Use implicit differentiation to find an expression for these derivatives.
a d ( y3)
dx

d xy 2
( )
dx

( )

d x 2 dy
dx
dx

## 5 If y = ux, where u is a function of x,

a find an expression for
b Hence show that

dy
.
dx

d2 y
du
d 2u
2 = 2 dx + x
dx
dx 2

13

0.6

Integration

## You need to know these standard integrals:

1 dx = 1 ln x + c
ax
a

eax dx = 1 eax + c

## See C3 and C4 for revision.

This is background knowledge
for Chapters 4 and 7.

cos ( ax ) dx = 1 sin ( ax ) + c

sin(ax) dx = 1 cos ( ax ) + c

a is a non-zero constant.

## You can use the rules and standard results of integration to

integrate more complicated functions.

## These rules include integration

by substitution and by parts.

EXAMPLE 1

## You could also use inspection

(the reverse chain rule) to find
this integral.

= x cos u du

dx

FP2

4x

4x

1 cosu du
4

= 1 sinu + c
4

Replace u with

2x2:

## Remember the constant of

integration, c.

= 1 sin ( 2x 2 ) + c
4

EXAMPLE 2

3y 2 sec x

dy
=x
dx

## Separate the variables and integrate each side:

dy
3y 2 sec x
=x
so
3y2 dy =
dx

3y2 dy = y3 + c1
x cos x dx = x sin x + cos x + c 2
Hence the general solution is given by
y3 = x sin x + cos x + c
i.e.
14

A differential equation is an
equation that involves a derivative.

y =

x sin x + cos x + c

x cos x dx

sec x 1

cos x

## Integrate x cos x by parts:

u = xx, du = 1 and

dx
dv
= cos x, v = sin x
dx

c = c2 - c1
You only need one arbitrary
constant in the general solution of
a first order differential equation.

## You can express information as a differential equation to model a

real-life situation.
EXAMPLE 3

## When added to a container of water, a quantity of coloured

dye begins to spread out in such a way that, t seconds from
the start of the process, the dye forms a circular shape of
radius r cm and area A cm2. It is assumed that, at all times,
the rate of increase of A is inversely proportional to A.
After 4 seconds the area of the circle is 6 cm2.
a Formulate a differential equation for A.
b Find A in terms of t. Comment on the validity of your

dt

dA 1
dt
A

Hence

## dA = k for k a positive constant.

dt
A

i.e.

P is inversely proportional to
Q if P 1
Q

over time.

## b Separate the variables and integrate each side:

so

FP2

dA = k
dt
A

A dA = k dt

hence 1 A2 = kt + c

k is a constant so k dt = kt + c

i.e.

A=

2kt + c1

A=

so 0 =

2kt + c1

0 + c1

i.e. c1 = 0
Hence A =

2kt

## At the start, the circle does

not exist and so when
t = 0, A = 0.

2kt

A=

## The arbitrary constant has

been replaced by c1.
c1 = 2c

so

6=

2kt to find k:

2k ( 4 )

36 = 8k
i.e. k = 4.5
Hence the equation for A in terms of t is
A=

2 ( 4.5) t =

9t = 3 t

## As t increases, the function 3 t increases without limit.

Since the dye is inside a container, the equation A = 3 t
is an unrealistic model for A in the long term.
15

EXAMPLE 4

## (2cos q + 1)2 = 4cos2 q + 4cos q + 1

= 2(cos 2q + 1) + 4cos q + 1
So

## (2cos q + 1)2 dq = 2cos 2q + 4cos q + 3 dq

= sin 2q + 4sin q + 3q + c

## Using cos 2q 2cos2 q - 1

2cos 2q dq

(2

= 2 1 sin 2q = sin 2q

Exercise 0.6

FP2

a

xsin x dx

x(2x2 - 1)3 dx

4x(2x + 1)4 dx

xe-x dx

d
1

p
2

0
2

9x2 ln x dx

f
1

cos x

## a differentiate tan x and hence find

b show that

16

tan x dx = ln |sec x| + c

sec2 2x dx

## 3 Find the general solution of these differential equations.

Give each answer as an explicit function.
a

dy
= 2xy
dx

b t dx + x = 0
dt

c sec q
d

dy
= ey
dq

dy
= 2xe x y
dx

## 4 Find the particular solution of these differential equations.

In each case, make y the subject.
a x2

dy
= y 2 for which y = 1 when x = 1
dx
2

dy
b ( x 2 1) = 2y for which y = 1 when x = 3
dx

c cos2 x

dy
= y for which y = 1 when x = p
dx

FP2

## 5 When first noticed, a damp patch on a ceiling of a classroom

had area 25 cm2 and was spreading at a rate of 10 cm2 per day.
t days later, the area A cm2 of the patch was increasing at a rate
proportional to the square root of A.
a Formulate a differential equation for A.
b Hence show that A can be modelled by the equation
A = (t + 5)2
c Comment on the suitability of this model for A in the long term.
d Find the number of days the patch was on the ceiling before
6 Use appropriate trigonometric identities to find these integrals.
a

2 sin2 q dq

tan2 q dq

17

0.7
1.1

Complex numbers

## See FP1 for revision.

This is background knowledge
for Chapters 3 and 5.

EXAMPLE 1

## Use the quadratic formula x = b b 4ac :

2a

x2 - 6x + 13 = 0

x=

so

( 6 )

=6

( 6 )2 4 (1)(13 )
2 (1)

16

16

= 16 (1)
= 4i

2
6

4
i
=
2

= 3 2i
The equation x - 6x + 13 = 0 has solutions x = 3 2i.

FP2

## You can use Pythagoras theorem and trigonometry to find the

modulus and argument of a complex number.
EXAMPLE 2

## Find the modulus and argument of z = 3 - 3i

z = 32 + (3)2

The modulus of z = a + bi
is z =

= 18

a2 + b2

=3 2
For any complex number z = a + bi in the 4th quadrant,

()
arg z = tan ( 3 ) =
3
arg z = tan1 b :
a

tan

(1)

= 1p
4

## Hence z = 3 - 3i has modulus 3 2 and

(principal) argument 1 p.
4

18

## Draw a diagram: z = 3 - 3i lies

Give the principal argument
unless told otherwise.
unless told otherwise.

EXAMPLE 3

## The diagram shows the points P and Q, which represent

the complex numbers z and w respectively.

Im
Q

lQ = 1 p
OP = 3, OQ = 4 and PO
3

1
r
3

P
3

Re

## The complex number (z - w) can be represented

by the vector QP .

Im

## Apply the cosine rule to find QP:

Q

(3 )

QP 2 = 32 + 42 2(3)(4)cos 1 p
= 9 + 16 24 1

a2 = b2 + c 2 2bc cos A
4
1
r
3

= 13

P
3

Re

Hence z w = 13

Since (z - w) is represented by
QP , z w = QP.

FP2

Exercise 0.7
a x2 - 2x + 10 = 0
b 4x2 + 4x + 5 = 0
c x2 2 2x + 3 = 0
2 Find the exact modulus and argument of these complex numbers.
a 5 + 5i
c

+ 2 3i

b 2 2 3i
d

6 6i

## 3 The diagram shows the points P and Q which represent

the complex numbers z and w respectively.

Im
Q

2

## a Given that w z = 8 show that w = 4 3

b Given further that arg z = 1 p show that arg(w z) = 5 p
6

4
O

Re

## 4 Let z = cos q + i sinq

Use suitable double-angle identities to show that z2 = cos 2q + i sin 2q
19

Exercise 0.1
1

b
2x + 7
b
( x 4)( x + 1)

6( x + 1)
a
( x + 2)( x 1)

2 x( x + 2)
( x + 3)( x + 4)

y
y = 2 3x

x(4 x + 1)
( x + 1)(2 x 1)

y = (2 3x)

e ( x + 2)( x 2)
( x + 4)( x + 1)

c
3

O
2
1
b
( x + 4) ( x + 3)

1
+ 3
a
( x + 2) ( x 3)
4
+ 1
( x + 2) ( x 2)

3
1
1

( x + 1) ( x 1) ( x + 2)

a x=

y
2y 3

b x=

3
4y 2

c x=

1 y
y 2

d x=

1 y
3( y + 1)

2
3

y = x2 + 4x + 3

y = x2 + 4x + 3

3
y = (x2 + 4x + 3)
3

a 1 - x + x 2 - x3 +

2
y

b 1 - 6x + 24 x2 - 80 x3 +

y = x(3 2x)

y = x(3 2x)

c 1 - 2x - x2 4 x3 -

FP2

a 1 + 2x - 2x2 + 4x3 -
b

## 2 1.421875 = 1.42 (2 d. p.)

a x - 4x2 + 12x3 -

1 +

y = x(3 2x)

3
7
11
x x 2 + x 3 ...
2
8
16

Exercise 0.2
1

a x / 2, x 0 3

d x / 1, x 0 5

e -1/ x / 6

1 5 < x <1+ 5
a -4 < x < -2, x > 0
c x < 0, x -1

1
2

1
1
c x< ,x>
2

2
4

b -3 < x <

x < 5, x > 3
2

b x / -3, -1 / x / 3

Exercise 0.3
1

3
2

c 3 + x + 17x - 11x +
2

9
y

y = (2x + 1)

y = 2x + 1

1
6

O
1

20

b q = 0, 2 p

a 2 sin q + 1 p

a (1 - 2sin2 q)sin q

## b 2(1 - cos2 q)cos q

c 1 sin 4q

d cos 2q

4
O

b BC = k, 3k

Exercise 0.5

1
x

a ex (cos x + sin x)
c

x
ex

2x
1 + x2

d 2cot x

2
3

a 2
a 3cos 3x

3y2

a u + x du

b 0
b 2sin 4x

dy
dx

c -4sin 8x

dy
b 2 xy + y 2
dx

c x2

d2 y
dy
+ 2x
dx
dx 2

dx

Exercise 0.6
1

1
O

2
3

1
In 3
2

4
y

In 2

c y = -ln |c - sin q|

d y = ln |e x (2x - 2) + c|

a y= x

b y = 2 x 1

( x + 1)

x +1

etan x

a dA = 2 A
dt

a q 1 sin 2q + c

b tan q - q + c

2
c q 1 cos 2q + c
2

b x = 1 i

a x = 1 3i

a z = 5 2 , arg(z ) = 1 p

c x = 2 i

b z = 4, arg(z ) = 1 p

Exercise 0.4
a q = 1p , 1p , 5p

b q = 0, 1 p , 3 p , p

c q = 1p , 1p , 5p
6
2
6

d q = 1p
6

b x=A

Exercise 0.7

f 24ln 2 - 7

## c The model predicts that A as t .

This is unrealistic.
d 5 days. This answer assumes the given modelling
assumptions held prior to the patch being noticed.

a y = Ae x

c y=
5

16
1
1
(2 x + 1)6 (2 x + 1)5 + c
c
6
5
d -1
e 7
3
a sec2 2x dx = 1 tan 2x + c
2

FP2

4
b 1 ( 2 x 2 1) + c

a -x cos x + sin x + c

c z = 4 3 , arg(z ) = 5 p
6

3
z = 2 3 , arg(z ) = p
4

21

Exam-style assessment

Inequalities

1.

2
Solve the inequality x + 2 < x

2.

3.

4.

## (a) Use algebra to solve the equation |x2 - 5x + 6| = 4x - 8

x 1

x+3

(b) On the same diagram, sketch the graphs with equations y = |x2 - 5x + 6|
and y = 4x - 8
(c) Hence, or otherwise, solve the inequality |x2 - 5x + 6| < 4x - 8
5.

(a) On the same diagram, sketch the graphs with equations y = |x2 - 9| and
y = |2x - 1|. Label, with their coordinates, the axis-crossing points of
each graph.
(b) Find the values of x where these two graphs intersect. Give answers in
simplified surd form where appropriate.
(c) Hence solve the inequality |x 2 - 9| . |2x -1|

6.

(a) On the same diagram, sketch the graphs with equations y = |2x + a| and
y = |3x + a|, where a is a positive constant. Label, with their coordinates,
the axis-crossing points of each graph.
(b) Hence solve, in terms of a, the inequality |2x + a| < |3x + a|

7.

(a) Sketch the graph with equation y = |x2 - 2kx| where k is a positive constant.
Label the stationary point with its coordinates.
(b) Hence, or otherwise, solve the inequality |x2 - 2kx| - k2, giving your answer
in terms of k.

1
Question
Number

Inequalities
Solution

Marks

x2 + 2 x < 0
x 1
x+2 <0
x 1

M1
M1

## Critical values: x = -2, 1

Considering change of sign of factors gives:
-2 < x < 1

A1
A2
5

x+2+ x 0
x+3 2
(x + 1)(x + 4)
0
2(x + 3)

M1
M1 A1

## Critical values: x = -4, -3 and -1

Considering change of sign of factors gives:
-4 - x < -3, x . -1

A1
M1 A2
7

3 a

x 1 >0
x 1 x + 3

M1

(x + 1)2
>0
(x 1)((x + 3)

M1 A1

## Critical values: x = -3, -1 and 1

Considering change of sign of factors gives:
Hence x > 1 or x < -3

M1 A1
A2
7

4 a

## (x - 3)2(x - 2)2 = 16(x - 2)2

(x - 3)2(x - 2)2 - 16(x - 2)2 = 0
(x - 2)2[(x - 3)2 - 16] = 0
Then x = 2, 7 and -1 (ignore x = -1, it does not satisfy the
original equation).
y

M1oe
M1
M1
A2

(5)

B2

(2)

A2

(2)
9

6
y = 4x 8

y = |x2 5x + 6|
O

2 3

2<x<7

5 a

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

B2

(2)

## For x > 3 or -3 < x < 0.5 then x2 - 9 = 2x - 1

x2 2x 8 = 0, then x = 4 or x = -2
For 0.5 < x < 3 or x < -3 then x2 - 9 = -(2x - 1)
x2 + 2x - 10 = 0, then x = 1 11
Hence x = 4, -2, 1 11

M1
M1 A1
M1
M1
A3

(6)

## From part b and the graph x - 1 11, 2 - x - 1 + 11, x . 4

A2

(2)
10

B3

(3)

4 3 2 1 O 1 1 2 3 4 x
2

6 a
y = |3x + a|

(0, a)

y = |2x + a|

a
,0
2

a
,0
3

( )( )
b

2
x = 2a
5

A1

## Hence x < -0.4a or x > 0

7 a

A1

(4)
7

B3

(3)

(k, k2)

2k

M1 A1

x2 2kx - k2 = 0, x = k(1 2 )

M1 A1

A2

(4)
7

## Further Pure FP2

Exam-style assessment

2
1.

Series

## (a) Simplify r(r + 2) -r(r - 2)

(b) Hence use the method of differences to prove that

r =1

2.

(a) Express

= 1 n(n + 1)
2

6
in partial fractions.
9r 2 12r 5

(15n + 2 ) ( n 1)
8
=
( 3n + 1) ( 3n 2 )
r = 2 9r 12r 5
n

15

8
r = 6 9r 12r 5

3.

8
A
B
C

+
+
2
1
2
1
2

+
+ 3)
r
r
r
(
)
(
)
(
4r 1 ( 2r + 3 )

r =1

4.

## (a) Show that

for all r . 1

n (n + 2)
3
=
4r 1 ( 2r + 3 ) ( 2n + 1) ( 2n + 3 )
2

1
1
2

=
r ( r + 1) ( r + 1) ( r + 2 ) r ( r + 1) ( r + 2 )

for all r . 1

## (b) Hence, or otherwise, find an expression for

n

r ( r + 14) ( r + 2 )

r =1

n

4
(c) Deduce
< 1 for all n > 1
1
r
r
+
) (r + 2 )
r =1 (

5.

n

6
r =1
n

## You can use the result r = 1 n(n + 1) without proof.

2
r =1
6.

3
(a) Express 8r 2 2r 1 in the form Ar +

4r 1

B
C , for constants A, B
+
2
r

1
2
r
(
) ( + 1)

and C to be determined.
n
3
(b) Hence find an expression for 8r 2 2r 1 giving your answer in terms of
r =1

4r 1

## n and in fully factorised form.

24
3
(c) Evaluate the series 8r 2 2r 1, giving your answer to 3 significant figures.
r =7

4r 1

## Further Pure FP2

7.

(a) Express

3r 2
in partial fractions.
r ( r + 1) ( r + 2 )

n
3r 2
n2
=
(b) Hence show that
( n + 1) ( n + 2 )
r =1 r ( r + 1) ( r + 2 )

## (c) Find the value of the positive integer N for which

N

r ( r +3r1)( r2 + 2 )

r =1

8.

(a) Express

= 8
15

r 1 r r +1
r r2 1

are constants.

n

3 r = n 1
2
n ( n + 1)
r =2 r r 1

for n > 2

## Exam-style mark scheme

Series

Question
Number

Solution

Marks

1 a

r2 + 2r - r2 + 2r = 4r

A1

r =1

r =1

4 r = [r (r + 2) r (r 2)]
4(1) = 1(3) - 1(-1)
4(2) = 2(4) - 2(0)
4(3) = 3(5) - 3(1)
4(4) = 4(7) - 4(2)
4(n - 2) = (n - 2)(n) - (n - 2)(n - 4)
4(n - 1) = (n - 1)(n + 1) - (n - 1)(n - 3)
4(n) = n(n + 2) - n(n - 2)
4(1 + 2 + 3 + + n) = 1 + (n - 1)(n + 1) + n(n + 2)
= 2n2 + 2n
n

2 a

M1 A1

M1 A1

Hence r = 1 n(n + 1)
2
r =1

A1

(5)
6

1 1
3r 5 3r + 1

B1 A2

(3)

(1)

6
9r 2 12
r5

r =2

r =2

( 3r 1 5 3r 1+ 1 )

r = 2,

1 1

r = 3,

+1 1
4 10
+1 1
7 13

r = 4,

..................
1
1
3n 11 3n 5
+ 1 1
3n 8 3n 2
+ 1 1
3n 5 3n + 1
+

r = n - 2,
r = n - 1,
r = n,

M1 A1

11
4

1 1 = 45n2 39n 6
3n 2 3n + 1 4(3n + 1)(3n 2)

8
9r 2 12
r5

r =2

Hence

r =2

n
= 8 2 6
6 r = 2 9r 12r 5

8
15n2 13n 2 = (15n + 2)(n 1)
=
9r 2 12r 5 (3n + 1)(3n 2) (3n + 1)(33n 2)

M1 A1
M1
M1 A1

(7)
10

## Further Pure FP2

15

r = 6 9r

8
12r 5

15

5
8
2 8
r = 2 9r 2r 5
r = 2 9r 12r 5

(75 + 2)4
= (15 15 + 2)(15 1)
(45 2)(45 + 1)
(15 2)(15 + 1)
= 227 14 77 4
43 46 13 16

= 0.126
10
3 a
b

1 2 + 1
2r 1 2r + 1 2r + 3

r = 1:

1 2 + 1
3 5

r = 2:

+1 2 + 1
3 5 7

r = 3:

+1 2 + 1
5 7 9

..

..

r = n - 2:

1 2 + 1
2n 5 2n 3 2n 1

r = n - 1:

1 2 + 1
2n 3 2n 1 2n + 3

r = n:

1 2 + 1
2n 1 2n + 1 2n + 3

M1 A3

(4)

M1 A1

2 1 + 1 =
8n2 + 16n
3 2n + 1 2n + 3 3(2n + 1)(2n + 3)
n(n + 2)
3
3 n
8
=
=

2
2
(
n
8
2
+ 1)(2n + 3)
r =1 (4r 1)(2r + 3)
r =1 (4r 1)(2r + 3)

M1 A1

Hence

B1 A1

(6)
10

## Further Pure FP2

4 a
b

LHS = (r + 2) r

r(r + 1)(r + 2)

2
r(r + 1)(r + 2)

n
2
1

= 1

(r + 1)(r + 2)
r =1 r(r + 1)(r + 2)
r =1 r(r + 1)
11
r = 1:
2 6
r = 2:
+1 1
6 12
n

r = n - 1:

1
1

(n 1)n n(n + 1)
1
+ 1

n(n + 1) (n + 1)(n + 2)

r = n:

M1 A1

(2)

B1

M1 A1

n(n + 3)
1
1
=
2 (n + 1)(n + 2) 2(n + 1)(n + 2)
n(n + 3)
4
Hence r(r + 1)(r + 2) = (n + 1)(n + 2)
r =1

M1 A1

M1 A1

(7)

2
n(n + 3)
4
= 2n + 3n
=
(n + 1)(n + 2) n + 3n + 2
r =1 r(r + 1)(r + 2)
n

Now n2 + 3n < n2 + 3n + 2
As n > 1, n2 + 3n + 2 > 0 so that
n

n2 + 3n < 1
n2 + 3n + 2

r =1
9
5 a
b

n

## 9 (9r 2 3r + 1) = (3r + 1)3 (3r 2)3

r =1
r =1

r = 1:
43 - 13
r = 2:
+ 73 - 43
..
.
r = n - 1:
+ (3n - 2)3 - (3n - 5)3
r = n:
+ ( 3n + 1) - (3n - 2)3
(3n + 1)3 - 1 = 9n (3n2 + 3n + 1)

M1 A1

(2)

B1

M1 A1
M1 A1
B1

## Hence (9r 2 3r + 1) = n(3n3 + 3n + 1)

r =1

n
n

1
2
2
r = n(3n + 3n + 1) + 3 r n
9
r =1
r =1

B1

= 1 [n(3n2 + 3n + 1) + 3 n(n + 1) - n]
2
9
n
= [6n2 + 6n + 2 + 3n + 3 - 2]
18
= n [2n2 + 3n + 1]
6
1
= 6 n(n + 1)(2n + 1)

M1 A1

(9)
11

## Further Pure FP2

6 a
b

2r

1
1
+
2(2r 1) 2(2r + 1)

M1 A3 (4)

8r 3 2r 1
4r 2 1
r =1
n
1
1
= 2r +

2(2r + 1) 2(2r 1)
r =1
n

n
n
1
1
= 2r + 1

(2r 1)
2
r =1
r =1 (2r + 1)

= n(n + 1) + 1 1 1
2 3
+ 1 1
5 3
+ .....
1 1
2n 1 2n 3
+ 1 1
2n + 1 2n 1

= n(n + 1) + 1 1 1

2 2n + 1
= n(n + 1)

n
2n + 1

n [(n + 1)(2n + 1) 1]
2n + 1

## n(2n2 + 3n) n2(2n + 3)

=
2n + 1
2n + 1

24
24
6
242(51) 36 15
= =
49
13
r = 7 r =1
r =1

558 (3sf)

7 a
b

1+ 5 4
r r +1 r + 2

M1 A3

(4)

n
3r 2
= 1 + 5 4
r +1 r + 2
r =1 r(r + 1)(r + 2)
r =1 r
n

= 1 + 5 4
2 3
1
5
+
1
2 3
1 5 4
+
3 4 5

+.....

1 +5 4
n 1 n n +1
1
5 4
+
n n +1 n + 2
= 1 + 5 1 + 1 4
2 2 n +1 n + 2

= 1 + n + 2 4n 4
(n + 1)(n + 2)
2
= n + 3n + 2 3n 2
(n + 1)(n + 2)

n2
as required.
(n + 1)(n + 2)

8 a
b

## 15N2 = 8(N + 1)(N + 2)

7N2 - 24N - 16 = 0
(7N + 4)(N - 4) = 0, Hence N = 4

B1
M1 A1

(3)
11

1 3+ 2
r 1 r r +1

B1 A1

(2)

3r = n 1 3 + 2

2
r 1 r r + 1
r = 2 r(r 1)
r =1

B1

1 3 + 2
2 3
1
+ 1+ 2
2
4
+1 3 + 2
3 4 5

r = 2:
r = 3:
r = 4:

..

r = n - 2:

+ 1 3 + 2
n 3 n 2 n 1

r = n - 1:

r = n:

+ 1 3+ 2
n 1 n n +1

1 3 +2
n 2 n 1 n

M1 A1

1 3 + 1 + 2 3 + 2 = 1 + 2
2 2 n n n +1
n n +1
n
3 r = n 1
Hence 2
n(n + 1)
r = 2 r(r 1)

M1 A1
A1

(6)
8

## Further Pure FP2

Exam-style assessment

3
1.

## (a) Using de Moivres theorem, or otherwise, prove that

cos 4q 8cos4 q - 8cos2 q + 1
(b) Solve the equation cos 4q + 4cos4 q = 0 for 0 - q - p
When not exact, give each answer correct to 2 decimal places.

2.

## The transformation T from the z-plane to the w-plane is given by

z

w = z + 1 + 2i , z -1 - 2i
(a) Show that T maps the line y = 2x to part of the real axis in the w-plane.
(b) Find the locus of points in the z-plane which are mapped to the
line u = 0 in the w-plane.
3.

## (a) Shade on an Argand diagram the region R given by

|z - 1| - |z - i|
The transformation T from the z-plane to the w-plane is given by
w = zz + 3i , z i
(b) Show that T maps |z - 1| = |z - i| to a circle in the w-plane.
Give the cartesian equation of this circle.
(c) On a separate Argand diagram shade the region in the w-plane
which is the image of R under T.

4.

## Point P represents the complex number z where |z - 3| = 2|z - 3i|

(a) Use algebra to show that the locus of P is a circle, giving the centre
C and radius of this circle.
Point Q represents the complex number z where arg(z + 1 - 4i) = 3 p
4

(b) On the same Argand diagram sketch the locus of P and the locus of Q,
marking clearly the point A where the two loci intersect.
(c) Find the complex number a which represents A and express the equation
of the tangent to this circle at A in the form
|z + 1 - 4i| = |z - b| for b a complex number to be stated.
5.

## (a) Solve the equation z3 = 4 - 4 3i

giving your answers in the form reiq where r > 0 and exact q, -p < q - p
(b) Illustrate your values from a on an Argand diagram.
(c) Hence, or otherwise, show that, if p and q are two distinct cube
roots of 4 - 4 3i then |p + q| = 2

6.

## (a) Solve the equation z4 = 2 3 + 2i

Give arguments as principal values.
(b) Illustrate your values from (a) on an Argand diagram.
(c) Prove that the points representing these values form the vertices of a square.
(d) State the two possible values of |p - q| where p and q are two distinct
fourth roots of 2 3 + 2i

7.

(a) Given that z = cos q + isin q, use de Moivres theorem to show that
zn - 1n = 2isin nq
z

## where n is a positive integer.

(b) Express 4sin3 q in the form Asin q + Bsin 3q for integers A and B to
be stated.
y

R
O

The diagram shows the curve with equation y = 2 sin3q for 0 - q - p. R is the
region bounded by this curve, the q-axis and the lines q = 0 and q = p
(c) Find the exact volume formed when region R is rotated once around the q-axis.
8.

## Point P represents the complex number z, where |z + 2i| = k|z - 3 - i|,

where k is a constant. Point A, which represents the complex number 6 + 4i,
lies in the locus of P.
(a) Show that k = 2
(b) Use algebra to show that the locus of P is a circle C.
Give the centre and radius of this circle.
Point Q represents the complex number z, where arg(z - 4 - 2i) = 1 p
4

## (c) Shade, on a single Argand diagram, the region of points on or inside

C and which satisfy 1 p - arg(z - 4 - 2i) - p and find the exact area
4
of this region.
The transformation T from the z-plane to the w-plane is given by
w = z + 2i , z 3 + i
z3i

9.

(z4)

## Point P represents the complex number z, where arg z + 3i = 2 p

3

(a) Sketch on an Argand diagram the locus of P. Indicate on your sketch the
position of points A and B.
(b) Given that point Q in this locus is such that AQ = BQ
(i) show that AQ = 5 3,
3

10.

( z 4i )

## Point Q represents the complex number z where arg z 2 = 1 p

4

(a) Use algebra to show that the locus of P is a circle. Give the centre and
(b) Given that p = z 2 , where z is the complex number which
z 4i

## belongs to both of these loci

(i) show that p = 1 + i,
(ii) find z.
(c) On a single Argand diagram, sketch the locus of P and the locus of Q.
11.

## (a) Solve the equation z5 = 1

giving your answers in the form eiq for -p < q - p
(b) Given that w is any complex 5th root of 1
(i) state the value of 1 + w + w2 + w3 + w4
(ii) hence find the value of

## Oxford University Press 2009

(1 + w ) (1 + w2 )
w4

Question
Number

Solution

Marks

1 a

## (cos q + i sin q)4 = cos 4q + i sin 4q

(cosq + i sin q )4 = cos4 q + 4i cos3q sin q 6 cos2 q sin 2 q
- 4i cos q sin3 q + sin4 q
Considering the real parts:
cos 4q = cos4 q - 6cos2 q sin2 q + sin4 q
= cos4 q 6cos2 q (1 cos2 q ) + (1 cos2 q )2

M1
M1

M1 A1

(4)

= 8 cos4 q 8 cos2 q + 1
b

## cos 4q + 4cos4 q = 0 8c4 - 8c2 + 1 + 4c4 = 0 where c = cos q

12c4 - 8c2 + 1 = 0
c2 = 8 4

24
1
1
Hence cos q = ,
2 6
cosq = 1 , 1
2
6
1
1
3
cosq =
q = p , p for 0  q  p
2
4 4
1
cosq =
q = 1.150! , 1.991! for 0  q  p
6
2

4 4
2 a

## Let P be any point on y = 2x, then P = (k, 2k), where k \

k + 2ik
k + 2ik + 1 + 2i
k(1 + 2i)
k(1 + 2i)
=
=
k + 1 + 2i(k + 1) (k + 1)(1 + 2i)

M1

w=

k \, k 1
k +1

w = 0 + iv =

x + iy
x + iy + 1 + 2i

B1
A1
B1

x + iy
(x + 1) i( y + 2)

(x + 1) + i( y + 2) (x + 1) i( y + 2)

M1

x 2 + x + y 2 + 2y + i(y 2x)
(x + 1)2 + (y + 2)2

B1

## Considering the real part of w = 0:

x2 + x + y2+ 2y = 0
(x + 0.5)2 + ( y + 1)2 = 5 ,
4
Hence the locus is a circle centre (-0.5, -1), radius 5
2
(excluding the point (-1, -2))

(3)

B1
M1
A1

(6)
9

## Further Pure FP2

3 a

B2

(2)

2
1

1
2

z = 3 + iw = 3 + i(u + iv)
w 1
u + iv 1

M1

(3 v) + iu (u 1) iv

(u 1) + iv (u 1) iv

M1

(3u + v 3) + i(u2 u 3v + v 2)
(u 1)2 + v 2

B1

## Since |z - 1| = |z - i|, then the real part of z = the imaginary part of z:

Then 3u + v - 3 = u2 - u - 3v + v2
u2 - 4u + v2 - 4v + 3 = 0
(u - 2)2 + (v - 2)2 = 5
c

A1

(4)

B2

(2)

4 a

10

(x - 3)2 + y2 = 4[ x2 + (y - 3)2]
x2 + 2x + y2 - 8y + 9 = 0
(x + 1)2 + (y - 4)2 = 8
C(-1, 4), radius = 2 2

M1
B1
A2

(4)

B3

(3)

y
8
A
6
3r
4

4
2

## From Argand diagram:

a = -3 + 6i
|z + 1 - 4i| = |z + 5 - 8i| so

b = -5 + 8i

A1
A1

(2)
9

## Further Pure FP2

5 a

(2

4 4 3i = 8 1 3 i
2

q = p , r = 8

B1oe
A1

z 3 = 8e

i p + 2np
3

M1

A1

i p + 2np
3

z = 2e 3

If n = 0, then z0 = 2e
If n = 1, then z1 = 2e
b

i p

i 5p
9

and z3 = 2e

i 7p

A2

(6)

B2

(2)

y
z1

2r
3

x
r

z0

z2
2

|z0| = |z1| = |z2| = 2 and the angle between any two distinct
roots p and q = 2p ,
3
p + q = 2 2 cos p = 2
3

6 a

z4 = 4 3 + 1 i
2

( 6 ) ( 6 )
z = 2 cos ( p + np ) + i sin ( p + np )
24
2
24
2

## If n = 0 then z = 2 ( cos p + i sin p )

24
24
If n = 1 then z = 2 ( cos 13p + i sin 13p ) and
24
24
z = 2 ( cos 11p i sin 11p )
24
24
23p
23p
If n = 2 then z = 2 ( cos 24 i sin 24 )
= 4 cos p + 2np + i sin p + 2np

B1oe
M1 A1

(3)
11

B1oe
B1
M1

A2

A1

(7)

B2

(2)

z1

z0
O

z3

z2

## |z0| = |z1| = |z2| = |z3| = 2 and

arg(z1) - arg(z0) = p2 = arg(z3) - arg(z1) = arg(z2) - arg(z3)
Then z0, z1, z2, z3 are the vertices of a square.

B2oe

(2)

|p - q| = 2 or 2 2
11

7 a

zn = cos nq + isin nq
z-n = cos nq - isin nq
zn - z-n = 2i sin nq

1
(2i sin q)3 = z z

M1
M1
A1

(3)

= z3 - 3z + 3 13
z

= z 3 13 3 z 1z
z

= 2i sin 3q - 6i sin q
Hence 4 sin3 q = -sin 3q + 3sin q
so A = 3, B = -1
p

## V = p 4sin3 q dq = p (3sin q - sin 3q)dq

0

= p 3 cosq + 1 cos 3q

= 16 p
3

M1

M2
A1

(4)
12

8 a
b

M1 A1

## x2 + (y + 2)2 = 4[(x - 3)2 + (y - 1)2]

x2 + y2 + 4y + 4 = 4(x2 - 6x + 9 + y2 - 2y + 1)
3x2 - 24x + 3y2 - 12y + 36 = 0
(x - 4)2 + (y - 2)2 = 8
Centre (4, 2), radius = 2 2

M1
B1

M1
A2

(2)

(5)

B3

y
4
r
4

Area = 1 r 2q = 1 8 3 p
2

w =

M1

= 3p

A1

z + 2i
= 2 (using part a above)
z3i

M1oe

9 a

B
O

B3

(3)

## arg(z + 3i) arg(z 4) =

2r
3

Angle ABQ = p , AB = 42 + 32 = 5
6

M1

AQ = 5

M1 A1

ii

(2)
14

A
4 arg(z + 3i)

A1

arg(z 4)

(5)

1
cos p
6

)
2 (3

= 5 2 = 5 3
2
3 3
2

Area = 1 5 3 sin 2p = 25 3

12

M1 A1

(5)
8

10 a

## (x - 2)2 + y2 = 2[x2 + (y - 4)2]

x2 - 4x + 4 + y2 = 2x2 + 2y2 - 16y + 32
x2 + 4x + y2 - 16y + 28 = 0
(x + 2)2 (y - 8)2 = 40
Centre (-2, 8) and radius 2 10
i

M1
B1
M1
A2

( z 4i )

4

(5)

B1

## |p| = 2 and arg( p) = 1 p

4

p = 2 cos p + i sin p = 1 + i
4

M1 A1

4ip 2
, substitute p = 1 + i:
ii z =
p 1

M1 A1

(6)

B3

(3)

z = 4i 4 2 = 4 + 6i
i

c
14
12
10
(2, 8)

6
(0, 4)
4

2
O (2, 0)

14
11 a

## z 5 = 1 = 1ei(0 + 2np) = ei2np

B1

i 2 np

z=e5

M1

If n = 0, then z0 = ei0 = 1

If n = 1, then z1 =

2 pi
e5 ,

If n = 2, then z3 =

4 pi
e5 ,

i
ii

A1
z2 =

2 pi
e 5

A2

z4 =

4 pi
e 5

A2

(7)

A1
M1
A1

(3)

(w5 1) = (w 1)(w4 + w3 + w2 + w + 1) = 0
Hence w4 + w3 + w2 + w + 1 = 0
w3 + w2 + w + 1 = -w4
(1 + w)(1 + w )
= 1
w4
2

10

## Further Pure FP2

Exam-style assessment

4
1.

## (a) Find the general solution of the differential equation

tan(2x)

dy
1
= 2y, where 0 < x < p ,
dx
4

(b) Find the particular solution y of this differential equation for which
y = -2 when x = 1 p and sketch this solution curve for 0 < x < 1 p
12
4

2.

## The equation of a curve C satisfies the differential equation

(2x + 1)

dy
1
= 4x (y 4), where x >
dx
2

(a) Find the general solution of this differential equation, giving your
answer in the form y = f(x)
(b) Given that the curve passes through the point P(0, 5) find the equation of C.
3.

(a) Express

2 in partial fractions.
y2 1

dy
+ 1 = y2 ,
dx
where y > 1, x > 0, and for which y = 2 when x = 1 is given by y = 1 + x
3
1 x

4.

## (a) Show that x 2 + 1 is an integrating factor for the differential equation

1 dy
y
=1
+
x dx x 2 + 1

(b) Hence find the particular solution of this differential equation for which y = 1
3
when x = 0. Sketch the graph of this solution.
5.

## (a) Find the general solution of the differential equation

dy
+ 2ytan x = 1
dx

(b) Hence show that the particular solution of the given equation for which y = 1
when x = 1 p is given by y = 1 sin 2x.
4
2
6.

## As part of a training exercise, an athlete undertakes a 20 km run. After t hours

she has run x km. During the run she varies her speed in such a way that the
rate of increase of x is directly proportional to x multiplied by the distance
she has left to run.
(a) Formulate a differential equation for x
(b) Given that after 1 hour she has run 10 km and that after 90 minutes she has run
15 km, solve this differential equation to show that
x
= 9t 1
20 x

7.

## (a) Use integration by parts to show that xex dx = (x - 1)ex + c

(b) Hence find the general solution of the differential equation
(x + 1)

8.

dy
+ (x + 2)y = x
dx

dy
- y = 2y2x
dx

du

## equation into the equation dx = 2u2x

(b) Find the general solution for u and hence find y in terms of x.
(c) Given that C passes through the point with coordinates (-1, 1),
find the equation of the curve C and sketch its graph.
9.

## The equation of a curve C satisfies the differential equation

x2

dy
- xy = 2y( y + x)
dx

(1)

(a) Show that the substitution y = ux transforms equation (1) into the differential
2u ( u + 1)
equation du =
dx

(2)

(b) Hence show that the general solution of equation (1) can be expressed as
y=

Ax 3 ,
1 Ax 2

## for A an arbitrary constant.

The curve C passes through the point (1, -2).
(c) Find the equation of C and the coordinates of all the points where C intersects
the line y = x.

Question
Number

Solution

Marks

1 a

dy
= 2 cos 2x dx
sin 2x
y

B1

## ln |y| = ln |sin 2x| + ln c

y = k sin 2x

M3
A1

-2 = k sin p , then k = -4

M1 A1

y = -4sin 2x

A1 ft

(4)

(3)

y
O

r
4

B1

2 a

dy
= 4x dx
y 4 2x + 1

B1

ln |y - 4| =

M2

(2 2x2+ 1)dx

ln |y - 4| = 2x - ln |2x + 1| + ln c
y 4 = ce

2x

B1

2x + 1
2x
y = 4 + ce
2x + 1

A1

5=4+c
c=1

(6)

A1

2x
y=4+ e

A1 ft

(2)
8

1 1
y 1 y +1

M1 A1

(2)

2dy
= dx
2
x
y 1

B1

1 1 dy = dx
y 1 y + 1
x

M1

ln y 1 = ln x + ln c

M2oe

2x + 1

3 a

M1

y +1
y 1
= kx
y +1

A1

k = 1 since y = 2 when x = 1
y - 1 = yx + x
y = 1+ x
1 x

A1
M1
A1

(8)
10

## Further Pure FP2

4 a

dy
+ x y= x
dx x 2 + 1
x

x 2 +1dx

1 ln(x 2 +1)

= e2

M1 A1

x2 + 1

x(x 2 + 1) 2 dx + c

y(x 2 + 1) 2 =
1

M1

y(x 2 + 1) 2 = 1 (x 2 + 1) 2 + c

M1 A1

c=0

A1

y = 1 (x2 + 1)
3

A1ft

B2

5 a

(3)

B1

10

2 (tan x ) dx

=e

2 ln cos x

= sec 2 x

M1

## ysec2 x = (sec2x) dx = tan x + c

M1 A1

Substitute y = 1 and x = p , c = 0

A1

(7)

(3)

Particular solution:
y=

6 a
b

tan x
1
= sin x cos x = sin 2 x
2
2
sec x

dx
= kx(20 x )
dt
dx
= kdt
x(20 x)

(1)

M1 A1
K+C=0

x
= ( t 1) 1 ln 3
20 20 x
10
= ( t 1) 2 ln 3 = ( t 1) ln 9 = ln 9t 1
i.e. ln x
20 x

Hence 1 ln

A1

B1 M1 A1

## Substitute x = 15 and t = 1.5: 3K + 2C = 1 ln 3

10
From (1) and (2): K = 1 ln 3 and C = 1 ln 3
10
10

Therefore

(3)
6

M1

1+ 1
1
dx = kt + c
x 20 x
20
1 ln x
= Kt + C
20 20 x

Substitute x = 10 and t = 1:

M1 A1

(1)
(2)

M1
A2
M1 A1

(11)

x
= 9t 1 as required
20 x

When t = 2,

x
=9
20 x

12

## Further Pure FP2

7 a

Let u = x, then du = dx
Let dv = exdx, v = ex

B1

xe x dx = xe x - e x dx = (x - 1)e x + c
b

dy x + 2
x
+
y=
dx
x +1
x +1

## The integrating factor is e

M1 A1
M1

x+2

x +1 dx

=e

1+ x +1 dx

= ( x + 1)e x

x
(x + 1)e x dx = xe x dx
x +1
x
(x + 1)e x y = (x - 1)e x + c so y = ( x 1) e +x c
( x + 1) e

(x + 1)e x y =

(3)

M1 A1
M1 A1
M1 A1
10

8 a

dy
= u + x du
dx
dx

M1

x u + x du ux = 2u2 x 3

M1

du = 2u2 x
dx

A1

u-2du = 2x dx

B1

1 = x2 + c
u
x = x2 + c

y
y = 2x
x +c

M1 A1

c=0

A1

1
y=
x

A1oe

dx

(3)

B1
A1

(5)

y
2

B1
O

(3)

11

## Further Pure FP2

9 a

Substitute y = ux and

dy
du
=u+x
in (I):
dx
dx

## x 2 u + x du x(ux) = 2ux (ux + x)

dx
du = 2u(u + 1)
dx
x

B1
A1

(3)

du = 2 dx
u(u + 1)
x

( u1 u 1+ 1) du =

2dx
x

B1

ln u - ln(u + 1) = 2ln x + ln A

M1

u = Ax 2
u +1

M1

u - Ax2u = Ax2

M1

Ax 2
1 Ax 2

u=

y
x

Substitute u = :
y=
c

M1

Ax 3
1 Ax 2

2 =

y=

A
, then A = 2
1 A

2 x3
1 2 x2

Bloe
A1

(6)

A1
A1

Substitute y = x:
x=

2x 3
1 2x 2

## x(1 - 2x2) = 2x3

M1

x(4x2 - 1) = 0
(0, 0), (0.5, 0.5) and (-0.5, -0.5)

B1
A2

(6)
15

## Further Pure FP2

Exam-style assessment

5
1.

d2y

dy

## (a) Find the general solution of the differential equation 2 + k

= 0 , giving
dx
d
x
y in terms of x and the positive constant k.
(b) Describe the behaviour of y as x increases, where x > 0

2.

An object is oscillating about a fixed point P. After t seconds the object is x metres
from P where x is modelled by the differential equation
d2x
+ 4x = 0
dt 2

(a) Given that x = 3 when t = 0 and when t = 1 p , solve this differential equation to
4
show that x = 3cos 2t + 3sin 2t
(b) Express x in the form R sin (2t + a), where R > 0 and 0 < a < 1 p are both exact.
2

(c) Hence find the maximum possible distance of the object from point P.
3.

## (a) Find the general solution of the differential equation

4

d2y
dy
+4
+ 5y = 2cos x - 8sin x
2
d
x
dx

## A curve C has equation which satisfies this differential equation.

The curve crosses the x-axis when x = 0 and when x = 1 p .
2

## (b) Find the equation of the curve C.

(c) Show that for large positive values of x, the curve C may be approximated
by a cosine function and write down this function.
4.

d2y
dy
2
- 3y = 16e x
2
d
x
dx

## The gradient of this curve at the point (0, 1) is -5.

(a) Show that the equation of this curve is given by y = e -x(e2x - 2)2
(b) Find the exact coordinates of the point P where this curve crosses the x-axis.
(c) Given that P is a stationary point on this curve, use the differential equation
to show that P is a minimum point.
5.

## (a) Show that 3xe2x is a particular integral of the differential equation

d2y
dy
3
+ 2y = 3e2x
2
d
x
dx

(b) Find the particular solution of this differential equation for which at
dy
x = 0, y = -1 and
= -1
dx

## A curve C has equation given by this particular solution.

(c) Find the value of y on the curve when x = 1. Deduce that between x = 0 and
x = 1, the curve C crosses the x-axis.
Oxford University Press 2009

6.

## (a) Find the general solution of the differential equation

2
4 d x2 + 4 dx + x = (t + 1)(t + 7)
dt

dt

(b) Hence show that the particular solution of this differential equation for
which x = -2 when t = 0 and for which dx = 6 when t = 3 is given by

x = (t - 1) e
7.

1t
2

dt

+ t +1

## (a) Show that the substitution y = ux transforms the differential equation

d2y
dy
+ ( 5x 4 ) x
+ (4 - 5x + 3x2) y = 10x3sin 2x
dx
dx 2
2
(2)
into the equation 2 d u2 + 5 ddux + 3u = 10sin 2x
dx

2x 2

(1)

## (b) Solve equation (2).

(c) Hence write down the general solution of equation (1).
8.

dy
=
(a) If y = 1 , where u is a function of x, show that
dx

an expression for

d2y
.
dx 2

1 du
and find
u2 dx

## (b) Use the substitution y = 1 to show that the differential equation

u

d y
dy
2 + 4y2 (2y - 1) = 0
d
dx 2
x
d 2u
can be expressed as 2 + 4u = 8
dx

(1)
(2)

## (c) Find the general solution of equation (2).

(d) (i) Hence show that the particular solution of equation (1) for which y = 1 at
x = 0 and at x = 1 p is given by y = cos 2x + 1sin 2x + 2
4
(ii) State the minimum possible value attained by this particular solution.
9.

## (a) Show that the substitution v = xy transforms the differential equation

d2y
dy
+ 2 (1 + x )
+ (2 + x)y = x2 + 6x + 6
2
d
x
dx
2
into the equation d v2 + 2 dv + v = x2 + 6x + 6
dx
dx

(1)
(2)

## (b) Solve equation (2) and hence find y in terms of x.

(c) Show that any member of the family of solution curves of equation (1) can,
for large positive values of x, be approximated by the line y = x + 2

## 2nd order differential equations

Question
Number

Solution

Marks

1 a

aux.eqn.: m 2 + km = 0, m = 0, m = -k
gen. soln. y = A + Be -kx

M1 A2
M1 A1

(5)

## If B is positive, y decreases approaching A.

If B is negative, y increases approaching A.

B1
B1

(2)

6
2 a

aux. eqn.: m2 + 4 = 0, m = 2i
gen. soln.: x = Acos (2t) + Bsin (2t)
Substitute x = 3 and t = 0, then A = 3.
Substitute x = 3 and t = p , then B = 3.

M1 A2
M2
A1
A1

## Hence x = 3cos 2t + 3sin 2t

M1 A1

(7)

R = 3 2 , a = tan 1 1 = p

x = 3 2 sin 2t + p
c

3 a

A1

max.x = 3 2 metres

A1

## Aux. eqn.: 4m2 + 4m + 5 = 0

M1

m = 4

A1

64

C.F.: y = e

= 1 i
2

1 x

(A cos x + B sin x)

P.I.:
y = pcos x + qsin x

(4)
11

A1
B1

dy
= -psin x + qcos x
dx
d 2y
= -pcos x - qsin x
dx 2

## -4pcos x - 4qsin x - 4psin x + 4qcos x + 5pcos x + 5qsin x

= 2cos x - 8sin x
then
(p + 4q)cos x + (q - 4p)sin x = 2cos x - 8sin x
p + 4q = 2
q - 4q = -8
hence
q = 0, p = 2
General solution:
y=e

1x
2

M3

A2

A1

(10)

A2

## Equation of the curve is.

y = 2(1 - e-0.5x ) cos x

A1oe

B1 A1

(5)
15

4 a

## The auxiliary equation m2 - 2m - 3 = 0 has solution m = -1, m = 3

The complementary function is y = Ae-x + Be3x, for A and B arbitrary
constant.
An appropriate trial function is yT = De x

B1

M1

dy
d 2y
= De x and 2 = De x
dx
dx

If y = Dex then

## Substitute these expressions into the given differential equation:

d 2y
2 dy 3y = 16e x De x 2De x 3De x = 16e x
2
dx
dx
x
x

M1

-4De = 16e
D = -4

## Hence the general solution of the given differential equation is

y = Ae-x + Be3x - 4ex
Substitute the boundary condition y = 1, x = 0 into the general solution:
y = Ae-x + Be3x - 4ex 1 = Ae0 + Be0 - 4e0
A+B=5
(1)
Substitute the boundary condition dy = 5, x = 0 into the general solution:
-x

y = Ae +

Be3x

4ex

dx
dy

dx

A - 3B = 1
(2)
A+B=5
A - 3B = 1
(1) - (2):
A = 4, B = 1

(1)
(2)

## Hence the equation of the curve is y = 4e-x + e3x - 4ex

= e-x (e4x - 4e2x + 4)
= e-x (e2x - 2)2

M1 A1

## e-x (e2x - 2)2 = 0

2x = ln 2

M1

(5)

x = 1 ln 2
2

( 21 ln 2, 0)
c

A1

(2)

B1

(1)
8

1 ln 2
2
Substitute x = 1 ln 2 in to the DE to give d y2 = 16e 2 = 16 2 > 0

dx

## Further Pure FP2

5 a

y = 3xe2x

M1

dy
= 3e2x + 6xe2x
dx

M1

d 2y
= 6e2x + 6e2x + 12xe2x = 12e2x + 12xe2x
dx 2

d 2y
3 dy + 2y = (12 9)e2x + (12 18 + 6)xe2x = 3e2x
2
dx
dx

M1 A1

## Aux. eqn.: m2 - 3m + 2 = 0, then m = 1, 2

C.F. y = Ae x + Be2x
General Solution: y = Ae x + Be2x + 3xe2x

M1 A1
A1
A1

dy
= Ae x + 2Be2x + 3e2x + 6xe2x
dx
dy
Substituting x = 0, y = -1 and dx = 1:

M1

## A + B = -1 and A + 2B = -4, solve simultaneously:

A = 2, B = -3
Particular solution: y = 2e x - 3e2x + 3xe2x
c

At x = 1 then y = 2 e > 0
At x = 0 then y = -1
Change of sign, therefore curve C crosses the x-axis.

(4)

M1
A2
A1ft

(9)

A1
A1

(2)
15

6 a

## Aux. eqn.: 4m2 + 4m + 1 = 0, then (2m + 1)2 = 0, m = -0.5

C.F.: x = Ae-0.5t + Bte-0.5t
P.I.: x = pt2 + qt + r

M1 A1
A1
M1

dx = 2 pt + q
dt
d 2x = 2 p
dt 2
2
4 d 2x + 4 dx + x = 8 p + 8 pt + 4q + pt 2 + qt + r
dt
dt

= t2 + 8t + 7
Comparing the coefficients of t2, t,:
p = 1, q = 0 and r = -1
The general solution is
x = Ae-0.5t + Bte-0.5t + t2 - 1
b

M2

A3
A1

(10)

dx
-0.5t
+ Be-0.5t -0.5Bt e-0.5t + 2t
dt = -0.5Ae
Substituting (t = 0, x = -2) and dx = 6 at t = 3:
dt

-2 = A - 1, then A = -1, B = 1,
Particular solution: x = -e-0.5t + te-0.5t + t2 - 1
= e-0.5t(t - 1) + (t - 1)(t + 1)
= (t - 1)(e-0.5t + t + 1)

A2
M1 A1

(6)
16

## Further Pure FP2

7 a

dy
= u + x du
dx
dx

M1

d 2y
du + x d 2u
=
2
dx
dx 2
dx 2

M1

2x 2 2 du + x d u2 + (5x 4)x u + x du
dx
dx

dx

M1

+ (4 - 5x + 3x2)(ux) = 10x3sin 2x
2
4x du + 2x 2 d u2 + 5xu + 5x 2 du 4u 4x du

dx

dx

dx

dx

M1

## + 4u - 5xu + 3x2u = 10x2 sin 2x

2
2 d u2 + 5 du + 3u = 10 sin 2x

A1

M1

m = -1, 3

A1

## C.F.: u = Ae-x + Be-1.5x

P.I.: u = psin 2x + qcos 2x
3u = 3psin 2x + 3qcos 2x

A1
B1

dx

dx

## 5 du = 10 p cos 2x 10q sin 2x

(5)

M2

dx

2
2 d u2 = 8 p sin 2x 8q cos 2x

A1oe

dx

Total:
-(5p + 10q)sin 2x + (10p - 5q) cos 2x = 10 sin 2x
Then p + 2q = -2 and 2p - q = 0

A2

p = 2, q = 4
5

A1

(10)

A1

(1)

5

5

16

## Further Pure FP2

8 a

y = u-1
dy 2 du
= u
as required
dx
dx

( )

d 2y
= 2u 3 du
2
dx
dx

2
u 2 d u2

( dx ) u
dx
2 ( dy ) = 2u ( du )
dx
dx
2

M1oe

dx

2
u 1 d y2 = 2u 4 du

M1oe

(2)

d 2u
dx 2

## 8y3 - 4y2 = 8u-3 - 4u-2

Total:
u

M1
2

d u + 8u 3 4u 2 = 0
dx 2

M1

Multiply by -u3:
d 2u + 4u = 8
dx 2

Aux. eqn.: m2 + 4 = 0, m = 2i
C.F.: u = Acos 2x + Bsin 2x
P.I.:

2
u = k, d u2 = 0, then k = 2

dx

## The general solution of (II) :

u = Acos 2x + Bsin 2x + 2
d

( ) ( )

Substituting 0, 1 and p , 1 :
4 3
3
1
= Acos 2x + Bsin 2x + 2
y

A = 1 and B = 1
1
cos 2x + sin 2x + 2
Min. value is 1
2+ 2

M1 A1
A1

(4)

A1
A1

(5)

M1
A2
A1

Hence y =

ii

A1

(5)
16

## Further Pure FP2

9 a

y = x-1v
dy 2
= x v + x 1 dv
dx
dx

B1oe

2
d 2y
= 2x 3v x 2 dv x 2 dv + x 1 d v2
2
dx
dx
dx
dx

B1oe

2
d 2y
3
2 dv
1 d v
=
2
x
v

2
x
+
x
dx
dx 2
dx 2

B1oe

2
2
x d y2 = 2x 2v 2x 1 dv + d v2

dx

dx

dx
(2 + 2x) dy = 2x 2v + 2x 1 dv 2x 1v + 2 dv
dx
dx
dx

(2 + x)y = 2x-1v + v
(i) + (ii) + (iii):

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

d 2v + 2 dv + v = x 2 + 6x + 6
dx
dx 2

Aux. eqn.: m2 + 2m + 1 = 0
(m + 1)2 = 0, then m = -1
C.F.: v = Ae-x + Bx e-x
v = px2 + qx + r

M1
A1

(5)

M1 A1
A1
M1oe

dv = 2 px + q
dx

P.I.:

d 2v = 2 p
dx 2
d 2v + 2 dv + v = 2 p + 4 px + 2q + px 2 + qx + r
dx
dx 2

## = px2 + (4p + q)x + 2p + 2q + r = x2 + 6x +6

Comparing the coefficients of x2 and x:
p = 1, q = 2 and r = 0
The general solution of (II):
v = Ae-x + Bxe-x + x2 + 2x
y = Ax-1e-x + Be-x + x + 2
c

A3
A1
A1
A1

(12)
17

## Further Pure FP2

Exam-style assessment

6
1.

## up to and including the term in x 1 p .

6

(b) Hence, or otherwise, find the first two non-zero terms, in ascending powers

## of x 1 p , in the Taylor expansion of sin 3xcos 3x.

2.

f(x) = tan x
(a) Find f (1) (x), f (2) (x) and f (3) (x).
(b) Show that, if x is sufficiently small that terms in x4 and higher powers
can be ignored, then
tan x = x + 1 x 3
3

0.2

3.

0.1

3tan x
dx.
x

## (a) Write down the Maclaurin expansion in ascending powers of x of ln (1 + x)

up to and including the term in x3.
(b) Hence, or otherwise, find, in ascending powers of x, the expansion of
(i) ln (1 + 2x),
(ii) ln (1 - 2x),
giving each expansion up to and including the term in x3
(c) Deduce that, for small values of x, ln

(11 + 22xx ) 2x + 83 x

## and hence, by substituting x with a suitable value into this approximation,

estimate the value of ln 3, giving your answer as a fraction in its lowest terms.
4.

f(x) = ln (4 - x),

x<4

## (a) Prove by induction that

f (n) (x) = -(n - 1)!(4 - x)-n

## (b) Hence find the coefficient of (x - 2)5 in the Taylor expansion of ln 1

4x
in ascending powers of (x - 2).
5.

x2

dy
+ y2 = x - 1
dx

(a) Given that y = 2 when x = 1 find a series solution for y, in ascending powers
of (x - 1), up to and including the term in (x - 1)2.
(b) Hence estimate the value of y when x = 1.2

6.

## (a) Express ecos x-1 as a series of ascending powers of x up to and including

the term in x2.
It is given that in the interval (0, 1) the equation ecos x-1 = 2x is satisfied by
exactly one value a
(b) Use your answer to part (a) to find an estimate for a.
(c) Show, by means of a change of sign, that this estimate for a is accurate to
2 decimal places.

7.

2
For the differential equation (x + 2) d y2 y dy = x ,

dx
dy
= 3 when x = 0.
where y = 2 and
dx

dx

## (a) find a series solution for y, in ascending powers of x, up to and including

the term in x3.
(b) Hence estimate the value of y when x = -0.1, giving your answer to
3 decimal places.
8.

2
For the differential equation (x2 - 1) d y2 - 2y = (3x + 1)(x - 1),

## it is given that y = 0 and

dx
dy
= -1 when x = 0.
dx

(a) Show that the first three non-zero terms in a series solution for y, in
ascending powers of x, is
y = x + 1 x 2 + 2 x 3 + . . .
2

## (b) Given that the particular solution of this differential equation is

y = (x2 + k) ln (1 + x), where k is a constant,
(i) find the value of k,
(ii) find the coefficient of x4 in the series solution for y.

6
Question
Number

1 a

## Maclaurin and Taylor series

Solution

Marks

(6) ( 6)
f (x) = 6cos 6x f ( p ) = 6
6
f (x) = -36sin 6x f ( p ) = 0
6
f (x) = -216cos 6x f ( p ) = 216
6
sin6x = 6 ( x 1 p ) + 36 ( x 1 p )
6
6

A1

M1 A1
A1
A1

A1

## sin 3x cos 3x = 1 sin 6x

M1

= 1 6 x p + 36 x p
2
6
6

6)

6)

= 3 x p + 18 x p
2 a

(6)

M1

A1

f (x) = sec2 x
f (x) = 2sec xsec x tan x
= 2sec 2x tan x
f (x) = 4sec x sec x tan x tan x + 2sec2x sec2x
= 4sec2x tan2x + 2sec4x

M1 A1

## f(0) = tan 0 = 0, f (0) = sec20 = 1, f (0) = 0, f (0) = 2

M1 A2

2
3
tan x  f (0) + xf (0) + x f (0) + x f (0)

M1

2!

(3)

3!

A1

M1 A1

(5)

3
= x + x 2

3!

3
= x+ x

A1

0.2

c
0.1

3tan x dx 
x

## Oxford University Press 2009

0.2

0.1

3 + x2 dx = 3x + x
3

(5)

0.2

0.1

= 0.302(3 dp)
10

3 a

## f(x) = ln(1 + x) f (0) = 0

f (x) = (1 + x)-1 f (0) = 1
f (x) = -(1 + x)-2 f (0) = -1
f (x) = 2(1 + x)-3 f (0) = 2

A1
M1 A1
M1 A1
M1 A1

ln(1 + x)  x 1 x 2 + 1 x 3

A1

ln(1 + 2x)  2x 2x 2 + 8 x 3

A1

3
ii ln(1 2x) = 2x 2x 2 8 x 3
3

A1

## ln 1 + 2x = 1 [ln(1 + 2x) ln(1 2x)]

1 2x

(8)

M1

= x x2 + 4 x3 + x + x2 + 4 x3

B1

= 2x + 8 x 3

A1

4

(2)

8 = 13
3 64 24

M1 A1

(5)
15

4 a

## For n = 1, f (x) = -(4 - x)-1, so it is true for n = 1.

Assume true for n = k, then f (k) = -(k - 1)!(4 - x)-k
(k)
f (k +1)(x) = d( f (x))

M1
B1

dx

dx

## = (k 1)!(k)(1)(4 x)(k +1)

= (k !)(4 x)(k 1)

M1
M1 A1

(5)

## Therefore it is true for n = k + 1

Hence by induction, the result is true for all n . 1
b

ln

( 4 1 x ) =

ln(4

x)

M1oe

f (5)(2) 4! 2 5
=
= 1
5!
5!
160

M1 A1

(3)
8

5 a

Substituting y = 2 and x = 1: dy = 4
2
2
2x dy + x 2 d y2 + 2y dy = 1 d y2 = 25

dx

dx

dx

dx

when x = 1

M1 A1ft

y  2 4(x 1) + 25 (x 1)2

M1 A1ft

y  2 - 4(0.2) + 12.5(0.2)2
= 1.7

M1
A1ft

A1

dx

(5)

(2)
7

6 a

## f(x) = ecosx-1 f(0) = 1

f (x) = -ecos x1 sin x f (0) = 0
f (x) = ecos x1 sin 2x - ecos x1 cos x f (0) = -1

A1
M1 A1
M1 A1

ecos x 1 1 1 x 2

M1 A1

(7)

1 1 x 2 = 2x
2

x + 4x - 2 = 0

M1

x = 2 6
c

7 a

a 2 + 6 = 0.45 (2 dp)

A1

## Let g(x) = ecos x-1 - 2x

g(0.445) = ecos(0.445) -1 2(0.445) = +0.02
g(0.445) = ecos(0.455) -1 - 2(0.445) = -0.07
Change of sign in the region [0.445, 0.455], \a = 0.45 (2dp)

M1

Substituting y = 2 and

2
dy
= 3, x = 0 then d y2 = 3
dx
dx

( )

3
d 2y
+ (x + 2) d y3 dy
2
dx
dx
dx

2
3
y d y2 = 1 d y3 = 13

dx

dx

2
y 2 + 3x + 3x + 13 x 3

8 a

12

## y = 2 - 0.3 + 1.5(0.01) - 13 (0.001) = 1.714(3dp)

12

Substituting y = 0,

d 2y
dy
= -1 when x = 0, then 2 = 1
dx
dx

2
3
3
2x d y2 + (x 2 1) d y3 2 dy = 6x 2 d y3 = 4 when x = 0

dx
dx
y x + 1 x 2 + 2 x 3
2
3
dx

dx

dy
= 2x ln(1 + x) + (x 2 + k)(1 + x)1
dx
Substituting x = 0 and dy = -1, then k = -1
dx

M1
A1

M1 A1ft
M1 A1ft

(5)

M1 A1ft

(2)
7

A1
M1 A1ft
A1

A1

1 1
1
The coefficient of x4 = 2 + 4 = 4

A1

(4)

M1 B1oe

M1

( x 2 1) x

(3)
12

A1

x 2 + x 3 x 4 + ...
2
3
4

ii

(2)

(3)

(2)
9

## Further Pure FP2

Exam-style assessment

7
1.

Polar coordinates

## The polar curve C has equation r = 4cos q + 2sin q for 0 - q - 1 p .

2

(a) Show that (x - 2)2 + (y - 1)2 = 5, where (x, y) are the cartesian coordinates
of any point on C.
(b) Hence sketch the polar curve C.
2.

1
r
6

## The diagram shows part of the curve C with cartesian equation y2 = x2 - 1

for x . 1 point P on the curve is such that line OP makes an angle of 1 p radians,
6
measured anti-clockwise against the positive x-axis.
(a) Show that for any polar point (r, q) on C, r2 = sec 2q
(b) Hence, or otherwise, find the exact distance OP.
3.

i=

1
r
2

C2

C1
l

The diagram shows the polar curves C1 and C2 with equations given by
C1: r = cos 2q 0 - q - 1 p
and

C2: r = sin q

4
0 - q - 1p
2

## Point A lies on the curve C2 and on the half-line q = 1 p . P is a point of

2
intersection of the two curves.
(a) Find the exact polar coordinates of point P.
(b) Show that AP = 1 3
2

## Further Pure FP2

4.

B
O

The diagram shows the polar curve with equation r = a(1 + 2cos q) for 0 - q - 2 p ,
3
where a is a positive constant. The curve crosses the initial line at the pole and at
point A. The line p is a tangent to this curve at point B and is perpendicular to the
initial line, as shown.
(a) Find the polar coordinates of point A, giving your answer in terms of a
(b) Show that, for this curve, rcos q = a(cos q + cos 2q + 1)
(c) Hence find, in terms of a, the distance OB.
2
(d) Show that the area of triangle OAB is 3a 15

16

5.

## A curve C is defined by the polar equation r = 2 + acos q for -p - q - p,

where a is a positive constant.
(a) On separate diagrams, sketch the curve C given that
(i) a = 2
(ii) a < 2.
(b) In the case when a =

6.

i=

## 2, find the exact total area enclosed by the curve C.

1
r
2

i=0

The diagram shows the polar curve with equation r 2 = 2 3 sin 2q for 0 - q - 1 p ,
the initial line and the half-line q = 1 p . A tangent to this curve at point A,
2
parallel to the initial line, is also shown.

## (a) Show that r2 sin2 q = 3 sin 2q 1 sin 4q

2

(b) Hence, by using implicit differentiation, show that point A has polar
coordinates

3, 1 p .
3

## (c) Find the polar equation of this tangent.

(d) Show that the line OA divides the curve into two regions whose areas are
in the ratio 1 : 3.

## Further Pure FP2

7.

i=r

i= 0

The diagram shows the curve with polar equation r = 2 - cos 2q for 0 - q - p.
The curve is enclosed by a rectangle formed by the half-lines q = 0, q = p and the
tangents parallel and perpendicular to the initial line, which touch the curve at
points P, Q and R respectively, as shown.
(a) Express r sin q in terms of sin q only.

2

## (c) Find the exact polar coordinates of point Q and point R.

(d) Show that the area of the region inside the rectangle but outside the curve,
as shaded in the diagram, is 6 2 9 p
4

8.

L
P

C
R

initial line

The diagram shows the polar curve C and the straight line L with equations
given by
C: r = 2(cos q - sin q)
and

L: r 1 sec 1 p q
2

0 - q - 1p

4
0 - q - 1p
4

C and L intersect at point P. Point Q is where L crosses the initial line. R is the
finite region bounded by C, PQ and the initial line and which does not contain
the pole.
(a) Show that P has polar coordinates P

( 3 1, 61 p ).

## (b) Find the polar coordinates of point Q.

(c) Show that the area of region R is 0.36, correct to 2 decimal places.

## Further Pure FP2

9.

C1

C2

C2

i=r

C1
l

The diagram shows the polar curves C1 and C2 with equations given by
C1: r = 2(1 + sin q)

0-q-p

0-q-p

## The half-lines q = 0 and q = p bound both C1 and C2.

The curves intersect at point P.
(a) Find the polar coordinates of point P. Give your answer in exact form.
(b) Show that (1 + sin q)2 - (1 + cos q)2 2sin q - 2cos q - cos 2q
(c) Find the exact area of the region R between the two curves and which is
bounded by the half-lines q = 1 p and q = p, shown shaded on the diagram.
4

10.

1
1
The diagram shows the polar curve C with equation r 2 = 2a2cos 2q for 4 p  q  4 p ,
where a > 0 is a constant. Tangents to the curve at point A and point B, parallel to
the initial line, have been drawn.

(a) Show that, for any point (r, q ) on C, r 2 sin2 q = a2(cos 2q - cos2 2q)
(b) Hence, using implicit differentiation, find in terms of a the polar coordinates
of points A and B.
(c) Show that triangle OAB is equilateral and find its area in terms of a.
(d) Find, in terms of a, the exact area of the finite region bounded by the curve
and the line AB and which does not contain the pole.

## Exam-style mark scheme

Polar coordinates

Question
Number

Solution

1 a

Multiply by r:
r2 = 4r cos q + 2r sin q
Usin g r2 = x2 + y2, x = rcos q and y = rsin q
x2 + y2 = 4x + 2y
(x 2)2 + (y 1)2 = 5

Marks

M1
M1
M1 A1

(4)

B3

(3)

7
2 a

3 a

## Substitute x = rcos q and y = rsin q in y2 = x2 1:

r2 sin2 q = r2 cos2 q - 1
r2 (cos2 q sin2 q ) = 1
r2 cos 2q = 1, hence r2 = sec 2q

M1oe
M1oe
M1 A1

r 2 = sec p = 2 , r = 2

M1 A1

cos2 q = sin q
1 2sin2 q = sin q
2sin2 q + sin q 1 = 0
(2 sin q - 1)(sin q + 1) = 0, sin q = 1

A1

Hence q = p

A1

(2 6 )

P 1 ,p
b

A(0, 1), P
AP =

3 + 9 = 1 3
16 16
2

## Oxford University Press 2009

(2)
6

B1
M1

A1

( 43 , 14 ) in Cartesian form

(4)

(5)

A2
M1 A1

(4)
9

## Further Pure FP2

4 a

r = a(1 + 2cos 0) 3a

## r cos q = a(1 + 2cos q) cos q

= a(cos q + 2cos2 q)
= a(cos q + cos 2q + 1), as required

dq

## Hence at B, sin q + 2sin 2q = 0

sin q + 4 sin q cos q = 0
sin q (1 + 4cos q) = 0
i.e. sin q = 0 [which does not correspond to B]
or cosq = 1

( ( 14 )) = 21 a

Hence OB = a 1 + 2
d

(2 )

2

## Hence sin q = 1 cos2 q

= 1 1

16
1
=
15
4

( )(

So Area = 1 (3a) 1 a 1 15

2
2
4
= 3 a 2 15, as required
16

## Further Pure FP2

5 a

r = 2 + 2cos i

B2

x
2

ii

2
2a

2+a
x

B2

(4)

Area
p

=2
0

1 r 2dq
2

(2 +

2 cosq ) dq
2

M1

(4 + 4

2 cosq + 2 cos2 q ) dq

M1

(5 + 4

2 cosq + cos 2q ) dq

M1

=
0

= 5q + 4 2 sinq + 1 sin 2q

= 5p

M2
A1

(6)
6

## Further Pure FP2

6 a

r2 sin 2q
= 2 3 sin 2q sin 2 q

= 2 3 sin 2q 1 2 cos 2q
=

M1

## 3(sin 2q sin 2q cos 2q )

= 3 sin 2q 1 sin 4q
b

M1

M1 A1

(4)

M1 A1

(2)

2

dq

## Hence, at A, 2cos 2q - 2cos 4q = 0

i.e. 2cos2 2q - cos 2q - 1 = 0
(2cos 2q + 1)(cos 2q - 1) = 0
cos 2q = 1 [which does not correspond to A]
or cos 2q = 1 , so 2q = 2 p i.e. q = 1 p
3
3
2
1
2
q = p r = 3 and so the polar coordinates of A are A
3
c

1
2

p
2

p
3

3, 1 p
3

2
4
3

M1 A1

p
3

1
2
0

## 2 3 sin 2q dq = 3 [ cos 2q]03 = 3 3

2
4

3 : 3 3 then ratio is 1 : 3
4
4

M1 A1
A1

(5)
17

7 a

## rsin q = 2sin q - sin q cos 2q

= 2sin q - sin q (1 - 2sin 2q)
= 2sin 3q + sin q
d(r sinq )
= 6 sin 2 q cosq + cosq = 0
dq
cos q = 0 then q = p
2
Therefore P 3, p
2

( )

## rcos q = 2cos q - cos q cos 2q

= 2cos q - cos q (2cos2 q - 1)
= 3cos q - 2cos 3q
d(r cosq )
= 3 sinq + 6 cos2 q sinq = 0
dq
cosq = 1 (as sinq = 0 cannot give P or Q)
2
q = p , 3p
4 4
Q 2, p , R 2, 3p
4
4

( ) (

4

M1
A1

(2)

M1
A1
A1

(3)

M1
A1
M1
A1
A1
A2

(7)

M1 A1

p
2

(2 - cos 2q)2 dq

M1

0
p
2

0
p
2

=
0

p
2

M1

## = 4.5q 2 sin 2q + 1 sin 4q

M1

= 9p

A1

Shaded Area = 6 2 9 p
4

A1

(7)
19

8 a

1
2 cos p q
4

2(cosq sinq ) =

2(cosq sinq ) =

M1

M1

4
4
1
2(cosq sinq ) =
cosq + sinq

M1

## 2(cos 2q - sin 2q) = 1

2 cos2 q 1 = 1
2

cosq = 3

M1

2
Hence q = p and r = 2 cos p sin p =
6
6
6
P 3 1, p
6

b
c

3 1

A2

Q(1, 0)

A1

(7)

M1
A1

(2)

## Area of the triangle OPQ

= 1 1 ( 3 1) sin p = 3 1
2

M1 A1

= 1
2

p
6

## [2(cos q - sin q]2 dq

M1

= 2 (1 - 2cos q sin q) dq

M1

0
p
6

p
6

= 2 [q + cos2 q ]0

M1 A1

=p 1
3 2

A1

3

M1 A1

(9)
18

9 a

## 2(1 + sin q) = 2(1 + cos q)

sin q = cos q so tan q = 1
q =p
4

A1

r = 2 1 + sin p = 2 + 2

M1

P 2 + 2, p

A1

M1

## 1 + 2sin q + sin 2q - 1 - 2cos q - cos 2q

= 2sin q - 2cos q - (cos 2 - sin 2q)
= 2sin q - 2cos q - cos 2q

(4)

M1
A1

(2)

p

p
4

M1

M2

=5+4 2

A1

(4)
10

10 a

## r2sin 2q = 2a2sin 2q cos 2q

= 2a 2 1 cos 2q cos 2q

M1

## = a2(cos 2q - cos2 2q)

M1 A1

(3)

AB = 2 a sin p = a,

A2

(7)

M1

A1

## Solve dy = 0 to find the coordinates of points A and B:

dq

y = r sin q y2 = r2 sin2 q
y2 = a2(cos2 q - cos2 2q)
2y = dy = a2(-2sin 2q + 4cos 2q sin 2q )
dq

dy
= 0 -2sin 2q + 4cos 2q sin 2q = 0
dq

2sin 2q (2cos 2q - 1) = 0
sin 2q = 0, cos 2q = 1

2
1
q = 0, q = p
6
Clearly, q = 1 p corresponds to point A and q = 1 p to point B
6
6
1
At A and B, cos 2q = and hence r2 = 2a2 cos 2q
2
2

=a

## The polar coordinates of A and B are A a, 1 p and B a,- 1 p

6
6
respsectively.
c

3 a2
4

(2)

Area bounded
by curve and lines OA and OB
p
6

= 2 1
2

p
6

r2dq

2a2cos 2qdq

=
0

6
= [ a 2 sin 2q ]0

3 a2
2

=

3 a2

3 a2
=
4

3 a2
4