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40 Aufrufe70 SeitenA Exam style questions on A-level Mathematics for 16-19 years old to practice for the exam.

Jun 03, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

A Exam style questions on A-level Mathematics for 16-19 years old to practice for the exam.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

40 Aufrufe

A Exam style questions on A-level Mathematics for 16-19 years old to practice for the exam.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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0.1

Algebraic techniques

common denominators.

FP2

EXAMPLE 1

Simplify

This section provides

background knowledge

for Chapters 1, 2, 3 and 6.

4 + 3

x +1 x + 2

Rewrite the fractions so that they each have denominator (x + 1)(x + 2):

4 + 3 4(x + 2) + 3(x + 1)

x + 1 x + 2 (x + 1)(x + 2) (x + 1)(x + 2)

Add the numerators:

4(x + 2) + 3(x + 1)

(x + 1)(x + 2)

Simplify:

7x + 11

(x + 1)(x + 2)

Hence

4 + 3

7x + 11

x + 1 x + 2 (x + 1)(x + 2)

EXAMPLE 2

Express

5x 1

as the sum of partial fractions.

(x + 1)(x 1)

5x 1

A + B

(x + 1)(x 1) (x + 1) (x 1)

A(x 1) + B(x + 1)

(x + 1)(x 1)

Compare numerators:

5x - 1 A(x - 1) + B(x + 1)

i.e.

4 = 2B

so B = 2

Similarly, when x = -1

Hence, in partial fractions,

A=3

5x 1

3 + 2

(x + 1)(x 1) (x + 1) (x 1)

numerators must also be equal.

You could also find A and B

by comparing coefficients in

the identity

5x - 1 A(x - 1) + B(x + 1)

EXAMPLE 3

x 1

y = 2x + 1

so

x 1

y(x - 1) = 2x + 1

yx - 2x = y + 1

i.e.

(y - 2)x = y + 1

x = y +1

so

y2

positive integer, by using the binomial theorem.

FP2

EXAMPLE 4

including the term in x2.

b By substituting x = 1 into your expansion, estimate the

4

value of 1.5.

Give your answer to 2 decimal places.

( 1 )( 12 ) (2x) + "

(2)

1

(1 + 2x)2 = 1 + 1 (2x) + 2

2!

2!

= 1 + x 1 x2 + "

2

b Substitute x =

( ( ))

1+ 2 1

4

i.e.

1

2

(1 + 2x) 2 1 + x 1 x 2 :

4

2

2(4)

1+ 1 1 1

4

1.5 1.21875

()

1 2

1 + 2

= 1.5

4

algebraic fraction.

EXAMPLE 5

Express

1 x

x = x(1 x)1

1 x

2!

3!

= 1 + x + x2 + x3 + "

Multiply through by x:

x (1 x) 1 = x (1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + ")

= x + x2 + x3 + x4 + "

FP2

Hence

for -1 < x < 1.

x = x + x2 + x3 + x4 + "

1 x

Exercise 0.1

1 Simplify these expressions.

Factorise your answers as far as possible.

a

2 + 4

x + 2 x 1

x

c x + 3 + x +1

e

3 1

x 4 x +1

d 2x + 1 +

x +1

1

2x 1

x 1

x + 4 x +1

a

4x + 3

(x + 2)(x 3)

c 5x2 6

x 4

x+2

(x + 4)(x + 3)

x2 7

(x 2 1)(x + 2)

3x

2x 1

b y = 2x + 3

c y = 2x + 1

d y = 1 3x

a y=

x +1

4x

3x + 1

of ascending powers of x up to and including the term in x3.

a (1 + x)-1

b

1

(1 + 2x)3

2

c (1 3x)3

1

5 It is given that (1 + x)2 = 1 + 1 x 1 x 2 + 1 x 3 "

16

1

4x)2

in ascending powers of

x up to and including the term in x3.

given expansion.

8

Give your answer to 2 decimal places.

6 Express these functions as ascending powers of x up to and

including the term in x3.

x

(1 + 2x)2

x 1

1+ x

FP2

4x + 3

(1 + 3x)(1 2x)

0.2

Inequalities

This is background knowledge

for Chapter 1.

EXAMPLE 1

x2 - 5x + 4 (x - 1)(x - 4)

The graph cuts the x-axis when y = 0

i.e when (x - 1)(x - 4) = 0

The graph has roots x = 1, x = 4.

y

x2 - 5x + 4 < 0 is satisfied by

values of x for which the graph

y = x2 - 5x + 4 lies on or below

the x-axis.

EXAMPLE 2

FP2

Use algebra to solve the inequality x2 + 3 0 4x

x2 - 4x + 3 0 0

i.e.

(x - 1)(x - 3) 0 0

(x - 1)(x - 3) = 0 for x = 1, x = 3

Use appropriate values of x to find the sign of f(x) in the intervals

x < 1, 1 < x < 3, x > 3:

f(x) < 0

f(x) > 0

1

x<1

e.g.

f(0) = 3 (>0)

f(x) > 0

x

3

1<x<3

f(2) = -1 (<0)

x>3

f(4) = 3 (>0)

values of x for which f(x) 0 0.

x = 3 in the solution of f(x) 0 0.

Exercise 0.2

1 Use any appropriate technique to solve these inequalities.

a x2 - 5x + 6 0 0

b 2x2 + 5x - 3 < 0

c 4x2 - 1 > 0

d x2 - 7x + 10 0 5 - x

e x2 - 3x + 2 / 2x + 8

f 2x2 - 2x - 12 > 3 - x

2 Solve the inequality x2 - 2x - 4 < 0

Give your answers in surd form.

3 Use a graphical approach to show that the inequality

x2 - 6x + 10 < 0

has no solution.

4 Solve these inequalities.

FP2

b (x + 1)(x2 - 9) / 0

c x3 + 2x2 + x < 0

0.3

} sketch the graph y = f(x)

} reflect the negative part of your graph in the x-axis.

This is background knowledge

for Chapters 1, 4 and 5.

EXAMPLE 1

of the graph that lies beneath the x-axis as a broken line.

Reflect the dotted section in the x-axis:

can plot the graph of a

modulus function.

Look for the ABS key.

y = |x2 4|

y

y=

x2

y=x 4

y = 4 x2

FP2

the reflection of the point (0, -4)

in the x-axis.

Label each section of the graph

with its equation.

the graph.

You can sketch the graph with equation y = Aekx, where A and k

are constants.

EXAMPLE 2

equation y = e-x

y

When x = 0, y = 3e-2(0) = 3,

i.e. the y-intercept of the

graph is 3.

y = 3e2x

asymptote to the graph.

Exercise 0.3

1 On separate diagrams, sketch the graphs with these equations.

Label all axis-crossing points with their values and the sections

of the graph with their equations.

a y = |2x + 1|

b y = |2 - 3x|

c y = |x2 + 4x + 3|

d y = |3x - 2x2|

2 On separate diagrams, sketch the graphs of these equations.

Label all axis-crossing points with their values, giving answers

in surd form where appropriate.

a y = |x3- 1|

b y = |(x + 3)2 (x - 1)|

c y = |(3 - x)(x2 - 2)|

FP2

a y = 2e3x

b y = -e-x

c y = 3ex + 1

d y = 3 - e-2x

4 On separate diagrams, sketch the graphs with these equations.

a y = |e-x - 1|

b y = |ex - 2|

5 Given that x < ex for all x 0 0,

a show that x2 < e2x for all x 0 0

b deduce that xe-2x is approximately zero for large positive

values of x.

0.4

Trigonometry

You should know these identities:

This is background knowledge

for Chapters 3 and 7.

sin2 q + cos2 q 1

tan 2q 2 tan q2

1 tan q

tan q + 1 sec q

2

cos q

1 + cot q cosec q

EXAMPLE 1

Give answers in exact form.

cos 2q + cos q = 0

so

2cos q - 1 + cos q = 0

i.e. (2cos q - 1)(cos q + 1) = 0

This is a quadratic

equation in cos q.

FP2

2

cos q = 1 when q = 1 p

2

Since 0 / q / p

cos q = -1 when q = p

Hence cos 2q + cos q = 0 has solutions q = 1 p , p for 0 / q / p.

3

(i.e. in terms of p).

trigonometric functions in an expression.

EXAMPLE 2

2 sin q cos2 q

2 sin q(1 - sin2 q)

Hence sin 2q cos q 2sin q(1 - sin2 q)

10

trigonometric functions.

cos2 q 1 - sin2 q

RHS depends only on sin q.

Exercise 0.4

1 Solve these equations.

Give answers in exact form.

a sin 2q = cos q

for 0 / q / p

b sin 2q = tan q

for 0 / q / p

d

3cos 2q = cos q

for 1 p q 1 p

2

3sin q + cos q

2 a Express

in the form R sin(q + a),

where R > 0 and 0 < a < 1 p is exact.

2

3sin q + cos q = 1

for 0 / q / p

3 Express these functions in the required form.

FP2

b sin 2q sin q in terms of cos q only

c cos 2q sin 2q as a function of sine only

d cos4 q - sin4 q as a function of cosine only

4 The diagram shows an isosceles triangle ABC,

l = 2q radians.

where AB = AC = k and CAB

4

2i

A

a cos(-q) cos q

b sin(-q) -sin q

c tan-1(-q) -tan-1q

11

0.5

1.1

Differentiation

d ( eax ) = aeax

dx

d sin ax = a cos ax

(

)

dx

d ln ax = 1

(

) x

dx

d ( cos ax ) = a sin ax

dx

This is background knowledge

for Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7.

You can use rules and standard results of differentiation to find

the first and second derivatives of a function.

EXAMPLE 1

2

find dy and d y2 .

If y = xe2x

dx

dx

dx

y=

xe2x

so

dx

dx

dx

dy

= x (2e2x ) + e2x (1)

dx

d ( 2x )

e = 2e2x using the chain rule.

dx

= (2x + 1) e2x

Factorise:

FP2

and quotient rules.

2

Use the product rule on dy to find d y2 :

dx

dy

= ( 2x + 1) e2x

dx

dx

so

d y

= (2x + 1) (2e2x ) + e2x (2)

dx 2

= 2e2x ( 2x + 2 ) = 4e2x ( x + 1)

Hence

dy

d2 y

= ( 2x + 1) e2x and 2 = 4e2x ( x + 1)

dx

dx

differentiation process.

EXAMPLE 2

f(x) = sin x ( cos x + 1)

= sin x cos x + sin x

= 1 sin 2x + sin x

2

dx 2

12

EXAMPLE 3

dx

d 2

( y ) = ddy ( y 2 ) ddxy

dx

= 2y

d ( 2)

y = 2y since y2 is being

dy

dy

dx

Exercise 0.5

1 Find

dy

for these equations. Simplify each answer as far as possible.

dx

a y = ex sin x

b y = ln(1 + x2)

c y = x +x 1

d y = ln(sin2 x)

FP2

given interval. You should show each answer is a maximum.

a f(q) = sin q + cos q for 0 / q / p

for 0 < q - 1 p

b f(q) = sin2 q - 1

Simplify each answer as far as possible.

a y = sin x cos 2x + cos x sin 2x

b y = 4cos2 x sin2 x

c y = (1 - 2sin2 2x)2

4 Use implicit differentiation to find an expression for these derivatives.

a d ( y3)

dx

d xy 2

( )

dx

( )

d x 2 dy

dx

dx

a find an expression for

b Hence show that

dy

.

dx

d2 y

du

d 2u

2 = 2 dx + x

dx

dx 2

13

0.6

Integration

1 dx = 1 ln x + c

ax

a

eax dx = 1 eax + c

This is background knowledge

for Chapters 4 and 7.

cos ( ax ) dx = 1 sin ( ax ) + c

sin(ax) dx = 1 cos ( ax ) + c

a is a non-zero constant.

integrate more complicated functions.

by substitution and by parts.

EXAMPLE 1

(the reverse chain rule) to find

this integral.

= x cos u du

dx

FP2

4x

4x

1 cosu du

4

= 1 sinu + c

4

Replace u with

2x2:

integration, c.

= 1 sin ( 2x 2 ) + c

4

EXAMPLE 2

3y 2 sec x

dy

=x

dx

dy

3y 2 sec x

=x

so

3y2 dy =

dx

3y2 dy = y3 + c1

x cos x dx = x sin x + cos x + c 2

Hence the general solution is given by

y3 = x sin x + cos x + c

i.e.

14

A differential equation is an

equation that involves a derivative.

y =

x sin x + cos x + c

x cos x dx

sec x 1

cos x

u = xx, du = 1 and

dx

dv

= cos x, v = sin x

dx

c = c2 - c1

You only need one arbitrary

constant in the general solution of

a first order differential equation.

real-life situation.

EXAMPLE 3

dye begins to spread out in such a way that, t seconds from

the start of the process, the dye forms a circular shape of

radius r cm and area A cm2. It is assumed that, at all times,

the rate of increase of A is inversely proportional to A.

After 4 seconds the area of the circle is 6 cm2.

a Formulate a differential equation for A.

b Find A in terms of t. Comment on the validity of your

answer in the long term.

dt

dA 1

dt

A

Hence

dt

A

i.e.

P is inversely proportional to

Q if P 1

Q

over time.

so

FP2

dA = k

dt

A

A dA = k dt

hence 1 A2 = kt + c

k is a constant so k dt = kt + c

i.e.

A=

2kt + c1

A=

so 0 =

2kt + c1

0 + c1

i.e. c1 = 0

Hence A =

2kt

not exist and so when

t = 0, A = 0.

2kt

A=

been replaced by c1.

c1 = 2c

so

6=

2kt to find k:

2k ( 4 )

36 = 8k

i.e. k = 4.5

Hence the equation for A in terms of t is

A=

2 ( 4.5) t =

9t = 3 t

Since the dye is inside a container, the equation A = 3 t

is an unrealistic model for A in the long term.

15

EXAMPLE 4

= 2(cos 2q + 1) + 4cos q + 1

So

= sin 2q + 4sin q + 3q + c

2cos 2q dq

(2

= 2 1 sin 2q = sin 2q

Exercise 0.6

FP2

a

xsin x dx

x(2x2 - 1)3 dx

4x(2x + 1)4 dx

xe-x dx

d

1

p

2

0

2

9x2 ln x dx

f

1

cos x

b show that

16

tan x dx = ln |sec x| + c

sec2 2x dx

Give each answer as an explicit function.

a

dy

= 2xy

dx

b t dx + x = 0

dt

c sec q

d

dy

= ey

dq

dy

= 2xe x y

dx

In each case, make y the subject.

a x2

dy

= y 2 for which y = 1 when x = 1

dx

2

dy

b ( x 2 1) = 2y for which y = 1 when x = 3

dx

c cos2 x

dy

= y for which y = 1 when x = p

dx

FP2

had area 25 cm2 and was spreading at a rate of 10 cm2 per day.

t days later, the area A cm2 of the patch was increasing at a rate

proportional to the square root of A.

a Formulate a differential equation for A.

b Hence show that A can be modelled by the equation

A = (t + 5)2

c Comment on the suitability of this model for A in the long term.

d Find the number of days the patch was on the ceiling before

being noticed. State any assumption made in arriving at your answer.

6 Use appropriate trigonometric identities to find these integrals.

a

2 sin2 q dq

tan2 q dq

17

0.7

1.1

Complex numbers

This is background knowledge

for Chapters 3 and 5.

EXAMPLE 1

2a

x2 - 6x + 13 = 0

x=

so

( 6 )

=6

( 6 )2 4 (1)(13 )

2 (1)

16

16

= 16 (1)

= 4i

2

6

4

i

=

2

= 3 2i

The equation x - 6x + 13 = 0 has solutions x = 3 2i.

FP2

modulus and argument of a complex number.

EXAMPLE 2

z = 32 + (3)2

The modulus of z = a + bi

is z =

= 18

a2 + b2

=3 2

For any complex number z = a + bi in the 4th quadrant,

()

arg z = tan ( 3 ) =

3

arg z = tan1 b :

a

tan

(1)

= 1p

4

(principal) argument 1 p.

4

18

in the 4th quadrant.

Give the principal argument

unless told otherwise.

Give answers in exact form

unless told otherwise.

EXAMPLE 3

the complex numbers z and w respectively.

Im

Q

lQ = 1 p

OP = 3, OQ = 4 and PO

3

1

r

3

P

3

Re

by the vector QP .

Im

Q

(3 )

QP 2 = 32 + 42 2(3)(4)cos 1 p

= 9 + 16 24 1

a2 = b2 + c 2 2bc cos A

4

1

r

3

= 13

P

3

Re

Hence z w = 13

Since (z - w) is represented by

QP , z w = QP.

FP2

Exercise 0.7

1 Solve these quadratic equations.

a x2 - 2x + 10 = 0

b 4x2 + 4x + 5 = 0

c x2 2 2x + 3 = 0

2 Find the exact modulus and argument of these complex numbers.

a 5 + 5i

c

+ 2 3i

b 2 2 3i

d

6 6i

the complex numbers z and w respectively.

Im

Q

2

b Given further that arg z = 1 p show that arg(w z) = 5 p

6

4

O

Re

Use suitable double-angle identities to show that z2 = cos 2q + i sin 2q

19

Answers

Exercise 0.1

1

b

2x + 7

b

( x 4)( x + 1)

6( x + 1)

a

( x + 2)( x 1)

2 x( x + 2)

( x + 3)( x + 4)

y

y = 2 3x

x(4 x + 1)

( x + 1)(2 x 1)

y = (2 3x)

e ( x + 2)( x 2)

( x + 4)( x + 1)

c

3

O

2

1

b

( x + 4) ( x + 3)

1

+ 3

a

( x + 2) ( x 3)

4

+ 1

( x + 2) ( x 2)

3

1

1

( x + 1) ( x 1) ( x + 2)

a x=

y

2y 3

b x=

3

4y 2

c x=

1 y

y 2

d x=

1 y

3( y + 1)

2

3

y = x2 + 4x + 3

y = x2 + 4x + 3

3

y = (x2 + 4x + 3)

3

a 1 - x + x 2 - x3 +

2

y

b 1 - 6x + 24 x2 - 80 x3 +

y = x(3 2x)

y = x(3 2x)

c 1 - 2x - x2 4 x3 -

FP2

a 1 + 2x - 2x2 + 4x3 -

b

a x - 4x2 + 12x3 -

1 +

y = x(3 2x)

3

7

11

x x 2 + x 3 ...

2

8

16

Exercise 0.2

1

a x / 2, x 0 3

d x / 1, x 0 5

e -1/ x / 6

1 5 < x <1+ 5

a -4 < x < -2, x > 0

c x < 0, x -1

1

2

1

1

c x< ,x>

2

2

4

b -3 < x <

x < 5, x > 3

2

b x / -3, -1 / x / 3

Exercise 0.3

1

3

2

c 3 + x + 17x - 11x +

2

9

y

y = (2x + 1)

y = 2x + 1

1

6

O

1

20

Answers

b q = 0, 2 p

a 2 sin q + 1 p

a (1 - 2sin2 q)sin q

c 1 sin 4q

d cos 2q

4

O

b BC = k, 3k

Exercise 0.5

1

x

a ex (cos x + sin x)

c

x

ex

2x

1 + x2

d 2cot x

2

3

a 2

a 3cos 3x

3y2

a u + x du

b 0

b 2sin 4x

dy

dx

c -4sin 8x

dy

b 2 xy + y 2

dx

c x2

d2 y

dy

+ 2x

dx

dx 2

dx

Exercise 0.6

1

1

O

2

3

1

In 3

2

4

y

In 2

c y = -ln |c - sin q|

d y = ln |e x (2x - 2) + c|

a y= x

b y = 2 x 1

( x + 1)

x +1

etan x

a dA = 2 A

dt

a q 1 sin 2q + c

b tan q - q + c

2

c q 1 cos 2q + c

2

b x = 1 i

a x = 1 3i

a z = 5 2 , arg(z ) = 1 p

c x = 2 i

b z = 4, arg(z ) = 1 p

Exercise 0.4

a q = 1p , 1p , 5p

b q = 0, 1 p , 3 p , p

c q = 1p , 1p , 5p

6

2

6

d q = 1p

6

b x=A

Exercise 0.7

f 24ln 2 - 7

This is unrealistic.

d 5 days. This answer assumes the given modelling

assumptions held prior to the patch being noticed.

a y = Ae x

c y=

5

16

1

1

(2 x + 1)6 (2 x + 1)5 + c

c

6

5

d -1

e 7

3

a sec2 2x dx = 1 tan 2x + c

2

FP2

4

b 1 ( 2 x 2 1) + c

a -x cos x + sin x + c

c z = 4 3 , arg(z ) = 5 p

6

3

z = 2 3 , arg(z ) = p

4

21

Exam-style assessment

Inequalities

1.

2

Solve the inequality x + 2 < x

2.

3.

4.

x 1

x+3

(b) On the same diagram, sketch the graphs with equations y = |x2 - 5x + 6|

and y = 4x - 8

(c) Hence, or otherwise, solve the inequality |x2 - 5x + 6| < 4x - 8

5.

(a) On the same diagram, sketch the graphs with equations y = |x2 - 9| and

y = |2x - 1|. Label, with their coordinates, the axis-crossing points of

each graph.

(b) Find the values of x where these two graphs intersect. Give answers in

simplified surd form where appropriate.

(c) Hence solve the inequality |x 2 - 9| . |2x -1|

6.

(a) On the same diagram, sketch the graphs with equations y = |2x + a| and

y = |3x + a|, where a is a positive constant. Label, with their coordinates,

the axis-crossing points of each graph.

(b) Hence solve, in terms of a, the inequality |2x + a| < |3x + a|

7.

(a) Sketch the graph with equation y = |x2 - 2kx| where k is a positive constant.

Label the stationary point with its coordinates.

(b) Hence, or otherwise, solve the inequality |x2 - 2kx| - k2, giving your answer

in terms of k.

1

Question

Number

Inequalities

Solution

Marks

x2 + 2 x < 0

x 1

x+2 <0

x 1

M1

M1

Considering change of sign of factors gives:

-2 < x < 1

A1

A2

5

x+2+ x 0

x+3 2

(x + 1)(x + 4)

0

2(x + 3)

M1

M1 A1

Considering change of sign of factors gives:

-4 - x < -3, x . -1

A1

M1 A2

7

3 a

x 1 >0

x 1 x + 3

M1

(x + 1)2

>0

(x 1)((x + 3)

M1 A1

Considering change of sign of factors gives:

Hence x > 1 or x < -3

M1 A1

A2

7

4 a

(x - 3)2(x - 2)2 - 16(x - 2)2 = 0

(x - 2)2[(x - 3)2 - 16] = 0

Then x = 2, 7 and -1 (ignore x = -1, it does not satisfy the

original equation).

y

M1oe

M1

M1

A2

(5)

B2

(2)

A2

(2)

9

6

y = 4x 8

y = |x2 5x + 6|

O

2 3

2<x<7

5 a

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

B2

(2)

x2 2x 8 = 0, then x = 4 or x = -2

For 0.5 < x < 3 or x < -3 then x2 - 9 = -(2x - 1)

x2 + 2x - 10 = 0, then x = 1 11

Hence x = 4, -2, 1 11

M1

M1 A1

M1

M1

A3

(6)

A2

(2)

10

B3

(3)

4 3 2 1 O 1 1 2 3 4 x

2

6 a

y = |3x + a|

(0, a)

y = |2x + a|

a

,0

2

a

,0

3

( )( )

b

2

x = 2a

5

A1

7 a

A1

(4)

7

B3

(3)

(k, k2)

2k

M1 A1

x2 2kx - k2 = 0, x = k(1 2 )

M1 A1

A2

(4)

7

Exam-style assessment

2

1.

Series

(b) Hence use the method of differences to prove that

r =1

2.

(a) Express

= 1 n(n + 1)

2

6

in partial fractions.

9r 2 12r 5

(15n + 2 ) ( n 1)

8

=

( 3n + 1) ( 3n 2 )

r = 2 9r 12r 5

n

15

8

, giving your answer to 3 significant figures.

r = 6 9r 12r 5

3.

8

A

B

C

+

+

2

1

2

1

2

+

+ 3)

r

r

r

(

)

(

)

(

4r 1 ( 2r + 3 )

r =1

4.

for all r . 1

n (n + 2)

3

=

4r 1 ( 2r + 3 ) ( 2n + 1) ( 2n + 3 )

2

1

1

2

=

r ( r + 1) ( r + 1) ( r + 2 ) r ( r + 1) ( r + 2 )

for all r . 1

n

r ( r + 14) ( r + 2 )

r =1

n

4

(c) Deduce

< 1 for all n > 1

1

r

r

+

) (r + 2 )

r =1 (

5.

n

6

r =1

n

2

r =1

6.

3

(a) Express 8r 2 2r 1 in the form Ar +

4r 1

B

C , for constants A, B

+

2

r

1

2

r

(

) ( + 1)

and C to be determined.

n

3

(b) Hence find an expression for 8r 2 2r 1 giving your answer in terms of

r =1

4r 1

24

3

(c) Evaluate the series 8r 2 2r 1, giving your answer to 3 significant figures.

r =7

4r 1

7.

(a) Express

3r 2

in partial fractions.

r ( r + 1) ( r + 2 )

n

3r 2

n2

=

(b) Hence show that

( n + 1) ( n + 2 )

r =1 r ( r + 1) ( r + 2 )

N

r ( r +3r1)( r2 + 2 )

r =1

8.

(a) Express

= 8

15

r 1 r r +1

r r2 1

are constants.

n

3 r = n 1

2

n ( n + 1)

r =2 r r 1

for n > 2

Series

Question

Number

Solution

Marks

1 a

r2 + 2r - r2 + 2r = 4r

A1

r =1

r =1

4 r = [r (r + 2) r (r 2)]

4(1) = 1(3) - 1(-1)

4(2) = 2(4) - 2(0)

4(3) = 3(5) - 3(1)

4(4) = 4(7) - 4(2)

4(n - 2) = (n - 2)(n) - (n - 2)(n - 4)

4(n - 1) = (n - 1)(n + 1) - (n - 1)(n - 3)

4(n) = n(n + 2) - n(n - 2)

Adding:

4(1 + 2 + 3 + + n) = 1 + (n - 1)(n + 1) + n(n + 2)

= 2n2 + 2n

n

2 a

M1 A1

M1 A1

Hence r = 1 n(n + 1)

2

r =1

A1

(5)

6

1 1

3r 5 3r + 1

B1 A2

(3)

(1)

6

9r 2 12

r5

r =2

r =2

( 3r 1 5 3r 1+ 1 )

r = 2,

1 1

r = 3,

+1 1

4 10

+1 1

7 13

r = 4,

..................

1

1

3n 11 3n 5

+ 1 1

3n 8 3n 2

+ 1 1

3n 5 3n + 1

+

r = n - 2,

r = n - 1,

r = n,

M1 A1

Adding:

11

4

1 1 = 45n2 39n 6

3n 2 3n + 1 4(3n + 1)(3n 2)

8

9r 2 12

r5

r =2

Hence

r =2

n

= 8 2 6

6 r = 2 9r 12r 5

8

15n2 13n 2 = (15n + 2)(n 1)

=

9r 2 12r 5 (3n + 1)(3n 2) (3n + 1)(33n 2)

M1 A1

M1

M1 A1

(7)

10

15

r = 6 9r

8

12r 5

15

5

8

2 8

r = 2 9r 2r 5

r = 2 9r 12r 5

(75 + 2)4

= (15 15 + 2)(15 1)

(45 2)(45 + 1)

(15 2)(15 + 1)

= 227 14 77 4

43 46 13 16

= 0.126

10

3 a

b

1 2 + 1

2r 1 2r + 1 2r + 3

r = 1:

1 2 + 1

3 5

r = 2:

+1 2 + 1

3 5 7

r = 3:

+1 2 + 1

5 7 9

..

..

r = n - 2:

1 2 + 1

2n 5 2n 3 2n 1

r = n - 1:

1 2 + 1

2n 3 2n 1 2n + 3

r = n:

1 2 + 1

2n 1 2n + 1 2n + 3

M1 A3

(4)

M1 A1

Adding:

2 1 + 1 =

8n2 + 16n

3 2n + 1 2n + 3 3(2n + 1)(2n + 3)

n(n + 2)

3

3 n

8

=

=

2

2

(

n

8

2

+ 1)(2n + 3)

r =1 (4r 1)(2r + 3)

r =1 (4r 1)(2r + 3)

M1 A1

Hence

B1 A1

(6)

10

4 a

b

LHS = (r + 2) r

r(r + 1)(r + 2)

2

r(r + 1)(r + 2)

n

2

1

= 1

(r + 1)(r + 2)

r =1 r(r + 1)(r + 2)

r =1 r(r + 1)

11

r = 1:

2 6

r = 2:

+1 1

6 12

n

r = n - 1:

1

1

(n 1)n n(n + 1)

1

+ 1

n(n + 1) (n + 1)(n + 2)

r = n:

M1 A1

(2)

B1

M1 A1

Adding:

n(n + 3)

1

1

=

2 (n + 1)(n + 2) 2(n + 1)(n + 2)

n(n + 3)

4

Hence r(r + 1)(r + 2) = (n + 1)(n + 2)

r =1

M1 A1

M1 A1

(7)

2

n(n + 3)

4

= 2n + 3n

=

(n + 1)(n + 2) n + 3n + 2

r =1 r(r + 1)(r + 2)

n

Now n2 + 3n < n2 + 3n + 2

As n > 1, n2 + 3n + 2 > 0 so that

n

n2 + 3n < 1

n2 + 3n + 2

r =1

9

5 a

b

n

r =1

r =1

r = 1:

43 - 13

r = 2:

+ 73 - 43

..

.

r = n - 1:

+ (3n - 2)3 - (3n - 5)3

r = n:

+ ( 3n + 1) - (3n - 2)3

Adding:

(3n + 1)3 - 1 = 9n (3n2 + 3n + 1)

M1 A1

(2)

B1

M1 A1

M1 A1

B1

r =1

n

n

1

2

2

r = n(3n + 3n + 1) + 3 r n

9

r =1

r =1

B1

= 1 [n(3n2 + 3n + 1) + 3 n(n + 1) - n]

2

9

n

= [6n2 + 6n + 2 + 3n + 3 - 2]

18

= n [2n2 + 3n + 1]

6

1

= 6 n(n + 1)(2n + 1)

M1 A1

(9)

11

6 a

b

2r

1

1

+

2(2r 1) 2(2r + 1)

M1 A3 (4)

8r 3 2r 1

4r 2 1

r =1

n

1

1

= 2r +

2(2r + 1) 2(2r 1)

r =1

n

n

n

1

1

= 2r + 1

(2r 1)

2

r =1

r =1 (2r + 1)

= n(n + 1) + 1 1 1

2 3

+ 1 1

5 3

+ .....

1 1

2n 1 2n 3

+ 1 1

2n + 1 2n 1

= n(n + 1) + 1 1 1

2 2n + 1

= n(n + 1)

n

2n + 1

n [(n + 1)(2n + 1) 1]

2n + 1

=

2n + 1

2n + 1

24

24

6

242(51) 36 15

= =

49

13

r = 7 r =1

r =1

558 (3sf)

7 a

b

1+ 5 4

r r +1 r + 2

M1 A3

(4)

n

3r 2

= 1 + 5 4

r +1 r + 2

r =1 r(r + 1)(r + 2)

r =1 r

n

= 1 + 5 4

2 3

1

5

+

1

2 3

1 5 4

+

3 4 5

+.....

1 +5 4

n 1 n n +1

1

5 4

+

n n +1 n + 2

= 1 + 5 1 + 1 4

2 2 n +1 n + 2

= 1 + n + 2 4n 4

(n + 1)(n + 2)

2

= n + 3n + 2 3n 2

(n + 1)(n + 2)

n2

as required.

(n + 1)(n + 2)

8 a

b

7N2 - 24N - 16 = 0

(7N + 4)(N - 4) = 0, Hence N = 4

B1

M1 A1

(3)

11

1 3+ 2

r 1 r r +1

B1 A1

(2)

3r = n 1 3 + 2

2

r 1 r r + 1

r = 2 r(r 1)

r =1

B1

1 3 + 2

2 3

1

+ 1+ 2

2

4

+1 3 + 2

3 4 5

r = 2:

r = 3:

r = 4:

..

r = n - 2:

+ 1 3 + 2

n 3 n 2 n 1

r = n - 1:

r = n:

+ 1 3+ 2

n 1 n n +1

1 3 +2

n 2 n 1 n

M1 A1

Adding:

1 3 + 1 + 2 3 + 2 = 1 + 2

2 2 n n n +1

n n +1

n

3 r = n 1

Hence 2

n(n + 1)

r = 2 r(r 1)

M1 A1

A1

(6)

8

Exam-style assessment

3

1.

cos 4q 8cos4 q - 8cos2 q + 1

(b) Solve the equation cos 4q + 4cos4 q = 0 for 0 - q - p

When not exact, give each answer correct to 2 decimal places.

2.

z

w = z + 1 + 2i , z -1 - 2i

(a) Show that T maps the line y = 2x to part of the real axis in the w-plane.

(b) Find the locus of points in the z-plane which are mapped to the

line u = 0 in the w-plane.

3.

|z - 1| - |z - i|

The transformation T from the z-plane to the w-plane is given by

w = zz + 3i , z i

(b) Show that T maps |z - 1| = |z - i| to a circle in the w-plane.

Give the cartesian equation of this circle.

(c) On a separate Argand diagram shade the region in the w-plane

which is the image of R under T.

4.

(a) Use algebra to show that the locus of P is a circle, giving the centre

C and radius of this circle.

Point Q represents the complex number z where arg(z + 1 - 4i) = 3 p

4

(b) On the same Argand diagram sketch the locus of P and the locus of Q,

marking clearly the point A where the two loci intersect.

(c) Find the complex number a which represents A and express the equation

of the tangent to this circle at A in the form

|z + 1 - 4i| = |z - b| for b a complex number to be stated.

5.

giving your answers in the form reiq where r > 0 and exact q, -p < q - p

(b) Illustrate your values from a on an Argand diagram.

(c) Hence, or otherwise, show that, if p and q are two distinct cube

roots of 4 - 4 3i then |p + q| = 2

6.

giving your answers in exact modulus-argument form.

Give arguments as principal values.

(b) Illustrate your values from (a) on an Argand diagram.

(c) Prove that the points representing these values form the vertices of a square.

(d) State the two possible values of |p - q| where p and q are two distinct

fourth roots of 2 3 + 2i

7.

(a) Given that z = cos q + isin q, use de Moivres theorem to show that

zn - 1n = 2isin nq

z

(b) Express 4sin3 q in the form Asin q + Bsin 3q for integers A and B to

be stated.

y

R

O

The diagram shows the curve with equation y = 2 sin3q for 0 - q - p. R is the

region bounded by this curve, the q-axis and the lines q = 0 and q = p

(c) Find the exact volume formed when region R is rotated once around the q-axis.

8.

where k is a constant. Point A, which represents the complex number 6 + 4i,

lies in the locus of P.

(a) Show that k = 2

(b) Use algebra to show that the locus of P is a circle C.

Give the centre and radius of this circle.

Point Q represents the complex number z, where arg(z - 4 - 2i) = 1 p

4

C and which satisfy 1 p - arg(z - 4 - 2i) - p and find the exact area

4

of this region.

The transformation T from the z-plane to the w-plane is given by

w = z + 2i , z 3 + i

z3i

9.

(z4)

3

(a) Sketch on an Argand diagram the locus of P. Indicate on your sketch the

position of points A and B.

(b) Given that point Q in this locus is such that AQ = BQ

(i) show that AQ = 5 3,

3

10.

( z 4i )

4

(a) Use algebra to show that the locus of P is a circle. Give the centre and

exact radius of this circle.

(b) Given that p = z 2 , where z is the complex number which

z 4i

(i) show that p = 1 + i,

(ii) find z.

(c) On a single Argand diagram, sketch the locus of P and the locus of Q.

11.

giving your answers in the form eiq for -p < q - p

(b) Given that w is any complex 5th root of 1

(i) state the value of 1 + w + w2 + w3 + w4

(ii) hence find the value of

(1 + w ) (1 + w2 )

w4

Question

Number

Solution

Marks

1 a

(cosq + i sin q )4 = cos4 q + 4i cos3q sin q 6 cos2 q sin 2 q

- 4i cos q sin3 q + sin4 q

Considering the real parts:

cos 4q = cos4 q - 6cos2 q sin2 q + sin4 q

= cos4 q 6cos2 q (1 cos2 q ) + (1 cos2 q )2

M1

M1

M1 A1

(4)

= 8 cos4 q 8 cos2 q + 1

b

12c4 - 8c2 + 1 = 0

c2 = 8 4

24

1

1

Hence cos q = ,

2 6

cosq = 1 , 1

2

6

1

1

3

cosq =

q = p , p for 0 q p

2

4 4

1

cosq =

q = 1.150! , 1.991! for 0 q p

6

2

4 4

2 a

k + 2ik

k + 2ik + 1 + 2i

k(1 + 2i)

k(1 + 2i)

=

=

k + 1 + 2i(k + 1) (k + 1)(1 + 2i)

M1

w=

k \, k 1

k +1

w = 0 + iv =

x + iy

x + iy + 1 + 2i

B1

A1

B1

x + iy

(x + 1) i( y + 2)

(x + 1) + i( y + 2) (x + 1) i( y + 2)

M1

x 2 + x + y 2 + 2y + i(y 2x)

(x + 1)2 + (y + 2)2

B1

x2 + x + y2+ 2y = 0

(x + 0.5)2 + ( y + 1)2 = 5 ,

4

Hence the locus is a circle centre (-0.5, -1), radius 5

2

(excluding the point (-1, -2))

(3)

B1

M1

A1

(6)

9

3 a

B2

(2)

2

1

1

2

z = 3 + iw = 3 + i(u + iv)

w 1

u + iv 1

M1

(3 v) + iu (u 1) iv

(u 1) + iv (u 1) iv

M1

(3u + v 3) + i(u2 u 3v + v 2)

(u 1)2 + v 2

B1

Then 3u + v - 3 = u2 - u - 3v + v2

u2 - 4u + v2 - 4v + 3 = 0

(u - 2)2 + (v - 2)2 = 5

c

A1

(4)

B2

(2)

4 a

10

(x - 3)2 + y2 = 4[ x2 + (y - 3)2]

x2 + 2x + y2 - 8y + 9 = 0

(x + 1)2 + (y - 4)2 = 8

C(-1, 4), radius = 2 2

M1

B1

A2

(4)

B3

(3)

y

8

A

6

3r

4

4

2

a = -3 + 6i

|z + 1 - 4i| = |z + 5 - 8i| so

b = -5 + 8i

A1

A1

(2)

9

5 a

(2

4 4 3i = 8 1 3 i

2

q = p , r = 8

B1oe

A1

z 3 = 8e

i p + 2np

3

M1

A1

i p + 2np

3

z = 2e 3

If n = 0, then z0 = 2e

If n = 1, then z1 = 2e

b

i p

i 5p

9

and z3 = 2e

i 7p

A2

(6)

B2

(2)

y

z1

2r

3

x

r

z0

z2

2

|z0| = |z1| = |z2| = 2 and the angle between any two distinct

roots p and q = 2p ,

3

p + q = 2 2 cos p = 2

3

6 a

z4 = 4 3 + 1 i

2

( 6 ) ( 6 )

z = 2 cos ( p + np ) + i sin ( p + np )

24

2

24

2

24

24

If n = 1 then z = 2 ( cos 13p + i sin 13p ) and

24

24

z = 2 ( cos 11p i sin 11p )

24

24

23p

23p

If n = 2 then z = 2 ( cos 24 i sin 24 )

= 4 cos p + 2np + i sin p + 2np

B1oe

M1 A1

(3)

11

B1oe

B1

M1

A2

A1

(7)

B2

(2)

z1

z0

O

z3

z2

arg(z1) - arg(z0) = p2 = arg(z3) - arg(z1) = arg(z2) - arg(z3)

Then z0, z1, z2, z3 are the vertices of a square.

B2oe

(2)

|p - q| = 2 or 2 2

11

7 a

zn = cos nq + isin nq

z-n = cos nq - isin nq

zn - z-n = 2i sin nq

1

(2i sin q)3 = z z

M1

M1

A1

(3)

= z3 - 3z + 3 13

z

= z 3 13 3 z 1z

z

= 2i sin 3q - 6i sin q

Hence 4 sin3 q = -sin 3q + 3sin q

so A = 3, B = -1

p

0

= p 3 cosq + 1 cos 3q

= 16 p

3

M1

M2

A1

(4)

12

8 a

b

M1 A1

x2 + y2 + 4y + 4 = 4(x2 - 6x + 9 + y2 - 2y + 1)

3x2 - 24x + 3y2 - 12y + 36 = 0

(x - 4)2 + (y - 2)2 = 8

Centre (4, 2), radius = 2 2

M1

B1

M1

A2

(2)

(5)

B3

y

4

r

4

Area = 1 r 2q = 1 8 3 p

2

w =

M1

= 3p

A1

z + 2i

= 2 (using part a above)

z3i

M1oe

9 a

B

O

B3

(3)

2r

3

Angle ABQ = p , AB = 42 + 32 = 5

6

M1

AQ = 5

M1 A1

ii

(2)

14

A

4 arg(z + 3i)

A1

arg(z 4)

(5)

1

cos p

6

)

2 (3

= 5 2 = 5 3

2

3 3

2

Area = 1 5 3 sin 2p = 25 3

12

M1 A1

(5)

8

10 a

x2 - 4x + 4 + y2 = 2x2 + 2y2 - 16y + 32

x2 + 4x + y2 - 16y + 28 = 0

(x + 2)2 (y - 8)2 = 40

Centre (-2, 8) and radius 2 10

i

M1

B1

M1

A2

( z 4i )

4

(5)

B1

4

p = 2 cos p + i sin p = 1 + i

4

M1 A1

4ip 2

, substitute p = 1 + i:

ii z =

p 1

M1 A1

(6)

B3

(3)

z = 4i 4 2 = 4 + 6i

i

c

14

12

10

(2, 8)

6

(0, 4)

4

2

O (2, 0)

14

11 a

B1

i 2 np

z=e5

M1

If n = 0, then z0 = ei0 = 1

If n = 1, then z1 =

2 pi

e5 ,

If n = 2, then z3 =

4 pi

e5 ,

i

ii

A1

z2 =

2 pi

e 5

A2

z4 =

4 pi

e 5

A2

(7)

A1

M1

A1

(3)

(w5 1) = (w 1)(w4 + w3 + w2 + w + 1) = 0

Hence w4 + w3 + w2 + w + 1 = 0

w3 + w2 + w + 1 = -w4

(1 + w)(1 + w )

= 1

w4

2

10

Exam-style assessment

4

1.

tan(2x)

dy

1

= 2y, where 0 < x < p ,

dx

4

(b) Find the particular solution y of this differential equation for which

y = -2 when x = 1 p and sketch this solution curve for 0 < x < 1 p

12

4

2.

(2x + 1)

dy

1

= 4x (y 4), where x >

dx

2

(a) Find the general solution of this differential equation, giving your

answer in the form y = f(x)

(b) Given that the curve passes through the point P(0, 5) find the equation of C.

3.

(a) Express

2 in partial fractions.

y2 1

dy

+ 1 = y2 ,

dx

where y > 1, x > 0, and for which y = 2 when x = 1 is given by y = 1 + x

3

1 x

4.

1 dy

y

=1

+

x dx x 2 + 1

(b) Hence find the particular solution of this differential equation for which y = 1

3

when x = 0. Sketch the graph of this solution.

5.

dy

+ 2ytan x = 1

dx

(b) Hence show that the particular solution of the given equation for which y = 1

when x = 1 p is given by y = 1 sin 2x.

4

2

6.

she has run x km. During the run she varies her speed in such a way that the

rate of increase of x is directly proportional to x multiplied by the distance

she has left to run.

(a) Formulate a differential equation for x

(b) Given that after 1 hour she has run 10 km and that after 90 minutes she has run

15 km, solve this differential equation to show that

x

= 9t 1

20 x

7.

(b) Hence find the general solution of the differential equation

(x + 1)

8.

dy

+ (x + 2)y = x

dx

dy

- y = 2y2x

dx

du

(b) Find the general solution for u and hence find y in terms of x.

(c) Given that C passes through the point with coordinates (-1, 1),

find the equation of the curve C and sketch its graph.

9.

x2

dy

- xy = 2y( y + x)

dx

(1)

(a) Show that the substitution y = ux transforms equation (1) into the differential

2u ( u + 1)

equation du =

dx

(2)

(b) Hence show that the general solution of equation (1) can be expressed as

y=

Ax 3 ,

1 Ax 2

The curve C passes through the point (1, -2).

(c) Find the equation of C and the coordinates of all the points where C intersects

the line y = x.

Question

Number

Solution

Marks

1 a

dy

= 2 cos 2x dx

sin 2x

y

B1

y = k sin 2x

M3

A1

-2 = k sin p , then k = -4

M1 A1

y = -4sin 2x

A1 ft

(4)

(3)

y

O

r

4

B1

2 a

dy

= 4x dx

y 4 2x + 1

B1

ln |y - 4| =

M2

(2 2x2+ 1)dx

ln |y - 4| = 2x - ln |2x + 1| + ln c

y 4 = ce

2x

B1

2x + 1

2x

y = 4 + ce

2x + 1

A1

5=4+c

c=1

(6)

A1

2x

y=4+ e

A1 ft

(2)

8

1 1

y 1 y +1

M1 A1

(2)

2dy

= dx

2

x

y 1

B1

1 1 dy = dx

y 1 y + 1

x

M1

ln y 1 = ln x + ln c

M2oe

2x + 1

3 a

M1

y +1

y 1

= kx

y +1

A1

k = 1 since y = 2 when x = 1

y - 1 = yx + x

y = 1+ x

1 x

A1

M1

A1

(8)

10

4 a

dy

+ x y= x

dx x 2 + 1

x

x 2 +1dx

1 ln(x 2 +1)

= e2

M1 A1

x2 + 1

x(x 2 + 1) 2 dx + c

y(x 2 + 1) 2 =

1

M1

y(x 2 + 1) 2 = 1 (x 2 + 1) 2 + c

M1 A1

c=0

A1

y = 1 (x2 + 1)

3

A1ft

B2

5 a

(3)

B1

10

2 (tan x ) dx

=e

2 ln cos x

= sec 2 x

M1

M1 A1

Substitute y = 1 and x = p , c = 0

A1

(7)

(3)

Particular solution:

y=

6 a

b

tan x

1

= sin x cos x = sin 2 x

2

2

sec x

dx

= kx(20 x )

dt

dx

= kdt

x(20 x)

(1)

M1 A1

K+C=0

x

= ( t 1) 1 ln 3

20 20 x

10

= ( t 1) 2 ln 3 = ( t 1) ln 9 = ln 9t 1

i.e. ln x

20 x

Hence 1 ln

A1

B1 M1 A1

10

From (1) and (2): K = 1 ln 3 and C = 1 ln 3

10

10

Therefore

(3)

6

M1

1+ 1

1

dx = kt + c

x 20 x

20

1 ln x

= Kt + C

20 20 x

Substitute x = 10 and t = 1:

M1 A1

(1)

(2)

M1

A2

M1 A1

(11)

x

= 9t 1 as required

20 x

When t = 2,

x

=9

20 x

12

7 a

Let u = x, then du = dx

Let dv = exdx, v = ex

B1

xe x dx = xe x - e x dx = (x - 1)e x + c

b

dy x + 2

x

+

y=

dx

x +1

x +1

M1 A1

M1

x+2

x +1 dx

=e

1+ x +1 dx

= ( x + 1)e x

x

(x + 1)e x dx = xe x dx

x +1

x

(x + 1)e x y = (x - 1)e x + c so y = ( x 1) e +x c

( x + 1) e

(x + 1)e x y =

(3)

M1 A1

M1 A1

M1 A1

10

8 a

dy

= u + x du

dx

dx

M1

x u + x du ux = 2u2 x 3

M1

du = 2u2 x

dx

A1

u-2du = 2x dx

B1

1 = x2 + c

u

x = x2 + c

y

y = 2x

x +c

M1 A1

c=0

A1

1

y=

x

A1oe

dx

(3)

B1

A1

(5)

y

2

B1

O

(3)

11

9 a

Substitute y = ux and

dy

du

=u+x

in (I):

dx

dx

dx

du = 2u(u + 1)

dx

x

B1

A1

(3)

du = 2 dx

u(u + 1)

x

( u1 u 1+ 1) du =

2dx

x

B1

ln u - ln(u + 1) = 2ln x + ln A

M1

u = Ax 2

u +1

M1

u - Ax2u = Ax2

M1

Ax 2

1 Ax 2

u=

y

x

Substitute u = :

y=

c

M1

Ax 3

1 Ax 2

2 =

y=

A

, then A = 2

1 A

2 x3

1 2 x2

Bloe

A1

(6)

A1

A1

Substitute y = x:

x=

2x 3

1 2x 2

M1

x(4x2 - 1) = 0

(0, 0), (0.5, 0.5) and (-0.5, -0.5)

B1

A2

(6)

15

Exam-style assessment

5

1.

d2y

dy

= 0 , giving

dx

d

x

y in terms of x and the positive constant k.

(b) Describe the behaviour of y as x increases, where x > 0

2.

An object is oscillating about a fixed point P. After t seconds the object is x metres

from P where x is modelled by the differential equation

d2x

+ 4x = 0

dt 2

(a) Given that x = 3 when t = 0 and when t = 1 p , solve this differential equation to

4

show that x = 3cos 2t + 3sin 2t

(b) Express x in the form R sin (2t + a), where R > 0 and 0 < a < 1 p are both exact.

2

(c) Hence find the maximum possible distance of the object from point P.

Give your answer in simplified surd form.

3.

4

d2y

dy

+4

+ 5y = 2cos x - 8sin x

2

d

x

dx

The curve crosses the x-axis when x = 0 and when x = 1 p .

2

(c) Show that for large positive values of x, the curve C may be approximated

by a cosine function and write down this function.

4.

d2y

dy

2

- 3y = 16e x

2

d

x

dx

(a) Show that the equation of this curve is given by y = e -x(e2x - 2)2

(b) Find the exact coordinates of the point P where this curve crosses the x-axis.

(c) Given that P is a stationary point on this curve, use the differential equation

to show that P is a minimum point.

5.

d2y

dy

3

+ 2y = 3e2x

2

d

x

dx

(b) Find the particular solution of this differential equation for which at

dy

x = 0, y = -1 and

= -1

dx

(c) Find the value of y on the curve when x = 1. Deduce that between x = 0 and

x = 1, the curve C crosses the x-axis.

Oxford University Press 2009

6.

2

4 d x2 + 4 dx + x = (t + 1)(t + 7)

dt

dt

(b) Hence show that the particular solution of this differential equation for

which x = -2 when t = 0 and for which dx = 6 when t = 3 is given by

x = (t - 1) e

7.

1t

2

dt

+ t +1

d2y

dy

+ ( 5x 4 ) x

+ (4 - 5x + 3x2) y = 10x3sin 2x

dx

dx 2

2

(2)

into the equation 2 d u2 + 5 ddux + 3u = 10sin 2x

dx

2x 2

(1)

(c) Hence write down the general solution of equation (1).

8.

dy

=

(a) If y = 1 , where u is a function of x, show that

dx

an expression for

d2y

.

dx 2

1 du

and find

u2 dx

u

d y

dy

2 + 4y2 (2y - 1) = 0

d

dx 2

x

d 2u

can be expressed as 2 + 4u = 8

dx

(1)

(2)

(d) (i) Hence show that the particular solution of equation (1) for which y = 1 at

x = 0 and at x = 1 p is given by y = cos 2x + 1sin 2x + 2

4

(ii) State the minimum possible value attained by this particular solution.

9.

d2y

dy

+ 2 (1 + x )

+ (2 + x)y = x2 + 6x + 6

2

d

x

dx

2

into the equation d v2 + 2 dv + v = x2 + 6x + 6

dx

dx

(1)

(2)

(c) Show that any member of the family of solution curves of equation (1) can,

for large positive values of x, be approximated by the line y = x + 2

Question

Number

Solution

Marks

1 a

aux.eqn.: m 2 + km = 0, m = 0, m = -k

gen. soln. y = A + Be -kx

M1 A2

M1 A1

(5)

If B is negative, y increases approaching A.

B1

B1

(2)

6

2 a

aux. eqn.: m2 + 4 = 0, m = 2i

gen. soln.: x = Acos (2t) + Bsin (2t)

Substitute x = 3 and t = 0, then A = 3.

Substitute x = 3 and t = p , then B = 3.

M1 A2

M2

A1

A1

M1 A1

(7)

R = 3 2 , a = tan 1 1 = p

x = 3 2 sin 2t + p

c

3 a

A1

max.x = 3 2 metres

A1

M1

m = 4

A1

64

C.F.: y = e

= 1 i

2

1 x

(A cos x + B sin x)

P.I.:

y = pcos x + qsin x

(4)

11

A1

B1

dy

= -psin x + qcos x

dx

d 2y

= -pcos x - qsin x

dx 2

= 2cos x - 8sin x

then

(p + 4q)cos x + (q - 4p)sin x = 2cos x - 8sin x

p + 4q = 2

q - 4q = -8

hence

q = 0, p = 2

General solution:

y=e

1x

2

M3

A2

A1

(10)

A2

y = 2(1 - e-0.5x ) cos x

A1oe

B1 A1

(5)

15

4 a

The complementary function is y = Ae-x + Be3x, for A and B arbitrary

constant.

An appropriate trial function is yT = De x

B1

M1

dy

d 2y

= De x and 2 = De x

dx

dx

If y = Dex then

d 2y

2 dy 3y = 16e x De x 2De x 3De x = 16e x

2

dx

dx

x

x

M1

-4De = 16e

D = -4

y = Ae-x + Be3x - 4ex

Substitute the boundary condition y = 1, x = 0 into the general solution:

y = Ae-x + Be3x - 4ex 1 = Ae0 + Be0 - 4e0

A+B=5

(1)

Substitute the boundary condition dy = 5, x = 0 into the general solution:

-x

y = Ae +

Be3x

4ex

dx

dy

dx

A - 3B = 1

(2)

A+B=5

A - 3B = 1

(1) - (2):

A = 4, B = 1

(1)

(2)

= e-x (e4x - 4e2x + 4)

= e-x (e2x - 2)2

M1 A1

2x = ln 2

M1

(5)

x = 1 ln 2

2

( 21 ln 2, 0)

c

A1

(2)

B1

(1)

8

1 ln 2

2

Substitute x = 1 ln 2 in to the DE to give d y2 = 16e 2 = 16 2 > 0

dx

5 a

y = 3xe2x

M1

dy

= 3e2x + 6xe2x

dx

M1

d 2y

= 6e2x + 6e2x + 12xe2x = 12e2x + 12xe2x

dx 2

d 2y

3 dy + 2y = (12 9)e2x + (12 18 + 6)xe2x = 3e2x

2

dx

dx

M1 A1

C.F. y = Ae x + Be2x

General Solution: y = Ae x + Be2x + 3xe2x

M1 A1

A1

A1

dy

= Ae x + 2Be2x + 3e2x + 6xe2x

dx

dy

Substituting x = 0, y = -1 and dx = 1:

M1

A = 2, B = -3

Particular solution: y = 2e x - 3e2x + 3xe2x

c

At x = 1 then y = 2 e > 0

At x = 0 then y = -1

Change of sign, therefore curve C crosses the x-axis.

(4)

M1

A2

A1ft

(9)

A1

A1

(2)

15

6 a

C.F.: x = Ae-0.5t + Bte-0.5t

P.I.: x = pt2 + qt + r

M1 A1

A1

M1

dx = 2 pt + q

dt

d 2x = 2 p

dt 2

2

4 d 2x + 4 dx + x = 8 p + 8 pt + 4q + pt 2 + qt + r

dt

dt

= t2 + 8t + 7

Comparing the coefficients of t2, t,:

p = 1, q = 0 and r = -1

The general solution is

x = Ae-0.5t + Bte-0.5t + t2 - 1

b

M2

A3

A1

(10)

dx

-0.5t

+ Be-0.5t -0.5Bt e-0.5t + 2t

dt = -0.5Ae

Substituting (t = 0, x = -2) and dx = 6 at t = 3:

dt

-2 = A - 1, then A = -1, B = 1,

Particular solution: x = -e-0.5t + te-0.5t + t2 - 1

= e-0.5t(t - 1) + (t - 1)(t + 1)

= (t - 1)(e-0.5t + t + 1)

A2

M1 A1

(6)

16

7 a

dy

= u + x du

dx

dx

M1

d 2y

du + x d 2u

=

2

dx

dx 2

dx 2

M1

2x 2 2 du + x d u2 + (5x 4)x u + x du

dx

dx

dx

M1

+ (4 - 5x + 3x2)(ux) = 10x3sin 2x

2

4x du + 2x 2 d u2 + 5xu + 5x 2 du 4u 4x du

dx

dx

dx

dx

M1

2

2 d u2 + 5 du + 3u = 10 sin 2x

A1

M1

m = -1, 3

A1

P.I.: u = psin 2x + qcos 2x

3u = 3psin 2x + 3qcos 2x

A1

B1

dx

dx

(5)

M2

dx

2

2 d u2 = 8 p sin 2x 8q cos 2x

A1oe

dx

Total:

-(5p + 10q)sin 2x + (10p - 5q) cos 2x = 10 sin 2x

Then p + 2q = -2 and 2p - q = 0

A2

p = 2, q = 4

5

A1

(10)

A1

(1)

5

5

16

8 a

y = u-1

dy 2 du

= u

as required

dx

dx

( )

d 2y

= 2u 3 du

2

dx

dx

2

u 2 d u2

( dx ) u

dx

2 ( dy ) = 2u ( du )

dx

dx

2

M1oe

dx

2

u 1 d y2 = 2u 4 du

M1oe

(2)

d 2u

dx 2

Total:

u

M1

2

d u + 8u 3 4u 2 = 0

dx 2

M1

Multiply by -u3:

d 2u + 4u = 8

dx 2

Aux. eqn.: m2 + 4 = 0, m = 2i

C.F.: u = Acos 2x + Bsin 2x

P.I.:

2

u = k, d u2 = 0, then k = 2

dx

u = Acos 2x + Bsin 2x + 2

d

( ) ( )

Substituting 0, 1 and p , 1 :

4 3

3

1

= Acos 2x + Bsin 2x + 2

y

A = 1 and B = 1

1

cos 2x + sin 2x + 2

Min. value is 1

2+ 2

M1 A1

A1

(4)

A1

A1

(5)

M1

A2

A1

Hence y =

ii

A1

(5)

16

9 a

y = x-1v

dy 2

= x v + x 1 dv

dx

dx

B1oe

2

d 2y

= 2x 3v x 2 dv x 2 dv + x 1 d v2

2

dx

dx

dx

dx

B1oe

2

d 2y

3

2 dv

1 d v

=

2

x

v

2

x

+

x

dx

dx 2

dx 2

B1oe

2

2

x d y2 = 2x 2v 2x 1 dv + d v2

dx

dx

dx

(2 + 2x) dy = 2x 2v + 2x 1 dv 2x 1v + 2 dv

dx

dx

dx

(2 + x)y = 2x-1v + v

(i) + (ii) + (iii):

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

d 2v + 2 dv + v = x 2 + 6x + 6

dx

dx 2

Aux. eqn.: m2 + 2m + 1 = 0

(m + 1)2 = 0, then m = -1

C.F.: v = Ae-x + Bx e-x

v = px2 + qx + r

M1

A1

(5)

M1 A1

A1

M1oe

dv = 2 px + q

dx

P.I.:

d 2v = 2 p

dx 2

d 2v + 2 dv + v = 2 p + 4 px + 2q + px 2 + qx + r

dx

dx 2

Comparing the coefficients of x2 and x:

p = 1, q = 2 and r = 0

The general solution of (II):

v = Ae-x + Bxe-x + x2 + 2x

y = Ax-1e-x + Be-x + x + 2

c

A3

A1

A1

A1

(12)

17

Exam-style assessment

6

1.

6

(b) Hence, or otherwise, find the first two non-zero terms, in ascending powers

2.

f(x) = tan x

(a) Find f (1) (x), f (2) (x) and f (3) (x).

(b) Show that, if x is sufficiently small that terms in x4 and higher powers

can be ignored, then

tan x = x + 1 x 3

3

0.2

Give your answer to 3 decimal places.

3.

0.1

3tan x

dx.

x

up to and including the term in x3.

(b) Hence, or otherwise, find, in ascending powers of x, the expansion of

(i) ln (1 + 2x),

(ii) ln (1 - 2x),

giving each expansion up to and including the term in x3

(c) Deduce that, for small values of x, ln

(11 + 22xx ) 2x + 83 x

estimate the value of ln 3, giving your answer as a fraction in its lowest terms.

4.

f(x) = ln (4 - x),

x<4

f (n) (x) = -(n - 1)!(4 - x)-n

4x

in ascending powers of (x - 2).

5.

x2

dy

+ y2 = x - 1

dx

(a) Given that y = 2 when x = 1 find a series solution for y, in ascending powers

of (x - 1), up to and including the term in (x - 1)2.

(b) Hence estimate the value of y when x = 1.2

6.

the term in x2.

It is given that in the interval (0, 1) the equation ecos x-1 = 2x is satisfied by

exactly one value a

(b) Use your answer to part (a) to find an estimate for a.

(c) Show, by means of a change of sign, that this estimate for a is accurate to

2 decimal places.

7.

2

For the differential equation (x + 2) d y2 y dy = x ,

dx

dy

= 3 when x = 0.

where y = 2 and

dx

dx

the term in x3.

(b) Hence estimate the value of y when x = -0.1, giving your answer to

3 decimal places.

8.

2

For the differential equation (x2 - 1) d y2 - 2y = (3x + 1)(x - 1),

dx

dy

= -1 when x = 0.

dx

(a) Show that the first three non-zero terms in a series solution for y, in

ascending powers of x, is

y = x + 1 x 2 + 2 x 3 + . . .

2

y = (x2 + k) ln (1 + x), where k is a constant,

(i) find the value of k,

(ii) find the coefficient of x4 in the series solution for y.

6

Question

Number

1 a

Solution

Marks

(6) ( 6)

f (x) = 6cos 6x f ( p ) = 6

6

f (x) = -36sin 6x f ( p ) = 0

6

f (x) = -216cos 6x f ( p ) = 216

6

sin6x = 6 ( x 1 p ) + 36 ( x 1 p )

6

6

A1

M1 A1

A1

A1

A1

M1

= 1 6 x p + 36 x p

2

6

6

6)

6)

= 3 x p + 18 x p

2 a

(6)

M1

A1

f (x) = sec2 x

f (x) = 2sec xsec x tan x

= 2sec 2x tan x

f (x) = 4sec x sec x tan x tan x + 2sec2x sec2x

= 4sec2x tan2x + 2sec4x

M1 A1

M1 A2

2

3

tan x f (0) + xf (0) + x f (0) + x f (0)

M1

2!

(3)

3!

A1

M1 A1

(5)

3

= x + x 2

3!

3

= x+ x

A1

0.2

c

0.1

3tan x dx

x

0.2

0.1

3 + x2 dx = 3x + x

3

(5)

0.2

0.1

= 0.302(3 dp)

10

3 a

f (x) = (1 + x)-1 f (0) = 1

f (x) = -(1 + x)-2 f (0) = -1

f (x) = 2(1 + x)-3 f (0) = 2

A1

M1 A1

M1 A1

M1 A1

ln(1 + x) x 1 x 2 + 1 x 3

A1

ln(1 + 2x) 2x 2x 2 + 8 x 3

A1

3

ii ln(1 2x) = 2x 2x 2 8 x 3

3

A1

1 2x

(8)

M1

= x x2 + 4 x3 + x + x2 + 4 x3

B1

= 2x + 8 x 3

A1

4

(2)

8 = 13

3 64 24

M1 A1

(5)

15

4 a

Assume true for n = k, then f (k) = -(k - 1)!(4 - x)-k

(k)

f (k +1)(x) = d( f (x))

M1

B1

dx

dx

= (k !)(4 x)(k 1)

M1

M1 A1

(5)

Hence by induction, the result is true for all n . 1

b

ln

( 4 1 x ) =

ln(4

x)

M1oe

f (5)(2) 4! 2 5

=

= 1

5!

5!

160

M1 A1

(3)

8

5 a

Substituting y = 2 and x = 1: dy = 4

2

2

2x dy + x 2 d y2 + 2y dy = 1 d y2 = 25

dx

dx

dx

dx

when x = 1

M1 A1ft

y 2 4(x 1) + 25 (x 1)2

M1 A1ft

y 2 - 4(0.2) + 12.5(0.2)2

= 1.7

M1

A1ft

A1

dx

(5)

(2)

7

6 a

f (x) = -ecos x1 sin x f (0) = 0

f (x) = ecos x1 sin 2x - ecos x1 cos x f (0) = -1

A1

M1 A1

M1 A1

ecos x 1 1 1 x 2

M1 A1

(7)

1 1 x 2 = 2x

2

x + 4x - 2 = 0

M1

x = 2 6

c

7 a

a 2 + 6 = 0.45 (2 dp)

A1

g(0.445) = ecos(0.445) -1 2(0.445) = +0.02

g(0.445) = ecos(0.455) -1 - 2(0.445) = -0.07

Change of sign in the region [0.445, 0.455], \a = 0.45 (2dp)

M1

Substituting y = 2 and

2

dy

= 3, x = 0 then d y2 = 3

dx

dx

( )

3

d 2y

+ (x + 2) d y3 dy

2

dx

dx

dx

2

3

y d y2 = 1 d y3 = 13

dx

dx

2

y 2 + 3x + 3x + 13 x 3

8 a

12

12

Substituting y = 0,

d 2y

dy

= -1 when x = 0, then 2 = 1

dx

dx

2

3

3

2x d y2 + (x 2 1) d y3 2 dy = 6x 2 d y3 = 4 when x = 0

dx

dx

y x + 1 x 2 + 2 x 3

2

3

dx

dx

dy

= 2x ln(1 + x) + (x 2 + k)(1 + x)1

dx

Substituting x = 0 and dy = -1, then k = -1

dx

M1

A1

M1 A1ft

M1 A1ft

(5)

M1 A1ft

(2)

7

A1

M1 A1ft

A1

A1

1 1

1

The coefficient of x4 = 2 + 4 = 4

A1

(4)

M1 B1oe

M1

( x 2 1) x

(3)

12

A1

x 2 + x 3 x 4 + ...

2

3

4

ii

(2)

(3)

(2)

9

Exam-style assessment

7

1.

Polar coordinates

2

(a) Show that (x - 2)2 + (y - 1)2 = 5, where (x, y) are the cartesian coordinates

of any point on C.

(b) Hence sketch the polar curve C.

2.

1

r

6

for x . 1 point P on the curve is such that line OP makes an angle of 1 p radians,

6

measured anti-clockwise against the positive x-axis.

(a) Show that for any polar point (r, q) on C, r2 = sec 2q

(b) Hence, or otherwise, find the exact distance OP.

3.

i=

1

r

2

C2

C1

l

The diagram shows the polar curves C1 and C2 with equations given by

C1: r = cos 2q 0 - q - 1 p

and

C2: r = sin q

4

0 - q - 1p

2

2

intersection of the two curves.

(a) Find the exact polar coordinates of point P.

(b) Show that AP = 1 3

2

4.

B

O

The diagram shows the polar curve with equation r = a(1 + 2cos q) for 0 - q - 2 p ,

3

where a is a positive constant. The curve crosses the initial line at the pole and at

point A. The line p is a tangent to this curve at point B and is perpendicular to the

initial line, as shown.

(a) Find the polar coordinates of point A, giving your answer in terms of a

(b) Show that, for this curve, rcos q = a(cos q + cos 2q + 1)

(c) Hence find, in terms of a, the distance OB.

2

(d) Show that the area of triangle OAB is 3a 15

16

5.

where a is a positive constant.

(a) On separate diagrams, sketch the curve C given that

(i) a = 2

(ii) a < 2.

(b) In the case when a =

6.

i=

1

r

2

i=0

The diagram shows the polar curve with equation r 2 = 2 3 sin 2q for 0 - q - 1 p ,

the initial line and the half-line q = 1 p . A tangent to this curve at point A,

2

parallel to the initial line, is also shown.

2

(b) Hence, by using implicit differentiation, show that point A has polar

coordinates

3, 1 p .

3

(d) Show that the line OA divides the curve into two regions whose areas are

in the ratio 1 : 3.

7.

i=r

i= 0

The diagram shows the curve with polar equation r = 2 - cos 2q for 0 - q - p.

The curve is enclosed by a rectangle formed by the half-lines q = 0, q = p and the

tangents parallel and perpendicular to the initial line, which touch the curve at

points P, Q and R respectively, as shown.

(a) Express r sin q in terms of sin q only.

2

(d) Show that the area of the region inside the rectangle but outside the curve,

as shaded in the diagram, is 6 2 9 p

4

8.

L

P

C

R

initial line

The diagram shows the polar curve C and the straight line L with equations

given by

C: r = 2(cos q - sin q)

and

L: r 1 sec 1 p q

2

0 - q - 1p

4

0 - q - 1p

4

C and L intersect at point P. Point Q is where L crosses the initial line. R is the

finite region bounded by C, PQ and the initial line and which does not contain

the pole.

(a) Show that P has polar coordinates P

( 3 1, 61 p ).

(c) Show that the area of region R is 0.36, correct to 2 decimal places.

9.

C1

C2

C2

i=r

C1

l

The diagram shows the polar curves C1 and C2 with equations given by

C1: r = 2(1 + sin q)

0-q-p

0-q-p

The curves intersect at point P.

(a) Find the polar coordinates of point P. Give your answer in exact form.

(b) Show that (1 + sin q)2 - (1 + cos q)2 2sin q - 2cos q - cos 2q

(c) Find the exact area of the region R between the two curves and which is

bounded by the half-lines q = 1 p and q = p, shown shaded on the diagram.

4

10.

1

1

The diagram shows the polar curve C with equation r 2 = 2a2cos 2q for 4 p q 4 p ,

where a > 0 is a constant. Tangents to the curve at point A and point B, parallel to

the initial line, have been drawn.

(a) Show that, for any point (r, q ) on C, r 2 sin2 q = a2(cos 2q - cos2 2q)

(b) Hence, using implicit differentiation, find in terms of a the polar coordinates

of points A and B.

(c) Show that triangle OAB is equilateral and find its area in terms of a.

(d) Find, in terms of a, the exact area of the finite region bounded by the curve

and the line AB and which does not contain the pole.

Polar coordinates

Question

Number

Solution

1 a

Multiply by r:

r2 = 4r cos q + 2r sin q

Usin g r2 = x2 + y2, x = rcos q and y = rsin q

x2 + y2 = 4x + 2y

(x 2)2 + (y 1)2 = 5

Marks

M1

M1

M1 A1

(4)

B3

(3)

7

2 a

3 a

r2 sin2 q = r2 cos2 q - 1

r2 (cos2 q sin2 q ) = 1

r2 cos 2q = 1, hence r2 = sec 2q

M1oe

M1oe

M1 A1

r 2 = sec p = 2 , r = 2

M1 A1

cos2 q = sin q

1 2sin2 q = sin q

2sin2 q + sin q 1 = 0

(2 sin q - 1)(sin q + 1) = 0, sin q = 1

A1

Hence q = p

A1

(2 6 )

P 1 ,p

b

A(0, 1), P

AP =

3 + 9 = 1 3

16 16

2

(2)

6

B1

M1

A1

( 43 , 14 ) in Cartesian form

(4)

(5)

A2

M1 A1

(4)

9

4 a

r = a(1 + 2cos 0) 3a

= a(cos q + 2cos2 q)

= a(cos q + cos 2q + 1), as required

dq

sin q + 4 sin q cos q = 0

sin q (1 + 4cos q) = 0

i.e. sin q = 0 [which does not correspond to B]

or cosq = 1

( ( 14 )) = 21 a

Hence OB = a 1 + 2

d

(2 )

2

= 1 1

16

1

=

15

4

( )(

So Area = 1 (3a) 1 a 1 15

2

2

4

= 3 a 2 15, as required

16

5 a

r = 2 + 2cos i

B2

x

2

ii

2

2a

2+a

x

B2

(4)

Area

p

=2

0

1 r 2dq

2

(2 +

2 cosq ) dq

2

M1

(4 + 4

2 cosq + 2 cos2 q ) dq

M1

(5 + 4

2 cosq + cos 2q ) dq

M1

=

0

= 5q + 4 2 sinq + 1 sin 2q

= 5p

M2

A1

(6)

6

6 a

r2 sin 2q

= 2 3 sin 2q sin 2 q

= 2 3 sin 2q 1 2 cos 2q

=

M1

= 3 sin 2q 1 sin 4q

b

M1

M1 A1

(4)

M1 A1

(2)

2

dq

i.e. 2cos2 2q - cos 2q - 1 = 0

(2cos 2q + 1)(cos 2q - 1) = 0

cos 2q = 1 [which does not correspond to A]

or cos 2q = 1 , so 2q = 2 p i.e. q = 1 p

3

3

2

1

2

q = p r = 3 and so the polar coordinates of A are A

3

c

1

2

p

2

p

3

3, 1 p

3

2

4

3

M1 A1

p

3

1

2

0

2

4

3 : 3 3 then ratio is 1 : 3

4

4

M1 A1

A1

(5)

17

7 a

= 2sin q - sin q (1 - 2sin 2q)

= 2sin 3q + sin q

d(r sinq )

= 6 sin 2 q cosq + cosq = 0

dq

cos q = 0 then q = p

2

Therefore P 3, p

2

( )

= 2cos q - cos q (2cos2 q - 1)

= 3cos q - 2cos 3q

d(r cosq )

= 3 sinq + 6 cos2 q sinq = 0

dq

cosq = 1 (as sinq = 0 cannot give P or Q)

2

q = p , 3p

4 4

Q 2, p , R 2, 3p

4

4

( ) (

4

M1

A1

(2)

M1

A1

A1

(3)

M1

A1

M1

A1

A1

A2

(7)

M1 A1

p

2

(2 - cos 2q)2 dq

M1

0

p

2

0

p

2

=

0

p

2

M1

M1

= 9p

A1

Shaded Area = 6 2 9 p

4

A1

(7)

19

8 a

1

2 cos p q

4

2(cosq sinq ) =

2(cosq sinq ) =

M1

M1

4

4

1

2(cosq sinq ) =

cosq + sinq

M1

2 cos2 q 1 = 1

2

cosq = 3

M1

2

Hence q = p and r = 2 cos p sin p =

6

6

6

P 3 1, p

6

b

c

3 1

A2

Q(1, 0)

A1

(7)

M1

A1

(2)

= 1 1 ( 3 1) sin p = 3 1

2

M1 A1

= 1

2

p

6

M1

= 2 (1 - 2cos q sin q) dq

M1

0

p

6

p

6

= 2 [q + cos2 q ]0

M1 A1

=p 1

3 2

A1

3

M1 A1

(9)

18

9 a

sin q = cos q so tan q = 1

q =p

4

A1

r = 2 1 + sin p = 2 + 2

M1

P 2 + 2, p

A1

M1

= 2sin q - 2cos q - (cos 2 - sin 2q)

= 2sin q - 2cos q - cos 2q

(4)

M1

A1

(2)

p

p

4

M1

M2

=5+4 2

A1

(4)

10

10 a

= 2a 2 1 cos 2q cos 2q

M1

M1 A1

(3)

AB = 2 a sin p = a,

A2

(7)

M1

A1

dq

y = r sin q y2 = r2 sin2 q

y2 = a2(cos2 q - cos2 2q)

2y = dy = a2(-2sin 2q + 4cos 2q sin 2q )

dq

dy

= 0 -2sin 2q + 4cos 2q sin 2q = 0

dq

2sin 2q (2cos 2q - 1) = 0

sin 2q = 0, cos 2q = 1

2

1

q = 0, q = p

6

Clearly, q = 1 p corresponds to point A and q = 1 p to point B

6

6

1

At A and B, cos 2q = and hence r2 = 2a2 cos 2q

2

2

=a

6

6

respsectively.

c

3 a2

4

(2)

Area bounded

by curve and lines OA and OB

p

6

= 2 1

2

p

6

r2dq

2a2cos 2qdq

=

0

6

= [ a 2 sin 2q ]0

3 a2

2

=

3 a2

3 a2

=

4

3 a2

4

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