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Theory of Metal 2

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2.

3.

4.

5.

Theory of Chip Formation in Metal Machining

Force Relationships and the Merchant

Equation

Power and Energy Relationships in Machining

Cutting Temperature

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

feature of which is removal of material from a

starting workpart so the remaining part has

the desired geometry

Machining material removal by a sharp

cutting tool, e.g., turning, milling, drilling

Abrasive processes material removal by

hard, abrasive particles, e.g., grinding

Nontraditional processes - various energy

forms other than sharp cutting tool to remove

material

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover,

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Machining

Cutting action involves shear deformation of

work material to form a chip

As chip is removed, new surface is exposed

negative rake angle; compare with positive rake angle in (a).

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover,

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Screw threads

Accurate round holes

Very straight edges and surfaces

features possible, such as:

Generally performed after other manufacturing

processes, such as casting, forging, and bar

drawing

Disadvantages

Wasteful of material and time consuming

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Turning

Drilling

Milling

Shaping and planing

Broaching

Sawing

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Turning

Single point cutting tool removes material from

a rotating workpiece to form a cylindrical shape

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Drilling

Used to create a round hole, usually by means

of a rotating tool (drill bit) with two cutting

edges

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Milling

Rotating multiple-cutting-edge tool is moved

across work to cut a plane or straight surface

Two forms: peripheral milling and face milling

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover,

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Cutting Tools

(a) A single-point tool showing rake face, flank, and tool point; and

(b) a helical milling cutter, representative of tools with multiple cutting

edges.

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Cutting speed v primary motion

Feed f secondary motion

Depth of cut d penetration of tool below original

work surface

For certain operations, material removal rate can be

computed as

MRR = v f d

where v = cutting speed; f = feed; d = depth of

cut

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

material from starting workpart

leaves some material for finish cutting

High feeds and depths, low speeds

Low feeds and depths, high cutting speeds

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

machining operation, including grinding

Functions in machining:

Holds workpart

Positions tool relative to work

Provides power at speed, feed, and depth that

have been set

perform metal forming operations

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Simplified 2-D model of machining that

describes the mechanics of machining fairly

accurately

Orthogonal cutting: (a) as a

three-dimensional process.

r =

to

tc

Based on the geometric parameters of the orthogonal model, the

shear plane angle can be determined as:

r cos

tan =

1 r sin

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover,

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Shear strain during chip formation: (a) chip formation depicted as a series of

parallel plates sliding relative to each other, (b) one of the plates isolated to

show shear strain, and (c) shear strain triangle used to derive strain equation.

= tan( - ) + cot

where = shear strain, = shear plane angle, and

= rake angle of cutting tool

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover,

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Chip Formation

than shear plane. Also shown is the secondary shear zone resulting

from tool-chip friction.

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover,

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

1.

2.

3.

4.

Discontinuous chip

Continuous chip

Continuous chip with Built-up Edge (BUE)

Serrated chip

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Discontinuous Chip

Brittle workmaterials

Low cutting

speeds

Large feed and

depth of cut

High tool-chip

friction

Four types of chip

formation in metal

cutting: (a)

discontinuous

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Continuous Chip

Ductile work

materials

High cutting

speeds

Small feeds and

depths

Sharp cutting edge

Low tool-chip

friction

(b) continuous

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover,

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Ductile materials

Low-to-medium

cutting speeds

Tool-chip friction

causes portions of

chip to adhere to

rake face

BUE forms, then

breaks off, cyclically

edge

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Serrated Chip

Semicontinuous saw-tooth

appearance

Cyclical chip

forms with

alternating high

shear strain then

low shear strain

Associated with

difficult-tomachine metals at

high cutting

speeds

(d) serrated.

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

forces acting on the chip in

orthogonal cutting

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Vector addition of Fs and Fn = resultant R'

Forces acting on the chip must be in balance:

R' must be equal in magnitude to R

R must be opposite in direction to R

R must be collinear with R

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

F

=

N

as follows:

= tan

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

S=

Fs

As

t ow

As =

sin

Shear stress = shear strength of work material

during cutting

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Forces acting on the tool that can be

measured:

Cutting force Fc and Thrust force Ft

Forces in metal

cutting: (b) forces

acting on the tool that

can be measured

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

that cannot be measured to the forces that

can be measured:

F = Fc sin + Ft cos

N = Fc cos - Ft sin

Fs = Fc cos - Ft sin

Fn = Fc sin + Ft cos

and coefficient of friction can be determined

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

deformation can occur, the work material

will select a shear plane angle that

minimizes energy, given by

= 45 +

2 2

Derived by Eugene Merchant

Based on orthogonal cutting, but validity

extends to 3-D machining

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

= 45 +

Reduce the friction angle (or coefficient

of friction)

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

shear plane which means lower shear force,

cutting forces, power, and temperature

Effect of shear plane angle : (a) higher with a resulting lower shear

plane area; (b) smaller with a corresponding larger shear plane

area. Note that the rake angle is larger in (a), which tends to increase

shear angle according to the Merchant equation

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover,

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

The power to perform machining can be

computed from:

Pc = Fc v

where Pc = cutting power; Fc = cutting force;

and v = cutting speed

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

per unit volume rate of metal cut

Called unit power, Pu

Pc

PU =

MRR

energy U

Pc

Fc v

=

U = Pu =

RMR vtow

Units for specific energy are typically

N-m/mm3 or J/mm3

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover,

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

machining is converted into heat

This can cause temperatures to be very high

at the tool-chip

The remaining energy (about 2%) is retained

as elastic energy in the chip

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

1. Reduce tool life

2. Produce hot chips that pose safety hazards

to the machine operator

3. Can cause inaccuracies in part dimensions

due to thermal expansion of work material

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Cook from dimensional analysis using

experimental data for various work

materials

0.4U vt o

T =

C K

0.333

interface; U = specific energy; v = cutting

speed; to = chip thickness before cut; C =

volumetric specific heat of work material; K =

thermal diffusivity of work material

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover,

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

measure temperatures in machining

thermocouple

the speed-temperature relationship to be of

the form:

T = K vm

where T = measured tool-chip interface

temperature, and v = cutting speed

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover,

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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